Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 17 October 2019

(p. 885) Index

(p. 885) Index

Abecedarian Project, 475
Abel-Smith, Brian, 28
Absolute poverty standard, defined, 27–28, 29
Accion, 852, 857
Acemoglu, Daron, 272, 273, 274
“Acting white,” 410n7
Actor-observer effect, 100
Acute poverty levels, 307–308
Adams, Jennifer H., 471
Adams, Terry, 536
Addams, Jane, 171
Addison, Tony, 297, 700
Adelman, Laura, 579
Adjusted head count ratio (AHCR), defined, 30, 587–588
AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children), 735–736, 760, 806–807
Affordability ratio, in housing, 834
Africa, historical causal factors of poverty, 277, 279, 283–284t, 287
African Americans. See also Urban poverty, race, and space
access to health insurance, 671–672
“acting white,” 410n7
culture of poverty thesis and, 253–254
deservingness framework and, 196–197
discriminatory housing practices against, 344
historical studies on, 177–178
neighborhood poverty, 345–346, 754–755
Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 143
post-WWII migration of, 249
poverty beliefs among, 103, 104, 105–106
residential segregation of, 372–375
rural/urban poverty rates, 324–325, 324t
African National Congress (ANC), 198–199, 813
Agricultural history and development/poverty. See Developing countries, historical causal factors of poverty
Aid, defined, 687, 689. See also Foreign aid and poverty
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
during 1980s, 399–400
access to antiretroviral drugs, 674
structural violence and, 51, 53, 60–61, 62–63
Aid to Dependent Children (ADC), 196, 202–203
Ainsworth-Darnell, James W., 410n7
Ain’t No Makin’ It (MacLeod), 438
Albertus, Michael, 791
Alcock, Norman, 49–50
Alderman, Harold, 474–475
Alderson, Arthur S., 567
Alkire, Sabina, 83, 586
Allan, James P., 564
Allard, Scott W., 353
All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU), 812–813
Alliance for Progress, 180
All Our Kin (Stack), 183, 441, 450
Almeida, Paul, 784–785, 788–789
Almond, Douglas, 603
Alvi, Eskander, 699
American Apartheid (Massey and Denton), 370
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 203
American Community Survey, 324, 325, 328
An American Dilemma (Myrdal), 175
American Enterprise Institute, 185
American Federation of Labor (AFL), 803
(p. 886) American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO), 802
American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), 803
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (2009) (U.S.), 736, 743
America’s Failed $5.4 Trillion War on Poverty (Rector and Lauber), 868
Amey, Cheryl, 208–209
Amsden, Alice H., 272
Anand, Paul, 86
Anchored poverty measures, 29–30, 36–38, 39n5
Anderson, Christopher J., 125, 130
Anderson, Elijah, 253–254, 404, 408, 451, 648
ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (Small, Harding, and Lamont), 247, 369
Annual Review of Sociology, Kluegel and Smith on stratification beliefs, 93
Anti-systemic Movements (Arrighi, Hopkins, and Wallerstein), 275
Appelbaum, Lauren D., 107, 108, 195
Area Redevelopment Act (1961) (U.S.), 180
Armed insurgency. See Rural collective action
Arrighi, Giovanni, 275
Arvin, B. Mark, 705n16
Ashworth, John, 566
Asra, Abuzar, 699
Asset poverty measures, 26
Asymmetrical concept of obligation (Katz), 195
Atkinson, Anthony B., 39n5, 40n11, 586
Atlanta Social Survey on Urban Inequality, 439, 440
Attribution theory, 100
Attwood, Donald, 298
Atwater, Wilbur O., 171–172
Audit studies, 374
Australia, deservingness framework rhetoric, 199–200
Auyero, Javier, 349–350
Ayala, Luis, 563
Bach, R. L., 649
Bahmani-Oskooee, Moshen, 699
Bahrain, culture of poverty thesis and, 251
Baker, Regina S., 806–807
Balfour Act (1902) (UK), 281
Bane, Mary J., 303, 306
Bangladesh Bank, 851
Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), 851
Bank Rakyat Indonesia, 845
Bannerjee, Abhijit Vinayak, 6
Barillas, Francisco, 705n16
Barker, David J., 603
Barker hypothesis, 603
Barrett, Christopher B., 298, 614
Bateman, Milford, 849
Baulch, Bob, 299
Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 157
Beach, Charles M., 561, 566
Becker, Gary S., 528–530, 541–542, 625–626
Behavioral economics, 779
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (BDPA), 225
Beliefs about Inequality (Kluegel and Smith), 101, 107
Beliefs three-type typology (Feagin), 94–97, 103, 104, 106, 108
The Bell Curve (Hernstein and Murray), 187
Beller, Emily, 543
Beramendi, Pablo, 125, 130
Beveridge, William, 487
Bhattacharya, Debopam, 533, 536
Bhattacharyya, Sambit, 273–274, 278–279, 280, 282, 287
Bhutta, Zulfiqar A., 603
Biggeri, Mario, 86
Bilbo, Theodore, 760
Biological anthropology and structural violence, 61–62
Biological research and poverty, 187
Björklund, Anders, 541, 547, 566
Bjørnskov, Christian, 701
Black Metropolis (Drake and Cayton), 175
Blair, Tony, 738
Blanden, Jo, 536, 541
Blank, Rebecca M., 21, 300, 555, 556, 562–563
(p. 887) Blinder, Alan, 561, 566
Block, Fred, 195–196, 715
Bloom, Benjamin S., 144–145
Bloom, David, 279
Boarini, Romina, 579
Boas, Franz, 173
Bobo, Lawrence, 103, 106
Boix, Carles, 781
Bolivia, New Economic Program, 852
Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo, 253
Bonoli, Giuliano, 498
Bonvin, Jean-Michael, 86
Booth, Charles, 23, 169, 170–171, 172, 173, 186
Borjas, George J., 548n3
Bornstein, Marc H., 159
Bosch, Gerhard, 811
Bossuroy, Thomas, 546
Boston Survey, 440
Bourdieu, Pierre, 55, 258–259, 671
Bourgois, Philippe, 55–56, 648, 650
Bourguignon, Francois, 697, 705n14
Boyden, Jo, 478
Boyle, Kevin, 802
Brady, David, 24. See also Economic performance and inequality in rich countries; Social science of poverty, introduction
on fallacy of intractability, 2
institutionalized power relations theory, 230, 753
on single mother poverty, 716
on social security transfers, 720
on welfare states and poverty, 715
working poverty and unionization, 120, 121, 496, 806–807, 809, 810, 813–814
Bramley, Glen, 834
Brandeis, Louis, 524
Brandolini, Aandrea, 86
Brazil
Belo Horizonte study, 631
conditional cash transfer (CCT) program, 725
Brazilian Landless Workers’ Movement (MST), 617, 784, 791–792
Breasted, James Henry, 276
Brickell, Katherine, 231, 233
BRICS countries, 30, 523. See also specific countries
Briggs, Xavier de Souza, 348, 353, 440
Brockett, Charles D., 785, 789
Bronfenbrenner, Urie, 146
Brooks, Clem, 120
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, 145, 468, 471
Browne, Irene, 439, 440
Büchel, Felix, 228
Buchmann, Claudia, 474
Budowsky, Monica, 232
Bufacchi, Vittorio, 58
Buhmann, B., 31
Bullock, Heather E., 107, 110n7, 211
Burchardt, Tania, 80, 81–82, 83, 85
Burgess, Ernest W., 369
Burnside, Craig, 700, 705n18
Burroway, Rebekah, 716
Burtless, Gary, 24
Bush, George W., 870
Camara, Helder, 50–51
Canada
Average Dissimilarity Indices for Major Race-Ethnicity Groups in the United States and Canada, 378f
racial-ethnic segregation in, 378–379
Canberra Group, 32
Cancian, Maria, 6
Cantó, Olga, 563
Capability-based framework (Burchardt and Vizard), 81–82, 85
Capability deprivation, 75–92. See also Material deprivation and consumption
introduction, 8, 75–76
aggregation of multidimensional information, 83–84
comparison between developing/developed worlds, 87
developed-world applications, 85–86
developing-world applications, 86–87
functioning vs. capabilities, 79–81
(p. 888)
Human Development Index, 84–85
list of capabilities, 81–83
summary conclusion, 88–89
theory of, 76–79
Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Piketty), 118
Capitalist class system, in UK (Galor and Moav), 280–281
Card, David, 496
Care, social construct of. See Gender and poverty
Carnegie Corporation, 175, 179
Carter, Jimmy, 803
Carter, Michael R., 298
Carter, Prudence L., 410n7
CASMIN (Comparative Analysis of Social Mobility in Industrialized Countries) schema. See EGP schema
Castellino, Domini R., 410n7
Castells, Manuel, 342, 639, 644–645
Catholic Church, Christian base communities (CEBs), 786–787, 787f, 789, 793, 795n14
Cato Institute, 185
Causa, Orsetta, 543, 547
Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire (CTWPQ), 96
Cayton, Horace, 175, 178
Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment Scale (HOME), 157
Central human capabilities (Nussbaum), 82, 83, 86
Cermak, Anton, 760
Chadwick, Laura, 535–536
Chambers, Robert, 298, 612
Chang, Ha-Joon, 849
Changing Poverty, Changing Policies (Cancian and Danziger), 6
Chant, Sylvia, 223, 225
Charity Organization Society, 201–202
Chen, Martha A., 225, 228, 641–645
Chen, Shaohua, 29, 696
Chen, Victor Tan, 351
Chetty, Raj, 532, 534
Chicago Child Parent Centre Project, 475
Chicago Real Estate Board, 373
Chicago-school model
cyclical theory of racial conflict, 178
on residential segregation, 372
urban sociology, 176, 177–178, 369
Child Care and Development Block Grant subsidy program, 739
Childcare Centers and Families Survey, 448–449
Child Development, on child development in developing countries, 155–156, 159
Childhood poverty, 141–165. See also Hunger and food insecurity
introduction, 8–9, 141
adult health outcomes, 665–666
antecedent influences/findings, 143–147
cross-national comparison, 34, 35
cumulative stressors, 150, 157–158
in developing world, 154–155
interactionist perspective, 147, 152–153
macroeconomic trends context, 142
mental health, 155
parenting practices, 148, 150–152, 155–157
social causation perspective, 147, 147–152, 153
social selection perspective, 147, 152, 153
summary conclusion, 158–159
Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), 208
Child Welfare League of America, 203
China
International Comparison Program (ICP) participation, 519
labor unions and poverty, 812–813, 814
China Household Finance Survey, 511–512
Chiu, Ming Ming, 467, 470
Cholera, 48–49, 51–52
Chong, Alberto, 699, 701
Christopher, Karen, 226, 230
Chronic poverty, in poverty dynamics studies, 306–307
Chunn, Dorothy, 196
(p. 889) Citizens’ Crusade Against Poverty (CCAP), 802–803
Civil Rights Act (1964) (U.S.), 761
Civil Rights Movement (U.S.), 203, 754–757, 759, 761
Civil strife and chronic poverty, 307
Clark, Gregorey, 281
Class, defined, 537
Class segregation in the Americas, 385–386, 385f, 387
Clemens, Michael, 700
Climate and development/poverty, 278, 333, 674
Clinton, Bill, 205, 250, 870
Cloward, Richard A., 129, 183–184, 751–752, 754–762, 791
Code of shady dealings (Venkatesh), 405
Code of the Street (E. Anderson), 404, 408, 451
Cogneau, Denis, 546
Cohabiting families and poverty, 423–424. See also Nonmarital families and poverty
Cohen, Lawrence, 623
Cold War era and welfare state, 170, 175–179, 184
Coleman, James, 671
Coleman Report, 472
Collective action. See Rural collective action
Collier, Paul, 700, 701, 780, 795n8
Collins, Jane L., 228, 229
Collins, Randall, 465
Comim, Flavio, 80
Community Reinvestment Act (1977) (U.S.), 374
CompartamosBanco, 857
Concentration effects (W.J. Wilson), 344–345. See also Urban poverty, race, and space
Conditional cash transfer (CCT) program, 725, 764, 774
Condron, Dennis J., 467
Confederation of German Trade Unions (DGB), 807
Configuration of social policy concept (Korpi and Palme), 715–716
Conflict studies, 781
Conger, Rand, 148, 153
Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), 813
Constant-elasticity scales, 31
Consumer Price Index, 26, 488
Consumption and poverty. See Material deprivation and consumption
Consumption poverty measures, 26, 592–594
Contingent Reserve Arrangement, 523
Contractual paradigm of public provision (Handler), 743
“The Convenient Reverse Logic of Our Time” (Galbraith), 866–867
Cook, Philip J., 410n7
Cooke, Thomas, 347
Cooper, Elizabeth, 478
Coordinated market economies, defined, 125–126
Copenhagen Consensus (2008), 614
Corak, Miles, 543
Corbett, William, 766n8
Corcoran, Mary, 536
Corporatism and wage coordination, 125
Costanza, S. E., 650
Couch, Kenneth, 532
Covert institutional violence (Garver), 50
Cozzarelli, Catherine, 97
Crack cocaine epidemic, 650–651
Crane, D. Russell, 5–6
Creative destruction (Schumpeter), 279–280, 849
Crettaz, Eric, 498, 500
Crime and poverty, 623–636
introduction to situational perspective, 13, 623–625
community poverty and crime, 628–631
individual poverty and crime, 625–628
summary evidence, 631–633
Criminal justice policies, and economic inequality, 129
Critical juncture hypothesis, 275
Cross, Jennifer Moren, 565, 809, 810
Cross-national comparisons. See specific topics
Cullather, Nick, 617
Cultural heterogeneity theory, 258–259
Cultural mismatch theory (Bourdieu), 258–259
Culture of poverty thesis, 247–269
introduction, 9, 247–248
biased interpretation of research findings, 257–258
defined, 97, 177–178
immigration and public reproduction of, 250–252
limited theoretical alternatives, 258–259
missing/false comparison groups, 253–254
one-sided research agendas, 254–257
scholarly reproduction of, 252–261
social class differentiating binary, 252, 253–261
summary conclusion, 261–263
tenets of (Lewis and Moynihan), 248–249
Current Price Index, 319
Currie, Janet, 603
Cutler, David M., 594
D’Alessio, Giovanni, 86
Daley, Richard J., 396
Dalgaard, Carl, 700
Danziger, Sheldon H., 6, 24, 555
Darity, William, Jr., 410n7
Daschle, Tom, 870
Davidson, Shannon, 471
Davis, Mike, 350
Davis, Peter, 299
Deaton, Angus, 522, 593
De Beer, Paul, 565
Decommodification (Esping-Andersen), 710, 715
Deep exclusion (Levitas), 586
DeFerranti, David, 740
Deficit Reduction Act (2005) (U.S.), 743–744
DeFina, Robert H., 563
Deindustrialization. See Employment and working poor
De Janvry, Alain, 697
De La Rocha, Mercedes González, 350
Dell, Melissa, 791
Democracy and electoral institutions. See Political and institutional sources of poverty
Demographic and Health Surveys, 466–467, 470
Demographic transition theory, 278–279
Dental health, 669
Denton, Nancy, 22, 370
Dependency ratio, 717
Derickson, Alan, 802
DeSante, Christopher, 196–197
Deservingness framework, 193–220
introduction, 9, 193–194
antipoverty policy and, 107
cash assistance in U.S. and, 201–206
global political context, 198–200
government security measures and, 211–212
health care in U.S. and, 206–210
historical context of politics of, 200–210
mass media framing and, 210–212
social construction of, 194–198
summary conclusion, 212–213
De Soto, Hernando, 642–644, 647
de Souza, P. H. G. Ferreira, 40n12
Destro, Lane M., 2
de Tocqueville, Alexis, 870
Developing countries. See also Foreign aid and poverty; specific countries
Average Racial-Ethnic Dissimilarity Indices in Selected Developing Nations, 383f
capability deprivation, 86–87
child development, 155–156, 159
intergenerational mobility, 544–545
labor unions and poverty, 812–815
racial-ethnic segregation in, 383–385
rural collective action movements, 792–794
welfare state and poverty, 723–725
Developing countries, historical causal factors of poverty, 270–292
introduction, 9–10, 270–271
African development, history of, 277, 279, 283–284t, 287
culture and development, 281
disease and development, 278–279
(p. 891)
Evolution of Per Capita Income Across Nations, 271f
geography and development, 276–278
institutions and development, 271–275
North American development, history of, 283–284t, 286–287
Russian development, history of, 283–284t, 288
slave trade and development in Africa, 275–276
South American development, history of, 274, 283–284t, 287–288
summary conclusion, 288–289
technology and development, 279–281
Western Europe development, history of, 282, 283–284t, 285–286
Development as Freedom (Sen), 87
Devereux, Stephen, 612, 613
Devine, Fiona, 6
Diamond, Jared, 276–278
Dif-Pradalier, M., 86
DiNardo, John E., 496
Diprete, Thomas A., 474
Discrimination, health consequences of, 664–665
Disease and development/poverty, 278–279
Disposable income, defined, 32
Dissensus politics perspective (Piven and Cloward), 14, 751–752, 754–762
Dohan, Daniel, 352
Dollar, David, 696, 700, 701, 705n18
Domestication of Plants in the Old World (Zohary and Hopf), 277
Dominant ideology thesis (Huber and Form), 99–100, 101
Dominguez, Silvia, 441
Donnison, David, 823
Dooley, Pamela, 807
Doucouliagos, Hristos, 700
Downey, Douglas B., 410n7
Drake, St. Clair, 175, 178
Dreher, Axel, 701
Dual consciousness beliefs, 101, 110n7
Dualization literature, 131–132
Du Bois, W. E. B., 173
Duerr, Daniel, 582
Dumin, Mary, 442
Duncan, Greg J., 143–144, 145, 146–147, 471
Durkheim, Emile, 177
Dwyer, Rachel E., 347–348
Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, 471
Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), 205, 328, 427, 501, 736–737
Easterly, William, 126
Economic model of crime (Becker), 625–626
Economic performance and inequality in rich countries, 555–573. See also Global poverty and income inequality
introduction, 12, 555–557
causality, 560–561
comparative poverty studies, 563–565
within countries poverty studies, 562–563
empirical literature review, 561–567
fixed/random effects, 558
income inequality research, 565–567
measurement errors, 559–560
stationarity and cointegration, 558–559
statistical and econometric issues, 557–558
summary conclusion, 567–569
Edelman, Marc, 777
Eder, J., 298
Edin, Kathryn, 28, 648
Education and poverty, 462–485
introduction, 11–12
community/neighborhood poverty, 468–469
dual roles of education, 476
educational interventions, 474–476
formal education, 464–465
household poverty, 469–473
individual economic outcomes, 474
intergenerational mobility, 540, 541
nonmarital families, 425
poverty at national level, 466–468
poverty literature, 462–464
summary conclusion, 476–478
(p. 892) EGP schema, 537
Eide, Eric, 532
Elder, Glen, 148–149, 151
Elderly and poverty, 231–232, 716–717
Elderly women. See Gender and poverty
Elgin, Ceyhun, 637
Elliot, James R., 439, 440, 443
Ellwood, David T., 303, 306, 556
El Salvador
cycles of rural mobilization, 788–789
repression and peasant collective action, 778–779, 783, 784–785, 791–792
Employment and working poor, 486–504. See also Global poverty and income inequality; Job-finding among poor
introduction, 12, 486–487
definitions of “poor,” 488–489
definitions of “worker,” 489
definitions of “working poor,” 489–490
determinants of working poverty, 493–499
household level factors, 496–498
impact of definitions on assessment of in-work poverty phenomenon, 490–492
low earnings at individual level, 494–496
minimum wage, in-work benefits, and activation policies, 500–502
public policies on in-work poverty, 499–502
role of welfare states, 498–499
statistical portrait of working poor, 492–493
Employment study, Brooklyn, New York (Kasinitz and Rosenberg), 443
End Child Poverty, 807
Endogeneity argument, 279
Engerman, Stanley, 274
Engle, Patrice L., 156, 475
English, Kimberly, 150
Ensel, Walter M., 442
Epstein, Jessica, 582
Equal Credit Opportunity Act (1974) (U.S.), 374
Equality Measurement Framework (Buchardt and Vizard), 83
Equality of What? lecture (Sen), 75
Equal Opportunity Act (1964) (U.S.), 761
Equivalence scale issue, 30–31
Erikson, Robert, 537
Ermisch, John, 547
Ershad, Hussain Muhammad, 852
Esaki, Howard, 561, 566
Esping-Andersen, Gosta, 234, 547, 710, 715, 725, 726n2, 742
Espinoza, Vicente, 439
Ethnographic studies, 298–299
Eurobarometer, 524
Europe
labor unions and poverty, 807–812
racial-ethnic segregation in, 379–382
Residential Dissimilarities for Immigrant Groups in Europe, 380f
European Central Bank, 763
European Commission, 4
“Employment and Social Developments in Europe” (2011), 492
material deprivation indicator, 577
European Community Household Panel (ECHP), 296, 579–580
European Investment Fund, 859
European Monetary Union, 763
European Statistical Office, 24
Working Group on Poverty Measurement, 29
European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), 807
European Union (EU)
employment and working poor. see Employment and working poor
Laeken set of social indicators, 26
material deprivation and consumption. see Material deprivation and consumption
microfinance programs, 859
poverty measurement, 24, 319, 488–489
rural/urban poverty rates, 329–330
social housing provision, 742
work intensity indicator, 497
European Values Study, 107
EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC), 565, 579, 581t, 586, 587t, 589t, 821
Evans, Gary, 150, 151
Evans, Peter B., 272
Everatt, David, 198–199
Everyday violence (Scheper-Hughes), 55
Exclusion, defined, 375
Experimental Housing Allowance Program (EHAP), 838
Exploitation, defined, 375
Extreme poverty, defined, 28, 663. See also Millennium Development Goals (UN); World Bank; specific aspects
Fagan, Jeffrey, 650
Fahey, Tony, 834
Fair Housing Act (1968) (U.S.), 374
Falcon, Luis M., 440
Falkingham, Jane, 232
Fallacy of intractability (Brady and Destro), 2
Family Assistance Plan (FAP), 184, 803
Family income package, defined, 25
Family leave policy, 739–740
Family Medical Leave Act (1993) (U.S.), 739–740
Family stress model, 148–152
Famine Early Warning System Network, 608
Famines, 605–606, 612
Farmer, Paul, 56, 58, 61
Fatalistic beliefs, defined, 94, 95
Feagin, Joe, 94–97, 103, 104, 106, 108
Fearon, James, 795n8
Feeny, Simon, 700–701
Feldman, Roberta M., 350
Felson, Marcus, 623
Feminism, on definitions of violence, 50
Feminization of poverty. See Gender and poverty
Fernandez, Roberto, 453n2
Ferragina, Emanuele, 132
Fetal origins hypothesis. See Barker hypothesis
Field Foundation, 802–803
Filmer, Deon, 463–464, 469–470
Financial inclusion. See Microfinance and financial inclusion
FINCA, 852
Fine, Michelle, 109
Finnigan, Ryan, 806–807
Fischer, Claude S., 474
Flores, Carolina, 386
Food deserts, 320
Food insecurity/security. See Hunger and food insecurity
Food Sovereignty, Slow Food, and Fair Trade movement, 617
Ford, Henry, 487
Ford Foundation, 179
Foreign aid and poverty, 687–708
introduction, 14, 687–689
aid and growth findings, 699–701
Aid and Poverty, Global Aggregates, 690f
Aid and Poverty, South Asia, 691f
Aid and Poverty, sub-Saharan Africa, 692f
aid and poverty findings, 699
aid impact on GEP findings, 701–702
aid micro-intervention findings, 702
Aid Per Capita and Poverty, Global Aggregates, 691f
Aid Per Capita and Poverty, South Asia, 692f
Aid Per Capita and Poverty, sub-Saharan Africa, 693f
global poverty record, 689–694
growth elasticity of poverty (GEP), defined, 696–698
impact analysis, 695–698
literature survey, 698–702, 705n18
Scatter Plot of ODA Per Capita and Poverty Headcount at $PPP1.25 Per day, 694f
summary conclusion, 702–704
Truman’s Point IV program, 179
Foreign direct investment (FDI), 567
Form, William, 99–100, 101
Formby, John B., 501
Förster, Michael, 24
Foster, James E., 30, 463, 586–587
(p. 894) Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities, 446–447
Fourth World Conference on Women (1995), 225
Fox, Cybelle, 197
Fragile Families Study, 447
Fragmented Ties (Menjivar), 443
Frank, Thomas, 334
Fraser, Nancy, 850
Frazier, E. Franklin, 178
The Freedom Budget (Randolph and Rustin), 802
Freeman, Richard B., 562
Freire, Paulo, 51
Friedman, Milton, 591
Fryer, Roland, 410n7
Fuchs, Victor R., 28–29
Fullerton, Andrew S., 565, 809, 810
Functioning vs. capabilities. See Capability deprivation
Fundamental cause theory (Phelan and Link), 670
Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr., 451
Fusco, Alredo, 579
Galbraith, John Kenneth, 511, 866–867
Gallup, John, 277, 279
Galor, Oded, 280–281
Galperin, Roman V., 453n2
Galtung, Johan, 49–50, 56, 58, 59, 60, 64n1
Gambling, 649–650
Gamoran, Adam, 472
Gandjour, Afshin, 80
Gans, Herbert, 197–198, 213
Gardiner, Karen, 497–498
Garfinkel, Irwin, 542
Garver, Newton, 50
Gates Foundation, 616–617
Gavigan, Shelly, 196
Gender and poverty. See also Deservingness framework; Job-finding among poor; Microfinance and financial inclusion; Nonmarital families and poverty
introduction, 9, 221–222
capability deprivation approach, 223–224
cross-national comparison, 226, 229–230, 234–241
data/methods/analysis, comparison, 235–239
dominance of economic approach, 225
elderly women, 231–232
feminization of poverty, 225
gender differences in household poverty rates, results, 239–240
gender differences in poverty rates/among those with low labor market attachment, results, 240–241
gender differences in poverty rates/single parent households, results, 240
gender divisions of labor and paid work, 228–229
gendered nature of poverty, 226–233
insufficient economic resources approach, 223
poverty alleviation programs, 232–233
Poverty Rates by Gender: No Partner with Children, Low Labor Market Status, Post-tax–Post-transfer Income, 238f
Poverty Rates by Gender: No Partner with Children, Post-tax–Post-transfer Income, 237f
Poverty Rates by Gender: Pre-transfer Income, 236f
single mother parenting, 229–231
social constructs of care and unpaid work, 227–228
social exclusion approach, 224
social policy regimes, comparison, 234–235
summary conclusion, 241–242
General Social Survey (GSS), 94, 95, 106, 451
Genetic research and poverty, 186–187
Geography/biogeography and poverty (Diamond), 276–278
George, Henry, 174, 177
German Socio-economic Panel, 447
Germany
apprenticeship system, 123, 126
Poverty and Wealth Reports, 85
Gershoff, Elizabeth T., 471
Getting Paid (Sullivan), 438, 439
Ghailani, Dalila, 498
Gibbons, Stephen, 536
GI Bill, 344
Gilens, Martin, 107, 197
(p. 895) Gilly, Adolfo, 777
Giloth, Robert, 443
Girma, Sourafel, 701–702
Glaeser, Edward, 280
Glewwe, Paul W., 472
Global poverty. See also Developing countries, historical causal factors of poverty; Economic performance and inequality in rich countries
acute poverty levels, 307–308
deservingness framework and, 198–200
family structure and, 431
health challenges, 674
history of, 283–284t
measures of, 24
rural poverty in Global South, 331–333
Global poverty and income inequality, 505–527. See also Economic performance and inequality in rich countries; Rural collective action
introduction, 12, 505–506
absolute income gap, 516
distribution between unweighted countries, 513–514
distribution between weighted countries, 514–515
downward bias in poverty numbers, 520–521
global interpersonal income distribution, 515
growth and geographical distribution, 509–510
income inequality between countries, 512–516
income inequality within countries, 511–512
International Income Distribution, 507f, 525n1
Key World Poverty Numbers, 518t
Major Economies, Share of World Population and GDP at Market Exchange Rates, 509t
margin of error, 519
Percentage of world population in ten GNIPC clusters, 508f
polarization/relative gap measure, 515–516
poverty, focus on, 516–521
Trends in the Three Concepts of International Inequality, 514f
world income and population distribution, 506–509
Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner, 225, 229, 231
Goldthorpe, John, 537, 584
Gomanee, Karuna, 701–702
Gornick, J. C., 421–422, 428, 429f
Grameen America, 859
Grameen Bank, 850, 853, 860
Granovetter, Mark S., 442, 452
Grawe, Nathan D., 530, 543
Great Gatsby Curve, 544
Great Recession (GR)
impact on housing, 831, 839–840
as inequality crisis, 523–524
neoliberalism and, 734, 743–744
relative vs. anchored poverty during, 36–38
TANF caseload during, 735–736
unemployment rates, 322–323
unsustainable debt, 510
Green, Gary P., 439, 440
Green, William, 803
Green Revolution, 616–617
Greer, Joel, 30, 463, 586–587
Grieco, Margaret, 443
Griffits, Megan, 579
Groisman, Fernando, 385–386
Grosh, Margaret M., 593
Grossman, Gregory, 640
Group Areas Act (1950) (South Africa), 377
Growth elasticity of poverty (GEP), defined, 696–697. See also Foreign aid and poverty
Grusky, David B., 6
Guio, Anne-Catherine, 579
Gundersen, Craig, 562
Guns, Germs and Steel (Diamond), 276–278
Guo, Guang, 145–146, 471
Gupta, Akhil, 61
Gurr, Ted, 780–781
Gustafsson, Björn, 566–567
Gutiérrez, Gustavo, 50–51
(p. 896) Haddad, Lawrence, 613
Haggerty, Robert, 669–671
Haider, Steven, 534
Haig, R. M., 27
Haiti, structural violence in, 48–49, 50, 51–52
Hall, Peter, 725
Halleröd, Björn, 579
Hamer, Jennifer, 352
Hamilton, Erin R., 386
Hamm, Lindsay, 451
Hancock, Ange-Marie, 197
Handbook of Families and Poverty (Crane and Heaton), 5–6
Handbook of Labor Economics (Solon), 534
Handler, Joel, 743
Hanlon, Bernadette, 341, 347, 348
Hanushek, Eric A., 464, 467, 470
ul Haq, Mahbub, 84–85
Harbin Bank, 845
Harding, David J., 247, 352
Harlem Children’s Zone, 355
Harper, David J., 96
Harrington, Michael, 22, 177, 249
Hart, Keith, 638
Harvey, David, 342
Hauser, Richard, 565
Hauser, Robert Mason, 476
Hausman test, 558
Haveman, Robert, 6, 556
Headey, Bruce, 579
Head Start, 144, 182–183, 738–739
Health care. See also specific countries and programs
asymmetric ascents/descents and, 304
charity care, history of, 207
deservingness framework in U.S. and, 206–210
as poverty measure, 26
universal health care, 206
Health consequences of poverty, 660–683. See also Haiti, structural violence in
introduction, 13, 661–662
childhood poverty and adult outcomes, 665–666
civil society and nongovernmental response, 674–675
dental health, 669
global health challenges, 674
health as right vs. market commodity, 672–673
Latino paradox, 666–667
life expectancy increase, 660–661
mental illness and health care, 667–669
the new morbidity, 669–671
poverty meaning and measurement, 663–665
socially based inequities in health, 662–663
summary conclusion, 675–676
U.S. health care reform, 671–672, 673
Heaton, Tim B., 5–6
Heckman, James, 475
Heintz, James, 228
Helms, Ronald, 650
Henrich, Joseph, 2
Heritage Foundation, 185, 868
Hermes, Kerstin, 199
Hernstein, Richard, 187
Hertz, Thomas, 536, 548n3
Herzer, Dierk, 701
Heston, Alan, 522
Heuveline, M. J., 424
Hibbs, Douglas, 277
Hicks, Alexander, 809
Hipp, John, 630
Hirsch, Barry T., 806
Hirschl, Thomas, 99
Hispanic paradox. See Latino paradox
Hoddinott, John, 613
Holliday, Amy L., 347–348
Hollowing out of the state (Jessop), 763–764
Homelessness, 822, 824–826
Homeless Persons Act (1977) (UK), 824–825
Home rule concept, 343, 348
Homophily/heterophily principles, 442
HOPE VI programs, 356
Hopf, Maria, 277
Hopkins, Daniel J., 105, 110n5
Hopkins, Terence, 275
(p. 897) Hotel-casino industry, 804
Household well-being, 25–26
Housing, as poverty measure, 26
Housing Act (1949) (U.S.), 398
Housing affordability and poverty, 833–834
Housing Choice Voucher program, 355, 832
Housing crisis (2008), 344, 376
Housing programs, 820–842. See also Urban poverty, race, and space
introduction, 15, 820–821
Expenditure as a Percentage of GDP, 835t
housing affordability and poverty, 833–834
Housing-Allowance Receipt within the EU-15, 836t
housing allowances and social risks, 831–833
housing question, history of, 823–826
impact of housing allowances, 835–838
Impact of Housing Allowances on Recipients’ Rent-to-Income Ratios and Incomes, 838t
mortgage subsidies, 839–840
during New Deal era, 373
origins and development of, 826–831
poverty and, 821–823
redlining practices and segregation, 373–374
revitalization programs, 356
summary conclusion, 840
Tax Expenditures for Owner-Occupiers, 839t
Hout, Michael, 474, 543
Huber, Evelyne, 230, 716, 725
Huber, Joan, 99–100, 101, 121
Huff, Ronald C., 650
Hughes, Michael, 103
Huisman, James, 467, 469–470
Hull House Maps and Papers (Kelley), 171
Hulme, David, 16n3, 297, 847
Human capital model (Becker and Tomes), 528–530, 541–542
Human capital theory, 464–465
Human Poverty Index (UN), 877–878
Humphreys, Macartan, 783
Hung, Ho-Fung, 525n2
Hungary, deservingness framework policies, 199
Hunger, U.S.A. report, 803
Hunger and food insecurity, 602–622
introduction, 13, 602–604
causes of, 612–613
concepts and definitions, 604–606
future research, 617–618
history of, 610–612
intervention strategies, 614–617
measurement of, 606–610
National Rates of Child Wasting and Stunting, by Per Capita Income, 609f
Hunt, Matthew O., 95, 103, 104, 105–106, 110n8
Hunter, Robert, 172–173
Hurricane Katrina, response to, 210–211, 394–395
Hyra, Derek S., 353–354
Ideologies and beliefs about poverty, 93–116
introduction, 8, 93–94
antecedents of belief, 102–106
attribution theory, 100
beliefs about causes of poverty, 94–95
consequences of beliefs, 106–107
dominant ideology thesis, 99–100
dual consciousness, 101
exposure/contact effects and, 104–105
international social surveys, 97–98
methodological innovations, 98–99
political psychology insights, 101–102
race/ethnicity and, 103
regional and temporal variation of, 95–96
religious affiliation and, 104
self-concept and, 105–106
summary conclusion, 107–110
types of poverty, 96
untapped dimensions of, 96–97
Immervoll, Herwig, 719
Immigrants and immigration
culture of poverty thesis and, 250–252, 254, 256–257
deservingness framework and, 211–212
Latino paradox, 406–408
neighborhood poverty, 348
rural poverty, 322, 323–325
Income, defined, 27
Index of dissimilarity. See Residential segregation and poverty
India
labor unions and poverty, 815
microfinance crisis in Andhra Pradesh, 856–857
rise in purchasing power parity (PPP), 24–25
Self-Help Group (SHG) system, 856
Individualist beliefs about poverty, 94, 95, 194–195
Industrial Revolution, 371
Inequality Project, University of Texas, 511
Informal economies and poverty, 637–659
introduction, 13, 637–638
dualist/development perspective, 641–642, 653n3
informal economy between informal activities/sector, 638–640
legalist/neoliberal perspective, 642–644
nonstate based regulation and, 646–647
research on underground exchange, 647–648
skills rewarded by, 649–651
structuralist/neo-Marxist perspective, 644–645
summary conclusion, 651–653
three types of informal economies and problems, 640–641
Ingram, Helen M., 198
Inikori, J., 275–276
Inner suburban poverty. See Metropolitan neighborhood poverty
Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, 6, 16n4, 555
Institutional beliefs, defined, 96–97
Institutional effects (Jepperson), 123
Institutionalized power relations theory (Brady), 753
Institutions, defined, 134n1
Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador (Wood), 778–779
Interactionist perspective on child poverty, 147, 152–153
Interdependent power theory (Piven and Cloward), 754–762
Intergenerational mobility (IGM)
introduction, 12, 528
class mobility, 537–539
cross-national comparison among developing countries, 544–545
cross-national comparison among rich countries, 542–544
cross-national comparison of class mobility, 545–546
current estimates/trends over time, 535–536
discrepancies in mobility findings, 540–541
earnings/income mobility, 531–535, 548n3
economic estimation of, 530–531
mechanisms, 541–542
occupational status mobility, 536–537, 539–540
sociological analyses of mobility, 536–537
summary conclusion, 547–548
theory of, 528–530
International Comparison Program (ICP), 24–25, 519, 521
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 615
International extreme poverty line (IEPL), 517–521
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), 332
International Labor Organization (ILO), 486, 489, 852
Kenya Report (1972), 638
World Employment Program, 638
(p. 899) International Monetary Fund (IMF), 126, 523, 852
Interstate Highway Act (1956) (U.S.), 396
Intimate partner violence, 55
Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), 580–581, 587
Introduction to the Science of Sociology (Park and Burgess), 369
Inverted U hypothesis (Kuznets), 512, 534
Invisible violence, 52, 55–56
Irish Congress of Trade Unions (ICTU), 807
Iron law of wages (Lassalle), 487
Israel
Average Jewish-Arab Dissimilarity in Five Israeli Cities, 382f
religious segregation in, 382–383
Ivers, Louise C., 49
Iversen, Torben, 124–125
Jackson, Cecile, 223–224, 224
James, Gilligan, 59–60
Jäntti, Markus, 6, 24. See also Economic performance and inequality in rich countries
on intergenerational mobility, 541, 544, 547
on single-parent households, 421–422, 428, 429f
Japan, dependency ratio, 717
Jargowsky, Paul A., 347
Jefferson, Philip N., 5
Jencks, Christopher, 594
Jenkins, Stephen P., 83, 544, 561
Jensen, John, 579
Jensen, Leif, 323
Jepperson, Ronald L., 123
Jessop, Bob, 763–764
Jhabvala, Renana, 641–645
Job Corps, 183
Job-finding among poor, 438–461. See also Employment and working poor
introduction, 11, 438–440, 453n2
conditions for social capital activation, 450–452
leverageable ties, 447–450
networking job search, 449–450
network structure and composition, 444–447
role of weak ties, 442–444
social support, 440–447
summary conclusion, 452–453
Jodha, Narpat S., 298
Johansson, Mats, 566–567
Johnson, Charles S., 178
Johnson, David S., 31
Johnson, James D., 210–211
Johnson, Lyndon B., 179, 180–182, 203–204, 317, 802
Johnson, Paul, 834
Johnson, Simon, 272, 273, 274
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, on international poverty measurement, 4
Kabeer, Naila, 850
Kahan, Dan, 648
Kahanec, Martin, 446–447
Kakwani, Nanak, 697
Kall, Denise, 230
Kalyvas, Stathis, 782–783
Kanas, Agnieszka, 446, 447
Kanbur, Ravi, 6, 297
Karides, Marina, 205–206
Karim, Lamia, 850
Kasinitz, Philip, 443
Katsenelinboigen, Aron, 647
Katz, Lawrence F., 594
Katz, Michael, 2, 195, 213
Katzman, Ruben, 386
Keefer, Philip, 272
Keeping It in the Family (Grieco), 443
Kennedy, John F., 179, 180, 203–204
Kennedy, Robert, 803
Kenney, Christine T., 613
Kenworthy, Lane, 24, 582, 715
Kerckhoff, Alan C., 126
Kerstenetzky, Celia Lessa, 86
Keynesian economics, 179
Khandker, Shahidur R., 846, 847
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 50
Kingdon, John, 870–871
Kiszewski, Anthony, 279
Kiva, 846
Kleinman, Arthur, 56
Kluegel, James R., 8
stratification beliefs, 93, 94–95, 99, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107–108
(p. 900) Knack, Stephen, 272
Kneebone, Elizabeth, 347
Köhler, Gernot, 49–50
Korpi, Walter, 16n2, 119, 134n2, 715–716
Kostenko, Weiping, 579
Kraay, Aart, 696, 705n14
Krishna, Anirudh, 302, 603, 613
Krueger, Dirk, 594
Krysik, Judy, 230
Kucinskas, Jaime, 525n2
Kusi-Appouh, Dela, 99
Labor Dispatching Law (Japan), 717
Labor unions and poverty, 800–819
introduction, 15, 800–801
in advanced industrialized democracies, 807–812
in developing world, 812–815
impacts of unionization, 120–121
summary conclusion, 815–817
Unionization and Poverty Rates in LDCs, 814f
Unionization and Poverty Rates in OECD Countries, 808f
Unionization and Relative Poverty Rates by State (U.S.), 805f
in U.S., 801–807
wage inequalities, 496
Ladd, Helen F., 470, 473
Laissez faire racism, defined, 403
Laitin, David, 795n8
Lamont, Michele, 247
Lampman, Robert, 28, 39n2
Lan, George, 453n2
Lancee, Bram, 446
Landes, David, 281
Lange, Matthew, 273
La Porta, Rafael, 273
Lareau, Annette, 465
Lassalle, Ferdinand, 487
Latin America. See also specific countries
Catholic-sponsored associational networks, 786–787, 789
leftist parties and poverty alleviation, 121
social policy regimes, 234–235
structural violence, 54
Latino Americans
access to health insurance, 671–672
class mobility, 545
culture of poverty thesis and, 253–254
deservingness framework and, 196–197
median annual household income (2000), 399
neighborhood poverty, 346, 348, 355
poverty beliefs among, 103, 104, 105–106
rural/urban poverty rates, 324–325, 324t
urban poverty paradox and immigration, 406–408
urban poverty paradox and life expectancy, 666–667
Latino paradox, 406–408, 666–667
Laub, John H., 627
Lauber, William, 868
La Vida: A Puerto Rican Family in the Culture of Poverty (Lewis), 249
Leatherman, Thomas, 62
Lechoucq, Fabrice, 792
Lee, Barrett A., 95–96, 104–105
Lee, Cheol-Sung, 719, 725
Lefebvre, Henri, 342
Leftist political parties, and poverty alleviation, 121, 125, 130, 134n3, 809, 811–812
Legitimizing myths (LMs) (Sidanius and Pratto), 102
Le Grand, Julian, 722
Lein, Laura, 648
Lende, Daniel H., 60
Lennon, Chauncy, 439–440
Lepianka, Dorota, 97, 104, 110n4
Levanthal, Tama, 468
The Lever of Riches (Mokyr), 280
Levine, Ruth, 702
Levitas, Ruth, 586
Levitt, S. D., 650
Levittown neighborhoods, 396–397
Lewis, Oscar, 177, 248–249, 253, 260
Li, Yaojun, 446
Liberal residual welfare state. See Welfare state and poverty
Lichtenstein, Nelson, 802, 804
Liebow, Elliot, 183
Life and Labour of the People in London (Booth), 169, 170–171
Life-course model of deviance and desistance (Sampson and Laub), 627
Life-cycle thesis (Modigliani), 591
(p. 901) Life expectancy increase, 660–661
Light, Ivan, 650
Lillard, Dean, 532
Limbert, Wendy M., 107, 110n7
Lin, Nan, 442, 443, 444
Link, Bruce, 670
Lipset, Seymor Martin, 275
Lipsitz, George, 351
Logan, John R., 342–343
The Logic of Collective Action (Olson), 779
Lohmann, Henning, 498, 811
Long, Daniel A., 472
Lopoo, Leonard M., 536
Losing Ground (Murray), 185, 870
Love, Rhonda, 99
“Low- Income People and the Political Process” (Piven), 756
Ludwig, Jens, 410n7
Lund, Frances, 641–645
Lupton, Ruth, 345
Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), 4, 9, 21, 569. See also specific applications
database resources, 30
DPI (disposable income after taxes and transfers), 806
income measures, 27
levels of poverty, 32–33
manufacturing sector and poverty, 564
market incomes of lower classes, 719
website, 24
Luxembourg Wealth Study, 4, 26
MacDonald, Robert, 199
MacLeod, Jay, 438, 439
Macpherson, David A., 806
Mahoney, James, 273
Maître, Bertrand, 582, 584, 585–586
Malaria, 279
Malnutrition, defined, 606, 674. See also Hunger and food insecurity
Malpass, Peter, 742
Malthus, Thomas, 487, 610
Managing to Make It (Furstenberg), 451
Manhattan Institute, 185
Mann, Michael, 103
Manning, Patrick, 275–276
Manza, Jeff, 120
Marchal, Sarah, 501
Margin of error, 519
Market-income poverty. See Welfare state and poverty
Market vs. state paradigm. See Global poverty and income inequality
Marlier, Erik, 40n11, 579
Marshall, T. H., 177, 675
Martin, Nathan, 813–814
Marx, Ive, 500, 501
Marx, Karl, 487, 788
Massey, Douglas, 22, 249, 370, 379
Material deprivation and consumption, 577–601
introduction, 12–13, 577–578
beyond income indicators, 578–579
consumption and poverty, 591–592
consumption-based measures, 592–594
Consumption Expenditure Per Household in the First Income Quintile (mean value in PPS) versus Top Cutoff Income Level, First Quintile (in PPS), 592t
Correlation between Equivalent Disposable Income and Basic Deprivation, 583t
decomposition of multidimensional poverty by dimension, 588–591
Decomposition of the Adjusted Head Count Social Exclusion Ratio by Dimension by Country EU-SILC, 589t
Deprivation Dimensions and Relative Income Poverty (ARP) by Country, EU-SILC, 581t
measurement of deprivation, 579–582
multidimensional poverty, 585–588
Multidimensional Poverty by Country, EU-SILC, 587t
poverty and mismatch between income and deprivation, 582–585
summary conclusion, 594–596
Maternal depression, 155–156
Maternal employment, 430
Mauro, Vincenzo, 86
May, Julian, 298
Mayer, Arnold, 800, 801
Mayer, S., 152
(p. 902) Mayer, Susan E., 536, 579
Mayer, Victoria, 228, 229
Mazumder, Bhashkar, 530, 533, 534–535, 536
McCluskey, Len, 807
McDermott, Monica, 351
McDonald, James B., 566
McDonald, Steve, 451
McDonald’s, 517
McFate, Katherine, 6–7
McGillivray, Mark, 700–701
McKay, Henry, 630–631
McKernan, Signe-Mary, 301–302
McKinsey Global Institute, 827
McLanahan, Sara, 229
McLeod, Jane, 153
McLoyd, Vonnie, 148, 150–151
McMichael, Philip, 617
McNamara, Robert S., 185–186
McWatters, Catherine J., 566
Meagher, Gabrielle, 199
Meany, George, 802, 803
Meares, Tracey, 648
Measurement of poverty. See Poverty measurement
Medical anthropology and structural violence, 62
Medical poverty trap, 304
Medicare/Medicaid, 207–209, 430, 672, 740–741, 760–761, 802
Mekasha, T. J., 700
Meltzer, Allan H., 135n6
Mendola, Mariapia, 446–447
Menjivar, Cecilia, 443, 450
Mental health, 155, 667–669
Merolla, David, 105
Mertens, Antje, 228
Metcalf, Charles E., 561, 566
Metropolitan neighborhood poverty, 341–368. See also Urban poverty, race, and space
introduction, 10, 341–342
assets and resilience paradigm, 350–351
disadvantaged paradigm, 349–350
economic causes of concentrated poverty, 344–345
ethnographic research on poor neighborhoods, 348–354, 357n1
household mobility, 345–346
policy responses to neighborhood effects, 354–356
political economy of place, 342–344
structural and cultural heterogeneity, 351–353
summary conclusion, 356–357
trends in metropolitan poverty, 347–348
Mexico, Zapatismo studies, 776–777, 782, 785, 791, 792
Meyer, Bruce D., 562, 591, 593, 594
Meyer, Daniel R., 6
Meyer, John W., 466
MFI (microfinance institution). See Microfinance and financial inclusion
Michaelowa, Katharina, 701
Microcredit Summit Campaign, 853
Microfinance, defined, 843, 844
Microfinance and financial inclusion, 698, 843–865
introduction, 15, 843–846
displacement effects, 848
economic and gender impacts, 846–850
expansion of scope, 858–859
fallacy of composition, 848–849
financial education programs, 857
forced savings by MFIs, 845–846, 860n6
Growth of the microfinance industry, 853f
history of, 850–853
mission of financial inclusion, 857–858
overindebtedness and collapse, 854–857
recent developments, 854–859
saturation effects, 848–849
socially responsible microfinance, 857
summary conclusion, 859–860
Microfinance Information Exchange (MIX), 854
MicroSave, 845
Mier, Robert, 443
Milanovic, Branko, 515
Millar, Jane, 497–498
Millennium Challenge Corporation, 212
Millennium Development Goals (UN), 154, 186, 590, 688
Miller, David J., 275–276
Mills, C. Wright, 176–177
Minimum wage (MW), 500–502
Mira d’Ercole, Marco, 579
Misra, Joya, 205–206, 564–565
(p. 903) Mistry, Rishmita, 149
Moav, Omer, 280–281
Mocan, H. Naci, 566
Modernization hypothesis (Lispet), 275
Modigliani, Franco, 591
Modular collective action. See Rural collective action
Mokyr, Joel, 280
Moller, Stephanie, 205–206, 810
Molotch, Luskin, 342–343
Monetary poverty, 488–489
Montesquieu, Charles-Louis, 278
Moore, Barrington, Jr., 275
Moral economy approach, 776–778, 779–780, 782, 793. See also Rural collective action
The Moral Economy of the Peasant (Scott), 776–778
Morality and poverty relief. See Deservingness framework
Morduch, Jonathan, 846
Moreoff, Jeffrey D., 408
Morrill Act (1862) (U.S.), 331
Morrissey, Oliver, 700, 701–702
Mortgage subsidies. See Housing programs
Moser, Caroline, 298
Mosley, Paul, 702, 847
Mouw, Ted, 453n2
Moving to Opportunity (MTO) program, 468–469, 628–629, 823, 830
Moynihan, Daniel P., 16n4, 178, 184, 186, 249, 260
Moynihan Report, 78, 183, 249
Muller, Edward, 781
Mulligan, Casey B., 530
Multi-City Survey of Urban Inequality, 439
Multidimensional approach to poverty measurement. See Material deprivation and consumption
Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS3) (UNICEF), 155–156, 157
Murphy, Alexandra K., 352, 353
Murray, Charles, 185, 187, 870
Musterd, Sako, 351
Myrdal, Gunnar, 175, 178
Naidoo, Yuvisthi, 579
Narayan, D., 298
Nash, June, 777
National Association of Real Estate Brokers, 373
National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unwanted Pregnancy, 326
National Election Study (1972), 96–97
National Index of Violence and Harm (U.S.), 57–58
National Labor Relations Act (1935) (U.S.), 760, 804
National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), 296, 471
National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS), 535
National Opinion Research Center, 94
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (2005) (India), 617
National Urban League, 175, 203
Native American Indians, rural/urban poverty rates, 324–325, 324t
Naudeau, Sophie, 471
Navarro, Vicente, 763
Near-cash benefits, 25
Neckerman, Kathryn, 406
Neighborhood poverty. See Metropolitan neighborhood poverty
Neoliberalism. See also Deservingness framework; Global poverty and income inequality; Microfinance and financial inclusion
culture of poverty thesis and, 251
Great Recession (GR) and, 734, 743–744
on informal economies, 642–644
reform of poverty knowledge, 185–187
structural violence and, 54–55
New Deal, 373
New Development Bank, 523
New Hope Experiment, 355
(p. 904) Newman, Katherine S., 298, 328, 351, 439–440, 441–442, 444, 451–452
New metropolitan reality (Hanlon, Vicino, and Short), 341. See also Metropolitan neighborhood poverty
The new morbidity (Haggerty), 669–671
New urban poverty thesis (W.J. Wilson), 345, 347
Ng, Roxanna, 229
Nicaise, Ides, 502
Nichols-Casebolt, Ann, 230
Nielsen, Francois, 567
Nilson, Linda B., 96–97
Nixon, Richard M., 184, 803
Nolan, Brian, 500, 501, 566, 584, 586
Nonmarital families and poverty
introduction, 11, 417–418
births within cohabiting unions, 423–424
decoupling of fertility from marriage, 420–424
factors of poverty, 424–427
family structure studies, 430–431
impact of marriage, 425–428
Market Poverty Rates, Single Mother vs. Two-parent Households, 423f
Market vs. Transfer Poverty Rates, Mother-only Households, 429f
NMFR and U.S. Poverty Rates, 422f
poverty policy solutions, 428–430
Proportion of Births Born Nonmaritally, 421f
Proportion of Births Born Nonmaritally, Various Countries, 420f
rise of nonmarital births, 420–423
second demographic transition, 418–419
summary conclusion, 432–433
Nonmarital fertility ratio (NMFR), 417–418, 420–423
Nonnemaker, James, 153
Nord, Mark, 613
Normalized violence (Bourgois), 55–56
North, Douglass, 272, 273
North America, racial-ethnic segregation in, 378–379
North American development, history of, 283–284t, 286–287. See also Canada; United States (U.S.)
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 776–777
No Shame in My Game (Newman), 441–442, 451–452
Nunn, Nathan, 276
Nunnenkamp, Peter, 701
Nurse Home Visitation Program, 475
Nussbaum, Martha, 79, 82, 83, 86
Obama, Barack, 524, 672
O’Brien, Rourke L., 328
Obukhova, Elena, 453n2
Occupational status mobility. See Intergenerational mobility (IGM)
Occupy Wall Street demonstrations, 210, 765
O’Connor, Alice, 555
Official Development Assistance (ODA), 687–688, 689, 704n1, 705n13
O’Higgins, Michael, 24
Olson, Mancur, 779
Olsson, Ola, 277
O’Neill, Paul H., 521
One Nation, Underprivileged: Why American Poverty Affects Us All (Rank), 880
Oorschott, van, 107
Orfield, Myron, 347
Organizational embeddedness. See Job-finding among poor
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 4, 21. See also Cross-national comparisons
database resources, 30
Development Assistance Committee, 689, 695
Economic, Social and Cultural Status, 464, 470
“Employment Outlook” (2009), 491, 492
levels of poverty, 33–34
poverty measurement, 24
report on gender wage gap, 426
territorial reviews, 356
unionization and poverty rates in countries, 808, 808f
Orleck, Annelise, 204
(p. 905) Orshansky, Molly, 28, 39n2, 181–182
Orshansky poverty line, 181–182
Orsini, Kristian, 228
Ortega, Daniel, 856
The Other America (Harrington), 22, 177, 249
“Othering” viewpoint, 179
The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Poverty (Jefferson), 5
Oyolola, Maharouf, 699
Oztunali, Oguz, 637
Page, Marianne E., 536
Paldam, Martin, 700
Palme, Joakim, 715–716
Palmer-Jones, Richard, 223–224
Pan Arab Project for Family Health of the League of Arab States, 466–467, 470
Panel data studies, 296–298, 299
Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 143–144, 296, 535
Parental investment model, 148, 150–152
Park, Lisa Sun-Hee, 212
Park, Robert E., 250, 369
Parker, Philip, 278
Parker, Simon, 559, 566
Participatory poverty assessments, 298–299
Pashup, J., 350
Path dependency, 123
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010) (U.S.), 208–210, 212, 672, 740, 741
Paul, Anju Mary, 443, 452
Peace, defined, 49
Peace Corps, 180
Pearce, Diana, 225
Pearson, Ruth, 228
Peasant collective action. See Rural collective action
Peña-Casas, Ramon, 498
Periodicity. See Poverty measurement
Perlman, Janice, 298
Permanent income hypothesis (Friedman), 591
Perri, Fabrizio, 594
Perrons, Diane, 233
Perry, Bryan, 579
Perry Preschool Program, 475
Persistence. See Poverty measurement
Persistent poverty, effects on children, 144
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996) (U.S.), 205, 250–251, 735–736, 870
Perversity thesis (Somers and Block), 195–196, 715
Pew Hispanic Center, on immigration to U.S., 407
Phelan, Jo, 670
Philippines, culture of poverty thesis, 261
Pierson, Paul, 832
Piketty, Thomas, 118
Pillai, Archana, 567
Pitt, Mark M., 846, 847
Pittsburgh Survey, 173, 174
Piven, Frances Fox, 129, 183–184, 751–752, 754–762, 791
Political agency of poor, 751–773
introduction, 14, 751–752
critiques of Piven/Cloward, 761–763, 767n13
politics of poor in U.S., 754–757
poverty policy and, 752–754, 766n3
prospects for new movements of poor in U.S., 764–765
protests and origins of poor relief, 757–761
retrenchment in rich countries and welfare state theories, 763–764
Political and institutional sources of poverty, 117–140
introduction, 8, 117–119
business, elites, and the right, 121–122
democracy and electoral institutions, 124–125
institutional explanations, 118, 122–126, 131–132
international institutions, 126
labor market and educational institutions, 125–126
methodological challenges, 133–134
power resources theory, 118, 119–122, 130–131, 134n3
role of state policy, 127–129
summary conclusion, 129–134
unions and leftist parties, 120–121
(p. 906) Political economy approach. See Metropolitan neighborhood poverty
Ponthieux, Sophie, 491, 498
Pontusson, Jonas, 131
Poor people, use of term, 874
Poor People’s Movements (Piven and Cloward), 759
Popkin, Samuel, 779–780
Portes, Alejandro, 639, 644–645, 649
Portocarero, Lucienne, 537
“Positive Functions of the Undeserving Poor: Uses of the Underclass in America” (Gans), 197–198
Positive peace, defined, 49–50
Poverty, defined, 7, 663–664
Poverty, Inequality, and the Future of Social Policy (McFate), 6–7
Poverty, new paradigm for
introduction, 15, 866–868
the old paradigm, 868–871
poverty affects all, 880–881
poverty as conditional state, 874–876
poverty as deprivation, 876–878
poverty as injustice, 878–880
poverty due to structural failings, 872–874
summary conclusion, 881–882
Poverty and Inequality (Grusky and Kanbur), 6
Poverty dynamics, 293–314
introduction, 10, 293–295
asymmetric ascents/descents, 302–305, 303t, 305t
chronic poverty, 306–307
cross-national comparison, 301t
mixed-method studies, 299–300
panel data studies, 296–298, 299
participatory poverty assessments and ethnographic studies, 298–299
poverty creation/reduction occur in parallel, 301–302
social mobility, 307–308
summary conclusion, 308–309
Poverty in America Survey (PIAS) (NPR), 97, 110n5
Poverty knowledge, defined, 170. See also Poverty research, history of
Poverty measurement, 21–46
introduction, 7–8, 21
in advanced societies, 25, 27–30
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management on, 4
Anchored Poverty in OECD Countries: 2005-2010, 38f
concepts of, 22–25
Correlation between Total Population Poverty (horizontal) and Child Poverty (vertical) in 38 Rich and Middle-Income Countries (late 2000s), 35f
history of, 22
income-based measures, 23, 25–27
of levels and trends, cross-national comparisons, 32–36
Levels and Trends in Relative Poverty in OECD Nations: 1995-2010, 34f
Relative Poverty Rates for Total Population, 33f
relative vs. anchored poverty during Great Recession, 36–38
summary conclusion, 38–39
Trends in Relative and Anchored Poverty, 37t
unit of account adjustments, 30–32
Poverty research, history of, 169–192
during 1960s in U.S., 180–184, 203–204
introduction, 9, 169–170
Cold War and welfare state in Europe, 184
Cold War and welfare state in U.S., 170, 175–179
neoliberal reform, 185–187
structural roots and developments, 173–175
transatlantic reform, 170–173
Poverty trap, defined, 278–279
Pratto, Felicia, 102
Pressman, Steven, 228
Pribble, Jennifer, 121
Primary goods (Rawls), 76, 77
Pritchett, Lant H., 463–464, 469–470
Privatization of public services, 743–744, 764–765, 777
Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 464, 467, 470
Progress and Poverty (George), 174, 177
(p. 907) Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), 464, 467
Proportional presentation (PR) systems, 124–125
Prospect theory, 777–778, 793
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Weber), 281
Psacharopoulos, George, 474
Purchasing power parity (PPP), 24–25, 27. See also Global poverty and income inequality
Quesada, James, 62
Quillian, Lincoln, 345, 346
Race and ethnicity. See also African Americans; Latino Americans
beliefs about poverty and, 103, 104, 106, 107
culture of poverty thesis and, 250
deservingness framework and, 196–197, 203
Economic and Educational Attainment Status of U.S. Racial and Ethnic Groups by Metropolitan Status, 324t
employment and working poor. see Job-finding among poor
Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 143
rural poverty, 322, 323–325
Race and the Invisible Hand (Royster), 438–439
Racism, defined, 402–403
Rahman, Aminur, 850
Rainwater, Lee, 24
Rajan, Raghuram G., 700
RAND Corporation, 181, 183
Randolph, A. Philip, 802
Rank, Mark, 99, 880
Rankin, Katharine, 850
Rape, 53
Ratcliffe, Caroline, 301–302
Raudenbush, Stephen, 407
Ravallion, Martin, 29, 83, 590, 696
Rawls, John, 76, 77
Razavi, Shahra, 226
Reagan, Ronald, 185, 205, 317, 399, 743, 868
Real estate industry and racial segregation, 373–374, 397
Reardon, Sean F., 470, 473
Rector, Robert, 868
Redistribution
defined, 134n4
in welfare states, 119
Redistributive justice movement, 647
Refined functionings. See Capability deprivation
Regulating the Poor (Piven and Cloward), 129, 183–184, 757, 766n9
Reid, Megan, 210
Relative mobility, defined, 538
Relative poverty standard
defined, 28–29, 39n3
during Great Recession, 36–38
measures of, 34–36
Religious affiliation
beliefs about poverty and, 104
peasant collective action and, 775, 778–779, 785–788, 789, 793, 795n14
Repression studies, 793. See also Rural collective action
Residential segregation and poverty. See also Urban poverty, race, and space
introduction, 10–11, 369–370
Average Black Dissimilarity Indices in United States and South African Urban Areas, 377f
Average Dissimilarity Indices for Major Race-Ethnicity Groups in the United States and Canada, 378f
Average Jewish-Arab Dissimilarity in Five Israeli Cities, 382f
Average Racial-Ethnic Dissimilarity Indices in Selected Developing Nations, 383f
class segregation in Americas, 385–386
index of dissimilarity, 371–372
politically mandated segregation in U.S., 372–375
(p. 908)
racial-ethnic segregation in developing countries, 383–385
racial-ethnic segregation in Europe, 379–382
racial-ethnic segregation in North America, 378–379
religious segregation in Israel, 382–383
Residential Dissimilarities for Immigrant Groups in Europe, 380f
Residential Dissimilarities for Poor from Nonpoor in the Americas circa 2000, 385f
segregation as social fact, 370–372
stratification and, 375–377
summary conclusion, 386–387
Restrictive density zoning. See Residential segregation and poverty
Retamoso, Alejandro, 386
Reuther, Walter, 802–803
Reversal of fortune argument, 273
Reverse redlining practices. See Residential segregation and poverty
Rhodes, Tim, 55
Richard, Scott F., 135n6
Richardson, Linda, 719
Ridge, Tess, 585
Right power resources, inequality due to, 121–122
The Right to Food movement, 617
Right to Information Act (2004) (India), 617
Ringen, Stein, 88, 582, 591–592
Roberts, Bryan R., 385
Robeyns, Ingrid, 82, 85–86
Robinson, James, 272, 273
Rockefeller Foundation, 175, 179, 616–617
Rodgers, Joseph, 152
Rodin, Judith, 740
Rodríguez, Juan G., 563
Rodrik, Dani, 273
Roodman, David, 848
Room, Graham, 586
Rosenbaum, James E., 353
Rosenberg, Jan, 443
Roth, Benjamin, 353
Routine activities theory of crime (Cohen and Felson), 623
Rowe, David, 152
Rowntree, Benjamin Seebohm, 23, 172, 494
Roy, Ananya, 349
Royal Statistical Society (UK), 169
Royster, Deidre, 438–439
Rubinowitz, Leonard S., 353
Rueda, David, 131
Ruggles, Patricia, 31
Rugh, Jacob S., 379
Rural collective action, 774–799
introduction, 14, 774–776
Catholic Networks in Rural Indigenous Regions in Southern Mexico, 787f
civil war, 781–783
conditions for action, 783–790
economic and political consequences of, 790–792
greed in economic opportunity, 779–780, 795n8
grievances, 780–781
modular collective action, 776, 784–785
moral indignation and subsistence ethic, 776–778, 793
moral outrage and pleasure in agency, 778–779
motivations to rebel, 776–783
movements in developing world, 792–794
political context and elite responses, 788–789
rightful resistance approach, 781–782
Socialist Networks in Rural Indigenous Regions in Southern Mexico, 786f
social networks, 785–788, 789–790, 793–794
Rural poverty, 317–340
introduction, 10, 317–319
cross-national comparison, 329–331
Economic and Educational Attainment Status of U.S. Racial and Ethnic Groups by Metropolitan Status, 324t
in Global South, 331–333
government transfers, 327–328
measurement of, 319–320
minorities and immigrants, 322, 323–325
persistence of, 321–322
Poverty Rates by Residence, 318f
(p. 909)
Share of Population at Risk of Poverty, by Degree of Urbanization, 330f
single mother parenting, 326–327
spatially concentrated poverty, 320–321
summary conclusion, 333–334
teen pregnancy, 326
working poor, 322–323
Russell Sage Foundation, 174
Russia, historical causal factors of poverty, 283–284t, 288
Rustin, Bayard, 802
Rwandan genocide, 54
Ryan, Paul, 251
Sachs, Jared, 277, 279
Sachs, Jeffrey, 277
Sachweh, Patrick, 99
Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 697
SafeSave, 845
Sambanis, Nicholas, 781–782
Sameroff, Arnold, 151, 158
Sampson, Robert J., 407–408, 627, 629–631, 647
Sánchez-Jankowski, Martín, 350
Sant’Agata, Giulio Terzi di, 859
Santos, Larissa, 86
Sassen, Saskia, 641
Sassen-Koob, Saskia, 644
Saunders, Peter, 579
Savage, Mike, 446
Sawhill, Isabel V., 297, 555
Scheper-Hughes, Nancy, 52, 55