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date: 17 May 2021

Abstract and Keywords

In modern Shiʿi intellectual history, Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusayn Ṭabāṭabāʾī (d. 1981) stands out as the most important and influential philosopher and exegete in the twentieth century. The chapter is divided into parts: the first an account detailing his career and the intellectual milieu in which he lived; the second an exposition of his philosophical ideas, showing that Ṭabāṭabāʾī (1) formulated a realist theory of epistemology to combat skepticism; (2) rehearsed the traditional ontological proof for the existence of God for the new-theology of post-war Shiʿi intellectual history; (3) went to great lengths to demonstrate how philosophy could contribute to a more rigorous theological response to modernity; (4) provided the philosophy of being, championed by Mullā Ṣadrā (d. 1635), with a new impetus by stressing above all else the rationalistic facet of the tradition; and (5) reoriented philosophy to augment theological positions articulated in response to the challenges of modernity.

Keywords: Ṭabāṭabāʾī, existence, Iran, Shiʿism, ḥikma, Qum, Najaf, seminary, modernity

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