Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 16 September 2019

(p. 681) Art Credits

(p. 681) Art Credits

  1. Figure 1.1.1 Drawing of the hanging garden of Cardinal Andrea della Valle, attributed to Maartin Van Heemskerck. Photograph: Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris, Estampes et Photographie, Réserve B-2 (3).

  2. Figure 1.1.2 Drawing of the Laocoön in Belvedere Courtyard by Francesco de Hollande. Photograph: Library, Escorial, Madrid; © Patrimonio Nacional.

  3. Figure 1.1.3 Carracci Gallery, Palazzo Farnese, Rome, Italy. Photograph: © Gianni Dagli Orti/The Art Archive at Art Resource, New York.

  4. Figure 1.1.4 Engraving from Galleria Givstiniana del marchese Vincenzo Givstiniani. Photograph: Art & Architecture Collection, Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations.

  5. Figure 1.1.5 Child’s sarcophagus from Museum Kircheranum. Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano, Terme di Diocleziano. Photograph: Singer, Neg. D-DAI-ROM 73.1784.

  6. Figure 1.1.6 View of the Roman portrait gallery, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen. Photograph: Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen.

  7. Figure 1.2.1 Engraving of a statue of a god restored as Alexander the Great, 1704, Robert van Audenaerde (Belgian, 1663–1743), Maffei and de Rossi 1704. Courtesy of Research Library, The Getty Research Institute, 93-B5694.

  8. Figure 1.2.2 Engraving of a statue of a god restored as Alexander the Great, 1804, after Schubert (German, active 1700s), Becker 1804, pl. 18. Courtesy of Research Library, The Getty Research Institute, 89-B16556.

  9. Figure 1.2.3 Photograph of Antinous as Bacchus, 1885–8, by Hermann Krone. Courtesy of the Skulpturensammlung, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden.

  10. Figure 1.2.4 Photograph of the re-restoration carried out between 1888 and 1894 on statue of a god. Skulpturensammlung, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden. Courtesy of the J. Paul Getty Museum.

  11. Figure 1.2.5 Statue of a god (Roman, AD 100–200). Skulpturensammlung, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden. Courtesy of the J. Paul Getty Museum.

  12. Figure 1.3.1 Cast Gallery in the Old Library at the University of Michigan. Photograph: Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan. Collection Name UM Photographs, Folder UBImus C450-79, Filename HS11775.

  13. Figure 1.3.2 Court of Classical Casts, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Photograph: Trustees of the Boston Public Library. File no. 08_02_002766.

  14. Figure 1.4.1 View of “Women and Children in Antiquity” gallery of the Getty Villa, Malibu. Photograph: Tahnee Cracchiola; courtesy of the J. Paul Getty Museum.

  15. (p. 682) Figure 1.4.2 Roman gallery, San Antonio Museum of Art. Photograph: Peggy Tenison, courtesy of the San Antonio Museum of Art.

  16. Figure 1.4.3 Installation of Roman torsos of Athena, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen. Photograph: author; reproduced with permission of the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek.

  17. Figure 1.5.1 3DDM of the Amazon Sciarra from the Canopus of Hadrian’s Villa. Sponsored by NSF grant # 1018512. Copyright 2012 by The Board of Visitors of the University of Virginia. All rights reserved.

  18. Figure 1.5.2 3DDM of the Laocoön. Copyright 2009 by The Vatican Museums. All rights reserved.

  19. Figure 1.5.3 Detail of 3DDM of Pan-Nymph in the Dresden State Museums. Copyright 2009 by the Dresden State Museums. All rights reserved.

  20. Figure 1.5.4 3DDM of the lower rotunda of Roccabruna. Hadrian’s Villa. Sponsored by NSF grant # 1018512. Copyright 2012 by The Board of Visitors of the University of Virginia. All rights reserved.

  21. Figure 2.1.1 Map of the principal quarries of white marbles in the Roman Empire. Map: Eleonora Gasparini.

  22. Figure 2.1.2 Quarry of white marble at Aliki. Thasos, Greece. Photograph: Patrizio Pensabene.

  23. Figure 2.1.3 Excavations of the harbor along the Tiber in the nineteenth century. Rome. Photograph: Patrizio Pensabene.

  24. Figure 2.1.4 So-called Bagni di Livia, a part of Nero’s imperial palace. Rome. Photograph: Patrizio Pensabene.

  25. Figure 2.2.1 Unfinished statue of a Dacian prisoner. Vatican Museums, Museo Gregoriano Profano ex Lateranense. Photograph: author.

  26. Figure 2.2.2 Apprentice training piece. Rome, Palazzo della Cancelleria, S. Lorenzo in Damaso excavation storerooms. Photograph: author.

  27. Figure 2.2.3 Cast in EUR, Museo della Civiltà Romana, of sculptor Amabilis at work on his own funerary monument. Photograph: author.

  28. Figure 2.2.4 Signature of the sculptor Zenon, son of Attinas, of Aphrodisias, on a fold of drapery beside knee of a seated togate statue, c. AD 110. Rome, Palazzo Altemps, inv. no. 8641. Photograph: author.

  29. Figure 2.3.1 Caligula/Claudius. Grosseto Museo Archeologico e d’Arte della Maremma. Photograph: author.

  30. Figure 2.3.2 Posidippus / late republican portrait. Rome, Musei Vaticani, Galleria delle Statue. Photograph: author.

  31. Figure 2.3.3 Late republican female portrait. Rome, Centrale Montemartini. Photograph: author.

  32. Figure 2.3.4 Hadrianic/Severan female portrait. Rome, Museo Capitolino, Stanza degli Imperatori. Photograph: author.

  33. Figure 2.3.5 Constantius II or Constans (?). Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori, Sala dei Fasti Moderni. Photograph: author.

  34. Figure 2.4.1 Roman bronze bust of a youth. Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. Photograph: H. Lie.

  35. (p. 683) Figure 2.4.2 Indirect lost-wax process for casting a bronze statue. Drawing: Séan Hemingway.

  36. Figure 2.4.3 Bronze portrait of a man. Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. Photograph: H. Lie.

  37. Figure 2.4.4 Mahdia herm (left): Bardo National Museum, Tunis; photograph: H. Lilienthal, courtesy of Rheinisches Landesmuseum. Getty herm (right): J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu; photograph: J. Paul Getty Museum.

  38. Figure 2.5.1 Terracotta model of uterus from Italy. British Museum. Photograph: © The Trustees of the British Museum.

  39. Figure 2.5.2 Terracotta of a woman seated in a wicker chair and holding a baby. British Museum. Photograph: © The Trustees of the British Museum.

  40. Figure 2.5.3 Terracotta from Myrina depicting Aphrodite. British Museum. Photograph: © The Trustees of the British Museum.

  41. Figure 2.5.4 Two terracottas from Beit Nattif, Israel. Photograph: Israel Antiquities Authority.

  42. Figure 2.5.5 Terracotta of Harpocrates from Egypt. Photograph: © The National Maritime Museum, Haifa.

  43. Figure 2.6.1 Impression of intaglio ring stone with Greek artisan painting a portrait of a Roman woman. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Photograph: Art Resource, New York.

  44. Figure 2.6.2 So-called Treu Head. British Museum. Photograph: © Trustees of the British Museum.

  45. Figure 2.6.3 So-called Venus Lovatelli. Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. Photograph: © www.pedicinimages.com, courtesy of the Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli.

  46. Figure 2.6.4 Bronze statue of child Dionysos. Saint Louis Art Museum. Photograph: © Saint Louis Art Museum.

  47. Figure 2.7.1 Colossal marble statue from the Şile shipwreck. Photograph: author, courtesy of İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri/Istanbul Archaeological Museums.

  48. Figure 2.7.2 Marble bust of Aphrodite from the Mahdia shipwreck. Musée National du Bardo, Tunis. Photograph: Koppermann, Neg. D-DAI-ROM 61.476.

  49. Figure 2.7.3 Bronze bust of a man from the Antikythera shipwreck. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Photograph: Hellner, Neg. D–DAI–ATH–NM 6065.

  50. Figure 2.7.4 Plan of the cargo of the Torre Sgarrata shipwreck off Puglia (after Throckmorton 1972, 13). Plan: courtesy of Thames and Hudson and the Institute of Nautical Archaeology.

  51. Figure 3.1.1 Gemma Augustea. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Photograph: E. Lessing / Art Resource, New York.

  52. Figure 3.2.1 Tomb group from Fontecucchiaia (Clusium). Copenhagen, National Museum. Photograph: Courtesy of the National Museum of Denmark.

  53. Figure 3.2.2 Hercules and Minerva, acroteria from the sacred area of Sant’Omobono, Rome. Drawing: Renata Spooner Za for N. Winter.

  54. Figure 3.2.3 Tinia, bronze statuette of unknown provenance. Heidelberg University. Photograph: Archäologisches Institut der Universität Heidelberg, N.S. 867.

  55. (p. 684) Figure 3.2.4 The Orator from area of Lake Trasimeno. Florence, Museo Archeologico Nazionale. Photograph: By permission of the Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici della Toscana—Firenze.

  56. Figure 3.2.5 Stone sarcophagus from the Tomba Campanari, Tuscania. The British Museum. Photograph: Sir Percival David Collection /© The Trustees of the British Museum.

  57. Figure 3.3.1 Bust of the head of the Doryphoros by Polykleitos from the Villa of the Papyri, Herculaneum. Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. Photograph: Koppermann, Neg. D-DAI-ROM 64-1804.

  58. Figure 3.3.2 So-called Stephanos Athlete. Rome, Museo di Villa Albani. Photograph: Alinari/Art Resource, New York.

  59. Figure 3.3.3 Copy of the Diskobolos by Myron found on the Esquiline. Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano. Photograph: courtesy of Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali e del Turismo—Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Roma.

  60. Figure 3.3.4 Fragment of a plaster cast used to produce copies of the statue of Aristogeiton. Baiae, Museo Archeologico dei Campi Flegrei. Photograph: Hellner, Neg. D-DAI-ROM 78.1857.

  61. Figure 3.4.1 Portrait herm of Lucius Caecilius Iucundus from Pompeii. Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. Photograph: Werner Forman/Art Resource, New York.

  62. Figure 3.4.2 Colossal portrait head of Gallienus. Copenhagen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. Photograph: Album/Art Resource, New York.

  63. Figure 3.4.3 Portrait statue of Augustus from the Via Labicana. Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano, Palazzo Massimo. Photograph: Album/Art Resource, New York.

  64. Figure 3.4.4 Portrait statue of Faustina the Elder. Photograph: The J. Paul Getty Museum, Villa Collection, Malibu, California.

  65. Figure 3.5.1 Chariot Relief, Arch of Titus, Rome. Photograph: Elizabeth Wolfram Thill.

  66. Figure 3.5.2 Detail of the relief from the Monument of Philopappus, Athens. Photograph: Elizabeth Wolfram Thill.

  67. Figure 3.5.3 Detail of the arch from the Spoils Relief, Arch of Titus, Rome. Photograph: Melanie Grunow Sobocinski.

  68. Figure 3.6.1 Archaistic female herm from the Horti Maecenatiani. Rome, Musei Capitolini. Photograph: Neg. D-DAI-ROM 4472.

  69. Figure 3.6.2 Archaistic female herm from the Horti Maecenatiani. Rome, Musei Capitolini. Photograph: K. Anger, Neg. D-DAI-ROM 2001.1936.

  70. Figure 3.6.3 Orestes and Electra. Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano. Photograph: Fotosar, Rome.

  71. Figure 3.6.4 Head of a male, life-size terracotta sculpture from the Domus Tiberiana, Palatine Hill, Rome. Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano. Photograph: Fotosar, Rome.

  72. Figure 3.7.1 Apis bull, c. second century BC, discovered on the Esquiline Hill in 1886. Photograph: Gianni Dagli Orti/Art Resource, New York.

  73. Figure 3.7.2 Drawing of aediculum on the Esquiline with Isis and assemblage, c. AD 300. After Visconti 1885, Tav. IV.

  74. Figure 3.7.3 Relief of an Isiac ceremony, imperial period, found in a burial in Arriccia. Photograph: Vanni Archive/Art Resource, New York.

  75. (p. 685) Figure 3.7.4 Antinous in Egyptian dress, after AD 130, from Hadrian’s Villa. Photograph: Scala/Art Resource, New York.

  76. Figure 3.8.1 Restored elevation of the Monument of Theodosius (I or II) from Aphrodisias. Drawing: K. Görkay; courtesy of R. R. R. Smith (2001, fig. 34).

  77. Figure 3.8.2 Portrait of a Tetrarch (Galerius?) from Gamzigrad/Romuliana. Zaječar, National Museum. Photograph: C. Witschel.

  78. Figure 3.8.3 Statue of a high-ranking late antique magistrate (Stephanos?) wearing a toga, from Ephesos. Efes Müzesi Selçuk. Photograph: Courtesy of Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut.

  79. Figure 3.8.4 Statuette of Diana from the villa of Saint Georges de Montagne. Bordeaux, Musée d’Aquitaine. Photograph: Lysiane Gauthier, mairie de Bordeaux.

  80. Figure 3.8.5 Portrait of Augustus with an incised cross on the forehead from Ephesos. Efes Müzesi Selçuk. Photograph: Courtesy of Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut.

  81. Figure 4.1.1 Relief from the Tomb of the Haterii on the Via Labicana, Rome. Vatican Museums, Lateran Collection. Photograph: Scala/Art Resource, New York.

  82. Figure 4.1.2 Hercules from the Baths of Caracalla, Rome. Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. Photograph: Scala/Art Resource, New York.

  83. Figure 4.1.3 Roman theater in Colonia Augusta Emerita (Mérida, Spain). Photograph: Manuel Cohen/The Art Archive at Art Resource, New York.

  84. Figure 4.2.1 Statue of Mercury (proposed reconstruction), from the Sanctuary of Mercury, West Hill, Uley, Gloucestershire. Drawing: Joanna Richards.

  85. Figure 4.2.2 Altar with Mercury, from the Sanctuary of Mercury, West Hill, Uley. London, British Museum. Photograph: author.

  86. Figure 4.2.3 Severus’s confession stela, probably from northeast Lydia. Private collection. Photograph: courtesy of J. Nollé.

  87. Figure 4.2.4 Statuette of Saturn, from Sanctuary of Saturn, Haïdra. Photograph: Courtesy of Revue Archéologique, originally published in F. Baratte and Z. Benzina Ben Abdallah, “Le sanctuaire de Saturne à Ammaedara: Nouveaux documents,” RA 2000, fig. 6b–c.

  88. Figure 4.3.1 Diagram of sculptural display at Villa A, Oplontis. Drawing: Victoria I and Mary Todd. Courtesy of Bettina Bergmann and the Journal of Roman Archaeology.

  89. Figure 4.3.2 Reconstruction of the sculptural display at Punta Epitaffio, Baiae. Drawing: Lorene Sterner; reproduced by permission of the author.

  90. Figure 4.3.3 Pendants from domus, Via Cavour, Rome. Drawing: Shelly Smith Kellam; reproduced by permission of Elizabeth Bartman.

  91. Figure 4.3.4 Niche in house C119, Karanis, Egypt. Photograph: KM Negative # 816, Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, University of Michigan.

  92. Figure 4.4.1 Funerary relief of the Vettii. Rome, Via Po. Photograph: Neg. D-DAI-ROM 72.2938.

  93. Figure 4.4.2 Funerary altar of Carienius Venustus. Toronto, Royal Ontario Museum. Photograph: With permission of the Royal Ontario Museum © ROM.

  94. Figure 4.4.3 Funerary urn of Claudius Chryseros, Iulia Theonoe, and Claudia Dorcas from Rome, Via Appia, Vigna Codini, Tomb III. Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano. Photograph: Neg. D-DAI-ROM 74.245.

  95. (p. 686) Figure 4.4.4 Kline monument depicting a woman holding a garland. Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano. Photograph: Neg. D-DAI-ROM 80.2707.

  96. Figure 4.4.5 Sarcophagus with Amazonomachy. Toronto, Royal Ontario Museum. Photograph: With permission of the Royal Ontario Museum © ROM.

  97. Figure 4.5.1 Dedicatory inscription below niche in the north passageway of the amphitheater of Pompeii. Photograph: author.

  98. Figure 4.5.2 Dedication of Mazaeus from market gate at Ephesus. Photograph: author.

  99. Figure 4.5.3 Three of the four tituli on the large base dedicated by the aenatores at Rome. Photograph: author.

  100. Figure 4.5.4 Statue base for L. Licinius Primitivus from the Sacellum of the Augustales, Misenum. Photograph: author.

  101. Figure 4.7.1 Statue of Bacchus, from workshop VII.12.17/21, Pompeii. Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. Photograph: Alinari/Art Resource, New York.

  102. Figure 4.7.2 Front of the altar of the Vicus Aesculeti. Rome. Photograph: Koppermann, Neg. D-DAI-Rom 60.1472.

  103. Figure 4.7.3 Lar figure on the right side of the altar of the Vicus Aesculeti. Rome. Photograph: Michael Larvey.

  104. Figure 4.7.4 Cast of reliefs from the Monument of Eurysaces. Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome. Photograph: Singer, Neg. D-DAI-Rom 72.3819.

  105. Figure 4.7.5 Funerary stele of a shoemaker. Rome. Photograph: Rossa, Neg. D-DAI-Rom 77.1705.

  106. Figure 4.8.1 Greengrocer’s Relief. Ostia, Museo Ostiense. Photograph: Eve D’Ambra.

  107. Figure 4.8.2 Relief from the Basilica Aemilia, Punishment of Tarpeia. Rome, Antiquarium of the Roman Forum. Photograph: Eve D’Ambra.

  108. Figure 4.8.3 Doll of Crepereia Tryphaena. Rome, Musei Capitolini, Centrale Montemartini. Photograph: Roma, Musei Capitolini, Centrale Montemartini.

  109. Figure 4.8.4 Sleeping Hermaphrodite. Pompeii, Ufficio Scavi. Photograph: Francesca Tronchin.

  110. Figure 4.8.5 Warren Cup. British Museum. Photograph: © The Trustees of the British Museum.

  111. Figure 5.1.1 Detail of Cernunnos, Pillar of the Sailors. Paris, Musée National du Moyen Age—Musée de Cluny. Photograph: author.

  112. Figure 5.1.2 Cast of a Jupiter Column. Ladenburg, Lobdengau-Museum Ladenburg. Photograph: author.

  113. Figure 5.1.3 Tombstone of Insus the Treveran. Lancaster, Lancaster City Museum. Photograph: author.

  114. Figure 5.1.4 Tombstones of Victor and Regina. South Shields, Arbeia Roman Fort and Museum. Photograph: author.

  115. Figure 5.2.1 Minerva. Tarragona. Photograph: Carmen García Bueno.

  116. Figure 5.2.2 Warrior. Osuna. Photograph: Peter Whitte, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Abt. Madrid, D-DAI-MAD-WIT-R-052-93-01.

  117. Figure 5.2.3 Silver male portrait from Vaison. Photograph: Courtesy of the Musée archéologique Théo Desplans. Vaison-la-Romaine, France. Réference J. Sautel 2220.

  118. (p. 687) Figure 5.2.4 Aeneas group. Mérida. Drawing and Photographs: Courtesy of Trinidad Nogales.

  119. Figure 5.2.5 Stela from Adai. Photograph: Courtesy of Museo Provincial de Lugo.

  120. Figure 5.3.1 Saturn/Caelus from Hadrumetum. Photograph: Nathalie de Chaisemartin.

  121. Figure 5.3.2 Center of the pediment of the Temple of Genius Civitatis of Oea depicting turreted Fortune between Apollo and Minerva. Tripoli, Libya. Photograph: Nathalie de Chaisemartin.

  122. Figure 5.3.3 Portrait of Gordion I. Tunis, Musée du Bardo. Photograph: François Baratte.

  123. Figure 5.3.4 Portrait of a hunter from Sidi Ghrib. Carthage, Musée de Carthage. Photograph: François Baratte.

  124. Figure 5.3.5 Stela of Maghrawa (called Ghorfa). Tunis, Musée du Bardo. Photograph: François Baratte.

  125. Figure 5.4.1 The Epidauros Aphrodite. Athens, National Museum. Photograph: Walter Hege, Neg. D-DAI-ATH-Hege 1100.

  126. Figure 5.4.2 Attic Sarcophagus with Calydonian Boar Hunt. Patras. Athens, National Museum. Photograph: Neg. D-DAI-ATH-NM 450.

  127. Figure 5.4.3 Late antique portrait of prominent woman. Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki. Photograph: Makis Skiadaressis. Photoarchive ΑΓΜΕ: Museum of Casts of the University of Thessaloniki, no. 87A.

  128. Figure 5.4.4 Late antique portrait of prominent man. Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki. Photograph: Makis Skiadaressis. Photoarchive ΑΓΜΕ: Museum of Casts of the University of Thessaloniki, no. 133A.

  129. Figure 5.6.1 Statue of the Egyptian god Horus. London, British Museum. Photograph: © Trustees of the British Museum.

  130. Figure 5.6.2 Seated statue of Tesenuphis. Cairo, Egyptian Museum Photograph: After Graindor 1937, pl. lxi.a.

  131. Figure 5.6.3 Statue of a woman found at Asyut. Alexandria, Graeco-Roman Museum. Photograph: After Graindor 1937, pl. lv.

  132. Figure 5.6.4 Bronze head with glass inlaid eyes. Alexandria, Graeco-Roman Museum. Photograph: After Graindor 1937, pl. x.

  133. Figure 5.7.1 Distribution of Graeco-Roman marble sculpture in the Near East. Map: © Karl-Uwe Mahler, Mainz.

  134. Figure 5.7.2 Marble statue of flying Daidalos from the slope of the citadel in Philadelphia/Amman. Amman, Jordan Archaeological Museum. Photograph: © Dr. Mustafa Koçak, Mainz.

  135. Figure 5.7.3 Marble portrait of a Julio-Claudian prince, probably Germanicus, from Berytus. Courtesy of Dr. L. Bader, Beirut. Photograph: © Dr. Karl-Uwe Mahler, Mainz.

  136. Figure 5.7.4 Marble figurine of a gliding Nike/Victory from Ladhakiya, Syrian Laodikeia ad Mare. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Photograph: © Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna.

  137. Figure 5.7.5 Basalt statue of a gliding Nike/Victory from Philippopolis. Shahba, Museum. Photograph: © Thomas M. Weber.

  138. Figure 6.1.1 Lawrence Alma-Tadema, A Dealer in Statues / A Sculpture Gallery in Rome at the Time of Augustus (Opus XLIX). The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, purchase, the (p. 688) Horsley and Annie Townsend Bequest. Photograph: The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Denis Farley.

  139. Figure 6.1.2 Marble San Ildefonso Group. Madrid, Museo Nacional del Prado. Photograph: Museo Nacional del Prado/Art Resource, New York.

  140. Figure 6.1.3 Roman version of Praxiteles’s Apollo Sauroctonos. Paris, Louvre Museum. Photograph: author.

  141. Figure 6.2.1 The Tivoli General. Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme. Photograph: Faraglia, D-DAI-ROM 32.412.

  142. Figure 6.2.2 Relief, probably funerary, depicting chariot racing. Probably from Rome. Vatican City, Musei Vaticani: Museo Gregoriano Profano. Photograph: FA2208-02, www.arachne.uni-koeln.de.

  143. Figure 6.2.3 Sarcophagus depicting the revenge of Orestes. Tomba della Medusa, Rome. Vatican City, Musei Vaticani: Museo Gregoriano Profano. Photograph: FA S5709-01, www.arachne.uni-koeln.de.

  144. Figure 6.2.4 Funerary relief of the Servilii. Rome. Vatican City, Musei Vaticani: Museo Gregoriano Profano. Photograph: FA-S5722-01, www.arachne.uni-koeln.de.

  145. Figure 6.3.1 Pediment from Temple of Apollo Sosianus. Rome, Musei Capitolini, Centrale Montemartini. Photograph: Archivio Fotografico dei Musei Capitolini.

  146. Figure 6.3.2 Interior frieze from Temple of Apollo Sosianus. Rome, Musei Capitolini, Centrale Montemartini. Photograph: Singer, D-DAI-ROM 71.45.

  147. Figure 6.3.3 Base for statue of the athlete Pythokles by Polykleitos. Originally from Olympia; found in Templum Pacis, Rome. Museo Capitolini. Photograph: Archivio Fotografico dei Musei Capitolini.

  148. Figure 6.4.1 Wall painting. Villa of Ariadne, Castellammare di Stabia. Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. Photograph: Courtesy of the Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Napoli e Pompei. © Luigi Spina.

  149. Figure 6.4.2 Wall painting. House of Joseph II in Pompeii. Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. Photograph: Courtesy of the Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Napoli e Pompei. © Luigi Spina.

  150. Figure 6.4.3 Altar of the Vicomagistri. Vatican City, Vatican Museums, Museo Pio Clementino. Photograph: Vatican Museums.

  151. Figure 6.4.4 Denarius of L. Censorinus. 82 BC. Photograph: Courtesy of Collection De Nederlandsche Bank, Amsterdam.

  152. Figure 6.5.1 Terracotta plaque of a cult scene with maenads and a satyr bathing a herm. Paris, Louvre. Photograph: © RMN-Grand Palais/Art Resource, New York.

  153. Figure 6.6.1 Mutilated bronze statuette of Caligula. Antikenmuseum Basel und Sammlung Ludwig. Photograph: A. Voegelin.

  154. Figure 6.6.2 Reconstructed head of the cult statue of Zeus from Cyrene. Photograph: Courtesy of Donald White.