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date: 29 May 2020

(p. 320) Index

(p. 320) Index

ability, 289
acceptance, negative emotional situations, 147148
achievement
age trends, 280t
importance ratings by age, 279f
adaptive processes
age-related, 248252
goal-based processes, 250252
responding to reductions in cognitive resources, 249250
selective engagement, 250
Adjective Check List, 264
adolescence
life review, 284
problem solving in, 195197
adulthood
causal attribution research in young adults, 289290
change of values across, 276277
influence of values on thought and action across, 277278
life review, 283284
problem solving in adolescence and early, 195197
problem solving in early and later, 198200
social cognitive perspective in, 238239
adults. See older adults
affect, emotion, 257
affect balance, 64t, 65
affect complexity, 34
affective complexity
affect co-occurrence, 7475, 75t
affect differentiation, 74, 75t, 7576
age differences, 72
heterogeneity of research, 7374
affective experiences
affect co-occurrence, 7475, 75t
affect differentiation, 74, 75t, 7576
age differences, 6367
age differences in complexity of, 7276
ambulatory assessment for studying age differences, 6263
central findings of age difference studies, 64t
positive vs. negative affects, 65
reactivity effects, 63
subfacets of everyday, 64t, 65
affective neuroscience perspective
benefits, 4041
linking affective and self-relevant, 41
positivity effect, 40
self-referential processing, 4041
affective reactivity, unpleasant experiences in daily life, 7072
affective stability
age differences in, 6367
central findings of age difference studies, 64t
affective well-being
age differences in, 6367
age differences in affect-regulation orientations, 6970, 73t
association vs. causal relation, 67
central findings of age difference studies, 64t
conceptions of, 6162
contra-hedonic orientations, 6970
daily hassles and motivational conflicts, 6769, 73t
potential contributors to age trajectories in, 6772, 73t
pro-hedonic orientations, 6970
reactivity to unpleasant experiences in daily life, 7072
affect optimization, 34
affect-regulation, age differences in orientations, 6970, 73t
affect valence, relationship of arousal to, 228232
age-convergence approach, age trends, 131132
age differences
affect co-occurrence, 7475
affective reactivity to unpleasant experiences in daily life, 7072
affect-regulation orientations, 6970 (p. 321)
association with emotional well-being, 129132
causal attributions, 289290
change of values across adulthood, 276277
combining emotional and eye gaze cues, 1718
coping and everyday problem solving, 217218
daily hassles and motivational conflicts, 6769
decoding genuine and posed smiles, 1213
detecting and following eye gaze, 1516
detecting deception, 1617
emotional body movements, 13
emotional reactivity, 136137
emotional well-being, 115119
emotion perception measures, 1415
emotion recognition, 105
emotion regulation and vulnerability, 179180
emotion regulation in problem solving, 176178
future directions for social perception research, 2123
goals and strategies for interpersonal everyday problem solving, 195200
joint attention, 16
life experience, 21
motivational factors, 21
perceiving basic facial expressions, 1012
personal beliefs and social knowledge, 294295
positivity biases, 2021
social cue, 1518
social expertise, 246247
social inferences, 240242
social neuroscience, 297
social perception, 1820
stress undoing, 122
understanding beyond basic emotions, 12
values in World Values Survey (WVS), 278280
(p. 322)
age-graded improvements, emotional well-being, 129, 130, 136
agency dimension, judgments about self and others, 245247
age perception
facial morphology, 50
physiognomic cues, 52, 53t
age-related losses, 45
age relevance
emotion recognition, 106107
emotion regulation, 106
stimulus context, 101t, 105107
age scale, physiognomic cues, 52, 53t
age stereotypes
directions for future research, 57
intergenerational interaction, 5355
subcategories, 52t
age stereotypes in interaction (ASI) model, facial cues, 54
aging. See also older adults
anti-aging industry, 263
cognitive research, 910
crystallization and, 9495
cultural perceptions of age-related stereotypes, 311312
daily stress process, 132136
emotional autonomic responding, 227228
emotional memory enhancement, 2733
implicit and explicit negative views of, 303f
irreparable losses, 45
judgment and decision making (JDM), 239240
judgment and decision processes, 4
negative stereotypes, 302303, 313314
normal, 225
selection, optimization, and compensation with emotion regulation (SOC–ER), 117118
self-reference memory enhancement effect and, 3638
socioemotional models, 18
stress theory, 136139
successful, 12
aging brain
neural changes, 1920
social perception changes, 2223
aging brain model (ABM), positivity effect, 34, 40
Albom, Mitch, 262
allostatic load, concept of, 138
Alzheimer disease, 18, 36, 314315
ambulatory assessment
affective responding, 7172
affective well-being, 62
aging and cardiac reactivity to emotional tasks, 227
association vs. causal relation, 67
challenges, 63, 77
diary techniques, 6263
experience-sampling techniques, 6263
future directions, 7677
reports of daily positive and negative affect, 181
stress undoing, 122
telephone interviews, 66
tool for studying age differences, 6263
American dream, cultural values, 275
amnesia, self-relevant information, 36
amygdala
interactions with prefrontal cortex (PFC), 3133
interaction with hippocampus, 3031, 32
anger
affect-regulation, 69
age differences in decoding, 1012
age differences in emotion recognition, 109, 110
age differences in emotion regulation, 108109
combining emotional and eye gaze cues, 1718
facial expressions, 15
facial maturity and emotional expression, 48
facial structure in older adults, 47
orbitofrontal cortex decoding expressions of, 20
point-light display, 13
vocal expressions, 14
wise person's display, 267
antecedent-focused coping, older adults and problem situations, 177
antecedent-focused emotion regulation, 157, 164
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), social neuroscience, 297
appraisal, stress, 207
arousal
autonomic nervous system, 226
autonomic reactivity, 233234
cognitive processing in older adults, 9192
relationship to affect valence, 228232
cognitive processing in older adults, 9192
assessing effectiveness
coping and problem solving, 214216
interpersonal everyday problem solving across lifespan, 194195, 200201
attention, positivity effect, 116117
attentional deployment, emotion regulation by older adults, 157
attractiveness, age-related changes, 49
attributions. See causal attributions
auditory expressions
detecting deception, 1617
emotion, 1314
automatic emotion regulation (AER), 149150
automatization, emotion regulation, 149150, 162, 165
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
aging and intensity of autonomic responding, 227228
emotion psychophysiology, emotional experience and regulation, 228233
normal aging of, 226227
autonomic specificity hypothesis, 232
babyfaceness, facial maturity and emotional expression, 48, 49
Baltes, Paul, 1, 2
baroreflex response, age-related, 227
"beauty is only skin deep," 57
behavior
importance of values, 280284
judgments, 245247
role of beliefs, 294295
beliefs
mechanisms, 296297
motivation, 295296
personal, 294295
benevolence
age trends, 280t
importance ratings by age, 279f
Berg, Cindy, 2
Berlin Wisdom Paradigm, 256, 257
bias, 3
biological equilibrium, emotional development, 8586
biological reactivity, everyday stress, 179180
Blanchard–Fields, Fredda, 1, 9, 83, 84, 110, 175, 211, 218, 257, 273
blood pressure
age-related changes, 226, 227
arousal and affect, 229
emotional and socioemotional behavior, 5
selective engagement, 250
body movements, emotional, 13
boundary conditions, emotional well-being, 129
brain
age changes for social perception, 2223
interaction between amygdala and hippocampus, 3031, 32
neural changes with age, 1920
response to emotion, 110
Buddha
emotional reactions, 260
Noble Truths, 261, 268n.1
cancer treatment, age differences in decisions, 249250
Cannon's theory, biological equilibrium, 8586, 88
capacities. See also tasks, capacities, and tactics
emotion regulation, 144f, 144145
Carstensen, Laura, 2
categorization stage, attributional process, 293
causal attributions
cognitive and belief mechanisms, 296297
cognitive resources, 292293
connections to social neuroscience, 297 (p. 323)
future directions, 296298
improving measurement of, 296
motivation, 295296
others in social judgment contexts, 292296
performance contexts, 290292
personal beliefs and social knowledge, 294295
research into adult development, 290
research in young adults, 289290
social cognitive factors, 293296
social consequences of, 297298
centroversion, 94
characterization stage, attributional process, 293
Chinese culture
beliefs, 295
emotion, 103
perception of age-related stereotypes, 312
chronic pain, wisdom through, 261262
circumplex model, core affect, 232
clearance, norepinephrine/noradrenaline, 226
cognition
age differences in, 292293
research in aging and emotion, 910
wisdom dimension, 257259
Cognition, Health and Aging Project (CHAP), 131, 136
cognitive control, emotion regulation requiring, 158159
cognitive-emotional integration. See emotional development
cognitive maturation, emotions, 87
cognitive performance
individual differences in older adults, 9394
older adults, 95
cognitive processing
arousal levels and, in older adults, 9192
decision making, 242244
cognitive resources
causal attributions, 292293
correspondence biases, 241
older adults regulating emotions, 160162, 165166
responses to reductions in, 249250
social competence, 244
cognitive vulnerability, older adults, 179
cold cognition, 238
collagen, facial aging, 50
collectivism, 276
Columbia space shuttle, 28t
communication accommodation theory, intergenerational interaction, 53
communication predicament of aging (CPA) model, intergenerational interaction, 53, 54
communion dimension, judgments about self and others, 245247
compassionate concern
good of all, 266267
wisdom and eudaimonic well-being, 264
competence
decision making, 247248
social, 244247
conflict management
gender and family conflicts, 199200
interpersonal relationships, 195197
conformity
age trends, 280t
importance ratings by age, 279f
conservation, importance ratings by age group, 279, 280, 281f
construal level theory (CLT), values, 282
contempt, decoding expression, 11t, 12
context
age differences in emotion regulation and recognition, 99, 100101t, 110111
emotional, 108110
perceiver, 99, 102105
stimulus, 105108
context specificity, problem solving, 213214
contextual variation, interpersonal problem solving, 175176
contra-hedonic orientations, age differences, 6970, 76
controllability, human performance, 289
coping. See also everyday problem solving
assessing effectiveness, 214216
definition, 207
developmental view, 208209
dispositional view, 207208
future directions in research, 217218
goals and, 209210
history and theory in, 207209
mechanisms underlying age differences, 216217
research, 206, 207209
strategies and, 210211
transactional view, 207
wisdom and eudaimonic well-being, 265
correction stage, attributional process, 293
correspondence bias
social information processing, 241
social psychology literature, 292, 296
cortisol, positive emotion and health, 120
C-reactive protein, health, 121
crystallization, aging and, 9495
C-system, social neuroscience, 297
culture
American dream, 275
Chinese, 103
perception of age-related stereotypes, 311312
role of beliefs, 295
stereotype threat, 303, 304
universal values, 275276
values, 274
daily hassles, age differences in exposure to, 6769, 73t
daily stress process, aging and, 132136
Dalai Lama, 260, 261, 266, 267
dampening, emotion regulation, 106, 119
Danish Twins Registry, 51
death, wisdom and older adults, 262
deceit, detecting, 17
decision making. See also judgment and decision making (JDM)
competence, 247248
dual modes of information processing, 242244
goal-based processes, 250252
Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), 243244
selective engagement, 250
wisdom, 258259
deliberation, decision making, 242243
Denney, Nancy, 211
Desire, decoding expression, 12
Despondent
facial cues to age, 54
perceived age vs. facial expression, 55
stereotype label, 52t
detached reappraisal, 146
developmental functionalism, 142143
age-related changes in emotion regulation across lifespan, 145148
classes of capacity, 144145
emotion regulation, 143145
emotions, 143
online regulation, 145, 150
reactive-type regulation, 145
real-time regulation, 149
developmental research
emotion, social cognition and social problem solving, 12
life review, 283284
developmental view, coping, 208209
deviation amplification model, coping, 209
diary method
age differences in stress-related affect, 135
ambulatory assessment for studying age differences, 6263, 76
daily stressors, 133134
experience sampling methods (ESM), 133134
differentiation, emotion regulation, 117
discrepancy-reducing system, 86
disgust
age and labeling, 20
age differences in decoding, 1012
age differences in emotion recognition, 109, 110
disgusting film clips
physiological reactivity, 230232
scatterplots of subjective emotional valence and objective physiological arousal by age group, 231f
dispositional attribution, 292, 293, 296
dispositional view, coping, 207208, 208
dispositions, values as, 274
distrust, morphology of aging face, 50
domain, stereotype threat, 310
dynamic integration theory (DIT)
affective reactivity with age, 7071
cognitive control, 117 (p. 324)
dynamic integration theory (DIT) (Cont.)emotional regulation, 138
emotion regulation, 34, 5, 85, 94
positivity effect, 34, 35, 40
reactivity to everyday stress, 180
dynamic process, stress and coping, 207
East, wisdom, 257
ecological theory
facial maturity and emotional expression, 4849
good gene aspect, 55
implicit age attitudes, 5556
in-group/out-group processes, 56
ecological validity, coping and everyday problem solving, 217
education
adult development, 290
societal value, 274
efficiency, strategies for increasing emotion regulation, 165
effort, 289
ego tunnel, 267268
Einstein, Albert, 39
Elasticity, facial aging, 50
electromyography (EMG), emotional stimuli, 15
emotion, affect, 257
emotional communication, facial expressions, 47
emotional context, 99, 101t
emotion recognition, 101t, 109110
emotion regulation, 101t, 108109
emotional cues
age differences in measures of emotion perception, 1415
aging and perceiving basic facial expressions, 1012
auditory expressions, 1314
body movements, 13
decoding genuine and posed smiles, 1213
multimodal presentation of emotions, 14
perceiving emotions from faces and voices, 11t
understanding emotions beyond basic six, 12
emotional development, 8384, 9596
aging and crystallization, 9495
biological equilibrium, 8586
cognitive performance in situations relevant for elderly, 95
complexity and tension in, 8889, 9091
disruption of cognitive processing, 9192
equilibrium as psychological construct, 8687
equilibrium in, 8591
individual differences in emotion regulation, 9394
inner orientation, 94
integration of psychological experience, 9495
later life regulation of capacities, 9194
lifespan, 85
Livia task, 84
mechanism of tension and equilibrium expansion in early, 8990
model of dynamic integration of cognitive-emotional schemas, 88f
negative and positive scenarios linked to resources restriction, 90f
psychological and biological factors in equilibrium regulation, 8788
sensitivity to stressful situations, 9293
vulnerability to tension, 91
emotional enhancement of memory, 27
age-related changes, 3335
comparing young and older adults for public events, 28t, 29t
interactions between amygdala and hippocampus, 3031, 32
older adults, 27, 2931
positivity effect, 3334
prefrontal processing in older adults, 3133
preservation in aging, 2733
theories fitting data, 3435
emotional experience
contextual variation in, 180181
emotion psychophysiology, and regulation, 228233
health, 122123
optimizing, in later life, 117118
emotional expression
ecological theory, 4849
individual differences, 51
intergenerational interaction, 5355
morphology of aging face and, 5051
emotional intelligence, wisdom, 259, 264265
emotional reactivity, age differences, 136137
emotional suffering, transcendence of subjectivity and projections, 261263
emotional well-being. See also emotion regulation; health
age differences in, 115119
age-graded improvements, 129, 130
aging and daily stress process, 132136
aging and emotion regulation, 117119
aging and stress theory, 136139
association between age and, 129132
boundary conditions for, 129
cognitive control, 117
flowchart for older adults maintaining, 167f
information processing and positivity effect, 116117
older adults maintaining, 156
peak, 136
positivity effect in attention, 116117
positivity effect in memory, 116
positivity ratio and, 123
preserving, through strengths of aging, 118
proposed mechanism underlying age improving, 160f
reconciling cognitive declines, 159166
terminal decline, 132
Emotion Evaluation Test from the Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT), 14
emotion-focused coping, 210211
emotion-focused strategy, everyday problem solving, 212, 213
emotion perception, age and implicit measures of, 1415
emotion psychophysiology
aging and intensity of, 227228
autonomic differentiation among "discrete" emotions, 232
autonomic specificity hypothesis, 232
circumplex model of core affect, 232
emotional experience and regulation, 228233
implications, limitations and future directions, 233235
physiological aspects of emotion regulation, 232233
relationship between arousal and affect valence, 228232
scatterplots of subjective emotional valence and objective physiological arousal by age group, 231f
"to-do" list, 233235
emotion recognition
age relevance, 101t, 106107
emotional context, 101t, 109110
future directions, 111
individual differences, 100t, 105
motivation, 100t, 103104
perceiver context, 99, 100t, 102105
stimulus and task form, 101t, 108
stimulus context, 101t, 105108
emotion regulation
acceptance, 147148
age differences in problem solving, 176178
age-related changes in, across lifespan, 145148
age relevance, 101t, 106
aging and, 117119
aging and crystallization, 9495
aging and emotions, 84
automatic, 149150
cognitive control, 117
cognitive reappraisal, 146
cognitive resources for, 160162
complexity and tension in adulthood and later life, 9091
context and physiological vulnerability for, 179180
context consideration, 178
definition, 99
dynamic integration theory (DIT), 34, 85, 94
efficiency of older adults, 162166
emotional context, 101t, 108109
emotion psychophysiology, emotional experience and, 228233 (p. 325)
expressive suppression, 146
future directions, 111, 118119, 148150, 167168
individual differences, 100t, 104105
interpersonal context and strengths in, 178179
motivation, 100t, 102103
older adults, 9394, 156158, 160162
optimizing emotional experience in later life, 117118
perceiver context, 99, 100t, 102105
physiological aspects of, 232233
positive reappraisal, 147
requiring cognitive control, 158159
situation selection and/or modification, 147
stimulus and task form, 101t, 107108
stimulus context, 101t, 105108
strength and vulnerability integration (SAVI) model, 118
stress, 4
tension and equilibrium expansion in early development, 8990
types declining with age, 146
types improving with age, 146148
using social support, 147
vulnerability of later life regulation capacities, 9194
wisdom, 259261
emotions
antecedent and consequents of age-related differences, 34
auditory expressions, 1314
autonomic differentiation, 232
cognitive scenarios, 257
facial morphology, 3
health and positive, 119123
lifespan aging effects on perceiving, 11t
multimodal presentation of, 14
normal aging and autonomic aspects of, 234235
older adults and, 3
perception tasks by age group, 11f
physiological reactivity, 225
relationship between wisdom and, 4, 256257, 267268
role in cognition, 2
wisdom and eudaimonic well-being, 264267
emotion science, discrete vs. dimensional debate, 234
encoding, memory, 2930
entity theory, performance, 291
Epistemic Cognition Questionnaire (ECQ15), 264
equilibrium
biological, 8586
cognitive-emotional development, 88f
complexity and tension in adulthood and later life, 9091
complexity and tension in development, 8889
emotional development, 8591
mechanisms of tension and, in early development, 8990
psychological and biological factors in regulation, 8788
psychological construct, 8687
eudaimonic well-being, wisdom and, 264267
evaluative well-being, global self-reports, 131
event-related potentials (ERPs)
emotional regulation, 8990
emotion recognition, 103104, 110
everyday problem solving. See also coping
age differences in emotion regulation, 176178
age differences in goals and strategies for interpersonal, 195200
assessing effectiveness, 194195, 200201, 214216
competency perspective, 191192
conceptual model of process, 192195
context specificity, 213214
contextual perspective, 192
coping and, 211214
coping research, 206207
dimensions of interpersonal relationships, 195
discrete emotions, 214
emotion regulation, 4
future directions in research, 217218
goals and, 194, 201, 212, 213214
history and theory in, 211
history of field of, 191192
interpersonal, across lifespan, 190191, 194195
marital conflict and collaborative problem-solving, 182184
mechanisms underlying age differences, 216217
motivational orientations and problem-solving goals, 193
research, 190
strategies and, 212214
strategy effectiveness, 194, 201
executive control
aging effects, 241
performance and stereotype threat concerns, 307308, 309, 310, 315
executive functioning, expressive suppression, 149
experience sampling, ambulatory assessment, 6263, 76
experience sampling methods (ESM), daily stressors, 133134
experimental designs, emotion regulation, 148
explicit stereotype threat, implicit vs., 305306
exploitation, detecting, 17
expressive suppression
emotion regulation, 146, 149
older adults and emotion regulation, 163164
extrinsic/instrumental goals, 276277
eye gaze
combining emotional and, 1718
detecting and following, 1516
face identity perception task, emotion, 19
faces, lifespan aging effects on perceiving emotions, 11t
FACES Lifespan Database of Facial Expressions, 50
Facial Action Coding System, 103
facial aging
individual differences, 51
intergenerational interaction, 5355
morphology, 4950
morphology of, and emotional expression, 5051
stereotyping process, 5153
facial anomaly, 55
facial expressions
age differences in perceiving basic, 1012
cues in person perception, 4849
decoding genuine and posed smiles, 1213
future research, 56
facial identity, own-age biases, 12
facial maturity, implications for theory, 5556
facial morphology
age changes, 3, 47, 4950, 57
directions for future research, 5657
emotional expression, 5051
facial maturity and emotional expression, 48, 5556
race/ethnicity, 57
facial structure
age changes, 49
cues in person perception, 4849
directions for future research, 56
ecological theory, 4849
fear
age differences in decoding, 1012
age differences in emotion recognition, 109
combining emotional and eye gaze cues, 17
facial maturity and emotional expression, 48
point-light display, 13
"fight-flight," sympathetic branch, 226
First Noble Truth, Buddha, 261
flashbulb memory, 27
fluidization, crystallized processes, 90
fluid processes, aging and loss of, 90, 9194
Fourth Noble Truth, Buddha, 268n.1
framing effect, decision making, 248
fraud, detecting, 17
functional imaging, activation of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), 103104
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 38, 39
emotional processing, 89
emotional regulation in older adults, 185 (p. 326)
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (Cont.)positivity effect, 117
processing facial expressions, 56
fundamental attribution error (FAE), 241, 290, 292
gaze. See eye gaze
gender differences
conflict management, 196197
facial maturity and emotional expression, 49
interpersonal conflicts with family, 199200
stereotype threat, 303304
generativity, age differences, 276, 290
global perceived stress, emotional reactivity, 136
global self-reports, evaluative well-being, 131
goals
coping, 209210
emotion-based, and decision making, 251
everyday problem solving, 194, 201, 212
judgment and decision making (JDM), 239
life planning, 283
motivations, 295296
older adults handling everyday problems, 213214
personal, 212
Golden Ager
facial cues to age, 54
perceived age vs. facial expression, 54, 55
stereotype label, 52t
Golden Rule, 258
good gene, ecological theory, 55
grasp of consciousness, 87
Great Depression, 217, 262263
Greek philosophers, wisdom, 258
guilt, decoding expression, 12
happiness
age differences in decoding, 1012
age differences in emotion recognition, 109
hardships, wisdom through, 262263
health
behaviors, 119120
emotional experience and, 122123
physiological systems, 120121
sleep, 120
stressor exposure, 121122
stress undoing, 122
healthcare, decision making, 251
healthy aging effect, 123
heart rate
norepinephrine, 226
normal aging and intensity of response, 227228
hedonism
age trends, 280t
importance ratings by age, 279f
"here and now," positive experience, 198199
Hess, Tom, 2
hippocampus, interaction of amygdala and, 3031, 32
honesty, judgment for self and others, 246247
hot cognition, 238
ill-structured problems, 211
immunoglobulin A, 121
Implicit Association Test (IAT), age attitudes, 5556
implicit priming, stereotype threat, 305306
incidental encoding, memory performance, 304
incremental skill theory, performance, 291
individual differences
emotion recognition, 100t, 105
emotion regulation, 100t, 104105
emotion regulation of older adults, 9394
facial aging and emotional expression, 51
individualism, 276
individual values, 273274
inferences. See social inferences
information processing
decision making, 242244
selectivity in social, 245
inner orientation, older adults, 94
instrumental values, 275
insula, response to disgust, 110
intentional encoding, memory performance, 304
interactive attribution, 292, 296
intergenerational interaction
communication predicament of aging (CPA), 53, 54
facial cues to age and CPA model, 54
perceived age vs. facial expression, 5455
stereotype threat, 311
interleukin-6 (IL-6), health, 121
International Affective Picture System (IAPS) images, arousal and affect valence, 228232
interpersonal context, psychological response, 183
interpersonal relationships
conflict management, 196197
dimensions of, 195
early and later adulthood, 198200
problem solving across lifespan, 194195
intrinsic/value-rational goals, 276277
investments, decision making, 248
Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), decision making, 243244
Jesus of Nazareth, 267
John Wayne Conservative, stereotype label, 52t
joint attention
age and social perception, 19
age differences, 16
gaze processing, 1516
Joseph, Jenny, 2
judgment and decision making (JDM). See also social judgment
age differences, 238, 252
age-related adaptive and compensatory processes, 248252
age-related experience and JDM competence, 244248
cognitive limitations and age, 239240
correspondence bias, 241
decision-making competence, 247248
dual modes of information processing, 242244
executive control, 241
fundamental attribution error (FAE), 241
goal-based processes, 250252
impact of affective vs. deliberative processes, 240244
responses to reduction in cognitive resources, 249250
selective engagement, 250
social cognition, 238239
social-cognitive perspective, 238239
social competence, 239, 244247
social inferences, 240242
wise, 258259
knowledge
attainment of wisdom-related, 258
life matters and human condition, 257
personal beliefs and social, 294295
self-transcendence and self-knowledge, 263264
social, in causal attribution process, 294295
Labouvie–Vief, Gisela, 1, 2
language, emotional regulation, 89
life crises, wisdom through, 262263
life experience. 21, 217
life phases, coping across, 208209
life planning, goals for future, 280, 283, 285
life review, values, 280, 283284, 285
lifespan development. See also causal attributions
age and emotional well-being, 115119
age-related changes in emotion regulation, 145148
age relevance, 105106
causal attribution research in adult development, 290
causal attribution research in young adults, 289290
developmental functionalism, 143
emotional, 85
importance of values, 273
interpersonal problem-solving contexts across, 194195, 200201
psychology, 2, 3, 289
lifespan experiences
age-related person perception, 56 (p. 327)
positive emotions and physiology, 123124
lifespan psychology, 2, 3, 289
affective well-being, 61
life planning, 283
Lindenberger, Ulman, 2
Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC), 182
Livia task, 84
losses, age-related, 45
luck, 289, 290, 291
marriage. See also relationships
beliefs approach and age differences, 294
contextual variation in experience, 180181
interpersonal problem solving across lifespan, 194
marital conflict and collaborative problem-solving, 182184
older adults and satisfaction, 179
materialistic orientation, values, 276
Max Planck Institute for Human Development, 2
measurement, attributions, 296
medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), activation of, 103104
memory. See also emotional enhancement of memory
accuracy of information, 41n.1
age differences in, 94
encoding, 2930
enhancement by emotion, 2627
implicit vs. explicit stereotype activation, 305306
older adults and stereotype threat, 310
performance context, 288, 290292
positivity effect, 116
selective engagement, 250
severe impairments and self-relevant information, 36
stereotype threat, 304305, 307308, 314
memory distortion, 27, 41n.1
Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) survey, 120, 131
mimicry responses, age differences, 15
mindfulness, wisdom, 260, 268
mood induction, age differences, 118
moral mandates, 274
Mother Teresa, memory of death of, 27, 28t
motivation
age and exposure to conflicts, 6769, 73t
age differences, 21, 216
causal attributions, 295296, 297
compassionate concern for good of all, 266267
emotion recognition, 100t, 103104
emotion regulation and positivity effects, 100t, 102103
judgment and decision making (JDM), 239
older adults regulating emotions, 160162, 166
social judgment context, 295296
stereotype threat, 308309
multimodal emotion perception, 14
National Institutes of Health (NIH), 1
National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE), 120
negative affect, 131132, 136
responding to hassles, 68, 71
natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC), health, 121
negative affect
age trends, 130131
arousal and aging, 229
change by task and age, 183f
descriptions of stressful events, 181182
reports of, 181
stereotype threat, 306
negative emotional situations, acceptance, 147148
negative emotional style (NES), 121
negative feedback systems, 86
negative mood, belief, 294
neural activity, amygdala and hippocampus, 3031, 32
neural process, aging brain, 1920
neuropsychological approach, brain response to emotions, 110
neuroscience research, emotion regulation and cognitive control, 159
norepinephrine, availability and influence, 226, 227
normal aging, 225
autonomic aspects of emotion, |234235
autonomic nervous system, 226227
emotion psychophysiology, 227228
Norris, Lisa, 257
older adults
aging and crystallization, 9495
arousal levels and cognitive processing, 9192
cognitive performance, 95
cognitive resources for regulating emotions, 160162, 165166
context and physiological vulnerability for emotion regulation, 179180
coping and everyday problem solving, 217218
decision-making competence, 247248
efficiency in regulating emotions, 162166
emotion regulation, 9394, 166167
emotion regulation in problem situations, 176178
flowchart for maintaining emotional well-being, 167f
influence of values on thought and action, 277278
inner orientation, 94
integration of psychological experience, 9495
interpersonal context and strengths in emotion regulation, 178179
interpersonal problem solving, 175176
maintaining emotional well-being, 156
masters of emotion regulation, 156158
motivations, 295296
optimizing emotional experience, 117118
physical changes with age and emotion regulation, 159160
physiological aspects of emotion regulation, 232233
relationship behaviors, 3
selective engagement, 250
sensitivity to stressful situations, 9293
social competence, 244247
social wisdom and experience, 23
stereotype threat, 304305
stereotype threatened group, 310311
vulnerability to tension, 91
wisdom through suffering, 261263
online processing, decision making, 243
openness to change, importance ratings by age group, 279, 280, 281f
optimization, emotion regulation, 117
orbitofrontal cortex
decoding anger, 20
response to anger, 110
other-profitable, judgments, 245247
overpowering hypothesis
affective reactivity with age, 71
reactivity to daily stressors, 138
own-age bias
emotion recognition, 106
eye gaze, 16
facial perception, 50, 51
parasympathetic branch, autonomic nervous system, 226227
passive emotion regulation, everyday problem solving, 212, 216
passive strategies, older adults and emotion regulation, 163
peers, interpersonal conflicts with, 195, 196197
perceived age, stereotyping process, 5153
perceiver context, 99, 100t, 102105
individual differences, 100t, 104105
motivation, 100t, 102104
Perfect Grandparent, stereotype label, 52t
performance contexts, causal attributions, 290292
perseverative cognition hypothesis, 138
personal beliefs, causal attributions, 294295
personal goals
definition, 212
life planning, 283
personality
coping and well-being, 207
motivations, 295296
(p. 328)
personal values, 273274
person perception
age and facial structure, 50
facial expressions and structure, 48
facial maturity and emotional expression, 48
theoretical perspectives, 4849
photo object viewing, medial prefrontal cortex, 33f
physiognomic cues, age perception, 52, 53t
physiological reactivity
emotion in everyday stress, 179180
response to film clips, 230232, 231f
Piaget, Jean, 83
Piaget's theory of development, 85, 87
point-light animations, body movement, 13
positive affect
age trends, 130131
arousal and aging, 229
change by task and age, 183f
descriptions of stressful events, 181182
"here and now," 198199
reports of, 181
positive emotional experiences, definition, 131
positive emotional style (PES), 121
positive emotions
health and, 119123
wisdom and eudaimonic well-being, 264267
positive reappraisal, emotion regulation, 147
positivity bias
age differences, 2021, 157
socioemotional selectivity theory (SST), 116117, 247
positivity effect, 41n.2
age-related changes in emotional memory, 3335
aging brain model (ABM), 34
attention, 116117
cognitive control, 161
coping and problem solving, 216
dynamic integration theory (DIT), 34, 35
emotional well-being, 4
emotion regulation, 100t, 102103, 107, 157, 158, 160
memory, 26, 116
neural evidence of, 117
neuroimaging, 40
proposed theories for explaining, 3334
socioemotional selectivity theory (SST), 116117, 247, 251, 278
theories and data, 3435
positivity ratio, well-being, 123
posterior-to-anterior shift with aging (PASA), 32
post-materialistic orientation, values, 276
power
age trends, 280t
importance ratings by age, 279f
The Power of NOW, Tolle, 259
practical intelligence, 211
preference reversals, decision making, 248
prefrontal cortex (PFC)
aging and self-referential memory enhancement, 3940
interactions with amygdala, 3133
medial PFC in self-relevant processing, 3839
social neuroscience, 297
prefrontal processing, older adults shifting to, 3133
prejudice, 3
Presidential election of 2008, 28t
prevention focus, stereotype threat, 308309
Princess Diana, memory of death of, 27, 28t
proactive emotion regulation, everyday problem solving, 212, 214
problem domains, 213
problem-focused coping, 210211
problem-focused strategy, everyday problem solving, 212, 213
problem solving. See also everyday problem solving
adolescence and early adulthood, 195197
contextual and motivational model, 191f
developmental research, 1
early and later adulthood, 198200
marriage conflict and collaborative, 182184
process-dissociation procedure, person-memory task, 250
progressions, crystallized processes, 91
pro-hedonic orientations, age differences, 6970, 76
promotion focus, stereotype threat, 308, 309
psychological construct, equilibrium processes, 8687
psychological experience, older adults, 9495
Psychology and Aging (journal), 175
The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations, Heider, 289
psychophysiology. See emotion psychophysiology
race/ethnicity, facial morphology, 57
racial stereotypes, facial maturity and emotional expression, 49
reactivity, term, 134, 135, 138
reactivity effects. affective experiences, 63
reappraisal
cognitive, and negative emotion, 146
older adults and emotion regulation, 163, 164
positive, 147
reflection
emotion regulation, 259261
self-transcendence, 263264
transcendence of subjectivity and projections through emotional suffering, 261263
wisdom dimension, 259264
regulation, term, 134
regulatory fit
explaining stereotype threat, 309310
stereotype threat, 308309
relationship-focused coping, 210
relationships. See also interpersonal relationships
conflict management, 195, 196197
contextual variation in emotional experience, 180181
dimensions of interpersonal, 195
interpersonal problem solving across lifespan, 194195
marital conflict and collaborative problem-solving, 182184
older adults and interpersonal problems, 178179
resilience, 265
resources, goals and coping, 210
respiration rate, arousal and affect, 229
response-focused emotion regulation, 157, 164
"rest-digest," parasympathetic branch, 226
retrograde amnesia, 36
sacred values, 274
sad film clips
physiological reactivity, 230232
scatterplots of subjective emotional valence and objective physiological arousal by age group, 231f
sadness
age differences in decoding, 1012
age differences in emotion recognition, 109
age differences in emotion regulation, 108109
facial structure in older adults, 47
morphology of aging face, 50
point-light display, 13
vocal expressions, 14
savoring, health and well-being, 119
Schwartz Value Inventory (SVI), 278, 279f, 280t
Second Noble Truth, Buddha, 261
security
age trends, 280t
importance ratings, 279f
selection, optimization and compensation with emotion regulation (SOC–ER), successful aging, 117118
selectivity
older adults and problem situations, 177
social expertise, 245
self-direction
age trends, 280t
importance ratings, 279f
self-enhancement, importance ratings by age group, 280, 281f (p. 329)
self-forgiveness, wisdom and well-being, 265266
self-profitable, judgments, 245247
self-referential memory, 27, 35
aging and neural mechanisms underlying enhancement of, 3940
enhancement effect and aging, 3638
neural mechanisms in, 3839
neuroscience, 4041
self-reflection
self-transcendence, 263264
wisdom, 259261
self-relevant information
aging and neural mechanisms of self-referential memory enhancement, 3940
neural mechanisms for self-referential memory, 3839
self-reference memory enhancement effect and aging, 3638
severe memory impairments and, 36
young and older adults, 3540
self-transcendence
importance ratings by age group, 279, 280, 281f
wisdom, 263264
September 11, 2001, memory of terrorist attacks, 27, 28t, 29t
Severely Impaired, stereotype label, 52t
shame, decoding expression, 12
Shrew/Curmudgeon, stereotype label, 52t
situational attribution, 292, 296
situation selection/modification, emotion regulation, 147
skill, emotion regulation, 144
skin conductance
age-related reactivity, 226, 227
arousal and affect, 228, 229
normal aging and intensity of response, 227228
sleep, positive emotions and, 120
smiles
decoding genuine and posed, 1213
detecting deception, 17
social cognition
causal attributions, 293296
judgment and decision making, 238239
research, 3
role of emotions in, 2
Social Cognition and Aging (journal), 238
social cognition and goals, 4
social inferences, age differences, 240242
social judgment
attributions of others, 292296
cognitive resources, 292293
motivation, 295296
personal beliefs and social knowledge, 294295
social cognitive factors, 293296
social knowledge, causal attributions, 294295
social neuroscience, 2, 297
social norms, 274
social perception
age differences, 1821
aging, 910
changes for aging brain, 2223
cognitive and perceptual explanations for age differences in, 1819
emotional body movements, 13
facial expressions, 1012
future directions for age-related research, 2123
interpersonal functioning, 18
motivational factors, positivity biases, and life experience, 2021
neural changes with age and links to, 1920
social roles, older adults and problem situations, 177
social stereotypes, facial maturity and emotional expression, 49
social support, emotion regulation, 147, 148149
societal values, 274
socioemotional aging, 18, 129, 132
socioemotional development, 5
socioemotional selectivity theory (SST), 5, 40
aging and daily stress, 137
arousal and affect, 229
cognitive resources for regulating emotions, 160162
coping and problem solving, 216
emotionally salient goals, 72
enhanced memory, 27, 29, 34
influence of values, 277278, 284
interpersonal problems, 178
motivation, 100t, 102
positivity effect, 116117, 247, 251, 278
relationships of older adults, 199
social goals in older adults, 250251
source memory, self-referential processing, 37
stereotypes
age, subcategories, 52t
age differences in emotion recognition, 106
facial maturity and emotional expression, 49
interactions with older people, 297298
intergenerational interaction, 5355
negative, about aging, 302303, 313314
perceived age and emotion influencing, 5153
perception of age-related, 311312
stereotype threat, 303306
Alzheimer disease (AD), 314315
future directions, 314315
identification with threatened domain, 310
identification with threatened group, 310311
implications of, 312313
implicit vs. explicit stereotype activation, 305306
inducing, in older adults, 304305
interactions between different explanations of, 309310
intergenerational interaction, 311
motivational orientations, 308309
perception of age-related stereotypes, 311312
role of executive control interference, 307308
role of lowered performance expectations, 306307
role of negative affective responses, 306
role of regulatory fit, 308309
what, 312313
who, 310312
why, 306310
Sternberg, Robert, 211
stimulation
age trends, 280t
importance ratings by age, 279f
stimulus and task form
emotion recognition, 101t, 108
emotion regulation, 101t, 107108
stimulus context, 99, 101t
age relevance, 101t, 105107
emotion recognition, 106107, 108
emotion regulation, 106, 107108
stimulus and task form, 101t, 107108
strategies
coping and, 210211
decision making, 242243
everyday problem solving, 212214
fluency, 194
goals and effectiveness of, 194, 201
responding to reductions in cognitive resources, 249250
social information processing, 293
use by older adults and emotion regulation, 162164
strength and vulnerability integration (SAVI) model, 5
collaborative problem-solving task, 183, 184
emotional well-being, 132, 137, 139
emotion regulation, 118, 176
emotion regulation in older adults, 160, 178
physiology and older adults, 185, 186
reactivity to everyday stress, 180
Strength and Vulnerability Model, 71
stress
aging and daily, process, 132136
aging and stress theory, 136139
allostatic load, 120
coping, 207
coping and everyday problem solving, 217
emotional well-being, 4
goals and coping, 209210
positive and negative affect in descriptions of, 181182
sensitivity of older adults, 9293
undoing, 122
(p. 330)
stressors
daily hassles and conflicts, 6769
emotional sensitivity to daily, 133
exposure and health, 121122
stress reactivity, 139
stress-related affect, 139
stress responsivity, 139
successful aging, 12
suffering
noble truth, 261
wisdom through, 261263
sunk-cost fallacy, decision making, 248
suppression
expressive, 146, 149
older adults and emotion regulation, 163, 164
suppression-reappraisal distinction, older adults and emotion regulation, 164165
surface facial electromyography (EMG), 15
surprise, age differences in decoding, 1012
sympathetic activation, emotion regulation, 165
sympathetic branch, autonomic nervous system, 226
sympathy, decoding expression, 12
systolic blood pressure (SBP), everyday stress, 179180, 183
tactics. See also tasks, capacities, and tactics
expressive control, 149
target detection, medial prefrontal cortex, 32, 33f
task characteristics, performance, 289, 290, 291
tasks, capacities, and tactics, 142, 148150. See also developmental functionalism
emotion regulation, 143145
emotions, 143
framework in emotion regulation across lifespan, 145f
tension reduction model, emotional development, 86
terminal decline, 132
terminal values, 275
Thatcher, Margaret, memory of resignation, 28t, 29t
Theory of Mind, 10, 89
Thich Nhat Hanh, 267
Third Noble Truth, Buddha, 261
thought, importance of values, 280284
threat, cardiovascular arousal, 230
three-dimensional wisdom model (3D-WM), 258, 259, 264, 265
time perspective, values, 282284, 285
tough love, wisdom, 267
tradition
age trends, 280t
importance ratings by age, 279f
trait, coping as, 207208
transactional view, coping, 207, 208, 209, 210
Tuesdays with Morrie, Albom, 262
ultimate limit situations, wisdom, 261
universalism
age trends, 280t
importance ratings by age, 279f
universal values, 275276
Utah Health and Aging study, 181, 184
values
age differences in World Values Survey (WVS), 278280
age trends for Schwartz, 280t
change of, across adulthood, 276277
definition, 273274
as dispositions, 274
importance rates of Schwartz, by age group, 279f
importance ratings for four, 280, 281f
influence on thought and action across adulthood, 277278
instrumental, 275
life planning, 283
life review, 283284
materialistic vs. post-materialistic orientation, 276
relating, to human needs, 275
sacred, and moral mandates, 274
social norms, 274
socioemotional selectivity theory (SST), 277278
terminal, 275
theories, 275276
time perspective and influence of, 282284
universalism, 275276
when they matter, 280284
ventral medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)/amygdala mechanism, 185
visual information, detecting deception, 1617
vocal expressions, emotions, 1314
vocal qualities, age information, 5657
voices, lifespan aging effects on perceiving emotions, 11t
vulnerability, older adults and tension, 91
"Warning," Joseph, 2
"wear and tear," stress, 120
well-being
compassionate concern for good of all, 266267
wisdom and eudaimonic, 264267
well-structured problems, 211, 215
West, wisdom, 257
wisdom, 12, 5, 148, 256257
affective wisdom dimension, 264
attainment of wisdom-related knowledge, 258
Berlin Wisdom Paradigm, 256, 257
Buddha, 261, 268n.1
cognitive wisdom dimension, 257259
compassionate concern for good of all, 266267
coping strategies, 265
Dalai Lama, 266, 267
definitions, 257, 259
emotional intelligence, 259, 264265
emotion regulation, 259261
eudaimonic well-being, 264267
Jesus of Nazareth, 267
psychological well-being, 265
reflective wisdom dimension, 259264
relationship to emotions, 4
Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (SAWS), 265
self-transcendence, 263264
three-dimensional wisdom model (3D-WM), 258, 259, 264, 265
transcendence of subjectivity and projections through emotional suffering, 261263
wise judgment and decision making, 258259
womb to tomb, lifespan, 85
women, own-age bias in emotion recognition, 106
word processing, medial prefrontal cortex, 32, 33f
working memory
emotion regulation, 158
positivity effect, 116
stereotype threat, 307308
World Values Survey (WVS), 273, 278280
X-system, social neuroscience, 297