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date: 12 July 2020

(p. xxxvii) Abbreviations

(p. xxxvii) Abbreviations

AA(V)E

African American (Vernacular) English

Adv

adverb(ial)

AI

analyticity index

AmE

American English

ANOVA

analysis of variance

AP

adjective phrase

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange

ASJP

Automated Similarity Judgment Program

ASL

adult second language

AUX, Aux

auxiliary

BrE

British English

C

complementizer

C, c

consonant

CAR

clash-avoidance requirement

CDA

critical discourse analysis

CEC

Caribbean Creole English

CLD

contrastive left dislocation

CP

complementizer phrase

D, DET

determiner

DP

determiner phrase

EFL

English as a Foreign Language

ELT

English Language Teaching

EMC

electronically mediated communication

EModE

Early Modern English

ENL

English as a Native Language

ESL

English as a Second Language

F1

first formant

F2

second formant

F3

third formant

FocusP

focus phrase

FTF

fuzzy tree fragment

GA

General American

GEN

genitive

GVS

Great Vowel Shift

H

high (tone)

Hawai'i Creole English

HKE

Hong Kong English

HRT

high rising terminal

ICT

information and communication technology

IMPF

imperfective

IndE

Indian English

IP

inflection phrase

IPA

International Phonetic Alphabet

IS

information structure

L

low (tone)

L1

first language

L2

second language

LD

Levenshtein distance

LF

logical form

LME

Late Middle English

LMEFW

Late Middle English final weakening

LModE

Late Modern English

MASC

masculine

ME

Middle English

ModE

Modern English

NCS

Northern Cities Shift

NEG, Neg

negation

NegP

negative phrase

NP

noun phrase

NPI

negative polarity item

NSM

natural semantic metalanguage

NZE

New Zealand English

O

object

OE

Old English

OHG

Old High German

OI

Old Icelandic

ON

Old Norse

PC

political correctness

P/Cs

pidgins and creoles

PDE

Present-Day English

PF

phonological form

PGCH

performance-grammar correspondence hypothesis

PhP

prosodic phrase

PL

phrase level

PP

prepositional phrase

PRT

particle

RP

received pronunciation

S

subject; strong (syllable)

SEFW

Southern English fricative weakening

singular

SgE

Singapore English

SI

syntheticity index

SL

stem level

SLA

second-language acquisition

SMS

short message service

SpecP

specifier phrase

SR

surface representation

TB

Tibeto-Burman

TL

target language

TP

tense phrase

UR

underlying representation

URL

Uniform Resource Locator

V, v

verb; vowel

VARD

variant spelling detector

V1

verb first

V2

verb second

V3

verb third

Vf, Vfin

finite verb

VNC

variability-based neighbor clustering

VP

verb phrase

W

weak (syllable)

WL

word level

XML

extensible markup language

X-SAMPA

Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet

(p. xl)