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date: 07 July 2020

(p. 503) Index

(p. 503) Index

Abdo, C. H. N. 88
Abortion, Bangladesh sex workers 216
Acemoglu, D. 474
Adetunji, Jacob 172
Adriaenssens, Stef 192, 193, 193t
Adu-Oppong, A. 495
Advocate Classifieds 257
African American women, US 108t 109
pricing
female sex workers 114t
male sex workers 298
street prostitution 101
survival sex 168
Age at first sexual experience, on paying for sex 130t
Agency, prostitutes’, Fin-de-Siècle Paris 420–421
Age of entry, Indian sex workers 246, 247t
Age, sex worker
China 442, 444f
pricing 100, 101, 106, 108t, 109, 112, 112t, 113, 114t, 116
pricing, UK 129t, 132
young 139
Aghatise, E. 463
Akee, R. 473, 476
Akerlof, G. 334
Aklilu, M. 493
Alary, M. 496
Albert, Rocio 334, 334n1
Andreoni, J. 219
Annuitants, Fin-de-Siècle Paris 423–426
Appearance, sex worker. See Attractiveness, female
Argentina, male sex work 293
Arthur, W. B. 73
Arunachalam, Raj 38, 39, 191, 192–194, 192t, 193t, 194t, 218, 221, 239, 297, 300, 336
Ashraf, Nava 202
Assault, by prostitutes 10
Assault, of prostitutes
Bangladesh sex workers 215, 216t, 226
client 46n14, 49t, 53t, 54, 215, 216t
developing countries 4
husband, as impetus for prostitution 213
law enforcement response 400n4
Asymmetric information, male sex work 261, 265–273, 271t, 273t. See also Male sex work, asymmetric information
Attitude, sex worker, on pricing 101, 103, 104, 105
Attractiveness, female sex worker
on earnings, Bangladesh 217–222
on male risk-taking 220
on pricing 101, 106, 116
on risky sex 219–220
Australia, police corruption and legalization 322–323
Backhouse, Constance 393
Bangladesh 4, 210
Bangladesh, sex work 210–226
abortion and miscarriage 216
brothels 211
clients, characteristics 223
clients, fixed 222–223
clients, regular 223–224
condom use, brothel clients 211
daughters of sex workers 214, 215
(p. 504) demographics 210
economic returns 217–222
extortion 210
floating 211
government and NGOs 224–225
HIV/AIDS 225–226
legalization 210
market structure 211–212
matrilineal-based 215
motives, for women entering 212–214, 213t
police corruption and harassment 215–216
relationship, client–sex worker 222–224
self-empowerment and safe-sex awareness 210
sex trafficking 213, 213t
socioeconomic status 214–217, 216t
workplace violence (assault and rape) 215, 216t, 226
Banister, Judith 459
Bardhan, Pranab 232
Barfield, T. 483
Bargaining and coercion 316–328
model 316–318
optimal prostitution law 328–330, 330f
with pimps 325–328
criminalizing pimps 327–328
model modifications 325
no prostitution laws 325
without pimps 318–324
criminalizing prostitutes 320–323, 320t, 321t
no prostitution laws 318–320
Bar girls
India 246t
Malawi 170
sub-Saharan Africa 167, 168nn2–3
Basic market-set price 288
Bath houses
as “front” 142
male sex work, Brazil 256, 288
Baumeister, R. F. 219–220
Beauty, female. See Attractiveness, female
Becker, Gary S. 100, 336
Behavioral economics, male sex work 282–302. See also Male sex work, behavioral economics
Behavior, poor, buyer and seller 10
Behavior, risky sexual. See also Condom use; HIV/AIDS; Unprotected/unsafe sex
HIV/AIDS, developing countries 486–487
paying for sex 130t, 132
pricing, male sex work 295–298
Behavior, risky sexual, African transactional sex
income premium 189
income risk 190–191
income shocks 189
Behavior, sexual
on paying for sex 130t, 132
utility-maximizing 137
Belle Epoque, informal economy 416–417. See also Paris, Fin-de-Siècle public prostitution
Belser, P. 462, 463–464, 467
Berkelaar, Michel 362
Bertozzi, Stefano 47, 142, 171, 191, 192, 193t, 295, 336
Bertrand, M. 220
Bettio, F. 470, 478
Bilateral monopoly negotiation 288
Bill C-49 (Canada) 397, 401–405, 401f, 402f, 403f, 404f, 405f
Binswanger, H. 195
Birdsall, N. 485
Black, D. 275, 276t
Blanchet, T. 213
Bloom, D. E. 485
Brazil
male sex work 256, 288
network theory and internet-mediated prostitution 57–94 (see also Network (p. 505) theory, internet-mediated prostitution)
Brifman, Shirley 322n2
British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (NATSA) 125–126, 127t, 128t
Brooks, Amanda 14
Brothels 371
Bangladesh 211–212, 224–225
as businesses 371
Canada 1865–1892, 392–393
condom use
Bangladesh 211
Nevada 382–383
developing countries, on HIV/AIDS risk 489
vs. independent workers/escorts 371
India 234–235, 235t
sex-worker marital status 238–240, 240t
Nevada regulated 1, 6, 369–388 (see also Nevada’s regulated brothels)
Paris regulated, Fin-de-Siècle 422–423
safety and privacy 370–371
Southeast Asia, male sex work 256
Bulletin board 64–65
Burke, Marshall 205
Buyer feedback. See also The Erotic Review (TER)
eBay 9, 11–12
word of mouth 12
Cabaret owner pimping, Fin-de-Siècle Paris, 419
Cáceres, C. F. 293
Cagan, Phillip 349, 350
Cairncross, Sandy 203
Call girls. See also Escorts, female professional
Australia 371
high-end 98, 138
India 231, 234, 235t
prevalence 98
pricing 99
Calvès, Anne-Emmanuele 169n4
Cameron, S. 139, 263, 288–292, 290t, 294, 336
Campbell, C. 491–492
Campbell, Rosie 123
Canadian Criminal Code, on prostitution
current 398–399
early 393–394
Canadian prostitution law 391–413
British Columbia challenge and Supreme Court 412–413
decriminalization advocates 413
empirics 399–412
arrest data 400–405, 401f, 402f, 403f, 404f, 405f
conceptual framework 399–400
online sex-worker review website data 405–412, 407f, 409t, 410t
future changes 412
history 392–399
1865–1892, 392–393
1892–1970s 393–395
20th century debates 395–397
current laws and enforcement 398–399
opposing perspectives 391
recent developments
Ontario and British Columbia 412–413
provincial courts 391–392
Cantanese, K. R. 219–220
Carbral, Luis 9
Cash-transfer programs, African transactional sex
conditional 200–202
Malawi 179–184, 301
for mitigation 179–181, 180nn17–20
SIHR project and HIV 181n21, 182–184, 183n22
Cassell, Michael 172
Chen, X.-S. 453n16
Chevalier, Judith 12
China, demographic change and STIs 437–456
condom use 440, 440t
history 438–441
Communist transition and crackdown 439
premodern to early-modern 438–439
reform period and resurgence 439–441, 440nn3–4, 440t
(p. 506) HIV/AIDS, prevalence 453–456
informal rackets 437
marriage markets, demographic projections, and sex work 450–456
projections 452–456, 453n15, 455t, 459–460
unmarried men, marriage squeeze 451, 451n13, 453f, 454f
unmarried men, prevalence 450–451
unmarried men, projections 451–452, 451n14, 459
prostitution prevalence 437, 437n1, 440, 440nn3–4
sex work
demand, demographics 437
married women 441
shaming, public 437, 441
STI patterns, sex ratios 446–448
migrants and condom use 445f, 446
sex ratio, rising male 446, 448f
sex ratio, syphilis rates 447, 450f
sex workers, adult sex and STI rates 447, 449t
STI prevalence 440–441
supply-and-demand dynamics 441–450
age distribution 442, 444f
migrant sex workers 443–444, 444f
migrant worker demand 444–446, 445f
sex worker supply, microdata 441–444, 441n6, 443t, 444f
single vs. married sex workers 442–443, 443n8, 443t, 444f
venue stratification 443, 446
syphilis 437
Cho, S. Y. 346, 462, 464–465, 469, 474–477
Church, Stephanie 313
Client–sex worker relationship, Bangladesh 222–224
Clustering, geographic
Fin-de-Siècle Paris 416
India 237–238
Clustering, variety Seeking 140
Coercion. See also Bargaining and coercion
definition 315
transactional 314–330, 314f (see also Transactional coercion)
Collins, A. 139, 294, 336
Communication networks, internet-mediated prostitution 57–94. See also Network theory, internet-mediated prostitution
Compartmental model 79
Computer-mediated communication 104
Concurrent-partnerships theory 484
Conditional cash transfers 301
African transactional sex 200–202
Condom use. See also Behavior, risky sexual; Sexually transmitted infections (STIs); Unprotected/unsafe sex
Bangladesh
brothels 211
earnings 217
China 440, 440t
male 440, 440t
migrants 445f, 446
male sex workers 295–297, 296t
Nevada brothels 382–383
pricing 99, 102–103, 106, 107, 108t, 112, 113, 113t, 114t, 116
risk-premium hypothesis 295, 297
sub-Saharan Africa
factors 489
transactional sex 171, 171n5
Conservative opinions, on paying for sex 128, 131, 131t
Contact sequence, disease spread 80–81, 81t
Contagious Disease Act (Canada) 392–393
Continuum of dependence, Fin-de-Siècle Paris 419
Contract enforcement and performance 11–12
Corbin, Alain 417
Corno, Lucia 172, 172n7
Cornwall, Andrea 169n4
Corrigan, P. 485
Craigslist erotic services
advertising 10
launch dates 26, 27t
launch vs. TER monthly reviews
aggregate 28–29, 29f
number 26, 28f
(p. 507) Crime network 58
Criminalization
of johns 323–324
of prostitutes 320–323, 320t, 321t
Criminalization, on bargaining and coercion
with pimps 327–328
without pimps
of johns 320t, 321t, 323–324
of prostitutes 320–323, 320t, 321t
Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001, 123
Cunningham, Scott 38–40, 55, 101, 406
Cycles, counts 62
Daly, M. 220
Danailova-Trainor, G. 462, 463–464, 467
Dar es Salaam, transactional sex 170
Data, prostitution economics 1–2. See also specific types
Degree, vertices and edges 62
Della Giusta, Marina 33, 55, 123, 289, 292, 294–295, 333–334, 334n1, 336, 337, 340, 341n4, 344, 464, 470
Dellarocas, Chrysanthos 12
Demand 3. See also Supply and demand; specific contexts and types
aggregate, for commercial sex 34
Della Giuta’s model 123–125
factors 122
male vs. female 121
Demographic translation 452n15
Dercon, Stefan 195
Developing countries 4. See also specific countries
De Walque, Damien 172, 172n7, 180, 180n20, 181, 201
Di Nicola, A. 462, 469
Dinkelman, Taryn 204
Disease spreading 79–82. See also HIV/AIDS; Sexually transmitted infections (STIs); Syphilis, China
contact sequence 80–81, 81t
models 79–80
Di Tommaso, J. 33, 55, 289, 292, 294–295, 333–334, 334n1, 337, 341n4, 344, 464, 470
Doezema, Joe 231
Domestic violence, Bangladesh 213–214, 213t
Dominican Republic, male sex worker pricing 299
Donovan, B. 65
Dorais, M. 301
Dreher, A. 346, 462, 464–465, 469, 474, 476
Duflo, Esther 181, 181n21, 201, 202
Dunae, Patrick A. 395
Dunkle, K. 489
Dupas, Pascaline 181, 181n21, 184, 199, 201–205
Earnings. See Pricing; specific sex worker types and factors
eBay, buyer feedback 9, 11–12
Eberstadt 484
Econometric model and identification strategy, online prostitution reviews and reputation 10
Economic literature, sex workers 121–122
Economic networks 59. See also Networks
Economic theories, sex market 33–55. See also EK model
Ecuador
legal, licensed prostitution 334
male sex work 293
risk-premium, unprotected sex 297
Edges 61–62
Edlund, L. 33, 36–39, 212, 215, 240, 285, 336, 442, 442n7, 452n15. See also EK model
Education level, on paying for sex 129t, 132
Efficiency, legal status on 135–157. See also Legal status, on versatility and efficiency, UK
EK model 33–55
conclusions 54–55
data 40–41, 40f
demand
aggregate 34
married vs. unmarried men’s 34
(p. 508) discussion 36, 55
econometric framework and results 41–47, 54–55
female wage and male income on prostitution 45, 46t, 54
foreign prostitutes cheaper 45–47, 48t, 49t, 50t, 54–55
sex workers’ vs. other female workers’ wages 41–45, 43t, 44t, 54
foreign prostitutes 45–55
cheaper? 45–47, 48t, 49t, 50t, 54–55
good-looking or violent clients? 53t, 54
number of clients? 50–51, 52t
regular clients? 53–54, 53t
riskier sex? 47–50, 48t, 49t, 51t
shorter sessions? 52–53, 53t
history and motivation 33
mathematical exposition 34–35
propositions 35, 37
vs. supply-and-demand model 36–37
testable predictions 37–39
Empowerment, economic 301
Engelberg, J. 39
Enste, Dominik 349–350
Entry into sex work (free vs. forced)
Bangladesh 212–214, 213t
India 231
male sex workers 286–287
violence 312, 313
Enumeration areas (EAs) 173, 173n10
Environmental conditions, pricing 103, 108t, 109, 114t, 115, 116
Epidemics, defined 483
Epidemics, mitigation 89–93
networks 90–91, 91f
sex worker activity level 90, 91f
sex worker vulnerability 89–90
vaccination 89–93
effectiveness 89
protocols, low-cost 93
protocols, study 90, 90t
random campaigns 93
targeted campaigns 91–92, 92f
Epidemics, network structure 82–86
SI1I2 simulation 86, 87f
SI model simulation 82–85, 83f, 84f, 85f
SIR simulation 85–86
Erotic capital 219
Erotic Review. See The Erotic Review (TER)
Escorts, female professional 98. See also Call girls; specific topics and locations
Brazil, internet-mediated networks 57–94 (see also Network theory, internet-mediated prostitution)
companionship utility 138
earnings 43, 43t, 98–99
EK model testing 39
India 234, 235t
male 257
online reviews and reputation 2, 9–31 (see also Reviews and reputation, online prostitution)
prevalence 98
pricing 43–45, 43t, 44t, 99
reviews and reputation, online prostitution 2, 9–31 (see also Reviews and reputation, online prostitution)
shadow economy, UK 143
TER quality 1999–2007
average 14–15, 15f
by city 14–15, 16t
Escorts, male professional. See also Male sex work
U.S. online market 255–277
Ethnicity, sex worker, on pricing 101, 106, 108t, 109, 113, 114t
Euler, Leonard 59
Ex ante coping, sex work as informal insurance 189–190
Exclusion, social, sex workers 214
Exploitation
of prostitutes, sexual 6
sex trafficking 461–479 (see also Trafficking, sexual exploitation)
Ex post responses, African transactional sex 189
Family-based inheritance, female sex work, Indiaa 230 (p. 509)
Feedback, buyer
eBay 9, 11–12
The Erotic Review (see The Erotic Review (TER))
word of mouth 12
Ferguson, A. 492
Financial independence, Fin-de-Siècle Paris prostitutes 418
Finckenauer, James 441n5
First Pan-India Survey of Sex Workers. See Pan-India Survey of Sex Workers, First
Fiszbein, Ariel 180n17
Fitzgerald Report (1989) 322–323
Foreign prostitutes 45–55
cheaper? 45–47, 48t, 49t, 50t, 54
good-looking or violent clients? 53t, 54
number of clients? 50–51, 52t
regular clients? 53–54, 53t
riskier sex? 47–50, 48t, 49t
shorter sessions? 52–53, 53t
Fortson, J. 485
Foss, A. 495
Foucault, Michel 416
Fraser Report 396–397
Freelancers 167–168, 168nn2–3
Freund, Matthew 103
Galli, T. V. 474, 475
Gatekeeping 313, 330, 330f
Gay Concentration Index (GCI) 275
Geertz, Clifford 421n8
Gender, sex worker 121
Geographic clustering
Fin-de-Siècle Paris 416
India 237–238
Geographic region
female sex work, pricing 103, 105, 108t, 109, 114t, 115, 116–117
male sex work 261, 274–277, 276t
Gay Concentration Index (GCI) 275
U.S. online market 261
Gertler, Paul 47, 142, 171, 191, 192, 193t, 295, 334, 335, 336, 339
Ghys, P. 488
Girlfriend experience (GFE) 101, 107, 108t, 111, 114t, 116
Glaeser, E. 474
Glomm, G. 485
Godin, G. 488
Goldberg, Rachel 176
Gomez, Fernando 334, 334n1
Graff, Harvey 393
Graph theory 58
Greenhalgh, Susan 451n13
Gross domestic product (GDP) network theory and internet-mediated prostitution 58, 75f, 77–78, 78f
Grossman, Michael 336
Guilt 138
Gutierrez, Yanna 334, 334n1
Haggard, Ted 260
Hakim, C. 219
Hamer, W. H. 79
Hamoudi, A. 485
Hands-off approach 338–339
Harcourt, C. 65
Hargrove, Thomas 104–105
Harsin, Jill 417
Hart, Oliver D. 11
Health-conscious sex workers, premium 222
Health, sex worker
checkups, Bangladesh 217
Nevada brothels 382–383
Health shocks, small, transactional sex responses 197–198
Hendrickx, Jef 192, 193, 193t
Hill, Kenneth 459
HIV/AIDS 6
definition, WHO/UNAIDS 487
infection risks
anal sex 488
“dry sex” 488
Nevada brothels 375
transactional sex 188
HIV/AIDS, developing world 483–487
African transactional sex and income shocks 188–209 (see also Transactional sex, Africa, microeconomic factors)
definition 487
heterogeneity 487
HIV/AIDS, developing world, prostitution and 487–493
condom use, factors 489
criminalization, as risk amplifier 490
demand side
clients 491–493
clients: mine workers 491–492
clients: truck drivers 492–493
India sex workers 231
prevention campaigns 486
public policy and campaigns 493–496
intervention examples 495–496
UNAIDS, three pillars 493–494
risks
alcohol use 490
anal and “dry” sex 488
brothels vs. truck stops and poor neighborhoods 489
commercial sex 488
older vs. younger sex workers 489
risky sexual behavior and behavioral change 486–487
rural vs. urban areas 487
HIV/AIDS epidemic 483–486
concurrent-partnerships theory 484
definition 483
developing world
prevalence 483–484
sub-Saharan heterogeneity 484
on economic growth and development 484–486
missing generation 486
prevention campaigns 486
on social cohesion 486
HIV/AIDS prevalence
Bangladesh 225–226
developing world 483–487
female sex workers 487–488
Malawi 172
gender gap 173, 193n8
SIHR project and transactional sex 181n21, 182–184, 183n22
male sex workers 282, 283–285, 284t
poverty, female 171–172
sex workers vs. general female population 487–488
sub-Saharan Africa 165
wealth 172, 172n7
world 282
Hof, Dennis 379–380
Holme, P. 69, 80
Homaifar, N. 488
Home Office Prostitution Strategy for England and Wales 123
Hortacsu, Ali 9
Hotelling, H. 274
Hotel owners’ pimping, Fin-de-Siècle Paris 419
Human development index (HDI), network theory and internet-mediated prostitution 58, 75f, 77–78, 78f
Human trafficking, sexual exploitation 461–479. See also Trafficking, sexual exploitation
Identity, sex worker
classification 229
IMAGE intervention 180n18
Immordino, G. 333, 335, 336, 336–337n2, 339–340, 342
Income, male
on paying for sex 129t, 132
on prostitution 45, 46t, 54
Income premium, transactional sex, Africa
evidence 191–193
transactional sex 191, 192t
unprotected sex 192–193, 193t, 194t
riskier/unprotected sex 189
sex workers 189
Income risk, African transactional sex 190–191. See also Transactional sex, Africa, microeconomic factors
Income shocks, sex work
(p. 511) African transactional sex
HIV risk 189
increased and riskier sex work 189
regular clients 189
Bangladesh 221
Income sources, non–sex work, Bangladesh 217
Independent contractors, Nevada brothels 376, 385
India, sex worker identity 229–249
adhiya, income sharing 230
anthropologists vs. economists on 232
dalali, income sharing, 229–230
danda and dhandewali, 229
definitional clarification, need for 230
family-based inheritance, female 230
hidden population 231
magnitude and estimation issues 230–231
marriage status 231
mode of entry, free vs. forced 231
occupational identity 240–248
age of entry 246, 247t
Census of India 240
contributing family workers, informal enterprises 242t, 243
employees, informal enterprises 242t, 243
informal jobs, by site of operation 242–244, 243t
informal jobs, by women 243t, 244
labor occupation diversity 244–246, 246t
other labor market participation, with sex work 244, 245t
own-account workers, households 242t, 243
own-account workers, informal enterprises 241–243, 242t
retention of labor forms, after entering sex work 248, 248t
sex work vs. marriage, 240–241
unorganized/informal sector economy units 241
regional variations 230
researcher-accessed types 234
sex-work and informal labor-market overlaps 232
sites of operation on identity 232, 233–240
fixed vs. flexible, 235–237, 237t
full-time vs. part-time, 234, 235t
identity vs. access 235, 235t
indoor, brothel-based 234–235, 235t
indoor, escorts/call-girls 234, 235t
marital status, home-based vs. brothel-based 238–240, 240t
regulated vs. nonregulated, 238
street-based 233–235, 235t
Indoor sex work 2, 9–31. See also Reviews and reputation, online prostitution; specific types and locations
safety and privacy 370–371
Informal economy, Fin-de-Siècle Paris 431–432
Informal economy, India
economy units 241
females 243t, 244
sex-work and informal labor market overlaps 232
sex workers, by site of operation 242–244, 243t
Informal sex workers
definition 168, 168nn2–3
Malawi 168, 168n1
Information sharing, online 99–100
Insurance, African sex work as 189–190
regular clients 198–199
Internet-mediated prostitution 2, 9–31, 99. See also Reviews and reputation, online prostitution
as data source 57–58
markets 10
sexual and communication networks 57–94 (see also Network theory)
Islam, A. 212, 213t, 218, 221–222, 224–225
Itiel, J. 259
Jack, Kelsey 202
Jahnsen, Synnøve 122
Jakobsson, Niklas 122, 462–469, 466t, 468t, 475–476
(p. 512) Jarillo, J. C. 214
Jiménez, O. G. 293
Johns
criminalization, on bargaining and coercion 320t, 321t, 323–324
online forums 99, 106
John School 398
Johnson, S. 474
Kamenica, Emir 202
Kaufman, Carol 169n4
Kaya, A. 267, 267n6
Kayembe, P. 496
Keats, Anthony 195
Keffle, Keith 11
Kempadoo, Kamala 231
Kendall, Todd D. 38–40, 55, 101, 406
Kenya, sex workers 4
prevalence 190
pricing
male sex workers 299
risk-premium, unprotected sex 297
transactional sex 170
Klein, Benjamin 11
Kohler, Hans-Peter 180, 181, 181n21, 201
Korn, E. 33, 36–38, 212, 215, 240, 285, 336, 442, 442n7. See also EK model
Kotsadam, Andreas 122, 462–469, 466t, 468t, 475–476
Kremer, Michael 181, 181n21, 201, 202
Labor. See also specific contexts and types
African transactional sex, income risk on 190–191
supply and demand 2–3
vs. EK model 36–37
supply creates demand 420–421
Laga, M. 495
La Goutte d’Or district 417. See also Paris, Fin-de-Siècle public prostitution
Laissez-faire regime 338–339
Lam, David 204
Landlords, slum, Fin-de-Siècle Paris 426–428
L’Assommoir (Zola) 420n6
Law Merchant system 12
Lee, Nancy 103, 314, 330, 465, 476, 478
Lee, Samuel 312–313
Legagneux, Hélène 418–419
Legalization, sex work 370
Australia and New Zealand 370
Australia, police corruption 322–323
Bangladesh 210
Ecuador 334
Europe 370
licensing 339, 342–344
Nevada brothels 370–371 (see also Nevada’s regulated brothels)
options 339
policies 339, 340–342
regulation 339–340, 342–344
by country 333
Senegal 370
on sex trafficking 463–469
vs. criminalization 463–465
Europe 467–468, 468t, 476
stigma 334, 334n1
taxation 339, 342–344
on violence 312–313
zoning 339
Legal regulation 121
Legal status, on versatility and efficiency, UK 135–157
data and estimation 143–149
cluster, neighborhood 147–149, 148t, 149t
establishment name 146, 146t
facilities 145
locations 143–144
postcode (location) 147
sample entry 144
source, McCoy’s Guide, 11th ed., 143
variables 144–146
economics of prostitution 137–139
guilt 138
(p. 513) personal damage costs 138
relationship disturbance cost 138
utility-maximizing behavior 137
variety demand 138
virgins 139
younger partners 139
fundamentals 135–137
massage-parlor sector 142–143
supply volume and variety 150–156, 151t, 152f, 153t, 154t, 155t, 156t
descriptive statistics, whole sample 150, 153t, 154t
regression and logit estimates 150–156, 155t, 156t
weekly opening hours 150, 151t
weekly opening hours, vs. area population 150, 152f
variety Seeking 139–141
Legislation, prostitution. see also specific countries and types
history 6
on sex trafficking 463–469
Europe 467–468, 468t, 476
legalization vs. criminalization on 463–465
Leibbrandt, Murray 204
Leonard, Terri L. 103
Levitt, Steven 99, 240, 421n8
Liljeros, F. 69, 80
Litigation, problematic 9, 10
Liu, Shuzhuo 441n5
Locations, sexual services. see Geographic region
Logan, T. D. 255, 258, 260–263, 263n3, 266, 290t, 298, 299
Lowman, John 396
Luby, Stephen 202–203
Luchters, S. 489, 495
Luckenbill, D. F. 257
Luke, Nancy 170, 171, 171n5, 176
MacLeod, Bentley 11
Madajewicz, M. 202
Maganjala, Winford 168, 169, 170
Mahal, A. S. 485
Malawi 4
demographics 172–173
HIV gender gap 173, 193n8
HIV prevalence 172
informal sex workers 168, 168n1
transactional sex 165–187 (see also Transactional sex, Malawi)
vs. commercial sex work 167–168, 168nn2–3
Male sex work
vs. female sex work 285
typology 288, 289f
Male sex work, behavioral economics 282–302
client characteristics 293
cost-benefit calculation 287
deviant vs. mainstream, 289, 290t, 291t
economic models 289–293
economic research 282
vs. female sex work 285
future research 299–302
economic models, nontraditional 300–301
economic models, traditional 300
social and economic policies 301–302
HIV/AIDS 283, 284t
prevalence 282
information and market forces 299
job choice and entry 286–287
London 288–289
pricing 294–298
negotiation levels 294
psychosocial aspects 298–299
risk premium 295–298
sex market characteristics 294–295
sex transaction, final commercial 295, 296t
searches, economic research 283–285
sexual orientation, identity, and behavior 255
supply 287–289, 290t, 291t
transgendered sex workers 285–286
(p. 514) Male sex work, economics 255–277
asymmetric information 261, 265–273, 271t, 273t
client decision-making 266
fundamentals 265–266
least-cost-separating equilibrium 269–270
OLS regression, information quality and price 272–273, 273t
OLS regression, information, reputation, and price 270–273, 270n11, 271t
pooled equilibrium 269
quality, basic 266–267
quality, service 267
signaling model 267–269nn6–10, 267–270
data, market (advertisements) 262–265, 264t
future research 277
geographic distribution and migratory patterns 261, 274–277
advertisement data 275, 276t
gay communities 274
location patterns and national market 275–277, 276t
geographic variations 256
homosexuality 255
market 255
before online market 257
Southeast Asia 256
unique issues 255
Male sex work, online market, U.S. 256–261
advertisement content control 258–259
basic features 257–259
client risk 259–261
demand and pricing, geographic 261
encounter, generic 259
escorts 256
in-call vs. out-call 259
independent-operator 257
misrepresentation 259
police raids 258
public price setting 258
Market mechanisms 11
Market structure, Bangladesh brothels 211–212
Marriage market explanation. See EK model
Marriage vs. sex work, India 240–241
Married sex workers. See also Transactional sex, Africa
Bangladesh 215
Ecuador and Mexico 215
India 231
home-based vs. brothel-based business 238–240, 240t
Massage-parlor sex work 3, 98
environmental conditions 103
online data 105, 107, 108t, 110–113, 111t, 112t, 113t, 114t, 116–117
online forums 65
Massage Parlours Act (New Zealand) 142
Matrilineal-based sex work, Bangladesh 215
Mayzlin, Dina 12
Mberu, Blessing 176
McCoy’s Guide, 143
McIntosh, Craig 173n9, 174n14, 182, 200–201
Meekers, Dominique 169n4
Mendez, F. 485
Men who have sex with men 4–5. See also Male sex work
Milgrom, Paul 12
Miscarriage, Bangladesh sex workers 216
Moffatt, P. G. 336
Mondal, A. H. 212, 213t
Monto, M. A. 140
Moonlite Bunny Ranch 379–380
Morris, C. 492
Motives for sex work, Bangladesh 212–214, 213t
Munro, Vanessa 123
Murphy, Kevin 336
Nair, P. M. 231–232
Nana (L’Assommoir) 420, 420n6
(p. 515) Nandi, T. K. 470, 478
Negative selection, transactional coercion 314–315
Networks 59–64
crime 58
definition 58
economic 59
mathematical representations 58
names and properties 64t
null models 63–64
properties and measures 61–63
reference model 63
sexual 60–61
simple (unipartite) 62
social 58–59
static 64
STI spread 58
temporal 63, 63f
terrorism 58–59
Network theory 2–3
data quality 58
data sources 57–58
definition 58
fundamentals 59
Network theory, internet-mediated prostitution 57–94. See also specific topics
augmenting well-mixed models 86–89, 89f
discussion and future directions 93–94
disease spreading 79–82, 81t
epidemics
mitigation 89–93
network structure 82–86
GDP and human development index 58, 75f, 77–78, 78f
networks 59–64 (see also Networks)
sexual network 60–61 (see also Sexual networks)
structure and dynamics 69–78
web community 64–68 (see also Web community)
Neumayer, E. 346, 462, 464–465, 469, 474, 476
Nevada’s regulated brothels 1, 6, 369–388
casino owners and local officials vs.1950s 374
context, legal indoor prostitution 370–371
gaming and convention industry vs. 1970s 374–375
history and development 371–375
laws and regulations 375–376
Moonlite Bunny Ranch 379–380
neoliberal consumer economy 369
online reservations 380
organization and market, today 377–378
prevalence and sex worker population 369
rural 378–379
sex workers, characteristics and histories 385–387
STI testing 375
suburban 379–380
worker regulation 376–377
workplace 380–385
customer refusal, worker 384–385
drugs and alcohol, sex workers 384
equipment (sex) 384
health 382–383
independent contractors 376, 385
off-shift amenities 384
on premises requirement 384
price negotiation 383
room and board payments 383–384
safety 380–382
sex trafficking 385
shifts 384
New Zealand, sex laws 142
Nigeria, transactional sex 169n4. See also Transactional sex Africa, microeconomic factors
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), Bangladesh brothels 224–225
North, Doug 12
Ntumbanzondo, M. 489
Null models 63–64
Occupational identity, India sex work 240–248. See also India, sex worker identity
Older sex workers. See Age, sex worker
Olley, B. 492
(p. 516) Omar, Mahmoud 470, 475, 477, 478
Online data, economics of prostitution 98–120
computer-mediated communication 104
data and methods 104–107
discussion and conclusions 115–117
economic factors 100–103
age and appearance 100, 101, 106, 108t, 109, 112, 112t, 113, 114t, 116
condom use 99, 102–103, 106, 107, 108t, 112, 113, 113t, 114t, 116
environmental and regional conditions 103, 105, 108t, 109, 114t, 115–117
ethnicity 101, 106, 108t, 109, 113, 114t
girlfriend experience 101, 107, 108t, 111, 114t, 116
personality and attitude, sex worker 101, 103, 104, 105
sexual acts 101–102
street prostitution, Internet on 101
street prostitution vs. indoors 100–101
unsafe practices 102–103
independent variables 107–110, 108t
measures and scales 106–107
online resources 103–104
price, average, analysis and findings 110–115
by geographic region 114t, 115
regressed on independent variables 112–113, 114t
by type of provider 111–112, 111t
by type of provider and age 112, 112t
by type of provider and condom use 112, 113t
by type of services 110–111, 110t
resources 103–104
sources 99–100
Online discussion groups 104
Online forums 64–65, 104–107
for johns 99, 106
Online information sharing 99–100
Online prostitution, reviews and reputation 2, 9–31. See also Reviews and reputation, online prostitution
Online reservations, Nevada brothels 380
Option demand, variety Seeking 141
Organized crime, sex trafficking 462
Oso, G. 492
Outshoorn, J. 339
Over, M. 484–485
Own-account sex workers, India
household 242t, 243
informal enterprises 241–243, 242t
Özler, Berk 173n9, 174n14, 182, 200–201
Pan-India Survey of Sex Workers, First 232–233
Pan, Suiming 453n17
Paris, Fin-de-Siècle public prostitution 416–432
agency, prostitutes’, 420–421
Belle Epoque informal economy 416–417
clustering of sex workers, on neighborhood 416
data sources 417nn1–2
economic agents and interests 417
informal economy as inheritance 431–432
La Goutte d’Or district 417
negative externalities 421–426
brothels, regulated 422–423
shopkeepers and annuitants 423–426
positive externalities 426–431
“red-light district” 429–431
wine merchants and slumlords 426–428
streetwalker in bazaar economy 417–421
cabaret and hotel owner pimping 419
leaving prostitution for marriage/pimping 418
prostitution for financial independence 418
prostitution in continuum of dependence 419
supply creates demand 420–421
Parish, William 453n17
Parsons, C. A. 39
Path 62
Path length 62
Peer-to-peer markets, reputation and selection 12–13
Personal damage costs 138
Personality, sex worker pricing 101
(p. 517) Persson, Petra 312–313, 314, 330, 465, 476, 478
Peru, male sex work 293
Peters, S. A. 336
Petrie, R. 219
Pickering, H. 191, 192t, 489
Pimps
bargaining and coercion 325–328
criminalization with 327–328
Fin-de-Siècle Paris 418–419
India 229–230
police corruption and harassment, criminalization on 327
underground commercial sex economy, U.S.
population proxy 356–357, 357t
weekly cash intake 354, 354t
weekly cash intake, proxy 357, 357t
violence 313
Pisani, Elizabeth 93
Pitts, M. K. 140
Police corruption and harassment, of prostitutes
Bangladesh sex workers 215–216
bargaining and coercion model 316–317
criminalizing johns 323–324
criminalizing pimps 327
criminalizing prostitutes 320–323, 320t, 321t
prostitution law, optimal 329–330
substitution and negative selection 314–315
violence exposure, via criminalization 329
Policy 5
Policy, prostitution 5, 332–346
alternatives 338–344
abolitionism regime 340
earnings potentials, sex workers 340
illegal prostitution 339, 340–342
legal and regulated prostitution 339–340, 342–344
legal options 339
economic literature 333–336, 334n1
equilibrium model, simple 336–337n2, 336–338
Greece and Rome, ancient 332
hands-off approach (laissez-faire) 338–339
illegal
laws vs. enforcement 339
penalties and enforcement, by country 332–333
for prostitutes vs. clients 340–342
legal
licensing 339, 342–344
regulation, by country 333
taxing 339, 342–344
zoning 339
stigma, endogenous 344–346
violence mitigation 311, 328–330, 330f
Poulin, Michelle 168, 169
Power 311
Presenti, C. 471–472, 475, 476, 477
Pricing, female sex workers
African Americans, US 114t
age 100, 101, 106, 108t, 109, 112, 112t, 113, 114t, 116
UK 129t, 132
attitude 101, 103, 104, 105
attractiveness 101, 106, 116
Bangladesh 217–222
basic market-set price 288
call girls 99 (see also Call girls)
condom use 99, 102–103, 106, 107, 108t, 113, 114t, 116
Bangladesh 217
by provider type 112, 113t
environmental conditions 103, 108t, 109, 114t, 115, 116
ethnicity 101, 106, 108t, 109, 113, 114t
foreground and situational factors 99–100
geographic region 103, 105, 108t, 109, 114t, 115, 116–117
Nevada brothels 383
personality 101
provider type 111–112, 111t
age and 100, 101, 106, 108t, 109, 112, 112t, 113, 114t, 116
condom use and 112, 113t
regional 103, 105, 108t, 109, 114t, 115, 116–117
(p. 518) service type 99–100, 101–102, 105–106, 110–111, 110t, 114t
by type of provider 111, 111t
street prostitutes 99
by type of prostitute 99
unprotected/unsafe sex premium 102–103
Kenya 297
virgins 139
Pricing, male sex workers 270–273, 270n11, 271t, 273t
African Americans, US 298
basic market-set 288
behavioral economics 294–298
negotiation levels 294
psychosocial aspects 298–299
risk premium 295–298
sex market characteristics 294–295
sex transaction, final commercial 295, 296t
Dominican Republic 299
Kenya 299
OLS regression
information and reputation 270–273, 270n11, 271t
information quality 272–273, 273t
online market, U.S.
geographic 261
influences 258
Prina, Silvia 204
Professional status, on paying for sex 129t, 130t, 132
Prostitution. See also specific topics and locations
definition 487
economic factors 100–103
market dynamics and community attitudes 98–99, 122
prevalence, by type 98
social science research 98
Prostitution (Public Places) Scotland Act 2007, 123
Provider type, on pricing 111–112, 111t
age 100, 101, 106, 108t, 109, 112, 112t, 113, 114t, 116
condom use 112, 113t
Pruitt, M. 263
Queensland, Australia, police corruption and legalization 322–323
Race, sex worker, on pricing 101, 106, 108t, 109, 113, 114t
Random edge (RE) model 63–64, 83, 84f
Random edges times (RET) model 64, 83, 84f
Random times (RT) model 64, 83, 83f
Rao, S. 471–472, 475, 476, 477
Rao, Vijayendra 171, 192, 193t, 336
Rape, workplace
Bangladesh sex workers 215, 216t, 226
police officer 313
Raphael, Jody 313
Rasch, Vibeke 170
Rational-choice framework, sex trafficking 462, 475
Ray, Isha 232
“Red-light district,” Fin-de-Siècle Paris 429–431
Reference model 63
Region. See Geographic region
Regular clients
foreign prostitutes 53–54, 53t
transactional sex, Africa
income shocks 189
as insurance 198–199
Regulation, legal 121
Nevada brothels 1, 6, 369–388 (see also Nevada’s regulated brothels)
United Kingdom 123
Rekart, M. 495
Relationship, Bangladesh client–sex worker 222–224
Relationship disturbance cost 138
Religion, on paying for sex 128, 130t
Religious service/meeting attendance, on paying for sex 128, 131, 131t
Repeat customers 11. See also Regular clients
infrequent 10
(p. 519) Reproduction number (R0) 87–89, 89f
Reputation
male sex work economics 289–292
online prostitution 2, 9–31 (see also Reviews and reputation, online prostitution)
peer-to-peer markets 12–13
Reputation theory model 289–293
Research, on economics of prostitution 98–99. See also specific types
Reviews and reputation, online prostitution 2, 9–31
baseline regression 20–26, 21t, 22t, 23t, 24t, 25t
conceptual model 11–13
contract enforcement and performance 11–12
reputation and selection, peer-to-peer markets 12–13
Craigslist erotic services advertising 10
Craigslist erotic services launch
dates 26, 27t
reviews per month 26, 28f
reviews per month, aggregate 28–29, 29f
data and methodology 13–19
data description 14–17
econometric model and identification strategy 10
empirical implications of model 13–14
new reviews, by month 15–17, 17f, 18t
performance ratings, client submitted 2000 & 2006, 15, 17f
data and methodology 1999–2007
quality for escorts, average 14–15, 15f
quality for escorts, by city 14–15, 16t
The Erotic Review (TER) 10, 11–12
individual-level variables 20, 21t
instrumental variables 26–30, 27t, 28f, 29f, 29t
overview 19–20
results 19–30
seller reputation on buyers 9
website popularity on service popularity
city-specific time trends 29t
linear and quadratic city trends 20, 24t, 25t, 26
linear city trends 20, 22t, 23t
Riedner, G. 488, 496
Risk-coping mechanisms
African transactional sex 203–204
developing countries 194–195
Risk, on transactional sexual behavior, Kenya 193–200
diary study 196
market 195–196
postelection survey 196–197
results 197–200
postelection crisis 199–200
regular clients as insurance 198–199
response to small health shocks 197–198
risk coping in developing countries 194–195
Risk-premium hypothesis
female sex workers 295, 297 (see also Condom use)
Ecuador 297
Kenya 297
male sex workers 295–298, 296t
Mexico 297
Risk-taking, male, female attractiveness on 220
Risk, variety Seeking 141
Risky behavior. See Behavior
Robinson, Jonathan 168n3, 171, 192, 193, 193t, 194t, 198, 199, 203–205, 214, 297, 474
Rocha, L. E. C. 69, 80, 93
Rosenzweig, M. 195
Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCAs) 203–204
Rothman, Hal 387
Safe Box 203–204
Safe harbor 313, 330, 330f
Safe-sex awareness, Bangladesh, sex work 210
Safety, worker, Nevada brothels 380–382
Sahni, Rohini 232
Sanders, S. 275, 276t
Sanders, Teela 123
(p. 520) Schady, Norbert 180n17
Schauer, E. J. 474, 475
Schneider, Friedrich 349–350
Schooling, Income, and Health Risk (SIHR) project 166, 173–179
data sources and outcomes 173–175
household survey 173–174, 174nn11–12
in-depth interviews 174–175
voluntary counseling and testing 174, 174nn13–14
findings 175–179
sexual initiation 175–176, 175t, 176n15, 176t
transactional sex 176–179, 177t, 179t
HIV and transactional sex 181n21, 182–184, 183n22
study design and intervention 173–179, 173n10
Scitovsky, T. 139–140
Scruton, R. 220
Season, on pricing 103, 108t, 109, 114t, 115, 116
Selection, peer-to-peer markets 12–13
Self-empowerment, Bangladesh sex work 210
Sen, S. 231–232
Service type, on pricing 99–100, 101–102, 105–106, 110–111, 110t, 114t
by type of provider 111, 111t
Sex ratio/unmarried men, China, on sex work and STIs
marriage squeeze 451, 451n13, 453f, 454f
projections unmarried men 451–452, 451n14, 459
STI prevalence 450–451
Sex trade 100–103
Sexual acts. See Service type, on pricing
Sexual behavior. See Behavior
Sexual initiation, Malawi transactional sex 175–176, 175t, 176n15, 176t
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), 6. See also Condom use
Bangladesh sex workers 216–217
Ecuador legalization and licensing 334–335
income and income shocks on risk of 188–209 (see also Transactional sex, Africa, microeconomic factors)
legal and regulated prostitution 339–340
Nevada brothels 375, 384
sexual networks 60–61
sex worker activity 90, 91f
sex worker vulnerability 89–90
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), China
marriage markets, demographic projections, sex work and 450–456
projections 452–456, 453n15, 455t, 459–460
unmarried men, marriage squeeze 451, 451n13, 453f, 454f
unmarried men, prevalence 450–451
unmarried men, projections 451–452, 451n14, 459
patterns, sex ratios and 446–448
migrants and condom use 445f, 446
sex ratio, rising male 446, 448f
sex ratio, syphilis rates 447, 450f
sex workers, adult sex and STI rates 447, 449t
prevalence 440–441
Sexual networks, internet-mediated prostitution 57–94. See also Network theory, internet-mediated prostitution
definition 60–61
scaling 75f, 76–78, 78f
structure and dynamics 69–78
structure, static 73–76, 74f, 75, 75t, 76t, 77f
temporal profile 69–73, 70f, 71f, 72f, 73t
web community 66–67, 67t
Sex workers. See also specific types and issues
identity, India 229–249 (see also India, sex worker identity)
legal, Nevada independent contractors 376, 385 (see also Legalization, sex work)
market dynamics and community attitudes on 98–99, 122
(p. 521) vs. other female workers’ wages 41–45, 43t, 44t, 54
social science research on 98
street prostitutes 98
Shah, Manisha 38, 39, 47, 142, 171, 191–194, 192t, 193t, 194t, 218, 221, 239, 260–263, 263n3, 266, 290t, 291t, 293, 295, 297, 299, 300, 334–336, 339, 495
Shankar, V. Kalyan 232
Shapiro, Deborah 313
Shelton, James 172
Shirking 11
Shopkeepers, Fin-de-Siècle Paris 423–426
SI1I2 model 80, 81t
simulation results 86, 87f
Sidewalk queens, Fin-de-Siècle Paris 416–432, 433. See also Paris, Fin-de-Siècle public prostitution
Silberschmidt, Margrethe 170
Simmel, Georg 418
SI (susceptible-infective) model 79, 81t
simulation results 82–85, 83f, 84f, 85f
Simple network 62
SIR (susceptible-infective-removed) model 79–80, 81t
simulation results 85–86
Slumlords, Fin-de-Siècle Paris 426–428
Smyth, R. 218, 221–222
Social networks 58–59
Social sanction. See Stigma
Socioeconomic status
of Bangladesh sex workers 214–217, 216t
on paying for sex 129t, 130
Sommer, Matthew 451n13
South Africa
IMAGE intervention 180n18
transaction sex 169n4
Southeast Asia. See also specific countries
male sex work 256
Spence, M. 267, 269n10
Static networks 64
Stavrous, Stavros 169n4
Stigma, sex worker 122
Bangladesh 214
endogenous 344–346
female 255
legalization 334, 334n1
male 255, 289
prostitution policy on 344–346
Stillwaggon, E. 484
Street prostitutes. See also specific issues and regions
India 233–235, 235t
prevalence 98
pricing 99
Strengthening STD/HIV Control Project (SHCP) 195–196
Strøm, S. 33, 55, 333–334, 334n1, 337, 341n4, 344, 464, 470
Structural violence, prostitution 311–312, 312n1
Sub-Saharan Africa. See also Malawi
HIV incidence 165
Sub-Saharan Africa, transactional sex 167–172. See also Transactional sex, Africa
boyfriends and fiancés 169–170
vs. commercial sex work 167–168, 168nn2–3
coping mechanism 168–169
risky sex? 170–172, 171nn5–6
Substitution, transactional coercion 314–315
Sugar daddy 170
Sunmola, A. 492
Supply and demand 2–3. See also specific contexts and types
vs. EK model 36–37
male sex work, behavioral economics 287–289, 290t, 291t
Supply creates demand, Fin-de-Siècle Paris 420–421
Survival sex 168
Swidler, Ann 170, 171–172
Syphilis, China. See also China, demographic change and STIs
infection rates 437
rising rates 447, 450f
Tanzi, Vito 349n3, 350
Taylor, L. 275, 276t
Temporal network 63, 63f
Terrorism networks 58–59
(p. 522) Thailand 339
The Erotic Review (TER) 10, 11–12, 406n6. See also Reviews and reputation online prostitution
Canada data 405–412, 407f, 409t, 410t
Craigslist erotic services launch
reviews per month 26, 28f
reviews per month, aggregate 28–29, 29f
escort quality 1999–2007
average 14–15, 15f
by city 10, 11–12
reputation measurement 11–12
supply and demand roles 13
website popularity, on service popularity
city-specific time trends 29t
linear and quadratic city trends 20, 24t, 25t, 26
linear city trends 20, 22t, 23t
Thornton, Rebecca 180, 181, 181n21, 201
Threads 65
Trafficking, sexual exploitation 385, 461–479
Bangladesh 213, 213t
criminality 461
data, economic 462, 479t
definition 461
Nevada brothels 385
organized crime 462
prevalence, international 461
sending and receiving countries, studies integrating 472–475, 478
violence 313
where people are trafficked from 469–472, 477–478
where people are trafficked to 462–469, 475–477
criminalization, on markets 464–465
Europe, inflow 466–467, 466t
legalization vs. criminalization on 463–465
legislation on, Europe 467–468, 468t, 476
legislation on, world 463, 467–469, 468t, 475–476
organized crime 463
profit motives 463
rational-choice framework 462, 475
trafficker costs 463
Transactional coercion 314–330
bargaining and coercion, model 316–318
bargaining and coercion, without pimps 318–324
criminalizing johns 323–324
criminalizing prostitutes 320–323, 320t, 321t
no prostitution laws 318–320
bargaining and coercion, with pimps 325–328
criminalizing pimps 327–328
model modifications 325
no prostitution laws 325–326, 326f
definition 314, 314f
optimal prostitution law, implications 328–330, 330f
substitution and negative selection 314–315
Transactional sex
vs. commercial sex work 167–168, 168nn2–3
Dar es Salaam 170
definition 165, 188
HIV spread 188
Nigeria 169n4
prevalence, Africa 188
as risky sex? 170–172, 171nn5–6
South Africa 169n4
vanity 169
Transactional sex, Africa, microeconomic factors 188–209
conceptual framework 190–191
ex ante behavior adjustment 189–190
ex post responses 189
income premium
riskier/unprotected sex 189
sex workers 189
income premium evidence 191–193
transactional sex 191, 192t
unprotected sex 192–193, 193t, 194t
(p. 523) income risk, on labor supply and sexual behavior 190–191
income shocks
HIV risk 189
increased and riskier sex work 189
regular clients 189
insurance, informal, sex work as 189–190
policy implications 200–204
conditional cash transfers 200–202
formal risk-coping mechanisms 203–204
information 202–203
risk on sexual behavior (Busia, Kenya) 193–200
diary study 196
market 195–196
postelection survey 196–197
results 197–200
results, postelection crisis 199–200
results, regular clients as insurance 198–199
results, response to small health shocks 197–198
risk coping in developing countries 194–195
Transactional sex, Malawi 165–187
boyfriends and fiancés 169–170
cash-transfer programs 179–184
to mitigate transactional sex 179–181, 180nn17–20
SIHR project, HIV, and transactional sex 181n21, 182–184, 183n22
as choice, reasons 176–179, 177t, 179t
vs. commercial sex work 167–168, 168nn2–3
as coping mechanism 168–169
data source 166
as risky sex? 170–172, 171nn5–6
Transactional sex premium, Africa 191, 192t
Transactional sex, sub-Saharan Africa 167–172
boyfriends and fiancés 169–170
vs. commercial sex work 167–168, 168nn2–3
coping mechanism 168–169
risky sex? 170–172, 171nn5–6
Transgendered sex workers 285–286
Trebesch, C. 470, 475, 477, 478
Types, of prostitutes 98–99
Underground commercial sex economy, U.S. 348–365
absolute size estimates, subeconomies by city 363–365, 363t
cash trade, urban settings 349
estimates 362, 363t
size estimation methods
procedure 351–352
proxy measures 348–349
size estimation methods, proxy creation 353–357
factors and calculations 354–357
pimp population proxy, normalized by DC 356–357, 357t
subject interviews, by participant category 353, 353t
weekly cash intake, per pimp 354, 354t
weekly cash intake, per pimp, proxy 357, 357t
slack margin, on error 365, 365t
slack permitted, by variable 364–365, 364t
total cash economy and remaining proxies 357–362
absolute size 357–358
cash in circulation 358
cash in circulation, regression model and simple linear scaling 358, 359t
composite/aggregate proxies 359–360
currency-to-GDP conversion rate 358, 358t
drugs, weapons and other cash, aggregate proxies 359, 360–362, 361t, 362t
drugs, weapons and other cash, atomic proxies 359–361, 360t
(p. 524) Underground economies
definition 349, 349n3
size estimation methods 349–350, 349–350nn3–5
Unipartite network 62
United Kingdom 121–133
economic literature 121–122
empirical specification and data 125–126, 127t, 128t
legal status on versatility and efficiency 135–157 (see also Legal status, on versatility and efficiency, UK)
regulatory framework 123
results 126–132
age 129t, 132
age at first sexual experience 130t
conservative opinions 128, 131, 131t
education 129t, 132
income group 129t, 132
religion 128, 130t
religious service/meeting attendance 128, 131, 131t
risky behaviors 130t, 132
sexual behavior 130t, 132
socioeconomic class/professional status 129t, 130t, 132
study limitations 133
theoretical approach, Della Giuta’s model 123–125
Unprotected/unsafe sex premium. See also Condom use
income premium
African transactional sex 189, 192–193, 193t, 194t
Ecuador 297
pricing 102–103
Unzipped, 257
Utility-maximizing behavior 137
Vaccination, STI
effectiveness 89
protocol
low-cost 93
study 90, 90t
random vaccination campaigns 93
targeted campaigns 91–92, 92f
Vag C legislation 394, 395
Van den Borne, Francine 167
Van Kleef, G. A. 219–220
Van Ours, Jan 343
Vanwesenbeeck, I. 142
Variety
demand 138
seeking, risk and option demand 141
Venkatesh, Sudhir A. 99, 240, 421n8
Verheijen, Janneke 170
Versatility, legal status on, UK 135–157. See also Legal status, on versatility and efficiency, UK
Vertices 61–62
Violence 311–330
bargaining and coercion, model 316–318
bargaining and coercion, without pimps 318–324
criminalizing johns 323–324
criminalizing prostitutes 320–323, 320t, 321t
no prostitution laws 318–320
bargaining and coercion, with pimps 325–328
criminalizing pimps 327–328
model modifications 325
no prostitution laws 325–326, 326f
criminalization and 312
homicide rate 313
legalization vs. criminalization 312–313
Nevada brothels 381
optimal prostitution law, implications 328–330, 330f
outdoor vs. indoor sex work 313
pimps and traffickers 313
police officers and rape 313
power and vulnerability 311
prostitution as 311
prostitution policy 311
safe harbor and gatekeeping 313, 330, 330f
structural 311–312, 312n1
transactional coercion 314, 314f
voluntary vs. involuntary entry 312, 313
workplace, Bangladesh 215, 216t, 226
Virginia City 372–373
Virgins, pricing 139
Von Neumann-Morgenstern utility function 137
Vulnerability 311
Wage, female, on prostitution 45, 46t, 54
Wamoyi, Joyce 168, 169
Wasik, S. 488
Watkins, Susan 170, 171–172
Web community 64–68
accuracy, limits 67–68
description 64–66, 66f
forums, for johns 99, 106
sexual network 66–67, 67t
threads 65
Wechsberg, W. 490
Weingast, Barry 12
Weiser, S. D. 204–205
Weitzer, Ronald 233–234, 370
Well-mixed models, augmenting 86–89, 89f
West, D. J. 256
Wheaton, E. M. 474, 475
Wilkins, H. 191, 192t
Wilson, M. 220
Wilson, Nicholas 205
Wine merchants, Fin-de-Siècle Paris 426–428
Yang, Xiushi 445, 446n11
Yeh, Ethan 168n3, 171, 192, 193, 193t, 194t, 198, 214, 297
Young, A. 485
Young sex workers. See Age, sex worker
Zola, Émile 420n6