Abstract and Keywords
The retrospective styles of archaism and eclecticism, although often marginalized in scholarship, are central to an understanding of Roman sculpture, as they are part of a larger, second-century BC trend of the transfer to Rome of original Greek sculpture, as well as sculptural production in the capital by Greek artists. Eclecticism was a direct result of this influx of masses of looted and purchased Greek sculpture in multiple styles; archaism had a religious significance, conferring greater venerability on images of the gods, and may have been used to recall lost original cult statues. Three influential workshops, the schools of Polycles, Arcesilaos, and Pasiteles, are central to the development of archaizing and eclectic works. Though both styles appear in a range of materials, the extensive use of terracotta, the traditional material of the Italic past, marked these works, whose styles certainly evoked Greek cultural traditions, as specifically Roman.
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