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date: 23 August 2019

(p. 493) Index

(p. 493) Index

Tables, figures, and boxes are indicated by an italic t, f, or b following the page number.

Aboriginal migrations from Australia, 28
accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), dating techniques, 29
accretionary strandplains, 347, 348f, 349
Achugao Incised/San Roque Incised pottery, 255
Age of European Exploration, 121
agriculture/agricultural practices
Austronesia, 48
circum-New Guinea, 97
East Asia, 55, 56
Eastern Micronesia, 274, 275
Hawai‘i, 16, 461
ISEA, 48, 55, 56–60, 121
New Guinea, 13, 55, 58, 59, 62, 69, 73–78, 85
Oceania, 16
Sāmoa, 454
Taiwan, 48
Vanuatu, 167–168
Agrihan Island, 255
Ajuijan Island, 255
Alamagan Island, 255
Allen, Jim, 29, 41, 82, 95, 97, 99
Allen, M. S., 14, 359–360
Alofi Terrace (Niue), 344
Anatahan Island, 255
Anderson, A., 41, 143, 148
Andesite line, 4
animals. See also birds
Asian origins of, 60
dog domestication, 9, 96
extinctions of, 35–36
giant kangaroos, 35–36
giant land turtle, 31
Mangareva, 365
Marquesas Island, 361–362
Melanesia, 16
New Guinea, 12, 32, 60–62, 76
pig domestication, 9
on Rapa Nui, 419
Taiwan, 48
targeting/overexploitation in New Zealand, 36
Vanuatu, 167
Western Micronesia, 254
Anir Islands (Bismarck Archipelago), 91f, 96, 311
Anuta (Solomon Islands), 144
Aore Island, 166
archaic states
of Hawai‘i, 14, 375, 380t, 382–383, 389–391
of Tonga and Sāmoa, 14, 240
Archambault, M., 187
architecture. See also monumental architecture
Central Eastern Polynesia, 363–364, 367
ceremonial, 149, 453
ceremonial, Tuamotu Islands, 149
dating of, 463
Eastern Polynesia, 14, 15f
Oro war cult temples, 365
Rapa Nui, 420
ritual, of Polynesia, 14, 15f
temple architecture, 366
tomb architecture, Tonga, 241–242
Tonga and Sāmoa, 241
Windward Society Islands, 365–366
Aru Islands, 26, 29. See also Australia; Tasmania
(p. 494) Asuncion Island, 255
atolls
composition, description, 336–337
coral/coralline atolls, 14, 253–254
Eastern Micronesia, 271, 279
formation/stabilization, 145
Kiribati, 274
Marshall Islands, 274, 283, 286
Micronesia, 253, 293
Palau, 260
Pohnpei and Kosrae, 274
Tuamotuan atolls, 357
Ulithi, Puluwat, Namonuito, 293
Yap Islands, 266
Auckland Islands, 140t, 149, 396, 399–400, 408, 409, 418f
Australia
Aboriginal migrations from, 28
animal butchering sites, 36
animal extinctions, 35–36
early settlement sites, 35
open sites/caves, 34
as part of Sahul, 26, 27f, 71
sediment dating findings, 30, 36
tools/toolmaking, 37
weather patterns, 29
WLH3 human skeletal remains, 34–35
Austral Islands, 2, 138t, 146, 354f, 357t
Austronesian language family
in Bismarck Archipelago, 127, 310–314
in circum-New Guinea, 10
cognate sets (examples), 312t
defined/described, 49, 311
discovery of, 303–304
dispersal of, 49–53, 55–56
distance-decay effects, 51–53
“event horizon,” 53–55
genetic marker associations, 50–51
in ISEA, 11, 49, 50, 54, 55, 56, 59
linguistic divide from Papuan, 122
in Madagascar, 254
major subgroups location map, 313f
in Near Oceania, 11
in New Caledonia, 191
in New Guinea, 50, 52, 80, 84
“Papuan” as corollary to, 51
in Polynesia, 114
positives/negatives of dispersal of, 51–53
Proto Austronesian subgroup, 59, 311
Proto-Oceanic dialects, 190
in Remote Oceania, 11, 50, 190
in Southeast Asia, 254
subgroupings, phylogenies, substrates, 50
in Taiwan, 49–50, 59
in Vanuatu, 191
Avias, J., 187
Babeldaob, volcanic island, 143, 254, 260–262, 263f, 264
Bahn, P., 428
bamboo rafts, 29, 266, 479
Barton, H., 74
Bashkow, Ira, 123
Beardsley, F. R., 264
Beckes, Lane, 122
Bedford, S., 324
bedrock islands, 215f, 336–337, 340, 419, 420, 425
Bellwood, Peter, 114, 124
Best, Simon, 210, 212
Bikini Atoll, 145
biogeography, 26, 52, 58
birds
Central East Polynesia, 359
extinctions of, 36
Fiji Islands, 208–209
Hawai‘i, 377
Near Oceania, 39
New Caledonia, 191
New Zealand, 398, 404
Rapa Nui, 419
Solomon Islands, 3
South Polynesia, 400, 403
Vanuatu, 165
Bismarck Archipelago. See also Buka Island; Papua New Guinea
animal domestication in, 9, 60
Austronesian languages in, 127, 310–314
boundaries, 26
colonization of, 29, 40, 120, 317
connections with Oceania, 12
culture history, 209
dating of faunal remains, 92
forest management, 75
(p. 495) Lapita pottery in, 13, 49, 60, 81, 82, 112, 120, 124, 141, 311
migrations to Vanuatu, 166–167
Papuan languages in, 307, 308f
Pleistocene sites in, 164
POc subgroup dispersal from, 314–315
seamanship requirements in, 120
Blust, R. A., 256, 312, 323
Bollt, R., 146, 360–361
Borneo, 13, 26, 29, 57–59, 96, 102
Bougainville, 91f, 93, 102, 177, 302, 307, 322
breadfruit revolution, in Micronesia, 292–294
British Museum, 423
Buang Merabak cave site, 39–40
Buka Island, 40, 91f, 92, 98, 99, 307
Burley, David, 210, 212, 221222,242
Buru, 29
Calcareous Sand Tempered (CST) pottery, 259
Callao Cave, Philippines, 28, 30
Caroline Islands, 145–146, 340
Carson, M. T., 141, 255, 257
Central Eastern Polynesia (CEP), 2, 353–369. See also Austral Islands; Cook Islands; Gambier Islands; Marquesas Islands; Society Islands; Tuamotu Islands
animal species, 359
background to cultural, geographical variation, 355–356
“big structures/large processes” in, 367–369
chiefdoms, 355–356, 357t, 361, 363, 366–369
Classic period, 364–366
colonization/colonization period sites, 146, 328, 329, 358–360
cultural/geographic variation on, 355–356, 362t
Development period, Archaic culture, 360–362
ecosystem, 356
environmental, cultural, archaeological characteristics, 357t
Expansion period, 362–364
human-induced landscape change, 367–368
islands, archaeological sites, 354f
linguistic/archaeological data, 355
location/description, 353, 354f
monumental architecture, 363–364, 367
pathways to emerging elite power, 368–369
plant introductions, 359–360
settlement, chronology, process, 356–358
Tuamotuan temples, 367–369
Central Pacific language subgroup, 326–327
Chamorro culture, language, 256, 258, 325
Chatham Islands, 140t, 149, 396, 399–400, 403, 410, 418f, 476
Chazine, J. M., 149
chiefdoms
Central Eastern Polynesia, 355–356, 357t, 361, 363, 366–369
characteristics of, 14, 16
Fiji, 216–217
Hawai‘i, 14, 389–391
Kosrae Island, 277
Marquesas, 14
Melanesia, 16
Polynesia, 2, 231, 239, 240, 375, 389
Tonga and Sāmoa, 240–243
Christian missionaries, 5, 177, 187, 197, 217, 271, 289, 423
Chuuk Island
archaeological sites, 280t, 292
colonization, 137t
early settlement, 285
geography of, 274
pottery, 284
radiocarbon dates, 283t
circum-New Guinea islands. See also New Guinea
animal diversity, 95, 96
biogeographical boundaries, 95
biotic distributions, 94–95
chronology, 90, 91–93
climatic fluctuations, 94–95
colonization in, 8, 10, 11, 90, 95–96, 98–99
coral reefs, 91f
dating issues, 92–93
Eocene era, 93
geology of, 98
Holocene era, 91f, 92–95, 101f
interactions, 90, 99–102
languages in, 10–11
(p. 496) Lapita pottery in, 90, 92–93, 97, 100
linguistic inferences in, 97
marine food resources, 95, 96
New Guinea animal translocations, 100
paleoenvironmental considerations, 90, 93–95
plant samples, 92–93
Pleistocene era, 90, 91f, 92–96, 98–99
research issues in, 90–112
subsistence strategies, 90, 95–97
terrestrial faunas, 96
volcanic events, 93–94
Clark, G., 1, 2, 143, 214, 222, 241, 242, 263
climate/weather
circum-New Guinea, 93
El Niño weather pattern, 402, 429, 479, 486
Fiji, 216
Grande Terre, 185, 194
Kosrae, 275
New Guinea, 74
New Zealand, 403
Pohnpei Island, 275
Rapa Nui, 419–420, 429
Timor/northern Australia, 29
Western Micronesia, 253–254
Coan, James, 122
coastal landforms, 336–349. See also atolls; tectonic uplift/subsidence
accretionary strandplains, 347, 348f, 349
anthropogenic influences, 349
atolls, 336
bedrock islands, 215f, 336–337, 340, 419, 420, 425
coral reefs, 91f, 93, 260, 376, 377
evolution of, 336
global eustatic sea level, 337
island tectonic uplift, subsistence, 339, 340, 344
limestone seacliffs, 339, 340, 344
mid-Holocene highstand, 337–342
Tavua Village Lapita site reconstruction, 207
types of, 336
Cochrane, Ethan, E., 8, 214, 236
colonization
Auckland Islands, 140t
Austral Islands, 138t, 146
Bikini Atoll, 145
Bismarck Archipelago, 29, 40, 120
Caroline Islands, 145–146
Central Eastern Polynesia, 146, 328, 329, 358–360
Chatham Islands, 140t
chronologies of, 9
Chuuk Island, 137t
circum-New Guinea, 8, 10, 11, 90, 95–96, 98–99
Cook Islands, 138t, 140t, 484
East Polynesia, 13–14, 146, 148, 152, 244, 484
estimates for major islands, archipelagos, 136t140t, 141
Fiji Islands, 136t, 141, 143, 206–209, 217–218
Futuna, 137t, 144–145
future research directions, 152–153
Grand Terre, New Caledonia, 194, 196–197
Guam, 252
Ha’atuatua, 148
Hawai‘i (Hawaiian Islands), 133, 139t, 149–152, 150f, 238, 329, 379–380
Kapingamarangi, 145–146
Kermadec Islands, 140t
Kiribati (Gilbert Islands), 137t, 145–146
Kosrae, 137t
Kwajalein, 145
Lapita, 120, 121
Lapita, 4, 9, 10f, 11–13, 61, 81, 143, 311
Line Islands, 139t
Majuro, 145
Maloelap, 145
Mangaia Island, 9, 146
Mangareva, 148
Mariana Islands, 136t, 141, 143, 252
Marquesas Islands, 138t
Marshall Islands, 137t, 145–146
Near Oceania, 26, 28, 39–41
New Britain, 307
New Caledonia, 136t, 142f, 143, 196, 206
New Guinea, 8, 9, 29, 35, 41, 71, 73
New Ireland, 307
New Zealand, 140t, 147t, 149–150, 484
Nikunau, 145
Norfolk Islands, 140t
Northern Cook Islands, 140t
Nukuoro, 145
Palauan (Palau) Archipelago, 136t, 252
Phoenix Group, 139t
Pitcairn Group, 139t, 148
Pohnpei Island, 137t
Rapa Nui, 139t, 146, 148, 149–150
Reef/Santa Cruz Islands, 136t, 206
Remote Oceania, 4, 8–13, 11, 13, 127–128, 133–153, 142f, 147f, 206
Rotuma, 138t, 145
Rurutu, 146
Sahul, 8, 26, 28, 34–39
Sāmoa (Samoan Islands), 3, 137t, 206
Society Islands, 138t, 146–148, 484
Solomon Islands, 144
Southern Cook Islands, 138t
Sundaland, 30
Tokelau, 139t
Tonga, 118–119, 136t
Tonga and Sāmoa, 118–119, 143–144, 166, 206, 231, 233, 234, 235, 452–453
Tuamotu Islands, 139t
Tuvalu, 138t
Utrōk, 145, 145
Vanuatu archipelago, 136t, 141, 164–171, 206
Wallacea, 28–33
Western Micronesia, 133, 143, 144–145
Western Polynesia, 146
Yap Islands, 137t
community of practice
in Lapita, 10, 113, 125–128
in Remote Oceania, 10
conical-clan structures, in Micronesia, 14
Cook, James, 120, 177, 187, 244, 422
Cook-Austral chain, 340, 345
Cook Islands, 2, 13, 238, 348f
accretionary beach ridges, 348f
archaeological excavations, 146
boundaries, 146, 244
colonization, 138t, 140t, 484
declining marine carnivore consumption, 361
environmental, cultural, archaeological characteristics, 357t
map location, 354f
New Zealand size comparison, 398
Rarotonga, 345–346, 348f
Sāmoan adze stone in, 244
volcano loading, 345
coral reefs
circum-New Guinea islands, 91f, 93
Hawai‘i, 376, 377
Palauan archipelago, 260
Cordy, R., 290
Cosgrove, R., 38
Cristino, Claudio, 424
cultural ecology, 398, 450
cyclones, on Vanuatu, 162
Darwin Rise (Caroline Islands), 340
Davidson, J. M., 236, 293
Dempwolff, O., 314
Denham, Tim, 74, 92, 143, 479
Denisovans, 28
Derrick, R., 217
Descantes, C., 293
Devil’s Lair cave, Australia, 34
Diamond, J., 428
Dickinson, William, 4, 145
DiNapoli, R. J., 440
Di Piazza, A., 148, 486
Di Piazza, P., 486
Dobrin, Lise, 123
dog domestication, 9, 96
Domeny de Rienzi, Grégoire Louis, 252
Donohue, M., 320, 479
double canoes, 474–476, 478–482, 483f, 485
drainage systems, in Western Highlands, 70
Dunnell, R. C., 465
Dye, T. S., 387
Earle, T., 241
earthquakes, 71, 162
Easter Island. See Rapa Nui
Eastern Caroline Islands
boundaries, geography, 275
early settlements, 293
environment, 275
(p. 498) initial island settlement, 279
language connections, 254
selected radiocarbon dates, 280–291t
Eastern Fiji
dialects/communalects of, 208f, 220, 222, 326
Lakeba Island in, 207
paddle-impressed ceramics, 219
Eastern Micronesia, 271–294. See also Kosrae Island; Pohnpei Island
agriculture, 274, 275
archaeology of, 271
artifacts, 286
atolls, 271, 279, 283
boundaries, 274
early settlement, 285
early subsistence, 285–286
environment, 275
geographic setting, 274–275
Leluh, Kosrae map, 273f
mid-Holocene highstand, 275
monolithic ruins, 271
Nan Madol, Pohnpei map, 272f
pottery, 284–285
radiocarbon dates, 283t
weather, 253
East Polynesia, 2, 9
architecture of, 14
colonization of, 146, 148, 152, 244, 484
connections with other groups, 13–14
depauperate flora, fauna in, 4
languages, 329
maritime technology in, 477
Niuatoputapu language, 328
radio carbon technology research, 146
East Polynesian Archaic artifacts, 14
ecosystems
Australia, 35
Central East Polynesian islands, 356
Hawai‘i, 16, 376, 377, 385, 390
Micronesia, 274
New Guinea, 35
Remote Oceania, 485
role in creating settlements, 26
Wallacea, 30
Efate Island, 166, 168
Ehrlich, P. R., 477
Ellison, Joanna, 9
El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) region, 275, 367
El Niño weather pattern, 402, 429, 479, 486
Emory, K. P., 134
Englebert, Sebastian, 423
Englert, S., 425
environment. See also climate/weather; coastal landforms; geology; paleoenvironmental considerations; volcanic activity
Caroline Islands, 145
Central Eastern Polynesia, 355, 357t, 362t, 364–365, 367–368
circum-New Guinea, 90, 93–95
Eastern Caroline Islands, 275
Eastern Micronesia, 274–275
Fiji, 143, 208, 214, 216, 222–224
Gilbert (Kiribati) Island, 145
Hawaiian Islands, 151, 375–377, 461
Kosrae Island, 287
Lapita, 117–118, 119f, 123
Marianas Islands, 143, 254
Marshall Islands, 145
Near Oceania, 4
New Caledonia, 191, 193–195, 199
New Guinea, 71, 74–75, 77–78, 85, 309–310
New Zealand, 149
Palau, 260–261, 264, 266
Pohnpei, 292
Polynesia, 17
rainforests, 59
Rapa Nui, 417–422
Remote Oceania, 134–135, 140t, 141
Sahul/Near Oceania, 31, 35–39
Solomon Islands, 144
South Polynesia, 396, 399, 401, 403, 410
Tonga and Sāmoa, 143
Vanuatu, 162, 164, 172–174
Western Micronesia, 253–254
Yap, 258, 259
Eocene era, 93
equatorial ocean siphoning, 337
Erromango, 166
Evans, Benjamin, 77
extinctions
animal suites, 35–36
(p. 499) Denisovans, 28
megafauna, Pleistocene era, 31
Fairbairn, Andy, 74
Farallon de Medinilla Island, 255
Ferdon, Edwin, 424
Field, Julie, 216, 388, 461
Figuero, Gonzalo, 424
Fiji Islands, 206–224. See also Viti Levu island
animal species, 208–209
archaeology of, 218–223
biological variation, 220–221
bird/plant species in, 3–4
boundaries, 3
ceramic chronology, 209–212, 211f, 222
characterization of, 206
chiefdoms, 216–217
colonization, 136t, 141, 143, 206–209, 217–218
culture change, post-Lapita mid-sequence, 213–214
culture history, 206–212
dialects of, 208f
distance to Vanuatu, 4
Eastern Fiji, Lau remnant arc, 338f
geology of, 4
Gifford’s research in, 6, 134, 188, 209–210
languages/communalects, 191, 208, 219–220, 326–327
Lapita colonization of, 207–210
Lapita pottery in, 164, 218
Lau Group of, 212, 219, 220, 243, 326, 327
LCO/LIA transition periods, 216
limestone seacliffs, 340
map location, 142, 208, 233f
material culture, 218–219
migrations to New Caledonia, 196
Navatu Phase, 210, 212, 222
obsidian in, 13
outside influences, 217–218
paddle-impressed ceramics, 219
paleoenvironmental sequences, 143
Plainware-Navatu ceramic transition, 210–211, 223
Plainware period, 210, 222
plants species, 209
Polynesia’s shared characteristics, 206–207, 211f, 218, 220–221
population expansion into, 141
Rā Phase, 210, 212
seafaring vessels in, 476
Sigatoka Phase, 210, 212, 216
social complexity, 214, 215f, 216
social dynamics, 196
strandline, 341
Vuda Phase, 210, 212
Flenley, J., 428
Flores (island), 29, 31
French Polynesia, 113, 340
Frimigacci, D., 188
Frost, E. L., 212
Futuna, 137t, 142f, 144–145, 163f, 196, 233f
Gagil-Tamil (Yap Islands), 258
Galaup La Pérouse, Jean François de, 422
Gambier Islands, 2, 357t
geology. See also volcanic activity
circum-New Guinea Islands, 98
Fiji, 4
Grand Terre, New Caledonia, 186, 194–195
landslides, on Vanuatu, 162
New Caledonia, 4
Rapa Nui, 417, 419
South Polynesia, 396
Tonga and Sāmoa, 232
Yap, 258
Geraghty, P. A., 220, 325, 326
giant land tortoises, 31
Gifford, E. W., 134, 188
Gilbert Islands. See Kiribati (Gilbert Islands)
Gilligan, I., 38
Glaumont, G., 187
global eustatic sea level, 337
global isostatic adjustment (GIA), 337
Goldman, I., 389
Golson, I., 398, 473
Golson, Jack, 10, 75, 113–114, 188
Gondwanaland, 185–199. See also New Caledonia
González, Don Felipe, 422
(p. 500) Grand Terre, New Caledonia
archaeological expedition, 188–189
building techniques on, 194–195
colonization of, 194, 196–197
Cook’s contact with, 196
ecology of, 185, 194
exchange networks, 195–196
first contacts/aftermath, 196–198
French occupation of, 187
geology of, 186, 194–195
horticulture of, 195
Lapita pottery in, 189–192
map, 186f
Nera/Oundjo traditions, 195
paddle-impressed ceramics, 219
population, 194
social, political, symbolic organization, 195
social dynamic, 196
traditional Kanak sites, 194–198
wetland terracing on, 194–195
Graves, M. W., 388, 461
Greater Bougainville, 307
Greater Manus, 307
Green, Roger, C., 3, 114, 210, 234, 238, 239, 242–243, 285, 328, 398
Guam, 134, 252, 255–256, 258
Guam (Marianas archipelago), 255
Gumerman, G. J., 264
Ha’apai Islands (Tonga), 235
Haast, Julius, 398
Ha’atuatua, 148
Haddon, A. C., 478
Halmahera, 32
Hambruch, P., 290
Harrison, Simon, 123
Haslam, M., 264
Hawai‘i Biocomplexity Project, 459–460
Hawai‘i (Hawaiian Islands), 375–391
agriculture in, 16, 461
ancient ritual architecture, 15f
archaeological research on, 1, 377–378
archaic states, 14, 375, 380t, 382–383, 389–391
architectural components, 459
Austronesian language dispersal in, 49, 311
boundaries, 49, 146, 149
chiefdoms, 14, 389–391
colonization, 133, 139t, 149–152, 150f, 238, 329, 379–380
Cook’s expeditions to, 375, 387, 389
coral reefs, 376, 377
craft specialization, 383–384
cultural complexity, 457–458
cultural preservation laws in, 134
cultural sequence, 380–381
demographic trends, 387–388
ecosystem, 16, 376, 377, 385, 390
Emory’s excavations in, 134
environment/geography of, 375–377, 461
intensive agriculture, aquaculture, 385–387
volcano loading in, 344–345
Kohala field system, 460–462
land tenure hierarchy, 458–459
Leeward Kohala Field System, 461
map of principal islands, 376f
material culture, 383–384
monumental architecture, 388–389
New Zealand size comparison, 398
radio carbon technology research, 150, 150f
settlement patterns, 381–383, 457–462
social organization, 458
status differentiation, 457–458
Hawaiki: Ancestral Polynesia (Kirch and Green), 238
Hawkes, Kirsten, 99
heiau monumental architecture (Hawai‘i), 388–389
Heyerdahl, Thor, 113, 423–424
Hiscock, Peter, 8
Holdaway, S. J., 465
Holocene history
circum-New Guinea islands, 91f, 92–95
Island Southeast Asia, 48, 53–55, 59, 121
New Guinea, 74–75, 77, 78, 80
Hommon, R. J., 390
Homo floriensis (dwarf hominim), 31
Homo sapiens, 28, 35
Hornell, J., 478
Hung, H.-C., 59, 255
Hunt, Terry L., 92, 424, 427
Ideal Free Distribution (IFD), 95
Ifo, Erromango, 166
(p. 501) Indo-Australian Plate, 71
Indo-European language family, 304–305
Indo-Malaysian Archipelago, 314
Irwin, G. J., 476
Islamization, in ISEA, 54
Island Southeast Asia (ISEA)
animal domestication in, 11–12, 60–62
arboricultural, vegecultural practices, 55–60
archaeology complexity of, 55–56
Austronesian dispersal in, 48–62
biological variation, 221
cultural influences in, 55
food production in, 57
historical linguistics of, 59
Holocene era, 48, 53–55, 59, 121
language characteristics, 11
Malayo-Polynesian languages, 50, 51, 52–53, 55, 57, 59
map, 119f
Lapita, 121
mtDNA haplogroup B4a1a1a in, 11
plant domestication in, 56
rock art, 478
sediment dating in, 30
seed-plant genera in, 3–4
societal transformations within, 54
spatial structuring of data within, 52
spread of agriculture in, 49, 55, 56–60
Taiwan and origins of, 48–62
Isle of Pines, 186f, 188
Izu-Bonin-Mariana island arc system, 255
Jacob, François, 115
Japan, 1
Kahn, J. G., 148
Kamaka Island, 148
kangaroos, giant (Macropus rufus, Macropus giganteus titan), extinction of, 35–36
Kapingamarangi, 145–146
Kapingamarangi language, 329
Kayangel atoll (Palauan Archipelago), 260
Kennett, D. J., 146, 214
Kermadec Islands, 140t, 149, 396, 399–400, 403, 418f
King, T. F., 292
Kirch, Patrick, V., 3, 9, 17, 92, 123, 206, 234, 238, 239, 317, 328, 388, 390, 428, 459
Kiribati (Gilbert Islands)
archaeological sites, 282t
atolls, 274
colonization, 137t, 145–146
geography of, 274
language connections, 254
radiocarbon dates, 283t
Kiritimati (Christmas) Island, 148
Kolb, M., 389
komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), 31
Komori, E., 387
Kon-Tiki (Heyerdahl), 113
Kosrae Island, 252
archaeological sites, 280t281t
artifacts, 286
climate, 275
colonization estimates, 137t
early settlement, 285
early subsistence, 285–286
ethnographic record, 277–278
geography of, 274
language/cultural connections, 275–276
Leluh Island basalt walls, 290–291
Leluh map, 273f
mid-Holocene highstand, 275
paleoenvironment, 287
pottery, 284
radiocarbon dates, 283t
settlement pattern, population, 291–292
social organization, 277–278
volcanic activity on, 253
Kupona-na-dari site (New Britain), 93, 99
Kwajalein, colonization of, 145
Ladd, E. J., 388
Ladefoged, Thegn N., 16, 388, 461
Lakeba Island (Fiji), 207
Lake Mungo, Australia, 34
landslides, on Vanuatu, 162
languages. See also Austronesian language family; Papuan language families
Admiralties group, 322, 323
(p. 502) Central Pacific subgroup, 326–327
Chamorro, 256, 258, 314, 325
descent of/resemblances between, 305
dispersal, from Austronesia, 49, 51–53, 55–56
early Lapita, 314–317
Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, 52
Eastern Micronesia, 275–276
Eastern/Western Fijian, 326
family tree model, 320–322, 322f
of Fiji, 191, 208, 208f, 219–220, 222, 326–327
Formosan, 312
Indo-European family, 304–305
ISEA, 52–53, 54, 56, 57, 61
Kosrae Island, 275–276
Lapita pottery groups, 10
Malayo-Polynesian, 50, 51, 52–53, 55, 57, 325
Marshall Islands, 254, 325
Melanesia, 254, 305, 307
Meso-Melanesian language group, 323
Micronesia, 254, 325–326
New Caledonia-Loyalties, 324
New Guinea, 50, 80, 315, 323–324
Niuatoputapu language, 328
Northern Outlier languages, 329
Nuclear Micronesian group, 275, 325
Nuclear Polynesian group, 329
Papuan Tip, 323–324
of Pohnpei Island, 275–276
Proto-Austronesian, 59, 311, 312, 314, 318
Proto-Central Pacific, 238, 239, 318, 479
Proto Eastern Polynesian, 329
Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, 50, 59, 312, 318, 478
Proto-Nuclear-Micronesian, 325
Proto-Nuclear-Polynesian, 239–240
Proto Oceanic, 10, 97, 190–191, 275–276, 285, 303, 314–315, 316f, 318, 320, 322f, 479
Proto-Polynesian, 231, 238–240, 318, 327–329, 388
Proto-Western Oceanic, 323
Rotuman language, 322f, 326–327
Semitic family, 305
Solomons-Vanuatu region, 276
Southern Vanuatu language, 324–325
St. Matthias (Mussau) group, 322
Taiwan, 49, 52, 54, 57, 59, 61, 312
Tonga and Sāmoa, 234
Trans New Guinea family, 302, 309–310
Uralic family, 305
Uto-Aztecan family, 305
Vanuatu, 324–325
Western Malayo-Polynesian subgrouping, 254
Western Melanesia, 318–319, 322–324
Western Micronesia, 254
Western Oceanic group, 315, 322–323
Yapese language, 259, 325–326
Lapaha, Tonga, 241–242
Lapita
animal/plant domestication, 4
archaeology of, 17, 113–116, 118, 121, 123–128
characteristics of, 11
colonization by, 4, 9, 10f, 11–13, 61, 81, 120, 121, 143, 311
community of practice in, 10, 113, 125–128
as a cultural complex, 112–113, 124–125
description, 10
expansion into eastern Melanesia, 315
expansion into Tonga and Sāmoa, 143–144, 166, 231, 233
as history, 124–127
language(s) of, 314–317
links to Pacific origins, 188
on Malakula, 166
in New Caledonia, 324
origins of, 11–12
on Reef/Santa Cruz Islands, 170
Pleistocene era, 117
Remote Oceania settlements, 4, 9, 10f
in Tonga and Sāmoa, 328
in Vanuatu, 165–171, 324
Lapita pottery, 80–81, 112–128
Achugao pottery comparison, 255
in the Bismarcks, 13, 49, 60, 81, 82, 112, 118, 120, 124, 141, 311
in circum-New Guinea, 90, 92–93, 97, 100–102
discovery of, 6, 80–81, 112
in Melanesia, 114
in Near Oceania, 9–10, 13
(p. 503) in New Caledonia, 6, 188
origins/history, 317–318
in Polynesia, 118
in Remote Oceania, 4, 9–10, 13, 126
in Samoa, 118
skills/reasons for making, 118
in Tonga, 118
trait characteristics of, 114
in Vanuatu, 166–168, 170–172
Lau Group (Fiji), 212, 219, 220, 243, 326, 327
Lavachery, Henri, 423
Lave, Jean, 125–126
Leang Sarru (limestone shelter), Salibabu Island, 31, 33
Leeward Kohala Field System (LKFS), 366, 388
Leluh Island, Kosrae, 290–291
Lesser Sunda islands, 29
LiDAR (light detection and ranging) technology, 462
Lifou Island (Loyalty Islands), 186f
light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology, 462
Lilley, Ian, 120
limestone seacliffs, 339, 340, 344
Line Islands, 139t, 148
Lipo, C. P., 424
Liston, J., 264
Little Climatic Optimum (LCO)/Little Ice Age (LIA), in Fiji, 216
Love, C., 427
Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, 175, 186f, 340, 344
Luangiua language, 329
Lynch’s Crater swamp, Australia, 36
Maap (Yap Islands), 258
MacArthur, R. H., 4
Macropus rufus, Macropus giganteus titan (giant kangaroos), 35–36
Madagascar, 49, 254, 311
Majuro, 145
Makue, Aore Island, 166
Malakula, 166
Malayo-Polynesian (MP) languages, 50, 51, 52–53, 55, 57, 325
Malinowski, Bronislaw, 123
Maloelap, 145, 282t
Maluku, 29, 318
Mamanuca Islands (Fiji), 207, 208, 214, 219
Mangaia island (East Polynesia), 9, 146
Mangareva, 139t, 147f, 148, 358
Mantell, Walter, 398
Manus Island settlement, 40
Maori in New Zealand, 329, 396, 398, 400, 403, 405, 407–408, 474, 477
Marck, J. C., 328–329
Maré Island (Loyalty Islands), 186f, 194
Mariana Islands
Achugao Incised/San Roque Incised pottery, 255
archaeological research, 258
boundaries, 274
Chamorro language, 325
colonization, 136t, 141, 143, 252
environment, 254
initial island settlement, 254–255
language connections, 254, 325
Latte Period, 257–258, 257f
limestone seacliffs, 340
map location, 253f
population expansion, 141
strandline, 341
Maritime Empire. See Tonga
maritime migration
to Near Oceania, 39–41
to Wallacea, 28–30
maritime technology, 303, 477
breakthroughs/improvements, 4, 41, 127
in East Polynesia, 477
oceanic boats, 478–480
oceanic sailing rigs, 480–483, 481f
in Remote Oceania, 477–487
Marquesas Islands, 2, 17, 357t
chiefdoms of, 14
colonization estimates, 138t
map location, 354f
Marshall Islands, 252
archaeological sites, 281t282t
atolls, 274, 283, 286
(p. 504) colonization estimates, 137t, 145–146
colonization of, 145–146
early subsistence, 286
language connections, 254, 325
radiocarbon dates, 283t
Martinsson-Wallin, H., 241, 425
Masse and Snyder 1982, 264
Matenkupkum cave site, 39–40
Maug Islands, 255
McAllister, A. J., 359–360
McAllister, J. G., 388
McCoy, P., 424
McNiven, Ian J., 81
Mead, Sidney M., 123
megalithic architecture. See monumental architecture
Melanesia. See also Western Melanesia
archaeology of, 1–3, 2f
boundaries, 206
chiefdoms in, 16
cultural linkages, 188
diversity characteristic, 3
Lapita pottery in, 114
limited social hierarchy in, 2
linguistic diversity, 254, 305, 307, 314
name derivation, 252
Oceanic languages of, 322–324
phenotypic linkages, 193
Polynesia’s links with, 192
Meso-Melanesian language group, 323
Métraux, A., 423, 425, 438
Micronesia. See also Eastern Micronesia; Western Micronesia
archaeology of, 1–3, 2f, 9
atolls, 253, 293
botanical findings, 293
boundaries, 274
breadfruit revolution in, 292–294
Chamarro-specific lineage in, 256
conical-clan structures, 14
geographic setting, 274–275
island types, 253–254
linguistic movements, 254, 325–326
name derivation, 252
Polynesia’s cultural resemblance, 294
mid-Holocene highstand, 337–342
empirical highstand indicators, 339–340
equatorial ocean siphoning and, 337
global eustatic sea level, 337
global isostatic adjustment, 337
regional highstand relations, 340–341
strandline effects, 341–342
Mindinao, Philippines, 31
Misool Island, 32
Moluccas, 304
monumental architecture
Central East Polynesia, 363–364, 367
Eastern Island, 475
Hawai‘i, 378, 380t, 388–389
New Zealand, 408–410
Rapa Nui, 428, 431, 439
Sāmoa, 241
Tonga and Sāmoa, 241, 245
Western Micronesia, 262, 267
Mo‘okini, island, 15f
Moriori in the Chathams, 396, 411, 476
Morrison, Alex, 207
Mountain, Mary-Jane, 77
MtDNA haplogroup B4a1a1a (Polynesian motif), 11, 28, 34–35, 38, 50–51
Mulifanua, Samoa, 144, 233, 235–236, 345, 454
Mulloy, William, 424, 425
Murray, T., 242
Naigani Island (Fiji), 143, 207
Nan Madol, Pohnpei
archaeological sites, 280t
megalithic ruins, 271, 272f, 287–290
pottery bearing deposits, 279, 285
stone adze discoveries, 286
National Geographical Society, 423
Navatu Phase, Fiji, 212
Near Oceania. See also Remote Oceania
animal domestication in, 12, 96
Austronesian language dispersal in, 49
boundaries of, 3, 26
colonization of, 26, 28, 39–41
connections with other groups, 12
environment of, 4
flora and fauna, 4
interactions of, 123
Lapita pottery, 9–10, 10f
(p. 505) linguistic diversity, 307
mtDNA haplogroup B4a1a1a in, 11
pottery developments in, 9, 10, 11
proto-Oceanic Austronesian language in, 10–11
Neff, Hector, 214
Nendö, Santa Cruz Islands, 3
Neolithic Europe, 71
New Britain
colonization, 307
connections with Oceania, 12
dating issues, 92
forest management, plant food production, 96
Kupona-na-dari site, 93, 99
languages, 307
Lapita, 311
obsidian tools of, 13, 40, 81
Oceanic languages, 323
Pleistocene sites, 98, 99
social networks of, 124
tools/toolmaking, 81
Type X pottery, 92
New Caledonia, 4, 113. See also Grand Terre, New Caledonia; Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia
archaeology of, 185–199
boundaries, 3
Christian missionaries in, 187
chronology, 166
colonization, 136t, 142f, 143, 196, 206
cultural linkages, 188
culture history, 209
exchange networks, 195–196
geologic characteristics, 185
geology of, 4, 186, 194–195
Kanak society in, 187–189, 194–196
languages of, 324–325
Lapita pottery in, 4, 6, 113, 141, 164, 324
map, 163f, 186f
obsidian in, 13
phenotypic linikages, 193
political decolonizing process, 198–199
population expansion into, 141
post-Lapita ceramic diversification, 219
Vanuatu connection with, 175
New Caledonia archipelago, 4, 13
New Caledonia-Loyalties languages, 324
New Guinea, 27f, 69–85. See also circum-New Guinea islands; Papuan language families
agriculture in, 13, 55, 56, 58, 59, 62, 69, 73–78, 85
agricultural practices, 58
animal domestication in, 60–62
animal translocations from, 12, 32, 41, 100
archaeological research on, 1
artistic culture, 123
boundaries, 1, 26
breadfruit, 293
colonization of, 8, 9, 29, 35, 41, 71, 73
connections with Oceania, 12
Early Papuan pottery, 82
early settlements, 71, 72f
emergence of agriculture, 13
ethnographic research on, 7–8
fauna of, 31
food production in, 57
geographic development, 72–73, 76f
highland interaction, 78–80, 79f
Holocene era, 74–75, 77, 78, 80
Holocene obsidian tools, 101f
house size in, 70t
Lapita pots on, 125
linguistic diversity, 51, 304, 307
lowland interaction, 80–84
map, 72f, 119f
non-Austronesian languages in, 51
Oceanic languages, 315, 323
“Papuan” linguistic category in, 51
as part of Sahul continent, 26, 71
people migration from, 52
plant domestication, 56, 59, 74–77
Pleistocene era, 71, 73–75, 77, 78, 118
rock shelters, 73
seed-plant genera in, 3–4
social networks of, 124
stone figurines/carved figures, 79
sugarcane domestication in New Guinea, 59
taro agriculture, 13
tectonic activity in, 71
terrestrial mammal species, 39
TNG language dispersal from, 310
(p. 506) tools/toolmaking, 13, 37–38, 73–74, 76–77
trading activity, 78
Type X pottery, 92
voyages to, 29, 40
New Hebrides/Nouvelles- Hébrides. See Vanuatu archipelago
New Ireland
cave site, 39, 93
colonization, 307
connections with Oceania, 12
Lapita in, 311
Meso-Melanesian language, 323
obsidian’s appearance on, 99
Oceanic languages, 323
settlements, 40–41
social networks of, 124
volcanic events, 94
New Zealand, 238
animal species, 400–401
animal targeting, overexploitation, 36
archaeological research, 1, 14, 397f, 398–399
artifacts, 406–407
Austronesian language dispersal in, 49, 311
boundaries, 146, 149
climate, 403
colonization, 140t, 147t, 149–150, 484
Cook’s explorations of, 375
craft centers, 404–405
cultural preservation laws in, 134
cultural studies on, 5
discovery of, 476
Early Phase, 400–404
food/food stuffs, 403
forests/wilderness, 402–403, 404
geography, 400
housing, villages, 406
hunters in, 36
language, 49
Late Phase, 406–410
Maori peoples in, 329, 396, 398, 400, 403, 405, 407–408, 474, 477
Middle Phase, 404–406
pa/monumental earthworks, 408–410
resources of, 375–376
size comparison, 375–376, 398
tools, 401
Ngaruangel atoll (Palauan Archipelago), 260
Nikunau, 145
Niuatoputapu, 233, 233f, 235, 237, 239, 328–329
Niuatoputapu language, 328
Niue, colonization estimates, 137t
Norfolk Island, 140t, 149, 396, 399–400, 418f
Northern Cook Islands, 140t
Northern Outlier languages, 329
North Sulawesi, 31
Nuclear Micronesian language group, 325
Nuclear Polynesian language group, 329
Nukuleka, Tonga, 118, 136t, 143, 235
Nukuoro, 145, 278, 283, 325–326
Nukuoro language, 329
Nunn, P. D., 143
obsidian
Banks Islands, 174
Bismarcks, 311, 317
Fiji, 209
Manus, 102
Mayor Island, 399–400, 404
mid-Holocene era, 101f
Near Oceania, 11, 41, 124
New Britain, 12, 80, 99–100, 102, 191
New Guinea societies, 78, 81–82
New Ireland sites, 40
New Zealand, 400–401
Rapa Nui, 420, 425, 427
spread of, 12–13, 40
Vanuatu, 167
O’Connell, J., 29, 95, 97, 99
O’Connor, Sue, 8
Oppenheimer, S., 50
Optically Stimulated Luminsence dating technique, 30
Optimal Foraging/Ideal Free Distribution theory (OF/IFD theory), 95, 98–99
Osborne, D., 264
out-of-Taiwan migration hypothesis, 48–50, 57, 59
outriggers, 120, 278, 478–480
Pacific Plate, 71, 93, 232, 337, 342, 376
Pagan Island, 255
Palauan (Palau) Archipelago
archaeological research on, 1
(p. 507) colonization, 136t, 252
cultural development, 262, 263f
earthworks/modified hilltops, 262, 263f
environment, 260
initial island settlement, 260–262
Kayangel/Ngaruangel atolls, 260
language connections, 254, 325
map location, 253f
material culture, 263–264
money (stone money), 265
tools/artifacts, 263–264
paleoenvironmental considerations. See also coastal landforms
analyses of Oceanic islands, 9
Chuuk and Pohnpei, 286
circum-New Guinea islands, 90, 93–95
data interpretation challenges, 74
Fiji, 213
Hawaii, 151–152
Kosrae, 287
Phase 1 data, 75
in Polynesia, 17
Remote Oceania, 133, 135, 140t, 141, 143, 145, 146, 148–150
Western Micronesia, 259, 261
Palmer, John Linton, 423
Papuan language families, 304–307
description, 51, 122, 302
in Halmahera, 306f, 307
in Melanesia, 51, 122, 302
in Near Oceania, 307
in New Guinea, 306f
in Timor regions, 306f, 307
Tip languages, 323–324
Parker, P. L., 292
Parkes, A., 148
Parnkupirti, Australia, 34
Parry, J. T., 214–215
Pawley, A., 285
Pearthree, E., 148, 486
Petchey, F., 143, 144
Petersen, G., 292, 294
Philippines
Callao Cave, 28, 30
early subsistence in, 30–32
H. sapiens skeletons in, 28
language connections, 254
Pleistocene technology in, 32–33
PMP language in, 312, 315
population movement in, 11
pottery, 256
Phoenix Group (Kiribati), 139t
pig domestication, 9
pigmy Stegodon (giant land turtle), 31
Pitcairn Group, 139t, 148
plant domestication
in East Asia, 58
in ISEA, 61
by Lapita People, 4
in New Guinea, 59, 74, 75
in Western Micronesia, 254
platform rafts, 29
Pleistocene era
cave sites, 39
circum-New Guinea islands, 90, 91f, 92–96, 98–99
East Timor, terrestrial species, 31
horizon dates (30,000 B.P.-20,000 B.P.), 32
hunter-gathering lifestyle in, 121
landmass, 26
megafauna extinction during, 31
New Guinea, 71, 73–75, 77, 78, 118
New Oceania, 121
Sulawesi sites, 32
technology advances, 32–33, 37–38
Pohnpei Island. See also Nan Madol, Pohnpei
archaeological sites, 280t
artifacts, 286
climate, 275
colonization estimates, 137t
early settlement, 285
early subsistence, 285–286
ethnographic record, 276–277
geography of, 274
language/cultural connections, 275–276
mid-Holocene highstand, 275
Nan Madol map, 272f
Nan Madol megalithic ruins, 287–290
paleoenvironment, 287
pottery, 284
radiocarbon dates, 283t
social stratification, 276–277
volcanic activity on, 253
(p. 508) Polynesia. See also Central Eastern Polynesia; East Polynesia; languages; Proto-Polynesian Lexicon Project; Proto-Polynesian (PPn) language; Western Polynesia; specific Polynesian islands and archipelagos
ritual architecture, 15f
archaeology of, 1–3, 2f
botanical findings, 293
boundaries, 206
burial customs, 382
Chamarro-specific lineage in, 256
chiefdoms of, 2, 231, 239, 240, 375, 389
colonization/chronology, 113, 152, 377, 379–380, 428–429, 474–475
Cook’s voyages to, 375
cultural development, 240, 453
east/west settlements, 244
elite society origins, 14
farming/food production, 385
Fiji’s shared characteristics, 206–207, 211f, 218, 220–221
flightless birds, 377
homogeneity, 3
influence on Vanuatu, 175, 475
Lapita culture in, 238–239, 315, 341
Melanesia’s links with, 192
Micronesia’s cultural resemblance, 294
monumental architecture, 388
mtDNA haplogroup B4a1a1a in, 11
New Zealand comparison, 398
paleoenvironmental research, 17, 151–152
phenotypic linkages, 183, 192
political complexity in, 16, 17
pottery, tools, 114
settlement pattern studies, 450–466
social stratification, 385
subdivisions of, 2
as theoretical construct, 238–240
zonation of islands and, 381–382
Polynesian Triangle. See Hawai‘i; New Zealand; Rapa Nui
Polynesia Plainware phase, 144, 236, 237, 237f, 238, 243
pottery. See also Lapita pottery
Achugao Incised/San Roque Incised pottery, 255
Calcareous Sand Tempered pottery, 259
Early Papuan Pottery, 82
Nan Madol pottery, 285
paddle-impressed ceramics, 219
Polynesian Plainware ceramics, 144, 236, 237–238, 237f
Sāmoan Plainware ceramics, 236, 237f
West Polynesian pottery, 475
Proto-Austronesian (PAn) languages, 59, 311, 312, 314, 318
Proto-Central Pacific (PCP) languages, 238, 239, 318, 479
Proto-Eastern-Oceanic (PEOc) languages, 479
Proto-Eastern-Polynesian (PEPn) languages, 329
Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (PMP) languages, 50, 59, 312, 318, 478
Proto-Nuclear-Micronesian language, 325
Proto Oceanic (POc) languages, 10, 97, 190–191, 275–276, 285, 303, 314–315, 316f, 317, 318, 320, 322f, 326, 479
Proto-Polynesian Lexicon Project (POLLEX), 240
Proto-Polynesian (PPn) language, 388
formation of, 327–329
linguistic developmental stages, 239–240
Pawley’s examination of, 318
Plainware phase and, 238
Puritjarra cave, Australia, 34
radiocarbon dating
description, 134–135
for developing colonization records, 134, 150
in East Polynesia, 146
pottery identification, 6
of Remote Oceania, 134, 150
rafts
advantages for colonization, 479
bamboo rafts, 29, 266, 479
in migrations to Sahul, 29
ocean-going rafts, 265
platform rafts, 29
raft-canoes, 476
raft hull on sailing ships, 479
sailing rafts, 475, 480, 482
(p. 509) Rainbird, P., 294
Ramsey, Christopher Bronk, 92
Raoul Island, 399
Rapa Nui (Easter Island)
ancient ritual architecture, 15f
anthropomorphic statues (moai) of, 14, 15f
archaeological research on, 462
archaeology of, 1, 9, 416–441
boundaries, 146, 147f
climate, 419–420
colonization, 139t, 146, 148–150, 149–150
environment, 417–422
expeditions to, 422–424
flora and fauna, 419
geographic isolation of, 428–429
geology of, 417, 419
hare paenga (houses), 425, 426f
history, 422–428
maps, 418f
moai/moai roads on, 14, 15f, 416, 420, 421f, 422–428, 431, 433f, 434–441, 436f
monumental architecture, 428, 431, 439
Norwegian Expedition to, 423–424
prehistoric community patterning, 437
proposed chronology, 148
settlement patterns, community structure, 439–440
statues/carvings, 420, 421f, 422
transformation and "ecocide," 429–434, 433f
volcanic activity, 417, 419–420, 432, 437
water resources, 419–420, 437–439
Rā Phase, Fiji, 212
Rarotonga (Cook Islands), 345–346, 348f
Ray, Sidney, 304
Reef/Santa Cruz Islands
colonization, 136t, 206
Lapita people on, 170, 311, 324
pottery motifs from, 170
Reland, Hadrian, 303
Remote Oceania. See also Near Oceania
animal domestication in, 60, 96
Austronesian language in, 49, 50
biological variation, 221
boundaries of, 3
colonization in, 4, 8–13, 49–50, 84, 102, 120, 126–128, 133–153
community of practice in, 10
ecosystem, 485
flora and fauna, 4
Lapita expansion into, 141, 143
Lapita pottery in, 4, 9–10, 10f, 13, 126
maritime technology in, 477–487
mtDNA haplogroup B4a1a1a in, 11
pre-Lapita settlement, 164
seafaring in, 473–488
transportation in, 115
remote sensing technologies, 462–463
Rieth, Timothy, M., 8, 236
Roberts, J. M., 8
Rogers, D. S., 477
Roggeveen, Jacob, 422
Roscoe, Jim, 123–124
Ross, M., 322
Rota Island, 255, 258
Rotuman language, 138t, 145, 322f, 326–327
Routledge, Katherine, 423
Routledge, William Scoresby, 423
Rumung (Yap Islands), 258
Sahlins, M., 389, 390
Sahul
Asian migrations to, 28–30
biogeography of, 26
colonization of, 8, 26, 28, 34–39
components of, 26, 71
mtDNA evidence in, 35, 38
traditions/cultural practices, 38–39
sailing rafts, 475, 480, 482
Saipan Island, 255, 258
Salibabu Island, 31
Sāmoan Plainware ceramics phase, 236
Sāmoa (Samoan Islands), 2. See also Tonga and Sāmoa
agricultural development, 454
basalt adzes in, 13
chiefdoms of, 240–243
colonization, 3, 137t, 206
community houses, 455–456
subsidence, 344
“Dark Ages” period, 454
geographic boundaries, 452–453
(p. 510) household units (HHU), 454–456, 456f
interlinkages of, 188, 217
languages, 329
Lapita expansion into, 143–144, 453
map location, 142, 233f
monumental architecture, 241
Mulifanua Lapita site, 345
Plainware Ceramics phase, 236–237, 453–454
political/ceremonial functions, 455
seafaring vessels, 476
settlement patterns, 452–457, 455f
Sāmoa-’Uvea-Tuvalu chain, 232
San Cristobal (Makira), Solomon Islands, 3, 4
San Roque pottery, 255
Santa Cruz Islands, 3–4, 118, 136t, 141, 167, 170, 206–207, 221, 293
Santa Isabel, 307
Sarazin, F., 187
Sarigan Island, 255
sawei exchange system, 293
Schmitz, Carl A., 80
seafaring. See also maritime technology
computer simulations of, 256
Cook’s expeditions, 375
defined, 474
long-distance seafaring, 244, 473–474
Polynesian navigational ability, 473–474
Remote Oceania, 473–488
Tonga and Samoan Islands, 244
traditionalist voyaging, 474–478
wind considerations, 29
settlement pattern studies, 450–466
attainability of goals in, 464–466
background, 450–451
definitions and goals, 451–452
geographic survey coverage, 462
Hawaiian Islands, 457–462
human social organization, 464
methodological limitations, 463
remote sensing technologies, 462–463
Sāmoa (Samoan Islands), 452–457, 455f
surface structure issues, 463
time-perspective paradigm, 465
Sharp, Andrew, 473
Shepardson, B. L., 425
Sheppard, Peter, 90
Shutler, R., Jr., 188, 209–210
Sigatoka ceramics, 210
Sikaiana language, 329
Simon, Herbert A., 116–117
Skinner, B. F., 116
Skinner, Henry, 398
Skjølsvold, Arne, 424
Skottsberg, Carl, 424, 427
Smith, A., 238
Smith, Carlyle, 424, 425
Society Islands, 2, 357t
ritual architecture, 15f
colonization, 138t, 146–147, 146–148, 484
subsidence, 344, 345
map location, 354f
seafaring vessels in, 476
Society-Tuamotu island groups (French Polynesia), 340
Solomon Islands, 27f. See also Buka Island
bird species in, 3
boundaries, 26
Buka island settlement, 40
limestone seacliffs, 340
Papuan languages in, 307, 308f
Pleistocene sites in, 164
post-Lapita colonization in, 144
uplifted trench forebulges, 342, 344
Southeast Solomon Islands, 144
Southern Cook Islands, 357t
Southern Vanuatu language, 324–325
South Pacific Superswell (SPS), 340
South Polynesia, 396–412. See also Auckland Islands; Chatham Islands; Kermadec Islands; New Zealand; Norfolk Island
archaeology, 399
description, 396
environment, 396
geology of, 396
map, 397f
outlying islands, 399–400
Specht, Jim, 8–9, 41, 92, 118, 311
Spriggs, Matthew, 91–92, 148, 317, 324, 390
St. Matthias (Bismarck Archipelago), 311
Steward, J. H., 450
strandline effects, 341–342
Sulawesi, 29–32, 42, 60, 326
(p. 511) Sundaland (or Sunda), 26, 27f, 29, 30
Swadling, Pamela, 78, 80
sweet potato
Hawaii, 385
New Guinea, 70, 74–76, 78, 80
New Zealand, 401, 403
Polynesia, 475
Rapa Nui, 419, 432, 440
Szabó, Katherine, 125
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Island, 148
Taiwan
Austronesian language origin, 49–50
Austronesian subgroups in, 11, 311
farming-language hypothesis, 48
Formosan language, 312
ISEA origins and, 48–62
Malayo-Polynesian dispersal from, 57
mtDNA haplogroup B4a1a1a in, 11
out-of-Taiwan migration hypothesis, 48–50, 57, 59
population movement in, 11
rice cultivation on, 59
spread of agriculture from, 49
Takuu language, 329
Talaud-Sangihe archipelago, 31, 32
Tasmania, 26, 38, 71
technology/technological innovations
Pleistocene era, 32–33, 37–38
role in creating settlements, 26
tectonic uplift/subsidence, 342–347
isostatic volcano loading, 344–346
regional thermotectonic subsidence, 342, 343f
uplifted trench forebulges, 342, 344
variable forearc deformation, 346–347
Teouma Lapita cemetery (Efate Island), 168
Terrell, John, Edward 2,