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date: 30 March 2020

(p. 775) Index

(p. 775) Index

3/11 nuclear disaster, 558–559
9/11, 241, 383, 485, 492, 493, 497, 674, 681, 693, 707
Abe, Shinzo (Prime Minister, Japan), 156, 382, 762, 763, 767
Abenomics, 156
ABF. See Asian Bond Fund
abolition of slavery, 25
Abu Sayyaf insurgents, 472
acid deposition. See acid rain
Acid Deposition Monitory Network in East Asia (EANET), 651
acid rain, 643, 650–652, 655
Action Plan for the Protection, Management and Development of Marine and Coastal Environment of the Northwest Pacific Region (NOWPAP), 650
Afghanistan
Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD), 488
Central Asia, regional links, 263, 269, 276, 498–499
China-Russia-India Trilateral Foreign Ministerials (CIR), 769
failed state, 50
gas / oil access to Central Asia / TAPI, 247, 250, 496
Indian financial aid, 247
ISAF / NATO / US withdrawal, 257, 422, 498, 499, 635–636, 673
military intervention, 30, 36, 88, 377, 382–383, 400, 416–417, 483–484, 493–494, 673, 681
modernization of regional infrastructure, 250
NHRIs, 599
refugees, 622, 628, 635–637
SCO observer status (2012), 490, 710
South Asia Free Trade Area (SAFTA), 353
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC, 2007), 59n1, 489, 678, 681, 710
territorial disputes, 1945–2012, 533–534, 538
trade / economic indicators, 269, 272, 276, 338, 714
African Charter on Human and People’s Rights (1981, Banjul), 593
agriculture, 55, 154, 183–188, 191, 223, 224–225, 235, 242, 337, 361, 643, 656, 696, 711
machinery, agricultural, 336
Air-Sea Battle doctrine, 721, 729–731
(p. 776) Akayev, Askar Akayevich (overthrown First President, Kyrgyzstan), 244, 254, 484, 494
Albright, Madeleine (Secretary of State, US), 397, 430
alliance system, 670, 727, 731, 732, 742, 748, 752
American hegemony, 90, 120, 758
Amnesty International (AI), 593
anarchy, 12, 15, 26, 38, 45, 96, 102, 103, 104, 423
Andijan uprising (2005), 492, 494, 674–675
Anglo-American, 693, 695, 696, 698, 699
anti-access/area-denial (A2/AD) strategy (China), 519, 728–731
anticrisis fund, 246, 250
antidam campaigns (Thailand, Laos, and China), 647
antimilitarism, 72, 373, 578
anti-NATO, 673, 674
anti-Russian, 485
anti-Soviet, 482, 485
Apple (corporation), 350, 351, 355, 360
A.Q. Khan network, 506
Arab Charter on Human Rights, 593
Arab Emirates, 207, 334, 449, 549
Arab human rights system, 594
Arafura and Timor Seas Experts Forum, 646
arbitrageurs, 233
architecture (regional / security)
economic, 147, 150, 153, 156
global financial, 147, 287, 298
institutional, 8, 766
regional, 737–753, 760–766
Arctic, 596
Arihant (nuclear-powered submarine, India), 559
Armenia, 489–490
arms races, 11, 16, 29, 474, 719–724, 730, 732
ASEAN-Plus 3 (APT)
cf. APEC, 693
Asian Bond Markets Initiative, 291
China, 670, 676, 678, 680, 699, 752, 758
economic and security interests (multifunction), 670–671, 695, 709, 739
effectiveness, 759
financial regionalism, 218, 235, 236n6, 694
Macroeconomic Research Office, 148, 293, 306, 695, 148, 289, 290, 293–294, 297, 298, 306, 314, 320, 695
membership / establishment, 278, 694, 708–709
non-US-centric, 675, 708–709, 742, 743, 767
political development, 235, 555
ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), 40, 112, 126, 128, 385, 394, 436, 467, 539, 555, 667, 707, 722, 746, 750, 758 128, 385, 394, 397, 399, 436, 467–472, 475–476, 539, 555, 667–682, 740, 744–747, 758–759, 760, 763
ASEM Contingency Dialogue Mechanism for Emergent Economic and Financial Events, 293
Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD), 291, 488
Asian Bond Fund (ABF), 287, 291–292, 299
Asian Consultative Council (ACC), 294
Asian Currency Unit (ACU), 313, 315, 714
Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI: ADB’s affiliated think tank), 294
Asian financial crisis (AFC, 1997–98), 30, 34, 39, 82, 146–147, 151, 182, 199, 209, 217, 224–225, 231–237, 271, 277, 285–288, 291–297, 300, 307, 312–313, 316, 334–337, 394, 454, 596, 670, 677, 694, 703, 714
(p. 777) Asian Monetary Fund (AMF), 147, 148, 152, 153, 155, 287, 288, 295, 296, 298
proposal, 287
Asian Monetary Union (AMU), 313
Asian Regional Integration Center (ARIC), 226, 294, 330, 696
Asian region, characteristics
anticolonialist sentiment, 5
Asian uniqueness, 130
dramatic transitions, 4
economic asymmetries, 5–6
growth of exports / GDP ratio, 358, 364
increased economic capacity for military modernization, 7
informal organizational frameworks, 8
skeptical of human rights / human security concepts, 5
stability / economic dynamism, 81
transnational civic activism, 8
See also Asian values
Asian values, 37, 77, 114, 125, 130, 236, 456, 467, 595, 596, 598, 601, 602
imperialism, 596
Asia-Pacific
China, engagement, 378, 679, 743, 771
constructivism, 65–77
economic interdependence, 56–57, 153, 469, 678, 690, 692–699, 769
environment, 641
expansive / inclusive conception, 30, 48, 125, 296, 462, 468, 471, 753
FTAAP, 50, 278, 707, 748, 770
institutional development, 10, 50–56, 153, 277, 286, 294, 467, 667–683, 680–683, 766
nuclear security, 552
political-economic diversity, 282, 469
preference heterogeneity, 49–50, 769
security relations, 462, 467–468, 471–477, 668, 675–678, 680–683, 750
TPP, 153, 175, 675
US, engagement, 296, 376, 386, 471, 472, 667, 668, 675, 676, 679, 711, 743, 771
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC, 1989)
China, 164
consensus decision-making, 54, 709
East-Asian, 52
Eminent Persons Group, 54
energy, 555
environmental security, 648, 745, 751
FTAAP, 278
inclusivity, 48
infectious disease, 612, 613, 618
institutional competition, 10, 693, 697, 699, 770
great power support, 30, 40
Kuching Consensus (1990), 53
Manila Framework Group (MFG), 288
preference heterogeneity, 49–50
trade and investment liberalization (1993), 226, 454, 693, 697–699, 704, 707, 711, 739, 770
US engagement, 30, 711–712, 745, 766
voluntarism and open regionalism, 157n6, 233, 699, 711–712, 739
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Finance Ministers’ Meeting (APEC FMM), 286
Asia Pacific Fishery Commission, 644
Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, 641
Asia-Pacific security complex, 462
Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA), 275
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 10, 48, 83, 89, 110, 204, 217, 275, 282, 337, 463, 510, 539, 607, 630, 644, 667, 693
Charter, 474, 574, 575, 600, 708, 763
Charter, Article 23, 574
Charter, Article 26, 574
China Free Trade Agreement, 742
Community, 473, 474, 583n3
Comprehensive Investment Agreement (ACIA), 341
Defense Ministers Meeting-Plus (ADMM-Plus), 468, 667, 670, 676, 678
Economic Community, 52, 226, 227, 233, 234, 279, 574, 583, 708
(p. 778) Free Trade Area (AFTA), 52, 226, 227, 233, 234, 277, 279, 574, 694, 707, 708
Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AIHCR), 599, 602, 604
norms, 464, 466, 467
Plus 3 (see ASEAN-Plus 3 (APT))
Plus 5, 94, 292, 291, 292, 294, 299
Political-Security Community, 583
Regional Forum (see ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF))
ROK FTA, 234
Security Community, 583
Socio-Cultural Community, 583
Trade by Major Trading Partner Country/Region, 2010, 222
Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, 709
Vision 2020, 708
Way, 46, 53, 130, 297, 465, 467, 475, 555, 574, 616, 619
Wildlife Enforcement Network, 644
asylum seekers, 622, 628–630
asymmetric capabilities, 452, 728
athletic footwear industry, 355
atomic bombings, 371
Aung San Suu Kyi (Chairperson, General Secretary, National League for Democracy), 636
Australia
border disputes, 534–535
constructivism, 66
currency regimes, 309
East Asia Summit (EAS, 2005), 112, 278, 478n6, 670
energy resources, 550, 556, 580
foreign security relations, 376, 384, 474–475, 478n4, 680, 726, 740–745, 747, 750, 752, 758, 760–762, 771
human rights, 598
preference heterogeneity, 49
refugees, 629
regional economic integration, 286, 288, 300, 301, 337, 361, 678
trade / FTAs, 163, 207, 222, 226, 234–235, 277, 361, 478, 707, 709, 712–714, 770
Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), 157n8, 226, 236n3, 279, 768
US economic relations, 60n3, 695–697
US security relations, 30, 35, 87, 89, 676, 678, 737, 739, 765–766, 771
wider “East Asia”, 115, 149 (see also Australia: East Asia Summit)
authoritarianism, 33, 47, 50–54, 58, 110, 124, 128, 213, 228, 242, 253–256, 403–405, 446, 449, 463, 487, 491, 595, 601, 603, 722, 732
automobile industry, 224, 355
avian influenza. See highly pathogenic avian influenza
Ayeyawady-Chao Phraya-Mekong Economic Cooperation Strategy (ACMECS), 612
Azerbaijan, 251, 253, 354, 488–489, 536
Bahrain, 207, 604
Baker, James (US Secretary of State), 740, 769
Bakiyev, Kurmanbek (President of Kyrgyzstan, 2005–10), 255, 484, 486, 495
family, 255
Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline, 251
See also pipelines
balance of payments, 181, 208, 312, 318, 333, 341, 343n5, 714
balance of power, 29, 31, 58, 88, 90, 96, 100, 102–103, 120–121, 131, 182, 185, 188, 312, 371, 373–374, 387, 455, 469–472, 496, 636, 752, 759, 761, 764, 766, 770
Bali bombing (October 2002), 472, 708
Bali Concord II, 583, 708
ballistic missile defense (BMD), 381–382
Bangalore, 271
Bangkok, Thailand, 510, 575, 595–596, 599
Bank for International Settlements, 287
Bank of Korea, 199, 202, 210, 211
Bank of Tokyo, 153
Basel Committee, 153, 300
Basic Defense Force (BDF), Japan, 380–381
Basic Policy on National Defense (Japan). See Japan
Bay of Bengal, 275, 417, 535, 536, 632
Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC), 275, 583
Beijing Consensus model, 189
Belarus, 249, 250, 276, 484, 489, 490, 540
Belgrade, Yugoslavia (US Bombing, Chinese embassy), 393, 402
Belorussia, 507
Best Alternative to Negotiated Agreement (BATNA), 189, 190, 192, 194, 196
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP, India), 420
Bhutan, 59, 263, 276, 282, 353, 534, 541, 619, 645, 710, 714
bilateral alliances, 8, 10, 30, 87, 668, 740, 742, 748, 752, 753, 758, 760, 763, 766, 770
bilateral investment treaties (BITs), 8, 329, 337, 339–342
bilateralism, 30, 45, 131, 225–226, 397, 711, 714, 741–742, 748, 753
bipolar systems, 29, 33, 67, 85–86, 92–93, 203, 213, 530, 537, 573
re-emergence, 393, 400, 759, 770
Bishkek (Kyrgyz Republic), 254, 397
Bismarck, Otto von (first Chancellor, Germany), 393, 646
Blue House (executive office, official residence of president, ROK), 441, 446, 449, 451
boat people, 629–632, 634–636
Bogor Declaration (1994), 53
Bogor Goals, 712
Booz Allen Hamilton (US company), 559
Boutros-Ghali, Boutros, 669
Brazil, 35, 171, 182, 185, 186, 189, 191, 195, 421, 507, 512, 769
Bretton Woods system, 146, 164, 307, 310, 578
institutions, 146
Brezhnev, Leonid Ilyich (General Secretary, USSR, 1964–82), 405
BRIC countries, 35, 184, 188, 195
South Africa summit, 196
British Crown, 422
British / European tradition, 227
British Virgin Islands, 255, 343
Buddhism, 473, 598
bureaucracy, 125, 155, 184, 405, 407, 696, 698
Burma, 47, 53, 59, 274, 337, 466, 467, 535, 538, 564, 632
refugee crises, 622
See also Myanmar
Bush, George H. W. (President, US, 1989–93), 86
administration, 142, 397, 429, 740
Bush, George W. (President, US, 2001–09), 377, 378, 398, 434–435, 472, 680, 693, 766
administration, 30, 87, 149, 312, 397, 434–435, 711, 712, 740, 745, 764–766
C4ISR (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance), 505, 519
CA Union (Central Asia), 488
Cam Ranh Bay naval base, 35
Cambodia, 49, 53, 82, 89, 220, 236, 270, 274, 276, 280, 282, 337, 353, 385, 400, 413, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 474, 478, 533–535, 539–540, 569, 614, 619, 622, 629, 631, 645, 648, 709, 760
Canada, 49, 55, 133, 157, 163, 182, 195, 207, 236, 279, 475, 550, 580, 593, 629, 712, 714
Canberra, Australia, 745, 765, 767
Cancun Ministerial, World Trade Organization, 183
Caribbean, 329
Caspian pipeline politics, 251
Caspian Sea, 251, 536, 547, 648
(p. 780) Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), 741, 759, 765, 767, 769
Central Asia
available research, regional international society, 73, 102, 114
economic liberalization, 244, 256
economy / trade relations, 59, 82, 92, 93, 146, 163, 206, 211–213, 241–257, 263, 266–277, 276–278, 307–309, 319, 338, 340, 353–354, 364n17, 394, 422, 481–499, 554, 556, 580, 710
energy resources, 27, 145, 163, 206, 213, 244, 245, 247, 250–253, 255, 271–272, 281, 338, 481–499, 547, 549, 554, 559, 579
environment, 643–646, 648
financial institutions, 253–254
human rights, 5, 600–603
informal power networks, 487
institutional developments, 670–671 (see also Shanghai Cooperation Organization)
internal state security, 5, 67
labor migration, 246
nuclear capacity, 510, 552
political structures, 50, 92, 242, 319
pro-integration rhetoric, 249
security relations / strategies, 9, 27, 57, 73, 89, 246, 249, 257, 379, 394, 397–400, 481–499, 560, 563n1, 668, 673–683, 737 (see also Great Game)
Soviet Union, 104, 109, 242, 307, 481, 540, 667, 669
territorial disputes, 248, 527, 540
Central Asian scholars, 253
war on terror, 27
Central Asian Cooperation Organization (CACO), 488, 671
Central Asian Economic Cooperation (CAEC), 488, 671
Central Asian Nuclear Weapons Free Zone (CANWFZ), 488, 510
Central Asian Regional Economic Cooperation Initiative (CAREC), 246, 249
century of Asia, 26
century of humiliation, 107, 165
Ceylon (Sri Lanka), 274. See also Sri Lanka
chaebols (global conglomerates, ROK), 209, 212
chemical industries, 202–203
rare earth elements, 583n8
chemical weapons, 68
Chen Shui-bian (President, ROC, 2000–08), 90, 91, 96, 396, 550, 559
Chiang Kai-shek (Chairman, National Government of China: Taiwan), 744
Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI), 10, 52, 53, 148, 152, 155, 167, 210, 235, 236, 287, 288, 289, 293–298, 300, 306, 453, 555, 694–695, 709, 713, 750
Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization (CMIM), 235–236, 289, 290, 294, 297–301, 306, 314, 316, 320, 694, 695, 699
Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization Precautionary Line (CMIM-PL), 290, 298
child labor, 244
China (People’s Republic of China: PRC)
APT, 670, 676, 678, 680, 699, 752, 758
boycott, Japanese goods, 7
engineering, 48, 356
Fisheries Bureau, 405
foreign economic integration, 161–164
global economy, 34, 94–95, 160–173, 176n8, 263
growth, 41
insecure / fragile leadership, 6, 392, 401
Indonesia, 33, 474, 549, 598
Malaysia, 33, 89, 94–95, 273, 361, 396, 712–713, 719
(p. 781) navy and coast guard, 35, 396
neoimperialism, 163
Patriotic Education Campaign, 395, 402
peaceful rise, 35, 111, 130, 392, 401, 407, 470
policy, 100, 160, 174, 404, 581
Politburo, 96, 393, 404, 405, 407
post-Mao, 58, 165
pre-Communist, 174
protection, sea and land routes, 6
reform and opening, 4, 111, 113, 161, 401, 442 (see also gaige kaifang)
ROK, 35, 38, 57, 204–206, 211, 213, 274, 399, 403, 557, 559, 732
School of IRT, 124
Sino-American normalization of relations (1979), 9
sovereignty, 32, 538
thinking, 100
Twelfth Five Year Plan, 357, 550
warring states period (770–221 B.C.), 102–103
World Order, 124
writing, 100
China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, 576
China Export-Import Bank, 246
“China Model”, 176n3
China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), 579
China National Petroleum Company, 246, 579
China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation (Sinopec), 579
China-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), 697, 699
China-centric, 680
See also Sino-centric
China-Russia-India Trilateral Foreign Ministerials (CIR), 769
Chinese Academy of Sciences, 655
Chinese Communist Party (CCP), 170, 172, 392, 400–406
Leading Small Groups, 404
Chinese policy. See China: policy
Christianity, 104, 634
Chun, Doo-whan (Prime Minister, ROK, 1981–88), 208
Civil Liberties Commissioners, 597
civil society, 16, 100, 168, 187, 188, 446, 597, 598, 599, 619, 642
civil war, 107, 245, 446, 463, 485, 622, 626, 627, 637
civilization, 65, 102, 103, 104, 105, 108, 109, 129
CJK governments (China, Japan, and ROK), 112, 278, 279, 339, 341, 569, 576, 577, 610, 693, 697, 744, 750
Classical realism, 26, 33, 36, 40–41
climate change, 265, 280, 282, 420, 552, 561, 649, 749
Clinton, Bill (President, US, 1993–2001), 88, 398, 765
Clinton administration, 90–91, 397, 434, 740, 764
Clinton, Hillary (Secretary of State, US), 31, 399, 758, 760, 763, 765, 769
Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (Hong Kong–China), 343n3
club goods, 180, 191–194, 196n14, 706
CO2 levels, 561
CO2 reduction goals, 553, 561
Cold War
balance of power, 29
bipolar international system, 29, 33, 67, 85–86, 92–93, 203, 213, 250, 517, 530, 532, 537, 573 (see also bipolar systems)
(p. 782) China, communism, 90, 92, 94, 109, 111, 375–376, 393, 397, 435, 537, 669, 679, 728–731, 739, 748, 768
conflict, higher frequency, 82–85
decline / end, 13, 31, 67, 110, 111–113, 204, 227, 381, 411–412, 419, 448, 508, 515, 517, 530, 537, 570, 645, 650, 667–668, 673, 690, 703, 708, 714, 740
DPRK, 435
era’s major hot wars, Korea; Indochina, 4, 82
human rights institutions, 592, 594, 597, 600
India / Pakistan security, 413, 418–419, 515, 517, 532,
international society, 102, 110
IR scholars, 27
Japan, 379
realist research, 51, 67–68
re-emergence, 393, 400, 759, 770
regional institutions, 112, 667, 678, 741, 748–750
refugees, 629, 633
resource security (“energy cold war”), 562
ROK, 448, 450, 452
Southeast Asia, 462–477
Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), 483, 488, 490, 491, 494, 498, 671, 679
Colombia, 207, 557
Colombo, 595
colonization, 105, 525
Columbia Pictures Entertainment. See Sony
Columbia Pictures logo, 332
commercial peace, 53, 54, 56–57
Common Economic Space (CES), 266, 488, 489
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), 244, 490
Common Effective Preferential Tariffs for the ASEAN Free Trade Area (CEPT-AFTA), 574
Communism, 25, 87, 92, 110, 230, 236, 374, 375, 402, 481, 485, 671
Communist regime, 175, 635
community building, 46, 574, 758, 759, 760, 762, 764, 770
competence power, 468, 682
competitive structures, 15
Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement in East Asia (CEPAE / CEPEA), 278, 713
Comprehensive Plan of Action for Indochinese Refugees (CPA), 622, 629, 630, 631, 634
“Comprehensive Strategy for the Rebirth of Japan” (Noda cabinet, 2012), 149
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), 420
Confucian culture, 114
Confucianism, 76, 439, 591
Congress Party (India), 415, 416, 420
constitutive localization, 131
constraint-provocation paradox, 514
constructive engagement, 467, 675
constructivism, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 122, 126, 127, 133, 134, 373, 446
conventional, 69
Consumer Union of Japan, 154
containment, 26, 35, 36, 110, 132, 165, 167, 393, 403, 464, 470–471, 478n9, 507, 520, 646, 675–676, 738, 743, 761, 768, 771
disease 606, 609, 614–618
Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD, 1965), 592, 597
Convention on the Law of the Sea, 398, 542
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948), 592
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951), 623
Cooperation and Conflict over Disputed Territory by Region, 1945–2000 (global), 528
cooperation and coordination, 435, 740 See also minjok kongjo
(p. 783) cooperation, minilateral, 703, 704, 712, 714, 715, 758, 759
Coral Triangle Initiative, 644, 646
Core Group, 745, 747, 748
Cornell University, 90
corruption, 154, 245, 249, 255, 257, 656
Corruption Perception Index, 183
cosmopolitan, 15, 412, 722
Costa Rica, 226
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, 354
Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific (CSCAP), 436, 750
counterbalancing, 86, 88–89, 97, 214, 714
crisis management, 33, 141, 146, 147, 150, 393, 403, 404, 732
cross-border cooperation, 610, 612
cross-border production networks, 11, 52, 57, 318
magnification effect, 359
Cuba, 83
Cultural Revolution (China), 111, 739
Customs Union, 249, 250, 256, 488, 489, 714
Daewoo (corporation, South Korea), 212
Dai, Bingguo, 404, 406
Dalai Lama, 398, 414
debt, 156, 162, 166, 182, 202, 208, 209, 212, 219, 288, 292, 314, 319, 336, 438, 767
debt relief, 182
Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, 591
decolonization, 4, 101, 102, 104, 105, 109, 110, 412, 413, 525
decoupling, 7, 217–220, 281, 359
cf. globalization; international production networks
deep engagement, 30, 469, 470
See also enmeshment
defense dominance, 720, 721, 730, 731
Defense Policy Review Initiative (DPRI, US), 87, 383–384
deindustrialization, 211, 242, 272
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), 433, 435, 438, 441
democracy, 30, 36, 77, 101, 110, 114, 130, 374, 440, 446, 455, 473, 491, 573, 589, 629, 636, 767
key driving idea of modernity, 36
Democratic Liberal Party (DLP, ROK), 208
Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ), 154–155, 380, 382, 384, 761
democratic peace, 50, 56, 59, 121, 722
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK; North Korea)
Cheonan (ROKNS, corvette, ROK, sinking 2010), 399, 453, 542, 761, 762, 765, 768
collapse, anticipated, 427–428
conflict / border disputes, 453, 532, 534–536, 538, 542, 543, 544n3, n5 (see also Yeonpyeong Island)
Constitution, 435
economic non-integration, 7, 47, 59
foreign security, 58, 85, 87, 88, 93, 96, 317–318, 374, 377–378, 381, 386, 395, 399, 427–443, 446–459, 576, 594, 668, 678, 722, 740, 745, 747, 762, 764, 768
hereditary Communist dictatorship, 429
human rights, 603
liberal IR, 47
nuclear program, 7, 11, 27, 30, 35, 90, 383–384, 395, 427, 434–435, 452–453, 505–508, 510, 515, 518, 520, 751
Politburo, 431
preference heterogeneity, 50
refugees, 451, 622, 624–625, 627, 629, 634–635, 637, 638n8
Six-Party Talks (SPT), 740, 745–746, 747, 751, 763, 765
Taepodong -1, -2 ballistic missile launches (1998), 377, 761, 764
trade / economic relations, 206, 268, 340, 437–438, 453–454
Unha missile, 761
(p. 784) democratization, 127, 130, 131, 143, 208, 213, 228, 230, 232, 407, 448, 450, 458, 459, 467, 474, 493, 494, 597, 636, 637, 732
demonstrations, 395, 401, 402, 407, 450, 451, 538
Deng, Xiaoping (Chairman, Central Advisory Commission, Communist Party, China, 1982–87), 94, 95, 111, 161, 164–166, 169, 393, 397, 401, 402, 405, 406, 442, 465
nanxun (Deng, Xiaoping’s “Southern Tour”), 169
Denmark, 49, 553
denuclearization, 394, 439, 442, 443, 454, 483, 484, 740, 745, 751, 765
Department of Logistics, US Pentagon, 255
deprovincialization, 123, 131, 133, 134
destabilizing peace of Versailles (1870–1945), 37
deterrence, 15, 67, 91, 375, 377, 415, 417, 434–436, 452–455, 471, 506–519, 675, 713, 721–726, 730–731, 769
deterrence model, spiral model, 721
Development Bank of Kazakhstan, 579
developmental regionalism, 234, 694
Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands. See Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands
digital media, 402
diminution of great power wars, 25
Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM), 54, 184
Djibouti, 385
Doha Round, 151, 185–186, 191, 194, 711
Dokdo/Takeshima Islands, 274, 451, 455, 535, 541, 581, 647, 719, 765
double-counting problem, 359
DPRK (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea). See DPRK
drugs trafficking, 487
Dubai Dialogue, 655
Dulles, John Foster, 744, 761
Dushanbe, Tajikistan, 254, 674
Dushanbe-Chanak road, 254
Dushanbe Declaration (2000), 674
Dutch disease, 357
Dutch East India Company, 266
Duty Free Tariff Preference Scheme, 191
Dynamic Defense Force (DDF), 381, 386
earthquake. See environmental damage
East Asia Forest Law Enforcement and Governance, 644
East Asia
nationalist predicament, 37
East Asian trade development
language proficiency, 280
East Asia Summit (EAS)
East Asian Economic Caucus, 740, 746, 748
East Asian Free Trade Area (EAFTA), 235, 278
East Asian Strategy Initiative (EASI), 86
East China Seas, 35, 82, 274, 378, 395, 400, 535, 557, 562, 569, 580, 646, 725, 737
East Germany, 635
East Pakistan, 416, 632
Eastern Europe, 33, 48, 401, 450, 644, 671
economic asymmetries, 5, 6, 15, 18
economic cooperation, 38, 39, 47, 55, 143, 149, 192, 207, 218, 241, 243, 247–250, 256, 277, 282, 337, 349, 420, 437–439, 575, 580, 677, 710, 712, 716
Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), 488, 489
economic diplomacy, 141, 146, 150, 151, 152, 155
(p. 785) economic integration, 6, 7, 15, 39, 47, 55, 59, 125, 143, 148, 153, 156, 163–168, 172, 206, 230, 247–248, 267, 294, 318, 342, 349, 352, 358, 573, 574, 693, 709, 713
original sin, 310
economic interdependence, 453, 573
Economic Planning Board (ROK), 202
economic policy, preferences, Asia-Pacific, 49
economic reform, 7, 50, 156, 166, 201, 217, 218, 223, 224, 225, 244, 253, 271, 277, 280, 333, 379, 420, 442, 485, 538
Economic Review and Policy Dialogue (ERPD), 293, 294
economic shifts, 217, 218
Egypt, 413, 714
Eighteen Nation Disarmament Conference (Geneva, 1962–68), 415
empire, 103, 105, 106, 107, 108, 120, 412, 422, 538, 624, 739
endaka (era of the rampaging yen, 1983–85), 331
energy security, 251, 252, 265, 282, 449–463, 569, 576, 580, 582, 710
energy security, 457, 554, 580
nengyuan anquan, 563n3
English East India Company, 266
English School, 66, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 115, 464
Enlightenment rationalism and universalism, 129
enmeshment, 9, 11, 57, 83, 146, 172–173, 192, 352, 413, 463, 470–471, 598, 760
entrepôt, 245, 270, 358, 359, 696
environment
protests, 647
regionalism, informal / nonbinding, 644
Environmental Center for Central Asia, 644
environmental change, 642, 652, 656
environmental damage, 487
damming of rivers, overfishing, 643
deforestation, 643, 647
earthquake, 384
famines, 634
haze, 643, 650, 655
soil degradation, 643
Triple Disaster (March 2011: earthquake, tsunami, nuclear crisis, 143
tsunami, 143, 384
Tsunami Core Group, 745, 747
environmental governance, 653–657
Asian river agreements, 653
governance structures for the commons, 653
impact assessments, 648
shared water resources, 653
shrimp farming, South / Southeast Asia, 647
Southeast Asia Rivers Network, 648
environmental protection, 67, 69, 143, 554–555, 656, 713
laws, 648
marine ecoregion, 646
Environmental Security Initiative, Central Asia, 644
ethnic minorities, 538
Malay business community, 230
ethnocentrism, 129, 133, 514
Eurasian Economic Commission, 276, 277, 489
Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC), 245, 246, 249, 483, 488, 489, 490, 494
(p. 786) Eurasianism, 485, 489
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), 254
European Court of Justice, 48
European Free Trade Area (EFTA), 207, 226, 714
European Monetary System (EMS), 306, 314
European Parliament, 48
European Union (EU)
APT, 709
ARF, 477n3
cf. ASEAN, EAS, APEC, 48–49, 226, 313, 743
ASEAN, foreign direct investment, 222–223, 226, 337
Central Asia, 243, 250, 398, 483, 492–493, 600, 645
China, 160, 212, 213, 273, 396, 581
democracies, 48
energy, 251
eurozone crisis, 290, 300
FTAs, 153, 207, 696, 714, 771
Japan, 149, 212, 771
India, 185, 188, 191, 714
market, 149, 205–206, 212, 217, 220, 330
NATO, 493
regional integration, 129, 249, 313, 362
Southeast Asia, 219, 226, 272, 290, 313
transnationalism, 37, 71, 77 (cf. Asia)
WTO forums, 182
Eurozone crisis, 188, 212
exceptionalism, 14, 122
Asian, 129, 130, 134
Chinese, 130
cultural, 134
US, 130
Executives’ Meeting of East Asia-Pacific Central Banks (EMEAP), 286, 287, 291, 292, 293, 294, 300
exchange rate regimes in Asia, 306, 308
analysis of international relations, 317–319
choices, 310–312
managed floating, 308, 309, 314
pegged currency, 307–308, 310, 314, 315, 319
soft pegs, 309, 311
undervalued-currency strategy, 311
exclusive economic zone (EEZ), 378, 398, 453, 524, 535, 542, 646
export processing zones, 166, 359, 363n2
export-led industrialization strategy. See export-oriented industrialization
export-oriented development strategy, 199, 200, 204, 213
export-oriented industrialization (EOI), 57, 201, 217, 449
external threat, 357, 518, 527
“Factory Asia”, 267, 306, 311
failed state, 50, 255
Farakka Barrage project, 654
Federation of Korean Industries, 576
Fiji, 286, 599
financial crises, 4, 11, 81, 172, 218, 231, 310, 454
financial integration, 148, 253, 285, 286, 295, 299, 300, 301
financial services, 162, 336, 695
five principles of peaceful coexistence, 616, 619, 709, 716
flying geese, 57, 265, 267, 280, 348
Focus on the Global South (NGO coalition group), 648
forced migration, 622–637
Jews, expulsion, 624
Puritans, Quakers, Irish Catholics from England, 624
Foreign Affairs Leading Small Group, 404
foreign direct investment (FDI), 146, 161, 162, 180, 203, 267, 271, 301, 327, 355, 513
inflow into ASEAN, 2008–2010, 222
patterns, 327, 329, 330, 332
realities, 327, 328, 329, 330, 339, 341, 342
trends, 329
See also outward FDI
Foreign Exchange Liberalization Plan (ROK, 2003–08), 211
Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA), 208
(p. 787) Foreign Investment Promotion Act (1998), 210
foreign investment zones (FIZs), 210, 336
foreign policy analysis (FPA), 12–14, 81–86, 90–97
approaches, 13
Essence of Decision (G. Allison, 1999), 83 variables, 81, 82, 86, 91, 95, 97
Fossil Fuels, 549
Four Markets Group, 286
Foxconn (Taiwanese company), 354
Free Trade Agreement (FTA), 6, 55, 59–60, 154, 157, 207, 226, 274–279, 336, 450, 574, 696, 712, 714, 739, 762, 771
Matrix, Asia FTA, Other Trade Agreement Links, Mid -2013, 276
Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP), 50, 278, 707, 711, 712, 748, 770
freedom of navigation, 378, 543, 730, 748, 766, 767
French Huguenots, 624
friendly neighbors, stable periphery. See Mulin youhao, wending zhoubian
Fukuda, Yasuo (Prime Minister, Japan, 2007–08), 577
Fukushima nuclear disaster, 384, 548, 550–552, 561, 563n6
meltdown, 552
G20, 147, 153, 156, 157, 164, 173, 182, 185, 186, 191, 196, 270, 300, 449, 451, 454, 740
G33, 185
G5 countries (Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States, 1985), 331
G6 countries, 182
G7, 182, 186, 554
G8, 147, 157, 554
Gaddafi, Mu’ammer (Prime Minister, Libya), 434
gaige kaifang (“reform and opening” program, 1978), 161
Gandhi, Mahatma, 181
Gandhi, Rajiv (Prime Minister, India), 397, 418
Gandhi, Indira (Prime Minister, India), 415–418, 421
Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river basin 645–646, 653, 654
Gazprom, 244, 246, 251, 252, 495
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT),
Uruguay Round, 225, 707
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), 339
Geneva Agreed Framework (1994), 437, 745
geography, 89, 499, 720, 722, 723, 724, 727
offense-defense balance, 722–724
geopolitics, 18, 247, 252, 318, 459, 547, 548, 550, 559, 561, 563, 720
Georgia, 354, 397, 675
Russo-Georgian War (2008), 251, 495
Germany, 7, 40, 49, 87, 96, 127, 182, 313, 331, 332, 334, 340, 393, 448, 572, 726, 727, 728
Gibraltar, 255
Gillard, Julia (Prime Minister, Australia), 104
global economic management. See Japan
global economy
Asia, integration, 11, 34, 94–95, 160–162, 165, 166, 170, 204, 218, 231, 255, 265, 355–359, 421, 714
Asia, proportion, 5–6, 263, 329–330
Central Asia, 255–256
China, 34, 94–95, 160–173, 176n8, 263
cf. decoupling, 359–362
East Asia, 263
(p. 788) global rules, 92
India, 421, 711, 714
Japan, 156, 263
ROK, 199–233
state capitalism, rise, 328
See also globalization
global financial crisis (GFC), 7, 35, 147–148, 151, 155, 165, 167, 171, 182, 210, 220, 245, 249, 289–290, 311–316, 320, 358–359, 400, 454
global politics, 4, 13, 27, 299, 562, 641
Global Posture Review (GPR), 383
global production networks, 218, 231, 348
Global Times, 403, 729, 738
Global War On Terror (GWOT), 472. See also war on terror
global warming, 548, 550, 551, 552, 561, 656
globalization, 95, 160, 174, 179, 189, 230, 231, 233, 257, 264–265, 286, 306, 328, 440, 637, 690, 694
“Go Global” policy, China (2000), 170
Goh, Chok Tong (Prime Minister, Singapore, 1990–2004), 709
gold, 244, 272, 310, 486
Gorbachev, Mikhail (President, Soviet Union, 1990–91), 52
Vladivostock speech (1986), 52
government-business relations, 199, 201, 228, 232
government-linked companies (GLCs), 224, 234
gradualism, 166, 167, 169, 171
Great Britain, 31
Great Game, 481, 495, 496, 547, 557, 561, 562, 563
Greater East-Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (GEACPS), 108
Greater Himalayan “third pole”, 655
Greater Tumen Initiative, 650
Green Growth Strategy, 280
Green industry, 280
Green Room, 182
gross domestic product (GDP), 11, 49, 82, 92, 161, 186, 199, 211–212, 219–220, 224, 242–246, 270, 271, 332–333, 338, 357–358, 364, 452, 550, 614, 615, 727, 737
gross national product (GNP), 202, 203, 208, 375, 382, 627
growth, market-led, 164, 349, 362, 691, 694–699
guided capitalism, 200, 694, 699
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), 207, 580, 714
Gulf of Aden, 385
Gulf of Djibouti, 558
Gulf War, 376, 383
gyungjejeiljuwi (“economy first-ism”). See ROK
H1N1 influenza virus (swine flu), 616
Hainan Island, 398
Hallyu (“Korean Wave” of pop culture), 454
Hartling, Poul (UN High Commissioner), 631
harvest season, 244
Hatoyama, Yukio (Prime Minister, Japan, 2009–10), 384, 750
Havana Charter negotiations, 181
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs), 182
hedging strategies, 112, 469
hegemony
ASEAN principle, preventing intramural hegemony (antihegemony), 469, 476
Asian regional order / stability, 27, 29, 31, 56, 90, 108, 120, 129, 705, 758
balancing power, 12, 96, 97, 127–129, 135n9, 200, 765
China, 135n9, 466, 470, 495, 673, 730
conflicting states, 9
India, 192, 575
international, 29, 32, 33, 101, 103–104
IR theory, 122, 124
realism / neoclassical realism, 26, 29, 32, 121, 129, 705
Russia (Central Asia), 483, 495, 499, 673
threat perception, 89
United States, 87–88, 90, 97, 120, 127, 132, 134n3, 135n9, 191, 200, 203, 279, 288, 373, (p. 789) 387, 465, 473, 668, 673, 707, 715, 729, 739, 758, 765
Helsinki Accords (1975), 593
Helsinki-based OSCE structures, 600
Heritage Foundation, 49, 50
heterogeneity, 5, 46, 48–54, 357
challenge, 47–51
international alignments, 48–49
regional, 58
High-Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness (2011), 454
highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H5N1, 606–618
poultry sector, 611
Himalayas, 723
Hindu, 179, 422
Hinduism, 624
Hiroshima, 371
historical animosities, 9, 51, 342, 752
HIV/AIDS, 606, 608, 610
Hong Kong
cf. “developmental state”, 93
economic integration, 161–162, 164, 169, 171, 210, 268, 270, 286, 288, 290, 292, 294, 299, 301n6, 330, 343n3
entrepôt city economy, 270, 358, 359
exchange rate regime, 308, 316, 317, 320n7, 321n10
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT, 1986), 274
infectious disease, 609, 615
intraregional FDI, 330, 333–338, 342
newly industrializing country (NIC), 57, 161
preference heterogeneity, 49–50
sovereignty, Chinese resumption (1997), 594
territorial disputes (1945–2012), 533, 538
trade, 144, 162, 169, 205, 268, 270, 276, 359, 478n10
HonHai Precision (Taiwan, electronic contract manufacturer), 351, 355
hot war, 463, 562
Howard, John (Prime Minister, Australia, 1996–2007), 765
Hsinchu Science-Based Industrial Park, 356
hub-and-spoke, 30, 55, 387, 739, 740, 748, 750, 752, 758, 760, 763
Hu Jintao (General Secretary, Central Committee, Communist Party, China, 2002–12), 398, 403, 404, 405, 408, 577, 579
Human Rights Council (UN), 593, 599
Human Rights Watch, 246, 593, 601, 634
human security
Asian reconception (developing governance agency), 133
Asian skepticism / porousness, 5, 13, 16–18
environment, 641–657
infectious disease, 609–618
Japan, 373–376
national human rights institutions (NHRIs), 594–599, 602
nationalism, 5
realism, 13
refugees, 622–636
scope of field, 8
human trafficking, 623
humanitarian assistance, 143
Hungary, 49, 635
hydrocarbons, 251, 542, 543
hypernationalism, 722
Hyundai-Asan, 443n2
IBSA (India, Brazil, and South Africa), 420
See also India
Iceland, 207
(p. 790) India
Agni-V ballistic missile, 509
Central Asia, 247, 250, 483–484, 489,
China, 6, 27, 33, 39, 82, 113, 135n9, 301, 385, 397, 411, 412, 414–415, 422, 524, 530, 541, 559, 581, 667, 669, 720, 742
conflict / border disputes, 10, 27, 30, 37, 73, 82, 397, 411, 413–417, 422, 423n8, 423n9, 506, 517–520, 524, 531–534, 536–538, 540, 542, 544, 569, 575, 719–722, 723
Delhi, 189, 247, 416, 766
Delhi Declaration (2012), 189
domestic challenges, 422
East Pakistan, 416, 417
economic liberalization / integration, 93–95, 179, 180–195, 247, 266–280, 299, 418–419
economic / trade relations, 4, 7, 11, 26, 39, 60n3, 92, 97, 144–146, 149, 163, 179–195, 205, 207, 211, 222, 226, 247, 266–280, 300, 352–353, 356–357, 361, 417–419, 581, 714
emerging global power, 16, 26, 27, 48, 97, 109, 133, 179, 411, 708
energy security, 553–556
English School, 100, 104
environment, 645–648, 651, 653–655, 657, 745, 747, 752
exchange rate regime, 307, 309, 319
foreign direct investment (FDI), 328–329, 332, 334–340, 343n4
foreign security policy / relations, 7, 9, 17, 27, 30, 35, 58, 87, 96, 97, 112–115, 185–194, 293, 384, 397, 411–422, 468–471, 474, 478, 483, 492, 496, 498, 559, 581, 662, 671–673, 678–681, 697, 699, 705, 711, 713, 740, 743–744, 758, 761–771
heterogeneity, 49, 55
human rights, 598, 600, 602
infectious diseases, 614, 619n9
IMF, 188–189
Indo-Pakistani conflict, 411
largest importer, conventional weapons, 7
Less Than Full Reciprocity, 191
“Look East Policy”, (LEP), 714, 716, 766–767
Quad (New), 182, 195n8, 740, 743, 747, 752
Partition, 624, 710
national identity, 37, 71, 127–128, 412
nuclear capacity, 7, 9, 11, 27, 35, 73, 397, 413, 419–420, 505–510, 515–520, 551
refugees, 624, 629, 632
resource / energy imports, 11, 247, 547–549, 551–552, 557–558, 560–562, 563n1, 580
United States, 35, 127–128, 135n9, 412–420, 556
India, Brazil, and South Africa (IBSA), 420
Indian Ocean region, 126
Indonesia
China, 33, 474, 549, 598
democratization, 232, 473
economic dynamism, 82, 97
economic integration, 232
energy, 549, 552, 560, 563n4, 564n12,
environment, 643, 647–648, 655, 657
ethnicity / religion, 67, 230, 472
exchange rate regime, 308, 320n7
human rights, 598–600
infectious disease, 611, 614–615, 619n5
leadership change, 90, 230
military modernization, 97
potential great power, 26–27
preference heterogeneity, 49
newly industrializing country (NIC), 57
reconception, US approaches to order, 127–128
refugees, 630, 631, 636, 638n9
security strategy, 86, 89, 97, 469, 472, 474, 530, 720, 744–745, 753n8
territorial disputes, 533–536
trade / economy, 144, 207, 220–221, 224–225, 231, 268, 270, 274, 276, 337–340, 352, 353, 357, 360, 438, 580, 720
UN peacekeeping operations, 413
Indo-Soviet treaty, 417
Indrawati, Sri Mulyani (reformist Minister of Finance / World Bank), 232
Indus River basin, 653
Indus Waters Treaty, 654
(p. 791) Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) (Taiwan), 356
industrializing economies, 11, 328
infectious diseases, securitization
fatality rates, 608
health threats, 606, 608, 614, 616
Human Health Resources in Selected Asian Countries, 2007–2009, 614
pandemic simulation exercises, 612
PanStop, 612
poor sanitary conditions, 606
prevention, 607–618
viruses, 606
Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 655
institutionalization, 46, 47, 148, 152, 481, 482, 561, 562, 569, 574, 575, 675, 694, 698, 699, 703, 707, 724, 765, 767
decision-making rules, 53–54
underinstitutionalized, Asia, 8, 51, 59, 499, 711
Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA), 488. See also Nazarbaev
Inter-American Development, 164
Inter-American Human Rights Commission, 593
Interbank Cooperation Mechanism, 189
intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), 642, 644, 647, 649, 650
internally displaced people 623, 628, 629, 636, 637
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 432, 437, 508, 520
inspections, 432, 437
International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), 655
International Coordinating Committee for NHRIs (ICC), 413, 594, 597, 598, 600, 602
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), 592, 598
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), 592
International Human Rights Regime, 591, 594
international institutions, 51–56, 448, 539, 544, 547
engagement, 448
forced migration, responses, 622–626, 629, 632–636, 637n2
regionalism, 16, 651, 249
resistance / reform, Asian, 105, 156, 180, 195, 235, 241, 249
research on Chinese foreign policy, 72–73
territorial disputes, Asia, 539–540
theory 46, 50, 64, 77, 705, 722
international financial institutions (IFIs), 146–147, 150, 156, 245, 253
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 31–32
Asian financial crisis (1997), 146–147, 151, 224, 231, 287, 454
cf. Asian Monetary Fund (AMF), 287–290
Central Asia, 244–245, 253–257
economic integration, 161, 310, 437
financial market liberalization, 91, 290–291, 336, 454, 708
foreign direct investment (FDI), 335
global financial crisis (GFC, 2009), 245
Japan, 146–156, 287
nontraditional security threats, 760, 768
ROK, 277
statism, 155–156
international organizations (IOs), 77, 146, 171–173, 193, 195–196, 245, 295, 413, 434, 607, 608, 611, 618, 626, 699, 741
membership, 172, 173
International Peace Cooperation Law (IPCL), 377, 385
international political economy (IPE), 92, 218, 227, 229, 241, 248, 256, 257, 327, 349
IR/IPE theory, 358–361
theories of regional integration, 241
international production networks (IPNs), 267, 271, 280
international relations theory. See IR theory
international society, 66, 100–115, 126, 130, 131, 382
approach, Asia 12, 13, 100–115
(p. 792) internet, 264, 402, 403, 408
Interstate Fund for the Aral Sea, 644
interstate peace, 4
interstate war, 18, 364, 524, 529, 530, 541, 626, 721
Invest Korea (foreign investment agency), 336
iPad, 354, 360
iPhone, 354, 355, 360
iPod, 354. See also Apple
IR scholars, 92, 120, 123–128, 227, 623
IR theory, 3, 4, 12, 18, 59, 65, 76, 82–85, 95, 120, 121, 160, 452, 455, 466, 469
Asian School, 125
indigenously grounded, non-Western, 12
IR/IPE theory, 358–361
main IRT theories, 12, 122
positing equality for Western states, 120
postmodern, 18
post-Western, 126, 135n7
regional order, Asia, 132
rise of Asia, 120–135
theorizing, 3, 4, 12–15, 45, 71, 120, 123–124, 129, 515
Iraqi Reconstruction Law (2003), 383
Irrawaddy Myitsone dam project, Myanmar, 648
IRT. See IR theory
isolation, 110, 143, 167, 243, 454, 468, 482, 483, 485, 513, 514, 538, 570
Jammu and Kashmir, 413, 419, 421, 531, 534, 542
Japan
Aegis cruisers, 403
Asian financial center, 210, 299
conflict, 107
core policy triad (trade, investment, economic assistance), 141–143, 150
demilitarization, 371
environment, 647
foreign economic relations, 146, 395, 402, 556, 558, 562
FTAs contra “most favored nation” principles, 277
global economic management, 146, 156,
hegemony, 108
Henoko Bay, Okinawa, 384
human rights, 592
human rights vs. nationalism, 722, 732
history textbooks, 451
inhibiting international financial institutions, 437, 468
Joint Staff Office, 380
Meiji Japan, 37, 58
militarism, 30, 374
National Diet (1969), 155, 375, 382
neo-mercantilist policy, 273
nuclear option, 511, 516
“peace clause” (Article 9, Constitution), 371, 374, 375, 379, 382, 416, 578
refugees, 451
regional economic integration, 294
revanchism, 371
strategic interests, 556, 558, 577, 580
territorial disputes, 580, 765, 766, 767 (see also Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands)
Tokyo Core Group, 745
US bilateralism, 741, 749
US-Japan-India Trilateral, 766–767
See also United States
Japan Business Federation. See Keidanren
Japan Medical Association, 154
Japan Self Defense Forces (JSDF), 373–386
Japan-ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (JACEPA), 713
Japan-ASEAN Finance Ministers’ Meeting (FMM), 286
Jiang, Zemin (General Secretary, Central Committee, Communist Party, China, 1989–2002), 170, 393, 395, 402, 405, 429
Johnson Reef, 539
Johnson, Lyndon B. (President, US, 1963–69), 85
Joint Defense Agreement (US–Philippines), 472
Joint River Commission (India–Bangladesh), 654
Joint Statement on the Comprehensive Promotion of a Mutually Beneficial Relationship Based on Common Strategic Interests (China–Japan, 2008), 577
Jordan, 226, 564, 599, 604
Juche ideology, 429, 437, 439, 515
Kabul, Afghanistan, 247, 595
Kachin ethnic group, 636
Kaesong, 433
Industrial Complex, 433, 438, 454
Kan, Naoto (Prime Minister, Japan, 201–211), 384
kangsung daeguk (“strong and prosperous great nation”, DPRK), 428
Kant (Russia-CSTO base, Kyrgyzstan), 494
Karshi-Khanabad, Uzbekistan (“K2”), 494
Kashagan consortium, 252
Kashmir, 10, 27, 30, 397, 413, 415, 419, 421, 422, 508, 509, 515, 531–534, 537, 542, 575, 683, 710
Kazakhstan
balancing, 89, 674–675
business climate, 354
denuclearization, 484–485, 507–508, 510–511
economic liberalization, 485, 580
economy / trade, 206, 242–250, 269–272, 276, 277, 307, 309, 338, 340, 354, 357, 579
environment, 648
human rights, 601
institutional links, 488–493, 671
“multivectorism”, 482–483
nationalism, 485
nuclear energy, 552
oil and gas, 206, 242, 251–252, 354, 486, 496, 560, 579–580
rentierism, 253, 486
SCO, 52, 490–491, 555, 674
Soviet subsidies, 242
territorial disputes, 533–534, 538, 540
See also Central Asia
Kazakhstan Development Bank, 246
Kazbat battalion, 493
Keidanren (Japan Business Federation), 153, 154, 157n7, 576, 769
Kim Dae-jung, 207, 210, 211, 277, 430, 441, 443, 448, 709
administration, 207, 210, 211
Kim Il-sung (Eternal President of the Republic, DPRK, 1945–94), 428, 429, 432, 434, 439, 441, 456
death (1994), 428, 441
Kim Jong-il (Supreme Leader, DPRK, 1994–2011), 428–429, 431, 432, 433, 435, 438, 441, 443n2, 634–635
death (2011), 428
Kim Jong-un (Supreme Leader, DPRK), 428, 431, 432, 438, 442, 456, 506
Kim Sung-han (Foreign Minister, Republic of Korea), 765
Kim Young-sam (Prime Minister, Republic of Korea, 1993–98), 441
administration, 209
Kissinger, Henry, 25, 392, 416
Koizumi, Junichiro (Prime Minister, Japan, 2001–06), 149, 380, 395, 402, 430
cabinet, 149
Korea Development Bank, 202
Korea Energy Development Organization (KEDO), 437
Korea Workers’ Party (KWP), 431–432, 439
Korean Human Rights Committee, 597
Korean peninsula, 73, 399, 428, 435, 436, 441, 443, 446–451, 454–455, 458, 510, 531, 534, 569, 624–625, 719
Korean War, 87, 96, 204, 413, 436, 437, 440, 441, 448, 452, 455, 531, 624, 638, 739
Korean-Sino economic relations, 204
Korea–United States Mutual Security Act 1953, 203
Korea-US Free Trade Agreement (KORUS), 336, 450, 771
(p. 794) Kuching Consensus, 53
Kumgang tourist zone, 433
Kundakulam nuclear power plant, 552
Kurile Islands, 535, 541
Kuwait, 207, 383, 549, 564n12, 727
Kyoto Protocol, 553
Kyoto School philosophers, 108
Kyrgyz Republic, 307, 354, 484, 486, 492, 494, 496
see also Kyrgyzstan
Lamy, Pascal, 348, 364n23, 606, 613, 616
landlocked countries, 244, 251, 270, 271, 353, 486, 499
Laos, 49, 53, 85, 89, 236, 270, 274, 275, 276, 280, 282, 337, 353, 413, 478, 533, 534, 538, 544, 614, 619, 622, 629, 631, 645, 648
Latin America, 48, 92, 101, 248, 272, 276, 277, 318, 329, 334, 335, 556, 592, 650, 651
Law of the Sea, 251, 535
League of Nations, 107, 625, 626
Leap Day Deal (2012 US–DPRK nuclear test ban), 432, 433
least-developed countries (LDCs), 191–193
Lebanon, 493
Lee Kuan Yew (first Prime Minister, Singapore, 1959–88), 595
Lee Myung-bak (President, Republic of Korea, 2008–13), 247, 440, 449, 456, 581
administration, 206, 210
Lee Teng-hui, (President, ROC, 1988–2000), 34, 90
native Taiwanese leader, 396
legalization, 8, 46, 54
LEP. See India
Liancourt Islands. See Dokdo/Takeshima Islands
Liberal Democratic Party (Japan), 154, 156, 379, 380–384, 516
liberalism, 65, 66, 69, 75, 77, 114, 122, 127–128, 131–134, 160, 236, 358, 446, 481
liberal theory, 97
liberal view of international relations, 45
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, 622
Libya, 427, 434, 604n2, 753n9
Liechtenstein, 207
Like-Minded Group, 185, 192
liquefied natural gas (LNG), 251, 550, 559, 561
exports to Europe, 251
See also pipelines
Li, Ruihuan (Chairman, 9th National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference: CPPCC), 393
Lombok Straits, 724, 725
longue durée, 128
“Look East Policy”. See India
Ma, Ying-jeou (President, ROC), 91, 532
Macau, 333, 533
Maehara, Seiji (Foreign Minister, Japan), 765
Magna Carta, 590
Mahathir, bin Mohammad, Dr. (Prime Minister, Malaysia, 1981–2003), 230, 595–596, 708, 746, 767
Mahbubani, Kishore, 30, 217, 456, 744
Makassar, 724
Maksutov, Ruslan, 674, 675, 676, 679, 680, 683
Malaysia
Asian values, 595–596
balancing, 86, 89–90, 469, 474
China, relations, 33, 89, 94–95, 273, 361, 396, 712–713, 719
economic nationalism, 230
economy, 82
energy, 549, 52, 564n12, 581
environment, 648
human rights, 598–600
industrialization, 57
infectious disease, 614
preference heterogeneity, 49, 51
refugees, 629–632, 636, 638n9
regional identity, 598
(p. 795) security relations, 463–469, 474, 719, 753n8
territorial disputes, 534–536, 543, 719
trade / investment relations, 60n4, 144, 157n8, 217, 220–221, 224–227, 229–236, 268, 273–274, 276, 279, 282n2, 289, 298–301, 308, 320n7, 338, 358, 714
Malaysian Federation, 463
Malaysian ringgit, 320
Malaysia-US free trade negotiations, 232
Maldives, 59, 353, 596, 619, 683, 710
Manas, 246, 254, 255, 484, 494, 497
base-related fuel contracts, 254
Transit Centre, 484
Manchu rulers, 106
Mandala system, 125–129
Manila, 288, 465, 474, 595, 709
Manila Framework Group (MFG), 288
Mao, Zedong, 89, 96, 109, 110, 111, 161, 166, 333, 392, 396, 399
Maoist China, Asian interventions, 112, 422
See also Mao, Zedong
Maoist government, 172
Maoist economic self-reliance, 111
Maoist era, 161, 174
See also Mao, Zedong
Maoist rhetoric, 165. See also Mao, Zedong
maritime boundaries, 524, 525, 542, 543, 544
Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF, Japan), 377, 377, 381, 383, 384, 385, 581
market-based liberalization, 164. See also trade liberalization
Marxism, 18, 75, 135
Mauritius, 334, 335, 336, 714
Maurya empire, 126
Mekong River, 534, 645, 646, 751
Mekong River Commission (MRC), 646, 751
Melians, 25
Mercado Comun del Sul (MERCOSUR), 192, 207, 276, 714
MERCOSUR. See Mercado Comun del Sul
Mexico, 49, 55, 157, 164, 207, 236, 279, 712
Middle East, 3, 9, 30, 35, 88, 92, 101, 135, 248, 291, 379, 381, 450, 493, 499, 527, 529, 547–563, 593, 650, 737, 741
Middle Kingdom (China), 104, 106
middle power, 16, 97, 339, 442, 449, 457, 468, 683, 763
“military first” ideology (Songun), 435–436, 455, 515
military forces, 721, 728, 732, 764
military modernization, 13, 15, 88, 97, 378, 381, 452, 559, 721, 724, 725, 728, 730, 731
Mindanao, 472
minerals, 243, 245, 247, 281
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI: Japan), 155, 762
Ministry of Finance (MOF) (Japan), 155, 157, 202
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) (Japan), 143, 207, 379–380, 382, 393, 395, 396, 399, 404, 431–433, 449, 451, 486, 491, 577, 762
minjok kongjo (national cooperation, DPRK), 435
Mongolia, 206, 270, 276, 286, 293, 354, 357, 490, 533, 538, 540, 563, 580, 594, 597, 599, 648, 678, 679
Monitory Network, East Asia, 651
Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act (India), 182
Monroe Doctrine. See United States
Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO), 245
MoU (memorandum of understanding), Trans-ASEAN pipeline project, 560
Mount Apo geothermal plant, (Philippines), 647
Mount Kumgang, 438, 454
Mughal Empire, 104
(p. 796) Mulin youhao, wending zhoubian (“friendly neighbors, stable periphery”, China), 408n3
multilateral institutions, 52, 55, 58, 59, 127, 151, 182, 188, 329, 448, 466, 467, 471, 475, 540, 570, 573–577, 626, 668, 737, 738, 748, 749, 751, 759, 760, 762, 771
multilateralism, 34, 52, 120, 131, 141, 147, 150, 192, 225–226, 387, 394, 397, 492, 494, 680, 682, 711, 714, 740, 742, 747–748, 750, 753, 758–759, 760
multinational corporations (MNC), 145, 146, 163, 166, 231, 234, 252, 332, 338
multinational enterprise (MNE), 264, 265
Muslim, 397, 422, 472, 632, 633, 710
Islamic extremism, 487
Islamic Malaysia and Indonesia, 598
Spain and Portugal, 624
mutual vulnerability, Asian states, 15. See also post-Cold War: need for political stability; realist propositions)
Myanmar
ASEAN (1997), 236n1, 337, 465
BIMSTEC (1997), 275, 714
China engagement, 422
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT, 1948–50), 274
DPRK engagement, 427, 438
economic non-integration, 7, 89, 219, 220–221
environmental regionalism, 645, 648
exchange rate regime, 308
foreign policy analysis (FPA), 96
free trade agreements, 276
future economic reform, 280
oil and gas, 549, 560
preference heterogeneity, 49
refugees, Rohingya, 622, 626, 628–629, 632–6
security reform challenge, 465, 469, 473, 478n11, 549, 564n13, 678
territorial disputes (1945–2011), 533
US engagement, 9
See also Burma
Nabucco-West pipeline (Turkey–Austria gas pipeline), 251
Nagasaki, Japan, 371
Najib Razak (Prime Minister, Malaysia), 232
Nanxun. See Deng, Xiaoping
Narasimha Rao, Pamulaparti Venkata (Prime Minister, India, 1991–96), 419
Nasser, Gamal Abdel (President, Egypt, 1956–70), 413
National Assembly (ROK), 200, 202, 450, 597
National Defense Commission (NDC, DPRK), 430–433, 441
National Defense Program Guidelines, 2004 (NDPG) (Japan), 381
National Defense Program Outline, 1976 (NDPO) (Japan), 380
National Democratic Alliance (NDA) (India), 420
national identity, 13, 32, 37, 70, 81, 86, 87, 243, 411, 439, 455, 526, 624, 630, 636, 722, 733
National League for Democracy (Myanmar), 636
National Missile Defence (US), 494
nationalism, 5, 14, 27–28, 36, 38, 51, 97, 100, 106, 108, 114, 131, 230, 399, 401–407, 498, 525, 722–724, 732, 733
Franco-German problem, 37
nation-state, 28, 37, 40, 73, 120, 131, 439, 572, 624, 642
natural disaster management, 476. See also environmental governance
Navoi airport, Uzbekistan, 247
Nazarbaev, Nursultan Äbishuly (President, Kazakhstan), 483, 488, 489
Nazi Germany, 58, 572, 624
Nehru, Jawaharlal (first Prime Minister, India), 181, 411–417, 421, 422
neoclassical realism, 26, 84, 96, 127
systemic variables, 26, 84
neopatrimonialism, 253, 484, 487, 496
neorealism, 9, 26, 75, 84–86, 97, 121, 132, 227, 466, 705, 759
Nepal, 59, 263, 274, 275, 276, 286, 353, 385, 533, 534, 538, 541, 599, 600, 619, 645, 683, 710
Netherlands, 49, 334, 336, 530
new Great Game, 481, 562, 563n1
See also Great Game
New Growth Strategy (Japan), 280
New International Economic Order (NIEO), 181, 417
New Kinpo Group (Taiwan), 351
New Korean Democratic Party, 208
New Millennial Round, 277
New Miyazawa Initiative (NMI), 288
New Quad, 182
New Silk Road initiative, 247
New York, 87, 432, 433, 740, 764
New Zealand, 49, 60, 112, 115, 149, 157, 207, 226, 234, 236, 277–279, 286, 301, 474, 598, 600, 670, 695, 709, 712–714, 726, 744, 770, 771
newly industrialized economies, 145. See also newly industrializing countries
newly industrializing countries (NICs), 57
Niyazov, Saparmurat (first President, Turkmenistan, 1990–2006), 243, 244, 483, 486, 495
Nobel Peace Prize, 593
Noda, Yoshihiko (Prime Minister, Japan, 2011–12), 149, 450, 384, 768
Non-Aligned Movement, 181
nonalignment, 133, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 767
nonbank financial institutions (NBFIs), 209
nonferrous metallurgy, 243
non-government organization (NGO), 16, 46, 54, 72, 83, 180, 187–188, 245, 454, 552, 595, 597, 600–604, 633–634, 642–648, 652, 656, 751
actors, 603
representation, 54
noninterference in domestic affairs, 467
Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), 394, 420, 429, 434–437, 505, 507–520, 551
non-refoulement, 625
nonstate groups, 714
nontariff barriers (NTBs), 142, 157, 169, 170, 218, 223–226
nontariff tools (licenses, import quotas), 169
non-Western IR theory (NWIRT), 121, 122, 128, 131, 132, 134, 135
NWIRT Approach, 121
“noodle bowl effect”, 278, 691, 697, 698, 699, 737
“spaghetti bowl effect”, 278, 691
norm building, 676
norms of state sovereignty, 5
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 10, 87, 250, 257, 472, 490, 491, 493, 498, 673–675, 681, 730, 739, 743, 758, 761
North Atlantic (region), 218, 219, 235
Council of North Atlantic Cooperation (NATO), 493
Northeast Asia Cooperation Dialogue, (NEACD, University of California), 436
Northeast Asian Free Trade Agreement (NEAFTA), 709
Northeast Asian Trilateral Forum (NATF), 670
Northeast Asian Sub-regional Program on Environmental Cooperation (NEAPSEC), 650
Nu Dam, China, 648
nuclear arsenals, 7, 506–511, 517–519
nuclear proliferation, 508, 514
world nuclear forces (2013), 506
nuclear cleanup, Kazakhstan, 648
nuclear energy production, 556, 561, 562
nuclear fuel, 457, 551, 553
nuclear modernization, 509
Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, 505
Nuclear Security Summit (2012), 454
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), 508, 510, 520, 551, 766
nuclear umbrella, 435, 511, 512
nuclear weapons policy, 420
Nuclear Weapons-Free Zone (NWFZ), 740
Nuremburg Trials (November 1945–October 1946), 592
Nye Report (“East Asia Strategic Report”, 1995), 86
Obama, Barack (President, United States), 30, 82, 88, 397, 398, 434, 436, 471, 472, 474, 680, 712, 737, 740, 741, 745, 771
Obama administration, 30, 82, 88, 397, 434, 436, 471, 472, 474, 680, 712, 740
OFDI. See Outward FDI
Office of Regional Economic Integration (OREI, Asian Development Bank), 294, 313
Office of the Foreign Investment Ombudsman, 336
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. See United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
official developmental assistance (ODA), 143, 153, 157, 199, 376, 385
mercantilism, 143
offshore oil and gas fields. See oil and gas
oil and gas, 243, 256, 397, 399, 481, 483, 485, 486, 549, 550, 557, 560, 579
natural gas pipeline, 247, 250
natural gas reserves, 244
Oman (Sultanate of Oman), 207, 231, 564
Ombai-Wetar (Ombai Strait), 724
ontology, 65, 121
See also IR theory
open trade, 93, 164, 353, 711
Operation Tomodachi, 384
optimum currency areas (OCAs), 312, 313
criteria, 313
Organization of American States (OAS), 593
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 91, 143, 164, 209, 211, 332, 339, 363, 457, 549, 550, 553, 554, 713
Code of Liberalization of Capital Movements, 209
Code of Liberalization of Current Invisible Operations, 209
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, 89, 467, 483, 488, 491
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 206, 253, 417, 554, 563
Organization of the Islamic Conference, 591
Osaka Action Agenda, 53
Osh crisis (June 2010), 492
other major economy (OME) countries, 550
outward FDI (OFDI), 161–163, 170, 176, 211, 327, 331, 334–337, 342
(p. 799) Ozawa, Ichiro, (Minister of Home Affairs, Japan, 1985–86), 154
Pacific Century, 744
Pacific Ocean Pact, 744
Pacific Treaty Organization (PATO), 744
Pacific War, 371, 374, 578
Pakistan
Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM), 293
conflict / border disputes, 10, 30, 58, 73, 82, 411, 413–422, 531–542, 569, 575
energy, 564n12
environment, 646, 653–654
liberal IR, 47
nuclear capacity, 7, 11, 27, 397, 505–509, 515, 517–520, 719–720
political structure, 50
refugees, 624, 628–629, 632, 635–637
SAARC, 619n9, 672, 678, 710
SCO, 490
security relations, 397, 468, 489, 496, 498, 544n3, 559, 560, 678, 681, 683n2, 719–720, 722–723
trade / economic relations, 222, 226, 247, 249, 250, 269, 270, 272, 274, 276–280, 338, 340, 353, 714
WTO, 192
See also Central Asia
Palestine, 493, 604
pan-Asian identity, 37, 454
pan-Asianism, 125, 130
Panasonic (corporation), 363
Paracels, 399, 543, 557
paradigm, 4, 153, 348, 609, 614, 616, 617
Paris, 353, 594, 597, 598
Park, Chung-hee (President, ROK, 1962–79), 200–204, 448, 456
administration, 201, 202, 203, 204
Park, Geun-hye (President, ROK), 456
Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), 413
Partnership for Peace (PfP), 491, 493
Patriotic Education Campaign. See China
Peace of Augsburg (1555), 624
peaceful nuclear explosion (PNE), 508
peaceful rise. See China: peaceful rise
People’s Bank of China (PBOC), 316
People’s Liberation Army (PLA), 392, 394, 398, 401, 404, 771
People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN), 378
Permanent Indus Commission, 654
Persian Gulf, 30, 377, 378, 385, 547, 558, 559, 725
Peru, 49, 60, 157, 207, 226, 236, 279, 712
petroleum, 486, 553, 555, 563
products, 336
See also oil and gas
Pew survey, 395, 400
pharmaceuticals, 227, 271, 336
Philippine peso, 320
Philippines
Asian values, 595–596
balancing, 86, 89–90, 469, 474
Catholic, 598
China, relations, 90, 396, 397, 399, 406, 465, 469
energy, 549, 552, 564n12, 581
environment, 647–648
human rights, 598, 599
preference heterogeneity, 49, 57
refugees, 628–631, 636, 638n9
security relations, 90, 463, 465, 469–467, 719, 753n8, 726, 731, 739, 741, 744
territorial disputes, 10, 340, 397, 399, 534–536, 539, 543, 719–720
trade / investment relations, 144, 220, 224–225, 230, 232, 236, 268, 274–278, 282, 289, 308, 337, 357, 360, 364
US relations, 35, 86, 87, 90, 465, 469, 471–475
phone landlines, 183
piracy, 379, 385, 467, 473, 558–559, 562, 576, 629, 766
pivot (US to Asia, 2011), 30, 82, 88, 257, 400, 474, 737, 738
rebalance, 680, 737, 741
Plan of Action for Energy Cooperation (APAEC), 555
Plaza Accord (1985), 142, 331, 352
plurilateralism, 226
plutonium program, 508
Poland, 49, 96
political prisoners, 636
post-Cold War
Defense Planning Guidelines (Pentagon), 87
economic liberalization, 15–16, 36, 39, 233
institutional development, 52, 376–379, 667–669 671, 681–683, 690, 749
nuclear proliferation, 507
political stability, 29, 81, 82, 97
realism, 51, 67, 81, 85, 373
reduced intensity of ideological division, 8
security strategy, 376–380, 386, 466, 468, 473, 573, 671, 731, 740–742, 761
underinstitutionalization, 51
US presence, 82, 85–88, 373
postindependence, 102, 241, 244, 290, 412–413, 483, 508
post-Mao China. See China
postmodern politics, 111
post–World War II, 87, 93, 165, 707
power asymmetries, 462, 655
power transition, 9, 12, 27, 31, 32, 38, 58, 121, 391, 447, 562, 737
preferential trading agreements (PTAs), 148–155, 226, 227, 234, 690, 695–697, 699, 704, 714, 770
primary commodities, 242, 243, 244, 245
privatization, 146, 167, 170, 211, 243, 244, 648
Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), 457, 510, 749, 753
protectionism, 180, 184, 218, 235, 265, 331, 361
protest movements. See environment
Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, 625
public goods, 47, 156, 180, 189–196, 253, 292, 455, 495, 672, 746, 748
Putin, Vladimir (President, Russia), 251, 430, 494
Qatar, 207, 549, 604
Qing dynasty, 106, 402
Quirino, Elpidio (Philippines), 744
Rahmonov, Imomali (President, Tajikistan), 484
Rakhine State, 632–638
rapid industrialization, 281, 642
Rason (ice-free port, DPRK), 438
Reagan administration, 417, 418
realism
Asian regional order, perspectives, 132–134
China, 176n8
cf. classical realism / neorealism, 26–27, 84–85, 705
cf. constructivism, 65–66, 69, 75, 77, 128
core assumptions (See realist propositions)
definition, 25–26
dominant IR paradigm, 12, 25
foreign policy analysis (FPA), 96, 578
international relations theories, 121–122
cf. liberal approach, 51, 58, 69, 77, 570–571
post-Cold War reappraisal, 67–68, 227
regional institutions, low importance, 40, 45, 705
realists, 13, 25–33, 36, 38, 40, 56, 295, 391, 452, 455, 557, 571
(p. 801) cyclical as opposed to progressive, 25
defensive, 373
pessimistic, human condition, 25
rational choice, 589
realpolitik, 25, 467
rebalance. See pivot
reform and opening. See China
refugee camps, 627, 632, 633
Refugee Convention, 623, 625, 631, 636
refugees, 416, 622–637
Regional Anti-Terrorism Structure (RATS), 491, 492
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), 10, 149, 152, 207, 278, 279, 282, 697, 708, 709, 714
regional environmentalism, 652
regional heterogeneity. See heterogeneity
regionalism in Asia, 10, 285, 651, 656
regional production networks, 7, 17, 154, 169, 217, 220, 234, 267, 285–286, 311, 353
growth, Asia, 358–362
horizontal intra-industry trade, 348
horizontal production networks, 231
producer-driven / buyer-driven commodity chains, 351
regional security institutions (RSIs), 453, 462, 469, 667–683, 739
task sharing, 669
remittances, 246, 328, 335, 343, 627, 628
renewable energies, 552, 553
renminbi, 169, 171, 172, 176, 306, 307, 312–320
bloc, 314, 319
undervalued, 311
rentier, 253, 484
rentierism. See Kazakhstan
Republic of Korea (ROK)
Basic Agreement (US, 1992), 429
China, 35, 38, 57, 204–206, 211, 213, 274, 399, 403, 557, 559, 732
Defense White Paper (2010), 457
DPRK, security relations, 27, 427, 434–436, 440–443, 531–532, 534–536, 541–543, 719, 722, 762, 765
economic regime / FDI, 308, 311, 317, 319, 320, 328–333, 336–340
economy / trade development, 82, 87, 93–94, 112, 113, 199–214, 222, 226, 231, 234–235, 244, 247, 264, 268, 270, 272–280, 286, 290–299, 298, 300, 301, 438–439, 446–464, 569, 573, 577, 697, 705, 709, 714
energy, 547, 549, 550–551, 580
gyungjejeiljuwi (“economy first-ism”), 200
Korea-ASEAN FTA, 207
human rights, 597, 599, 602
infectious diseases, 610, 614
military coup (1979), 208
Ministry of Unification, 431, 438, 451, 624, 638
nuclear capacity, 7, 11, 429, 434, 439, 505, 508, 510–511, 515–516, 518, 552, 555–556
Office for the Ministry for Trade (OMT), 207
peacekeeping forces, Iraq, 451
refugees, 624, 625, 629, 635–638
security relations, 9, 149–150, 274, 384, 433, 439, 446–464, 544n3, 560, 561, 576, 581, 675, 678, 693, 744, 750–752, 762
Research and Development (R&D), 336, 338, 342, 357
resource curse, 252, 253
resurgence of China. See China
Reunification Democratic Party (ROK), 208
Rhee, Syngman (first President, 19448–60), 744, 761
rice, 154, 234, 266
rights of children / women, 592
Roadmap for Realignment Implementation (2006,
US), 383
Roh, Moo-hyun (President, ROK, 1993–98), 208, 210–211, 456
Roh, Tae-woo (President, ROK, 1988–93), 208, 448
Rohingya, 626, 632, 633
Rome, 104
(p. 802) Roosevelt, Franklin D. (President, US, 1933–45), 592
ruble zone, 243, 308
Rudd, Kevin (Prime Minister, Australia, 2013), 760
rule of law, 474, 767
Russia
arms export, 7
BRICS, 35, 421, 435
Caspian Sea, 251
Central Asia, 104, 113, 241–256, 338, 354, 482–499, 667, 674, 679
DPRK, 435–436, 438, 452, 458
economy / trade relations, 82, 93, 163, 182, 222, 241, 243–250, 267, 272, 276, 307, 482, 580, 678–679, 714, 716n9
environment, 644
“near abroad” (sphere of influence), 32, 397, 489, 579, 667
nuclear capacity, 27, 505–506, 507, 510, 745, 762
oil and gas, 244, 250–253, 458, 486, 554, 556, 560, 580
preference heterogeneity, 49, 52, 58
refugees, 625
regional donor, 254–256
Russo-centric, 484
security relations, 9, 32, 88, 89, 400, 404, 416, 418, 448, 468, 470–471, 482–486, 482–499, 669–676, 681, 723, 724, 726, 745, 747
Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), 112, 354, 490–492, 498, 555–556, 749
territorial disputes, 533–536, 541, 543, 548
Russian Central bank, 243
Ryutaro, Hashimoto (Prime Minister, Japan, 1996–98), 765
salinization, 643
San Francisco Peace Treaty, 375
San Francisco System, 10
Sarkozy, Nicolas (President, France, 2007–12), 398
Saudi Arabia, 163, 207, 517, 549, 563, 604
Save the Mekong Coalition, 648
Scarborough Shoal, 535, 539
Schwab, Susan, 189, 196n12
sea lines of communication (SLOC), 558, 562, 724, 725
securitization of health. See infectious diseases
security architecture, 387, 473, 474, 519, 667, 726, 727, 731, 738, 739, 741, 744, 745, 748, 749, 750, 751, 758, 768, 771
security competition, 719, 723, 728, 732, 748, 764
Security Consultative Committee (SCC), 383
security dilemma, 7, 12, 14–17, 29, 34, 408, 455, 457, 474, 476, 513, 526, 531, 544, 551, 558, 642, 719–724, 729–732, 738, 743–744, 752, 759, 763
security order, 82, 97, 128, 130, 131, 318, 387
segewha (“globalization”, Korea), 209
self-help, 96, 435, 570, 609, 741
self-reliance, 111, 429, 439, 442, 455, 515, 741
semiauthoritarian, 47, 50
Senior Economic Officials Meeting (SEOM), 54
Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands, 342, 362, 400, 402, 407, 557, 580, 647, 719
Serbians, 25
service sectors, 224, 234, 265, 336
(p. 803) Seventh Fleet (US), 471, 724, 766
severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), 606–612, 616–618
Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO, 2001)
aid program outcomes, 487
cf. ASEAN, ARF, 491, 671, 677, 679
authoritarianism, 487
Central Asia, foreign policy, 484–498, 740
challenges, 492, 678, 749, 763
energy, 555–556, 560
power balancing, 89, 673–677, 742
purpose / structure, 394, 397, 490–492, 540, 671–679, 681, 683, 709–710, 763
regional integration, 249, 256, 354, 740
territorial disputes, 539–540
Shanghai Five, 490–492, 540, 671, 673, 674, 677
Shangri-La Dialogue, 668
Shastri, Lal Bahadur (Prime Minister, India, 1964–66), 415
Shenzhen Kaifa Technology (contract manufacturer, China), 351
shipping, 236, 437, 559, 724
shipbuilding, 202
shock therapy campaign, 243
shutaisei (“mature subjectivity”), 108. See also Kyoto School
Siam (Thailand), 105, 107, 109
Siberia, 206, 251, 719, 724
Singapore
Asian values, 595–598, 602
energy, 438
entrepôt city economy, 270, 358, 696
environment, 648, 649
foreign direct investment (FDI), 330, 333–338
infectious diseases, 614
institutionalization, 148, 157n8, 744 (see also Singapore: ASEAN; trade / economic relations)
newly industrializing country (NIC), 57
pivot, 35, 86
preference heterogeneity, 49–51
refugees, 631, 636, 638n9
security relations / strategy, 89, 95, 471–474, 573, 581, 726, 742
territorial disputes, 90, 535, 559
trade / economic relations, 60n3, 60n4, 82, 144, 185, 207, 210–211, 217, 219, 220, 224–236, 268–270, 274–279, 282, 286–290, 297–298, 301n6, 306, 308, 310, 320n7, 350, 353, 364n22, 697, 704, 712–714, 771
single customs tariff (SCT), 489
Sino-centric, 6, 15, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 128, 470
Sino-Indian border war (1962), 411, 414, 415, 517
Sino-Soviet division (late 1950s), 9
Sino-Soviet rapprochement, 418
Six Markets Group, 286
Six-Party Talks (SPT), 34, 394–395, 432, 434, 436–437, 451, 454–455, 509–510, 668, 740, 745, 747, 749, 750, 752, 763, 765
social harmony, 596. See also Asian values
social theorists, 70, 589
socialism, 57, 92, 93, 94, 165, 181, 264, 435, 450, 538
solidarity, 28, 36, 181, 290, 377, 383, 395, 590, 615, 637, 683
som (Kyrgyzstan national currency), 243
Somalia, 558, 628
songun chongchi (“military-first politics”), 435
Sony (corporation), 331, 363n12
buyout of Columbia Pictures Entertainment (1989), 331
South Africa, 163, 189, 421, 507, 512, 714, 769
South Asia Cooperative Environment Program, 644
South Asia Water Initiative, 655
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), 52, 192, 275, 293, 488–489, 575, 600, 604, 612, 616, 619, 655, 667, 671, 672, 677–683, 707, 710, 711
SAARCFINANCE, 293
South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement (SAPTA), 275, 575, 710
South East Asian Central Banks (SEACEN), 286, 293
Southeast Asia
Asian exceptionalism, 134, 296, 598
China, economic ties, 6, 35, 39, 40, 172, 203, 266, 274, 360, 711
China, security relations, 39, 109, 125, 394, 396–400, 471, 474, 540, 711, 720
decolonization, 104–110
environment, 643–648
financial liberalization, 291, 314–319
hedging, 39
human rights, 598–601, 603
infectious diseases, 606–608, 610–613, 615, 617
institutions, engagement, 467, 498, 575, 667, 669, 672, 740, 744
refugees, 622, 630, 631
regionalism, 74, 125, 280, 555, 667
security relations, 89, 90, 96, 217–336, 372, 379, 462–477, 488, 677–678, 683, 719
trade / investment relations, 57, 145, 146, 149, 163, 193, 210–212, 217–336, 257, 268, 276, 307–308, 314–319, 329–331, 337, 339–340, 352, 355, 357, 361, 419–420, 438, 450, 574, 576
US, security ties, 27, 39, 105, 472–473, 474, 738, 740
Southeast Asia, New Zealand, and Australia (SEANZA), 286, 293
Southeast Asian Nuclear Weapons Free Zone (SEANWFZ), 510
South Korea. See Republic of Korea (ROK)
South Sudan, 385, 558
sovereignty costs, 48, 53
Soviet Central Asian republics. See Central Asia
Soviet Union
Afghanistan, invasion, 416, 417
China, 109–111, 161, 250, 405, 517, 674, 728
conflict, Asia, 36, 416, 417
containment, 26 (see Kissinger) 376, 544n4, 768
decline / collapse, 31, 111–114, 241–242, 307, 401, 412, 416, 418, 419, 448, 465, 481, 493, 507, 532, 624, 669, 674
former Soviet Central Asian republics. See Central Asia
human rights, 592,