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date: 17 June 2019

(p. 689) Index

(p. 689) Index

abstraction, 215, 569
of form, 211–13, 215, 331, 457, 459–61, 515
in late antiquity, 212–13, 215, 217, 324, 329, 539
acrolithic, 262, 506, 525, 572
acroteria, 396, 529, 582
archaic, 228, 230, 231, 303
artistic depictions of, 639, 640, 647, color figure 6.4.1
action figures, 461–2
Adamklissi, Tropaeum of Trajan, 281
adhesives, 42, 150, 183
adornment of statues, 655–6
adventus, 279, 510
aediculae. See niches
aediculated façades, 94, 350, 351, 353, 354, 541, 548
Aegina, 32, 33, 182, 191
aegyptiaca, 307–19
Aegyptus. See Egypt
Aemilius Paullus, L., 141, 280, 303, 348, 628
Aeneas, 294, 426, 431, 509
in Forum of Augustus, 493, 594, 618, 627
group at Emerita (Mérida), 493, 494
aesthetics. See theories, of aesthetics
aesthetic sensibilities, Roman, 4, 125, 134–5, 150, 173–84, 238, 265, 270–71, 309, 314, 319, 324, 326, 332, 377–8, 384, 385, 396, 399, 401, 441–3, 445, 474, 495, 528, 557, 565, 571, 589–602
aesthetic value of statues, 13, 19, 22, 38, 46, 55, 56, 102, 150, 595, 630–31
Africa Proconsularis, 164, 504, 505, 506, 510, 511, 513, 515, 518, 577
agency, 618, 677
of dedicants, 368
of patrons, 614
of statues, 391, 560, 617–18, 673
of viewers, 611, 624
Agrippa, Marcus Vipsanius, 414, 415, 426, 578
Agrippina (mother of Nero), 23, 130, 221, 416, 417, 421, 424, 493
Alabanda, 350, 593
alabaster, 93, 96, 97, 181, 235, 237, 375, 492, 525, 564, 571, 581
Albani, 21, 23, 30, 246, 247, 296, 299, 456
Alexander the Great, 30–31, 35, 39, 150, 265, 348, 426, 554, 626
Alexandria, 118, 166, 190, 197, 199, 270, 308, 309, 386, 505, 524, 554, 557, 559, 562, 563, 564, 622, 641, 648
allegorical figures, 218–20, 278, 310, 454–5, 505, 609, 632
Alma-Tadema, Lawrence, 589–90, 601–602, color figure 6.1.1
altars, 279, 282, 311, 358–72, 384, 476, 477, 478, 489, 494, 509, 524, 528, 560, 561, 562, 582, 642, 657, 673, 674
Belvedere, 425, 642
collecting, 14, 23
contexts of, 362, 448
epigraphic formulae on, 361, 366, 417–18
funerary, 114, 118, 391–6, 402–403, 490
“of Domitius Ahenobarbus”, 276, 280, 285, 538
with Mercury, from Uley, 358–72
neighborhood, 393, 438
represented in art, 440, 639
sacrificial, 369, 440
of the Vicomagistri, 642, 643
of the Vicus Aesculeti, 439–45
Amazonomachy, 399, 400, 523, 628
Amazons, 21, 140, 303, 314, 381, 431, 515, 527, 542, 633, 642
Mattei type, 22, 248, 314
Sciarra type, 77, 81–2, 248, 314, color figure 1.5.1
(p. 690) Ammaedara (Haïdra), 369–71, 507, 512
amphitheaters as display context, 343–4, 355, 410–12, 507, 557, 646–7, 649
Anaglypha, 284, 285, 644, 649
anatomical (in)correctness, 168, 177, 237, 318, 331, 462–3, 473–6, 512, 597–8, 600–601
anatomical votives, 159–61, 365, 368
animals, 142, 159, 161, 162, 164, 166, 168, 278, 282, 309, 315, 344, 370, 455, 476, 490, 553, 649
sacrificial, 365, 370, 371, 440, 443, 657
Annia Regilla, nymphaeum at Olympia, 270, 429, 526
Antikythera shipwreck, 195, 196, 245
Antinous, 21, 22, 23, 36, 37, 41, 132, 314, 315, 317, 318, 498, 508–509, 526, 578, 599, 633
Antioch, 570, 573, 642, 644, 672
antiquities trade, 8, 31, 52–4, 59, 69, 140, 554, 561
Antoninus Pius, 266, 276, 351, 354, 417, 506, 510, 578, 663
Antony, Mark, 118, 128, 426, 611, 625, 662–3
Aphrodisias, 104, 120, 331, 353, 354, 403, 539–40, 545, 557, 647
in late antiquity, 104, 116, 323, 325, 326, 333–5, 386, 432, 539, 546, 577, 676, 677
marble from, 197, 269, 509, 525, 540, 542
Monument of Theodosius, 326, 327
portraits from, 118–19, 126, 327, 331, 386, 539, 545–6, 614–15, 677
as production center, 102, 323, 325, 326, 401, 403, 539, 546-7
quarries near, 104, 197, 525
reuse of statues at, 334–5
sculptors at, 114, 119, 190
sculptors from, 118–19, 176, 190, 191, 198, 297, 333–4, 506, 541, 577
Sebasteion, 265–6, 281, 431, 432, 477, 540, 642, 676
theater, 349, 353
workshops, 116, 126, 334
Zoilos Monument, 540, 541
Aphrodite, 67, 165, 194, 248, 252, 350, 351, 425, 527, 528, color figure 2.6.3
Anadyomene, 67, 430
of Knidos, 175, 248, 250, 633
Apis bull, 310, 311, 316, 557
Apollo, 21, 156, 228, 230, 252, 385, 409, 599, 600
Belvedere, 15, 22, 47, 51
Apollonios of Athens, 143, 240, 241
apotheosis, 219, 279, 390, 462
Appian, 236, 662
Apuleius, 424, 654
Ara Pacis Augustae, 82, 220, 235, 260, 277, 278, 280, 285, 425, 442, 455, 465, 609
“Ara Pietatis”, 282, 285
Arcesilaos, 117, 118, 190, 293, 296, 298, 299, 302, 645
arches, 124, 132, 183, 348, 425, 427, 443, 510
of Constantine, 123, 132, 276, 279, 283–4, 427, 428, 644, 670
of Septimius Severus, 235, 279, 437
of Titus, 235, 278, 281, 283, 616
archaeometry, 93, 94, 102–104, 197
archaism, 292–305, 309
architectural contexts, 279, 283, 343–55, 380, 543, 556, 627, 646
See also displays
architecture, depictions of, 283, 287, 343, 392, 548, 616
Aristogeiton, 253
armatures, 42, 110, 145, 252
Artemis, 22–3, 381, 409, 412, 413
art in Roman thought, 590, 631, 632
artists
ancient lists of, 522, 594–8, 600–601, 630–31
anonymity of, 157, 438, 473
depictions of, 114–15, 176–7
inspired by ancient statuary, 15, 16, 29, 30, 46, 47, 49, 70
specialization of, 145, 156–7, 176–7, 198, 250, 262, 299, 325–8, 596
art market
American, 53, 54, 56
in antiquity, 101, 141, 189, 194, 245, 293, 297, 313, 332, 380, 444, 631
eighteenth century, 31
Arval Brethren, 361, 365
Asclepius, 351, 489, 504, 507, 508, 523, 526, 623
Ashmolean Museum, 20, 63
Asklepieion, 244, 368, 371, 528
asylum at emperor portraits, 4, 424, 618, 663
Athena, 19, 31, 67, 142, 230, 294, 426, 508, 523, 525, 526, 570, 574, 591, 608, 626, 628, 631, 633
Athens, 44, 47, 57, 93, 108, 139, 217, 244, 254, 255, 497, 522, 523, 591
as center of artistic production, 98, 102, 116, 190, 195, 201, 401, 524, 525, 529
monument of Philopappus, 281, 529
sculptors from, 108, 117–18, 190, 201, 240, 252, 352
sculptures from, 130, 141, 195, 196, 201, 245, 401, 403, 526, 528, 529, 649
theater of Dionysos, 355, 526, 528
athletes, 117, 142, 240, 246, 247, 248, 254, 268, 294, 299, 300, 302, 351, 353, 379, 462, 525, 526, 594, 596, 599, 608, 630–31, 632, 641, 676
Atlas, 495, 640, 648
atrium as display context, 142, 151, 261, 267, 375, 376, 379, 380, 593
attachments, metal, 150, 181, 252, 493
Atticus (agent of Cicero), 196, 349, 379, 591–2
attributes, 38, 110, 141, 179, 182, 219, 220, 236, 248, 252, 267, 269, 271, 282, 329, 367, 392, 396, 398, 458, 459, 462, 506, 508, 513, 528, 559, 577, 645, 647, 656
Augustales, 428, 495, 656
shrine at Misenum, 6–7, 269, 369, 419, 428–9
Augustine, 417, 625
Augustus, 398, 662
Forum of, 117, 255, 314, 426, 614
portraits of, 22, 65, 82, 85, 111, 126, 129, 132, 133, 178, 182, 196, 219–20, 264–5, 286, 335, 413–14, 416, 493, 563, 610, 627, 673
Res Gestae, 425, 429, 625, 626
use of marble, 94, 97, 99
victory monument at Nikopolis, 281, 523, 524, 529
worship of, 220–21, 412
Aule Meteli, 233–4, 236
authenticity, 18, 27, 33, 34, 40, 54–5, 56, 315, 379, 552, 626
Bacchus, 34, 36, 37, 161, 248, 314, 351, 381, 383, 436, 437, 439, 443–4, 673
backs of statues, 65, 108–109, 125, 157, 318, 352–3, 355, 463
Baetica, 93, 487, 492, 493, 494, 497
Baiae, 63, 110, 118, 140, 252, 253, 382–3
barbarians, 181, 183, 221, 251, 287, 454–6, 510, 673
Barberini Faun, 18, 23, 51
Barbie-like dolls, 460–61
Barnum, P.T., 48
basalt, 23, 180, 251, 309, 525, 555, 570, 571, 581, 582
bases, 18, 29, 228, 263, 276, 284, 297, 345, 351, 353, 362, 380, 381, 384, 385, 397, 399, 427, 458, 478, 522, 525, 531, 557, 561, 582, 616, 639, 644, 646, 648, 675–6
reused, 127, 326, 332, 524, 545–6
bathing of statues, 654–6, 660
baths as display context, 98, 270, 345, 350, 351–3, 355, 506, 507, 508, 539, 540–41, 542, 594, 623, 629, 641
battle iconography, 18, 279, 280, 281, 478, 609, 630
Belvedere, 15–16, 17, 22, 29, 47, 51, 250, 425, 642
Beneventum, 282, 283, 284, 285, 310
Bes, 167, 168
Blue Grotto (Capri), 376, 382, 384
Borghese, 18, 22, 23, 32, 349, 456
Boscoreale, 61, 281–2, 648
Boston, 44–57, 60, 68
(p. 692) Britain, Roman, 161, 163, 190, 191, 270, 281, 358, 364, 431, 433, 471–83, 529, 640, 677
British Museum, 23, 31, 33, 34, 37, 65, 68, 70, 118, 160, 163, 165, 235, 299, 360, 464, 552–3, 557, 563, 565, 642, 673, 677
bronze, 14, 21, 22, 42, 46, 53, 61, 78, 110, 139–54, 177, 181, 182–4, 189, 191–2, 195–7, 201, 241, 252, 261, 272, 375, 379, 415, 436–7, 589, 640, 641, 642, 649, 654, 656, 670, 672, 673, color figure 2.6.4
ancient classifications of, 149–50, 182, 191
Etruscan, 224, 225, 227, 228–9, 231–4
production, 68, 144–50, 182–4, 229, 244–5, 595 (see also lost-wax casting)
in provinces, 492–3, 504, 505, 524, 525, 563–4, 571–2
scientific analyses of, 139, 150–51
Brutus, 21, 237, 661
bulla (amulet), 392, 393, 491, 615
Bulla Regia, 507–508, 509, 511, 512
Busta Fonseca, 266–7
busts, 17, 21, 22, 23, 34, 37, 46, 76, 78, 114, 116, 118, 126, 129, 132, 143–4, 151, 177, 193, 194, 195, 240–41, 266–7, 271, 447–8, 516, 526, 531–3, 557, 579, 582, 591, 615, 670–71, 677
as sculpture type, 63, 86, 139, 142, 161, 162, 163, 164, 261, 271, 311, 392, 394, 397, 424, 432, 458, 494, 507, 517, 529, 531–3, 554, 557, 561, 573, 574, 582
Caesar, Julius, 16, 94, 97, 413, 430, 475, 477, 626, 657, 662
Caligula, 124, 626
portraits of, 70, 82, 85, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129–30, 178, 493, 511, 526, 670–71, 672
Callimachus (sculptor), 595, 645
Calydonian Boar Hunt, 530–31
cameos, 61, 130, 218–21, 262, 308
Cancelleria reliefs, 22, 123, 134, 282, 285
candelabra, 98, 116, 151, 269, 393
Capitoline, 229–30, 656
as display context, 141, 153, 266, 347, 348, 623, 626
equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, 14–15, 150
Temple of Jupiter, 141, 224, 228, 230, 231, 303, 623, 626, 647, 660
Museums, 14, 21, 31, 33, 35, 59, 61, 63, 64, 70, 283, 589, 628
Capri, 376, 382, 384
captives, 111, 183, 220, 251, 510, 529, 640
Caracalla, 130, 183, 417, 420, 424, 427, 512, 556, 557, 560, 562–3, 670
Baths of, 17, 351–3, 594
Carthage, 280, 351, 386, 455, 506–17
carving techniques, 65, 108–112, 114, 124–34, 180, 192–3, 237, 250, 253, 262, 264, 323, 324, 473, 498, 514, 523, 525, 546, 548, 580
caryatids, 117, 244, 248, 255, 385, 493, 600, 633, 639, 640, 648
Cassiodorus, Variae, 343
Cassius Dio, 28, 349, 398, 426, 524, 657, 660, 662, 663, 671
casts, ancient, 110, 139–40, 145, 157, 199, 251–3, 299, 302, 506
casts, modern, 33, 37, 40, 45–57, 68, 74–5, 77, 78–9, 81–3, 86, 115, 242, 271, 282, 283, 446, 474
Cato, 141, 234, 303, 625
Catullus, 150
ceilings, 375, 639
cella, 363, 369, 562, 657, 658
Ceres, 140, 298, 303, 456, 506, 509, 511, 513
Cernunnos, 471–4, 478
chairs, seats, and stools, 65, 114, 116, 119, 128, 162, 163, 176, 219, 224, 304, 375, 555, color figure 6.1.1
chariots, 141, 227, 228, 229, 230, 234, 235, 236, 278, 287, 303, 513, 582, 608–609, 613, 646, 656
Cherchell, 250, 504, 505, 506, 508, 511, 515
children, 18, 20, 21, 28, 62, 114, 120, 132, 142, 151, 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 287, 364, 383, 393, 452, 460–61, 480, 509, 513, 517, 561, 563, 615
Chimaera, 229
Chiragan, 332, 386
chisels, 33, 68, 108–109, 125, 127–34, 193, 237, 263, 335
chlamys, 183, 331, 531
Christians, 324, 359, 361, 371, 401, 432, 513, 515, 658
chryselephantine statues, 175, 572
churches, 328, 518, 674, 676
Cicero, 19, 118, 141, 209, 225, 235, 349, 379, 591–4, 631
De Divinatione, 299, 632, 660
Epistulae ad Atticum, 196, 349, 379, 591–2, 632, 657
Epistulae ad familiares, 116, 349, 592, 632
In Verrem, 141, 625, 629, 654
circus, 347, 348, 425, 507, 513, 515, 608–609, 611, 613
Maximus, 141, 348, 608, 656
classicism, 143, 211, 215, 217, 219, 243, 246, 254, 255, 292, 296, 298, 304, 451, 455, 457, 458, 459, 465, 473, 505, 510, 541, 542, 600, 609–610, 642
Claudius, 221, 268, 383, 511, 671
portraits of, 125–6, 129–30, 281, 383, 416–17, 431, 462, 477, 493
clementia, 609, 662
Codex Theodosianus, 134, 664, 674
coffins, 529, 561, 570
coins, 33, 55, 63, 234, 277, 286, 358, 362, 365, 370, 395, 403, 424, 425, 427, 429, 480, 559, 562, 611, 626, 631, 657
depicting artworks, 219, 562, 638, 639, 642, 644, 645, 646, 647, 648, 649, 650
portraits on, 30, 61, 260, 262, 264, 266, 424, 429, 432, 458, 669, 670
collections, 13–24, 29, 44–57, 59–71, 142, 296, 379, 444, 505, 554, 622–34
Cologne, 162, 221, 454
colossal statues, 14, 17, 22, 126, 128, 132, 133–4, 153, 192, 263, 308, 329, 347, 353, 354, 424, 497, 507, 509, 511, 512, 525, 527, 528, 529, 541, 562–3, 572, 648, 668, 675–6
of Nero as sun god, 145, 153, 254, 427–8
Colosseum, 34, 343–4, 415, 428, 646–7, 649
colored stones, 93, 96, 99, 180–82, 184, 505, 525, 562, color figure 2.1.4
columns, 29, 94, 97, 100, 101, 102, 109, 140, 151, 248, 282, 307, 345, 349, 350, 351, 354, 375, 382, 417, 491, 494, 525, 557, 560, 563, 581, 595, 640, 657
Base of Antoninus Pius, 276
Jupiter, 473–4, 478–9, 673
of Marcus Aurelius, 126, 276, 286, 427
of Theodosius, 280, 281
of Trajan, 29, 113–14, 276, 281, 283, 284, 285, 287, 427, 445, 455
Cominius Abascantus, Q., 419–20, 428–9, 432, 654
Commodus, 17, 124, 271, 409, 417, 578
Concordia, 426, 458
“confession stelae”, 364–8
connoisseurship, 21, 23, 32, 56, 57, 245, 253, 313, 344, 385, 465, 506, 577, 594, 632
conservation, 27–42, 65, 68, 77, 79, 272, 377
Constans, 133
Constantina, 22
Constantine, 70, 133, 280, 328, 343, 390, 427–8, 543, 670
Arch of, 123, 132, 276, 279, 283, 284, 427–8, 644, 670
Constantinople, 195, 325, 328, 330, 518, 539, 543
Constantius II, 133, 141, 517
contrapposto, 246, 462, 641
Copenhagen, 19, 23, 24, 60, 67, 82, 132, 178, 226, 250, 263, 333, 397, 557
copies, 6, 32, 66, 67, 214, 240–56, 264, 293, 294, 296, 297, 299, 332, 344, 345, 376, 379, 442, 444, 457, 459, 493, 506, 511, 513, 522, 526–8, 531, 561, 562, 573, 574, 594, 631, 633, 642, 647, 650
creation of, 110–12, 139–40, 251–3, 264
of Egyptian originals, 308, 314
of monumental reliefs, 280, 455
or originals, 104
and polychromy, 82, 179-80, 269
terracotta, 162, 164
copper, 143, 144, 145, 150, 151, 182, 183, 191, 234, 552, 571
Corinth, 123, 141, 149, 182, 191, 245, 303, 331, 345, 385, 409, 523, 525, 527, 528, 529, 531, 533, 545, 631, 640
coroplasts, 155, 156, 157, 161–2, 164–5, 166, 303
Cossutii, 118, 299, 524
(p. 694) costs, 32, 49, 53, 55, 57, 64, 94, 96, 102, 103, 109, 116, 139, 153, 198, 249, 253–4, 269, 319, 368, 375, 401, 407, 408, 415, 420, 513, 522, 533, 543, 565, 592
specific ancient expenditures, 197, 403, 626
craftsmen, mobility of, 113–16, 189–91
craftsmen, as patrons, 346, 402, 403
craftsmen, specialization of, 116, 176, 198
Crepereia Tryphaena, 460–61
crowns. See diadems; wreaths
cuirass, 140, 178, 192, 247, 265, 267, 269, 286, 347, 424, 460, 507, 509, 511, 525, 526, 572, 577, 607–608
cults
domestic, 158, 161, 162, 167, 168, 261, 362, 375, 380, 385, 386, 410, 417, 436, 523–4, 562, 608, 642, 657
mystery, 371, 511
persecution of, 669, 673
See also altars; sanctuaries; temples; and names of deities
cultural heritage, 8, 21, 46, 76, 77, 81, 272, 328, 471, 543
cultural memory, 5, 134, 471, 522, 544, 668
cultus, 459, 655, 661
cupae, 494–5
curators, 32, 38, 56, 59, 60, 61, 65, 66, 68, 69, 78, 248
curse tablets, 358, 366
Cuspius, Caius, 410–12, 413, 417
Cybele, 509, 674
Dacians, 111–12, 194, 427, 455–6
Daidalos, 574, 576–7
damnatio memoriae, 5, 124, 125–7, 128–32, 153, 408, 417, 424, 617, 618, 668–73
of Domitian, 134, 152, 266, 285, 428, 669
of Geta, 417, 560–61, 670
databases, 69, 86, 103, 139, 181, 286, 409, 421, 473
data capture (3D), 75–9
decapitation, 479, 677
dedications, epigraphic evidence for, 407–21
See also inscriptions
dedications, religious, 4, 358–72, 430–31
See also altars; temples
Delos, 113, 116, 117, 149, 179, 182, 191, 245, 298, 462, 526
Delphi, 141, 182, 280, 363, 412, 544, 612, 659
derestoration, 33–4, 36, 38, 68
dextrarum iunctio, 393, 394, 397, 613
diadems, 110, 165, 182, 329, 511
Diadoumenos, 179, 240, 241, 247, 526
Diana, 19, 63, 118, 193, 311, 333, 497, 628, 642, 644, 657
digital models. See 3D digital images
Dio Chrysostom, 127, 545
Diocletian, 132, 565
Diodorus Siculus, 224, 462
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 224, 231, 294, 656–7, 659
Dionysos (deity), 18, 62, 151–2, 181, 184, 351, 383, 398, 401, 508, 523, 526, 641, 642, color figure 2.6.4
Dionysos, Aurelius (sculptor), 119–20
Dioscuri, 294, 412, 510, 517
Dirce, 17, 526
Discobolos (Diskobolos), 34, 51, 240, 247, 248, 249, 344, 379
displays, 63, 343–55, 425–89, 539, 543–5, 591–4, 622–34
cumulative, 7, 334, 343, 407–21, 623
domestic, 142, 374–87, 436, 443, 592, 608
religious, 358–72
See also specific building types
diversity of style, 214–18, 250
Dokimeion marble, 95, 97, 101, 102, 104, 116, 118, 181, 190, 193, 196, 197, 198, 201, 401, 509, 525, 529, 541, 542, 547, 548
dolls, 164, 460–62
Domitian, 124, 128, 130–31, 134, 152, 266, 285, 315, 417, 428, 669
Doryphoros, 140, 143, 240–41, 243, 247, 300, 351, 353, 524, 527, 599
drapery, 108, 253, 269, 283, 440, 455, 457, 552, 580, 615, 645
(p. 695) as chronological indicator, 5, 215, 285
concealing joins, 33, 109, 148
fragments, 118, 183, 299, 301, 563–4
polychromy on, 150, 175, 178–9, 181, 183
styles of, 215, 219, 228, 271, 292, 294, 512, 528, 582
Dresden, 19, 21, 30–41, 77, 84, 248, 272
drills and drilling, 108, 109, 114, 116, 124–5, 130, 132, 134, 177, 237, 540, 546
for geoscientific sampling, 103
as sign of forgery, 112
Drusus (brother of Tiberius), 221, 416, 627
Drusus (son of Tiberius), 497, 663
dualistic categories, 1, 27, 213–16, 436–49
Dying Gaul, 18, 21, 47, 104
dynastic groups, 124, 383, 412–18, 428, 511, 538
earthquakes, 153, 165, 266, 378, 410, 431, 443, 541, 658
eclecticism, 6, 142, 210, 213, 216, 218, 252, 276, 280, 292–305, 314, 377–8, 384, 438, 540, 593, 599, 633
Egypt, 6, 69, 93, 97, 98, 156, 166–9, 178, 180, 181, 197, 307–19, 386, 504, 507, 552–65, 570, 572, 577, 623, 663, 670, 673, 674, 676
sculptures from, 126, 168, 184, 270–71, 307, 308–13, 386, 552–65, 572, 630, color figure 2.6.4
Egyptian art, pre-Roman, 6, 23, 34, 35, 61, 209, 307, 308–13, 556, 670
Egyptian art, Roman-era, 69, 166–9, 307–19, 552–65
Egyptian blue, 178, 552
Egyptian-style art made in Italy, 307, 314, 315, 316–17
ekphrasis, 254, 596, 650
Elagabalus, 124
Emerita (Mérida), 255, 354–5, 493–4, 496, 497
emulation, 175, 216, 244, 254, 267, 314, 319, 394, 425, 430, 441, 455, 457, 462, 600
encaustic, 176, 178, 557
ensembles, sculptural, 22, 345, 346, 350, 354, 383–4, 385, 403, 426, 431, 438
Ephesos, 197, 199, 331, 351, 385–6, 420, 538, 539
as center of production, 113, 401, 540–41, 547
fountains, 350–51
quarries near, 101, 197, 199, 547
sculptors from, 114, 118, 297
sculptures from, 114, 331, 335, 413–15, 540–41, 544, 545, 546
Epicurus, 76, 77, 78
Epidauros, 363, 527–8
epigraphic formulae, 311, 361, 365, 366, 408–409, 415, 416, 481
Epona, 162, 477
equestrian statues and iconography, 14, 140–41, 150, 162, 165, 166, 167, 193, 196, 229, 272, 346, 347, 348, 428, 477, 478, 479–80, 525, 529, 595, 627, 646, 656
equestrian status, 213, 402, 403, 563
Erechtheion, 244, 248, 255, 314, 385, 633, 640
Eros, 151, 161, 162, 193, 383, 430, 431, 506, 509, 559, 564, 623
ethics, 8
ethnicity, 168, 212, 220, 224, 298, 475, 513, 569
ethnics (in signatures of artists), 297–8, 299, 300
Etruria, 144, 159, 160, 210, 224–38, 298, 309
Etruscan art, 59, 61, 62, 153, 159, 210, 211, 213, 216, 224–38, 280, 303, 347, 397, 462, 658
Etruscans, 190, 210, 213, 224–38, 303, 660
euergetism, 260, 330, 362, 661
Eumachia, 269, 455, 512
excavations, 20, 21, 22, 23, 33, 68, 98, 142, 271, 376, 377, 378, 436, 524, 541, 569
illegal, 8, 52, 69, 272
exchange, cross-cultural, 63, 210, 225, 482, 583
exhibitions, museum, 59–70, 272, 308, 670
Extispicium relief, 117, 286
eyes, inlaid, 65, 149, 150, 176, 181, 182, 183, 134, 302, 304, 556, 563
eyes, sculpted, 109, 124, 125, 132, 134, 150, 159, 177, 178, 263, 329, 331, 495, 610
façades, 94, 282, 350, 351, 353, 354, 399, 401, 528, 529, 539, 541, 548, 562, 640
faience, 197, 308
(p. 696) Farnese, 16–18, 22, 59, 351–3, 642, color figure 1.1.3
fasces, 224, 234, 235, 236, 442, 495
fauns, 18, 23, 33, 51, 251
Faustina the Elder, 268, 532
Faustina the Younger, 429, 497
Fayum, 166, 184, 386, 555, 557, 559, 560, 561
fercula, 629, 656
ficus Ruminalis, 644
fig leaves, 31, 48, 247
figurines, terracotta, 3, 155–8, 159, 162, 164–9, 227, 472, 641
flora and fauna, 269, 278, 396–7, 455, 515
footwear, 82, 127, 182, 234, 448
forgeries, 56, 112, 143, 552, 596
Fortuna, 162, 311, 509, 510, 527, 628, 647, 658–9, 660
Forum and fora, 113, 141, 294, 343, 346, 362, 425, 427, 456, 506, 507, 511, 629, 645, 661
of Augustus, 117, 255, 314, 426, 493, 594, 600, 614, 618, 627, 640
Boarium, 229, 230, 347, 348, 430, 431–2, 655, 670
as display context, 141, 279, 294, 343, 346, 419, 425, 429, 511, 593, 629
of Emerita (Mérida), 255, 493, 496
provincial, 350, 493, 495, 496, 497, 506, 511, 527, 529
Romanum, 141, 229, 284, 343, 346, 427, 454, 625, 630, 644, 647, 649, 662
fountains, 151, 343, 345, 350, 351, 376, 381, 428, 497, 507, 539, 541, 542, 661
freed slaves. See liberti
frontality, 39, 109, 161, 162, 427, 445, 453, 569, 618
Fronto, Cornelius, 423
funding of museums, 55, 60, 70
funerary altars. See altars, funerary
funerary monuments, 63, 69, 114, 362, 390–403, 540, 672
funerary reliefs, 23, 195, 237, 286, 392–3, 438, 452–4, 479, 480, 481, 482, 490, 495, 529, 559, 561, 615–16, 656
furniture, 114, 116, 195, 375, 376, 571, 657–8
See also chairs; table legs
Gaius, Institutes, 663
Galba, 662
Galerius, 280, 330, 529, 531
Gallia Lugdunensis, 471, 475, 478, 481
Gallia Narbonensis, 251, 472, 487–8, 492, 494, 495, 498
Gallic ensemble, 481
Gallienus, 132–3, 263
Ganymede, 30, 181, 251, 386, 509, 517, 630
gardens, 15, 142, 143, 261, 362, 374, 375, 376, 379, 380, 381, 397, 429, 591, 598, 639
garlands, 540, 582, 655, 663
funerary, 271, 393, 394, 396, 398, 403, 506, 548, 612
Gemma Augustea, 218–21, 286
gems, 33, 277, 308, 375, 595, 639, 642, 644
gender, 47–8, 132, 162, 390, 451–65, 477, 615, 655
genitals, 335, 432, 463, 464
genius loci, 269, 412, 429, 510, 511, 513, 654
Genius, imperial, 433, 439, 442
Gerasa (Jerash), 94, 166, 190, 572, 576, 578
Germania, 162, 471, 472, 475, 476, 478, 529
Germanicus, 23, 220, 221, 408, 425, 578, 677
gestures, 84, 141, 153, 240, 271, 347, 392, 393, 394, 397, 452, 462, 463, 526, 608–609, 613
Geta, 130, 417, 427, 560–61, 670
Getty Museum, 59, 61, 62, 68, 85, 151–2, 268, 272
gilding, 109, 149, 150, 173, 179, 181, 182, 183, 304, 311, 313, 565
glass, 61, 63, 150, 181, 182, 194, 308, 375, 436, 563, 571
gold, 150, 175, 179, 182, 183, 196, 303, 375, 430, 492, 572, 595, 655
Gordion I, 512
Gorgons, 269, 303, 393, 494
(p. 697) governors, 330, 331, 563, 625, 654, 664
Grand Tour, 21, 23, 31, 83
Granikos, 348, 425–6, 623
granite, 35, 93, 94, 96, 97, 189, 308, 309, 310–11, 313, 315, 492, 495, 557, 560, 562
Greece, 59, 63, 69, 93, 96, 104, 109, 114, 116, 143, 151, 164–5, 184, 210, 212, 522–34, 544, 574, 623, 632–3
influence on Rome, 139, 141, 217, 226, 240–56, 292–305, 538, 624–5, 641, 645–6
See also names of cities
Gregory of Nazianus, Orations, 664
grottoes, 376, 380, 382, 383–4, 594
gymnasia, 350, 353, 380, 525, 526, 540, 591–2, 593, 632
Hadrian, 70, 113, 123, 196, 211, 217, 251, 255, 285, 417, 418, 481, 497, 523, 526, 557, 560, 564, 632–3
portraits of, 23, 132, 133, 196, 263, 355, 412, 506, 511, 526, 563, 572, 578, 644
Hadrumetum, 371, 507, 508, 510, 511
hairstyles, 5, 65, 82, 108, 124, 127, 131, 177, 252, 264, 267, 294, 299, 302, 459, 531, 532, 557, 580, 655
Etruscan, 234, 236, 237
female, 131, 266, 267, 271, 429, 458, 459, 532, 655
of figurines, 162, 168, 460-61
imitating imperial fashions, 271, 429, 459, 512
male, 129, 130, 234, 236, 237, 246, 263, 300, 302, 545, 583
mellonenfrisur, 127–8, 532
nodus, 127–8, 176, 177
provincial, 162, 168, 271, 497, 512, 545, 583
recut, 127–8, 129, 130, 132, 133, 263, 326
and status, 114, 267, 459, 655
Harpocrates, 167, 168, 311, 560, 561, 563
haruspices, 644, 660
heads worked separately from bodies, 101–102, 109, 127, 130, 134, 148, 157, 164, 193, 262, 506
Hera, 219, 456, 525, 572
Herculaneum, 6, 22, 32, 51, 130, 142, 377, 384, 641, 648
Villa of the Papyri, 6–7, 22, 142–4, 148–9, 150–51, 240–42, 261, 300, 301, 376, 381, 464, 593, 632
Herculaneum Woman type, large, 70, 198, 250, 251, 268–9, 272, 429, 456–7, 512, 525, 528
Herculaneum Woman type, small, 70, 269, 272, 456, 512, 528, 558
Hercules (Heracles), 17, 19, 21, 22, 38, 150, 166, 228, 230, 231, 271, 303, 311, 347, 351–3, 366, 371, 381, 412, 430, 478, 491, 507, 513, 517, 523, 529, 572, 574, 582, 608, 642, 644–5, 654, 655, 657
hermaphrodites, 18, 22, 248, 381, 462–3, 464, 648
Hermathena, 591
Hermeros Aequitas, Numerius Lucius, 430–31, 432
Hermes, 139–40, 250, 412, 430, 526, 591, 593, 642
herms, 142, 143, 151–2, 191, 195, 261, 293, 294–6, 300, 313, 380, 381, 494, 509, 529, 592, 640, 654–5
portraits on, 128, 139, 142, 261, 381, 526, 593
Herodes Atticus, 264, 318, 429, 523, 526
See also Annia Regilla
Hestia, 252
heteronormativity, 451, 464
Hierapolis, 539, 541, 542, 547
hierarchies, 14, 94, 175, 272, 315, 326, 330, 353, 359, 369, 429, 432, 443, 445, 452, 454, 459, 477, 478, 516, 538, 611, 623
hieroglyphs, 35, 309–310, 311, 315
himation, 127, 177, 271, 331, 528, 532, 552
Hispaniae, 97, 100, 487–98
Historia Augusta, 424, 632–3, 663
historical reliefs. See reliefs, monumental
Hölscher, Tonio, 5, 214–15, 218, 282, 286, 444, 598
homosexuality, 464
Horace, 30, 145, 234
horti, 23, 63, 83, 271, 272, 294–6, 313, 314, 315, 375, 377
Horus, 311, 552–3, 559, 565
(p. 698) houses, 15, 116, 142, 151, 158, 161, 162, 163, 167, 168, 179, 229, 261, 267, 362, 374–87, 410, 417, 436, 438, 443, 493, 507, 523–4, 543, 562, 592, 593, 596, 608, 642, 657, 674
for the dead, 227, 392, 396, 530
named, 304, 377, 384, 385, 386, 428, 429, 436, 439, 443, 517, 630, 640, 641, 642, 648, 649
hybridity, 6, 27–8, 40, 123, 217, 396, 570
provincial, 217, 271, 473, 481, 491, 538, 583
Romano-Egyptian, 6, 166–8, 180, 270–71, 307–19, 553, 556, 559, 562
Hydrekdocheion, 350, 351
Hygeia, 351
iconoclasm, 5, 14, 326, 570, 601, 617, 667–80
iconography, 2, 218–21, 242, 264–7, 282, 608, 619
See also names of deities, individuals, motifs, and types
Idealplastik, 66, 240–59, 332, 346, 464, 522, 526, 594
imagines, 216, 227, 236, 260–61, 329, 375, 379, 393, 661–2, 664
imago clipeata, 271
imperator, 213, 220, 414, 416, 418, 662
inlay, 150, 173, 176, 181, 182, 183, 184, 302, 304, 375, 556, 571
in bronze, 65, 150, 182, 183, 234, 563, 571
glass, 150, 181, 182, 563
metal, 143, 150, 182, 234
inscriptions, 40, 98, 100, 102, 113, 134, 141, 143, 151, 157, 160, 190, 195, 197, 198, 234, 235, 246, 262, 264, 266, 270, 272, 276, 279, 280, 285, 297, 298, 315, 331–2, 333, 347, 362, 363, 364, 365–8, 390–91, 392, 393, 396, 397, 398, 402, 403, 407–21, 425, 428–9, 430, 437, 438, 439–41, 453–4, 456, 459, 471, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 487, 489, 491, 493, 507, 517, 554, 556, 557, 558, 560, 571, 579, 582, 612, 626, 627, 630–31, 632, 653, 654, 656, 663–4
AE (1904, 98), 414
CIG 3.6233, 191
CIL 1.2926, 628
CIL 1.613, 628
CIL 2.1180, 505
CIL 6.1066, 420
CIL 6.1281, 628
CIL 6.26410, 615
CIL 6.23083, 191
CIL 6.31338a, 420
CIL 6.33914, 447–8
CIL 6.40307, 415
CIL 6.40334, 415
CIL 6.40489, 413
CIL 10.858, 10.859, 410
CIL 14.4366, 14.4376, 14.4386, 418
IGBulg. 2.674, 190
reinscription, 127, 134, 428, 524, 546, 669, 672
SEG 4.106, 191
SEG 9.8, 664
See also epigraphy
iron, 42, 108, 109, 110, 148, 224, 595
Iron Age, 216, 236, 370, 475, 490
Iser, Wolfgang, 606–14
Isis, 85, 264, 308, 315, 316, 560, 561, 673
images of, 19, 85, 167, 168, 180, 310, 311–13, 315, 316, 526, 560, 646, color figure 1.5.4
shrines and temples of, 310, 311–13, 314, 315, 476, 560
Isola Sacra, 446, 454
Istanbul, 192, 280
Italica, 101, 489, 497
Iucundus, Lucius Caecilius, 261
ivory, 117, 173, 175, 180, 182, 196, 224, 299, 304, 308, 375, 426, 460–61, 571, 572, 623, 657, 662
Jauss, Hans Robert, 606–14
Jerome, 670, 674
Jerusalem, 426, 575, 616
jewelry, 182, 252, 267, 375, 395, 461, 480, 583, 655
Jews, 432, 570, 616, 630, 673
joins
bronze, 145, 147, 148–9, 151
marble, 33, 34, 42, 68, 109–110, 131, 148, 149, 131, 506
terracotta, 157
Josephus, 426, 572, 630
Julia Domna, 417, 432, 455, 512, 560, 572
Julian the Apostate, 664
Julio-Claudian dynastic groups, 124, 355, 383, 412, 413–14, 416–17, 511
(p. 699) Julius Caesar, 16, 94, 97, 413, 430, 475, 477, 626, 657, 662
Julius Obsequens, De Prodigiis, 660
Juno, 18, 219, 228, 347, 348, 351, 426, 432, 437, 478, 493, 656, 658, 659–60
Jupiter, 219, 232, 268, 386, 462, 477, 478, 479, 511
Capitoline, 141, 219, 224, 228, 230, 231, 233, 287, 303, 304, 432, 623, 626, 647, 660
Columns, 473–4, 478–9, 673
representations of, 19, 153, 228, 231, 232, 233, 299, 344, 506, 508, 623, 646, 656, 658
temples of, 141, 153, 224, 228, 230–31, 299, 303, 304, 343, 344, 348, 430, 623, 626, 646, 647, 660
Juvenal, 232
Kampen, Natalie, 439, 448, 452–6, 465, 474
Karanis, 386
kilns, 157, 162, 379, 497
kings, Egyptian, 309, 315, 318, 555
kings, Etruscan, 224, 225, 228, 303, 555
kings, Hellenistic, 104, 210, 217, 265, 280, 570, 577, 631
Kopienkritik, 1, 6, 80, 242–3, 294, 344, 345
korai, 179, 294–5, 300, color figure 2.6.3
See also caryatids
kore type, 456, 513, 558
Kritios, 140, 596
labels, in museums, 24, 38, 41, 63, 65–6, 68
lamps, 155, 166, 298, 311, 371, 553, 561–2, 564, 565
lamp stands, 375, 641
Lansdowne, 21, 38, 394, 644
Laocoön, 15, 17, 39, 47, 51, 78–9, 82–3, 589, color figure 6.1.1
lapis lazuli, 308–309, 552
lararia, 162, 375, 385, 646
lares, 393, 425, 439, 442, 445, 608, 642
Large Herculaneum Woman type, 70, 198, 250, 251, 268–9, 272, 429, 456–7, 512, 525, 528
laser scanning, 75–8, 272
late antiquity, 28, 109, 130, 134, 182, 217, 276, 280, 293, 313, 323–36, 343, 379, 385–6, 401, 432, 445, 510, 523, 531–3, 539, 543, 546, 554, 562, 572, 644, 664, 674–6
laws, 22, 45, 51–4
ancient, 98, 328, 659, 664, 674
lectisternia, 657–8
lead (metal), 42, 144, 145, 151, 182, 183, 191, 358
Leda, 386
legibility, 134–5, 179, 283, 442, 446
Lepidus, M. Aemilius, 141, 303
Leptis Magna, 432, 504, 506, 507, 508, 509, 511–12, 513
Arch of Septimius Severus, 235, 432, 455, 510, 670
libation holes, 396, 397
liberti, 213, 235–6, 237, 264, 267, 272, 393, 399, 439, 447–8, 459, 465, 473, 495, 615–16
ex ratio, 100
funerary monuments of, 391, 392–3, 395, 397, 396, 402–403, 481, 540, 615
as sculptors, 117–18, 120, 299
Licinii, Tomb of, 23, 63
lictors, 235, 278, 440, 442, 495
life masks, 148
lighting, 65, 74, 80, 83, 383–4, 553, 562
lime kilns, 379, 497, 557, 573
limestone, 101, 189, 190, 193, 201, 358, 369, 371, 491, 492, 505, 513, 515, 552, 553, 557, 560, 561, 564, 565, 573, 581, 582, 583
Lindos, 626
lituus, 224
Livy, 117, 141, 224, 225, 228, 230, 303, 346, 347, 348, 451, 454, 462, 624, 625, 656, 657, 658, 659, 660
lost-wax casting, 68, 140, 143, 145–9, 229, 245, 252, 302, 572
Louvre, 22, 23, 31, 47, 48, 60, 61, 64, 69, 70, 117, 139, 250, 280, 286, 299, 349, 508, 561, 571, 582, 600, 640, 642, 654, 655
Lucian, 120, 139, 175, 177, 254, 379, 596, 601
Lucius Caesar, 414–15
Lucius Verus, 22, 354, 417, 418, 497, 510, 511, 541, 578
ludi, 348, 656, 658
Ludovisi, 18, 250, 252
Lugdunum, 221, 481
(p. 700) Lupa (wolf and twins), 14, 21, 228–9, 395, 397, 497
Luxor, 552, 553, 559–60, 562
luxuria, 379, 592, 625, 642
Lydia, 101, 364, 365, 367
Lysippos, 150, 153, 209, 240, 246, 250, 299, 302, 347, 348, 426, 436, 444, 574, 594, 596, 598, 623, 630
Macrobius, 369
Mactar, 197, 509
maenads, 293, 294, 529, 655
magic, 311, 391, 393, 617
Magna Graecia, 159, 245, 293, 299, 303, 309, 645
Magna Mater, 646
Mahdia, 151–2, 194, 196, 245, 504
marble, 93–105, 107–20, 123–35, 189–202
Aphrodisian, 104, 191, 197, 269, 403, 509, 525, 540, 542
artistic properties of, 99, 110, 175, 177, 595
broccatello, 97, 492
Chemtou, 116, 505
compared to other materials, 61, 110, 140, 175, 177, 179, 181, 237, 396, 565
Dokimeion, 104, 116, 193, 197, 198, 201, 509, 525, 541, 542
exported, 96, 505, 529, 542, 547
extraction of, 99, 100, 102, 113
from Thasos, 96, 103, 197, 198, 199, 200, 525
imported, 97, 101, 177, 191, 197, 198, 199, 201, 251, 269, 313, 358, 495, 497, 498, 505, 507, 525, 541, 564, 570, 572, 573
in Roman thought, 97, 105, 175, 177, 565, 595
industry, 107, 112, 177, 547
Luna, 93, 94, 99, 101, 197, 316, 392, 495, 496
Parian, 96, 99, 117, 118, 178, 191, 197, 489, 497, 525, 528
pavonazzeto, 96, 97, 181, 193
Pentelic, 93, 96, 99, 103, 116, 118, 142, 191, 197, 198, 201, 489, 509, 525, 530, 531, 676
Proconnesian, 93, 97, 99, 101, 104, 193, 194, 197, 199, 505, 509, 510, 525
scientific analysis of, 7, 94, 102–104, 199, 525, 564
techniques of carving, 108–114, 124–5, 177, 180, 237, 253, 498, 525, 572
transport of, 94, 189, 191, 193–4, 196–7, 201, 493, 504, 506, 574
white, difficulty of identifying, 93, 102–104, 197
white, distribution of, 97, 99, 104, 177, 191, 197–8, 200, 505, 525
yards, 100, 113, 177, 334
See also quarries; and stone types
Marcus Aurelius, 124, 283–4, 423, 510
column of, 126, 276, 286, 427
equestrian statue of, 14, 150, 272
portraits of, 354, 417–18, 423, 497, 511, 541, 578, 644
marginalization, 3, 169, 211, 213, 243, 254, 287, 292, 293, 324, 345, 437, 439, 444, 449
marriage, 397, 415, 477, 613, 615
Mars, 18, 132, 248, 280, 311, 351, 477, 506, 509, 592, 614, 626, 627, 646
Marsyas, 77, 251, 542, 644–5, 647, 649
hanging, 181, 248
masculinity, 461–2
masks, 14, 148, 159, 163, 164, 165, 166, 226–7, 236, 260–1, 349, 375, 565, 582, 662, 669
mass-production, 3, 123, 155, 157, 169, 573
Mauretania, 183, 355, 504, 511, 513, 515
mausolea, 403, 505, 507, 517, 531
Maxentius, 133, 427, 428
Maximian, 132
Mazaeus, 414
measurement, 34, 47, 75, 272, 283
medallions, 114, 286, 511
Medusa, 489, 611, 612
memorabilia, 426, 622, 623, 627
Menelaos, 117, 118, 299, 300
Mercury (deity), 162, 248, 351, 358–60, 370–71, 430, 477, 478, 497, 508, 515, 516, 657
mercury (metal), 150, 183
Meroë, 65, 182, 563, 673
Messalina (wife of Claudius), 130, 383
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York), 38, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 66, 68, 78, 176
micro-stratigraphy, 3, 174
military, 116, 264, 277, 364, 402, 415, 417, 427, 473, 479, 487, 488, 495, 553, 562, 577, 608, 616
Mindia Matidia, 266, 269
Minerva, 76, 132, 161, 162, 183, 228, 230–31, 351, 477, 478, 489, 497, 510, 591, 646, 658
miniatures, 14, 15, 76, 227, 249, 332, 365, 394, 396, 397, 424, 458, 460, 561, 599, 642
Misenum, 6, 432–3, 654
Mithras and Mithraism, 371, 476, 559, 674
sacellum of the Augustales, 6–7, 269, 369, 419–20, 428–9
molds for sacrifical cakes, 433
monochromy, 175, 178, 640, 642
monoliths, 110, 181, 494
monumentum, 279, 390–91
mosaics, 174, 286, 308, 309, 326, 328, 374, 378, 380, 430, 453, 509, 638, 639, 640, 642, 648, 649
multiples, 67, 140, 145, 179, 240–56, 264, 350, 351, 413, 544, 561
multivalence, 66, 354, 378, 545
Mummius, Lucius, 123, 409
mummies, 69, 507, 556, 561, 565, 570
Munich, 15, 18, 23, 61, 68, 285
Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli, 17, 22, 59, 76, 78, 130, 143, 144, 148, 149, 151, 240, 241, 261, 352, 353, 437, 640, 641, 642, 648
Museo Nazionale Romano, 20, 59, 64, 66, 67, 68, 249, 265, 300, 301, 395, 398, 608
Muses, 20, 22, 349, 423, 507, 512, 515, 529, 540, 557, 592, 622, 628, 641
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 44, 45, 48, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 60, 68
Myron, 240, 247, 248, 249, 344, 379, 596, 598, 601, 630, 649
Narbonensis, 251, 472, 487–8, 492, 494, 495, 498
Narbonne, 487, 494, 495, 497
narratives, in relief, 266, 276, 278, 284, 427, 446, 452
naturalism, 175, 177, 182, 183, 212, 229, 324, 445, 473, 474, 577, 618
nature, 379, 381–2, 465, 595, 614, 641
Near East, 61, 69, 212, 226, 251, 564, 569–83
necropoleis, 228, 362, 399, 446, 454, 490, 554
Nemesis, 676
Neo-Attic styles, 116, 195, 214, 246, 292–305
neoclassicism, 21, 23, 32, 33, 44, 49
Roman, 473, 641
Neptune, 351, 384, 657, 662
Nero, 70, 124, 126, 128, 130, 150, 262, 410, 417, 424, 626, 630, 641, 646, 649, 662, 672
colossus of, 145, 153, 254, 427–8
other portraits of, 130, 416, 424, 431, 526, 672
Nerva, 131, 134, 285, 412, 418, 428
Nesiotes, 140, 596
niches, 18, 29, 76, 85, 101, 114–15, 167, 260, 270, 311, 345, 349, 351, 353, 380, 383, 384, 386, 396, 397, 410–11, 412, 413, 481, 507, 544, 553, 560, 561
Nike, 493, 527, 540, 579–81, 583, 631
Nikopolis, 281, 523, 524, 529
Nile, 97, 116, 308, 309, 563
statues of, 314, 564, 630, 633
Niobids, 542, 612, 628
North Africa, 114, 120, 225, 355, 364, 365, 366, 368, 386, 481, 504–21, 529, 676
nudity, 14, 47–8, 109–10, 148, 193, 347, 351, 432, 461–2, 464, 607, 641, 676
divine, 162, 268, 462, 464, 511, 525, 628, 641, 646
female, 162, 166, 167, 268, 462, 464, 528
heroic, 140, 236, 265, 268, 351, 424, 428, 431, 448, 461–2, 506, 511, 525–6, 607, 611
partial, 109, 265, 398–9, 424, 511, 525, 528, 608
Numidia, 97, 364, 505, 508, 510, 515, 518
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, 23–4, 59, 61, 62, 63, 67, 68, 82, 132, 178, 263, 571
Nydia, 49
nymphs, 77, 84, 117, 299, 632
nymphaea, 63, 270, 384, 429, 509, 526, 529, 542, 649
(p. 702) Nymphidia Monime, 419–20, 428–9
Nysa, 544
obelisks, 35, 39, 307, 310, 314–15, 515, 608
Octacilia Severa, 193
Octavia, 127–8, 425, 430, 511, 623
Octavia Claudia, 383
Octavian, 118, 264, 524, 540, 662–3
Oea, 506, 510
officinae, 113–16, 120, 496, 506
Olympia, 111, 118, 141, 217, 270, 363, 429, 525, 526, 572, 580, 631, 675
Omphalos Apollo, 252, 299, 302
onyx, 219, 375, 505
Oplontis, 375, 376, 381–2, 384, 387, 464
Orestes, 299, 300, 302, 598, 611–12
ornamenta, 245, 328, 419, 543, 592, 658
oscilla, 99, 375, 376, 493
Osuna, 488, 490
otium, 21, 593, 614
Ovid, 462, 601, 639, 655
Oxyrhynchus, 557, 561
paideia, 332, 465, 544, 545, 548
painters, 15, 28, 46, 176–7, 254, 589, 595, 597, 645, 650
painting, 23, 74, 99, 209, 230, 245, 254, 263, 269, 286, 308, 319, 558, 591, 593, 595, 596, 597, 598, 632
on sculpture, 75, 79, 82, 99, 109, 157, 173–84, 228, 287, 304, 313, 423, 427, 491, 552–3, 561, 565, color figures 1.5.1, 2.6.2, 2.6.3 (see also polychromy)
paintings, 18, 28, 30, 46, 51, 54, 166, 178, 182, 197, 234, 236, 254, 255, 277, 328, 329, 344, 362, 374, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 402, 426, 430, 462, 464, 557, 560, 561, 589–90, 596, 601–602, 618, 628, 629, 630, 631, 638–41, 648, 653, 662, 664, 670, color figures 1.1.3, 1.5.4, 6.1.1, 6.4.1, 6.4.2
palaces, 15, 16, 17, 21, 29, 31, 64, 374, 375, 377, 570, 623, 629, color figure 2.1.4
Palestine (Palaestina), 166, 530, 569, 570, 571, 574, 664, 676
Palestrina (Praeneste), 225, 226, 309
palaestra, 314, 351, 353, 632
palliata type, 512
Palmyra, 69, 94, 166, 271, 481, 570, 571, 572, 573, 576, 578, 582, 583
paludamentum, 130, 183
Pan, 32, 77, 84, 118, 299, 412, 426, 464, 523, 623
paradata, 81
Parentalia, 262, 428
Paris, 250, 285, 302, 471, 472, 475, 478, 640, 642, 654, 655
Parthenon, 33, 47, 76, 217, 219, 252, 522, 529, 674
Pasiteles, 110, 117, 190, 245–6, 293, 296, 298–302
Opera Nobilia, 117, 179, 246, 299, 596
school of, 246–7, 293, 299–302, 304
pastiche, 30, 32, 84, 250, 276, 282, 323, 326, 332
patinas, 40, 145, 149, 181, 182, 183–4, 640, color figure 2.6.4
patrician, 211, 213, 445
patronymics, 117, 297, 298, 299
pattern books, 179, 199
Pausanias, 297, 371, 409, 426, 522, 528, 633, 649
pavonazzeto, 96, 97, 181, 193, 194, 251
pedestals, 19, 114, 375, 380, 396, 439, 461, 561, 589, 600, 613, 641
See also bases
pedimental sculptures, 32, 33, 111, 123, 159, 217, 277, 303, 304, 396, 429, 510, 516, 527, 529, 580, 582, 628, 647
peltae, 375
pendants, 244, 248, 352–3, 380, 381, 385, 644
peplophoros, 18, 252, 384
peplos, 294, 579
Pergamon, 23, 97, 104, 164, 217, 245, 280, 368, 524, 538, 539, 542, 631
Perge, 6, 266, 270, 353, 412–13, 420, 429, 539, 542, 544, 546, 547
(p. 703) periodization, 211–15, 438, 543
See also style
peristyles as display context, 375, 380, 386, 591, 593
personifications, 220, 278, 282, 294, 308, 426, 452, 455, 457, 458, 477, 478, 509, 522, 527, 540, 541, 581, 642
Pertinax, 398
petrographic analysis, 102–104, 156
Petronius, 441–2, 631
Phaedrus, 596
Pheidias, 250, 426, 513, 572, 574, 596, 598, 623, 628, 630, 633, 642, 675
Philip the Arab, 193, 578
Philopappus, 281, 529
Philostratus, 196, 424, 663
photography, 63, 70, 74, 75, 77, 84, 103, 242, 277, 282, 283, 286, 376, 409, 638, 650, 677
Phrygia, 96, 97, 104, 116, 251, 181, 364, 365, 541
pietas, 394, 418–19, 432, 609
pigments, 7, 68, 82, 178–9, 552, 595
pilgrims, 368
Pillar of the Sailors, 471, 472, 478, 480
Piso, 408
Plancia Magna, 6, 266, 270, 353, 412–13, 420, 429
plaques, 162, 166, 229, 230, 368, 415, 459, 473, 474, 477, 525, 646, 655
plaster, 33, 36, 37, 46, 47, 49, 54, 78, 110, 139, 140, 145, 148, 157, 173, 175, 199, 242, 251–3, 271, 302, 506, 507, 554, 560, 561, 565
See also casts; stucco
plebeians and plebeian art, 117, 276, 439, 445
Pliny the Elder, 177, 209, 242, 297, 594–6, 597, 631
Naturalis historia, 349, 408, 426, 487, 591, 595, 596, 598, 625, 628, 629, 632
(book 34), 139, 140, 141, 144, 145, 149, 150, 153, 182, 183, 191, 225, 230, 241, 254, 270, 292, 346, 347, 349, 426, 524, 595, 596, 628, 655, 661
(book 35), 28, 110, 118, 140, 148, 176, 179, 190, 224, 228, 298, 299, 302, 303, 430, 595, 631
(book 36), 6, 110, 117, 118, 140, 179, 180, 190, 246, 294, 296, 299, 310, 426, 430, 524, 590, 595, 596, 628, 629, 645
Pliny the Younger, 141, 152, 266, 424, 632, 663, 669
plunder, 52, 141, 151, 195, 225, 245, 280, 293, 303–304, 409, 425, 570, 625–8, 673
ancient perspectives on, 303, 616, 624–6, 629–30, 633
images of, 280, 284, 495, 616
display of, 123, 235, 245, 347–9, 379, 409, 425, 426, 616, 622–34
Plutarch, 150, 176, 179, 182, 190, 228, 349, 451, 625, 654, 659
pointing, 111, 112, 251, 253, 264
polishing, 33, 36, 78, 99, 109, 113, 114, 148, 173, 177, 178, 179, 180, 182, 237, 525
Polybius, 236, 629–30, 662
polychromy, 3, 7, 68, 69–70, 74, 79, 82, 99, 109, 149–50, 173–84, 228, 229, 234, 269, 286–7, 309, 402, 423, 427, 491, 552, 561, 565, 571, 638, 640, 655, color figures 1.5.1, 1.5.4, 2.6.2, 2.6.3, 2.6.4, 6.4.2
Polycles, 117, 293, 298, 299
Polykleitos (Polyclitus), 140, 143, 179, 240, 241, 243, 250, 241, 444, 528, 596, 598, 599, 600, 601, 630, 631, 642
Polyphemus, 383, 649
pompa, 410, 656, 662
Pompeii, 22, 32, 49, 70, 116, 179, 261, 267, 269, 310, 313, 314, 353, 376–7, 384, 409, 410–11, 436–7, 438, 443, 455, 463, 464, 640, 641, 642, 648
Pompey, Sextus, 662–3
“Pompey’s pillar”, 563
Pompey the Great, 117, 349, 350, 629, 662
Pomponius Mela, 487
porphyry, 22, 97, 181–2, 193, 329, 330, 375, 492, 562
portability, 74, 189, 355, 375, 378, 562, 646, 655, 656–7, 658
porticoes, 255, 281, 299, 345, 347, 348, 349, 351, 355, 358, 363, 369, 375, 381, 382, 409, 419, 425, 431, 432, 493, 622, 623, 627, 628, 629, 632, 640
Portonaccio, 228, 230, 303
(p. 704) portraits, 1, 85–6, 110, 123–35, 140–41, 260–73, 329–32, 346–7, 391–3, 424–5, 457–9, 511–13, 525–6, 545–6, 557–9, 561, 577, 583, 618, 661–4, 669–73, 677
edible, 433
funerary, 63, 101, 114, 227, 236, 261, 271, 391, 392–3, 394, 397, 438, 447–8, 452, 459, 480–81, 497, 513, 517, 527, 531, 557, 559, 561, 573, 615, 672, 673
generic, of women, 250, 268, 269, 393, 452, 456–9, 460, 528
with idealized bodies, 101, 102, 127, 148, 250, 262, 268, 318, 347, 393, 429, 431, 448, 456, 459, 461–2, 526, 528, 607–608
numismatic, 30, 61, 260, 262, 264, 424, 458, 669, 670
unidentified, 114, 127–8, 129, 131, 132, 148, 149, 177, 237, 250, 266, 270–71, 330, 331, 381, 452–3, 492, 497, 514, 517, 526, 531–3, 559, 563, 578, 615, 672
See also busts; herms, portraits on; imagines; nudity; verism; wax, masks; and names of individuals
Portus, 100, 191
Poseidon, 196, 527, 531, 641, 645
Posidippus, 127–8, 130, 589, 649
Possessor, Sextus Iulius, 197, 505
Praeneste (Palestrina), 225, 226, 309
Praxiteles, 175, 176, 248, 250, 293, 296, 426, 436, 444, 595, 596, 598, 599–601, 623, 628, 630
Priapus, 463, 495, 561, 641
priests, 120, 168, 235, 236, 269, 315, 347, 362, 369, 410, 419, 428, 457, 461, 495, 516, 555, 556, 561, 627, 657, 659, 674
priestesses, 168, 236, 264, 413, 429, 456, 512, 515
Prima Porta Augustus, 22, 82, 85, 111, 178, 220, 286, 493, 546, 557
processions, 226, 229, 230, 234–6, 277, 278, 280, 283, 286, 347, 355, 369, 415, 491, 524, 609, 628–9, 648, 654, 655, 656–7, 662
See also ludi; pompa; triumphs
Procopius, 518
Propertius, 225
proplasmata, 110, 299, 302
Protogenes, 595, 630
Pseudo-Athlete, 462, 526
Pseudo-Lucian, 175
Pseudo-Menander, 127, 130
Psyche, 33, 162, 193, 383, 642
pudicitia, 393, 456, 512
Punta Epitaffio, 63, 376, 383
Pygmalion, 601, 639
quadrigae. See chariots
quality, 8, 15, 22, 30, 36, 44, 97, 102, 108, 109, 155, 156, 165, 176, 179, 180, 183, 189–90, 191, 198, 201, 210, 241, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 279, 280, 302, 304, 309, 310, 324, 326, 332, 378, 417, 423, 439, 473–5, 496, 497, 506, 507, 515, 522, 527, 532, 534, 539, 540, 542, 546, 547, 561, 564, 572, 579, 594, 597, 676
quarries, 93–105,