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(p. 567) Index

(p. 567) Index

“4 plus 2” model, postdoctoral, 172
A
abilities, intersections of identity, 406407
academic freedom, religious distinctive programs, 481482
academic integrity
ethics, 344346
plagiarism, 345346
publication credit, 345
academic productivity, mentoring, 275276
academic setting
boundaries, 346347
faculty roles and relationships with students, 348
graduate assistants, roles and relationships, 349350
interns and post-doctoral fellows, 350
multiple relationships in, 347348
Academy of Clinical Science (ACS), 552
Academy of Psychological Clinical Science (APCS), 27, 40, 41, 187
accessibility
continuing education, 226
mentoring, 279
accommodation, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 372373
accountability, higher education, 107
accountable care organizations (ACO), 557558
accreditation
alternate means to, 9899
American Psychological Association (APA), 59, 167168
Association of Specialized and Professional Accreditors (ASPA), 95
conscience clauses, 465466
Council on Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA), 9495
criteria, 9093
distance education, 9798
due process, 360361
Footnote 4, 464465
future trends, 9599
history of, 8890
internship imbalance, 9597
internships, 87, 167168
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) competence, 464466
national standard, 167168
online education, 9798
organizational structures surrounding, 9395
program model, 91
revision of scope, criteria and procedures, 99
self-study, 9091
technological innovations, 514515
U.S. Department of Education, 9394
Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), 54, 492
active ethics, 338
Ad Hoc Working Group on Trainees with Competence Problems, 327
Administrative Procedures Act, 208
advising
definitions, 273
research training, 195197
Advisory Committee on Interdisciplinary Community Base Linkages, 555
Advisory Committee on the Impaired Psychologist (ACIP), 224
Advisory Working Alliance Inventory–Advisor (AWAI–A), 196
Advisory Working Alliance Inventory–Students (AWAI–S), 196
advocacy
mentoring, 280
practicum training, 138, 152
psychology program leaders, 536t, 543544
Affordable Care Act. See also healthcare system
health service psychologists (HSP), 168, 169
psychology inclusion, 168
against model, psychology and religion, 478
age, intersections of identity, 407
alliance
avoiding racial differences, 440
clinical supervision, 297298
supervisory working, 430f
trainee-trainer matches, 384, 387388
allied governance, internship, 161
Amendment 2, Colorado, 411
Amendment to the Americans with Disabilities Act, 304, 317
American Association for Applied Psychology (AAAP), 21, 122
American Association of Clinical Psychologists (AACP), 2, 20, 21, 122
American Bar Association (ABA), 53, 478
American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology (ABCN), 127
American Board of Examiners in Professional Psychology (ABEPP), 124
American Board of Forensic Psychology (ABFP), 127
American Board of Internal Medicine, Project Professionalism, 492, 493
American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, 493
American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS), 121
American Board of Physical Therapy Specialties, 121
American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP), 173, 209
board certification process, 126130
certification, 553
competencies, 128t, 129t
continuing education, 215
Early Entry Program, 126127
expectations vs. legal requirements, 129130
oral examination, 128
senior option, 127128
specialization areas, 222 (p. 568)
specialty boards, 124, 125t
specialty definition, 124
American College of Physicians Foundation, 493
American Council on Education, 88
American Counseling Association, Code of Ethics, 362
American Medical Association (AMA), 88, 408
American Psychological Association (APA), 18, 34, 88
accreditation, 59, 167168
Advisory Committee on Colleague Assistance, 316
Board of Educational Affairs (BEA), 157, 168, 222, 253, 326
Board of Professional Affairs, 252
Center for Work Force Studies, 478, 549, 550
Committee on Accreditation (CoA), 52, 55, 5658f, 90, 123, 171, 222, 320, 324, 553554
Committee on Training in Clinical Psychology, 54
Council of Representatives (CoR), 134, 255
counseling psychology, 70
Education and Training Board, 252
Education Directorate, 109110, 112, 141
Ethics Committee, 320
guidelines for professional psychology, 399400
Guidelines for the Undergraduate Psychology Major, 109
licensure, 59, 202
specialization, 121122
Yerkes, 19
American Psychologist (journal), 27, 276
American Sign Language (ASL), 406
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 358, 372373
Amendments to, 304, 317
personal/professional boundaries, 329
psychology training, 322, 323
Annapolis Coalition, 305
Ann Arbor conference, participants, 26t
antitransgender, 457
anxiety, trainee evaluation, 264265
APA Graduate Students (APAGS), 166
APA Guidelines for the Undergraduate Psychology Major, 400
APA Insurance Trust (APAIT), 212
APA Model Act for Licensure of Psychologists, 206
APA National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula, 400
APA Practice Organization (APAPO), 211
appearance, intersections of identity, 407408
appeasing trainees, 444
applied psychology, World War I (WWI) and advance of, 1921
Arizona State University, 29
Army Alpha, 19
Army Beta, 19
assessment
practicum training, 138, 150151
professionalism, 495497
psychology program leaders, 535t, 540
Assessment Cyberguide for Psychology, 109
Assessment of Competency Benchmarks Workshop, 253, 258
assessment toolkit
competency-based approach, 113, 258, 263
professionalism, 496497, 502504
assimilative integration, psychotherapy, 80
Association for State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB)
Code of Conduct, 204
Disciplinary Data System (DDS), 208209, 331
licensing laws, 203
practicum and licensure, 134135, 141142
practicum hour, 142
program leaders, 541
Association of American Medical Colleges, 492
Association of Consulting Psychologists (ACP), 21
Association of Directors of Psychology Training Clinics (ADPTC), 320
Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology (APPCN), 175, 179
Association of Psychology Internship Centers (APIC), 156
Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC), 42, 48, 109, 553
Application for Psychology Internship, 242
confidentiality, 366367
Directory of salaries, 177
internships, 45, 87, 156157
membership criteria, 96
postdoctoral training conference, 171
practicum hour, 142
science-practice integration, 187
training programs, 123, 319320
voluntary membership organization, 157
Association of Psychology Training Clinics (APTC), 110, 135
Association of Specialized and Professional Accreditors (ASPA), 95
Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB), 106, 320
consultation, 373
Handbook on Licensing and Certification Requirements, 178
licensing laws, 203
Model Act for Licensure and Registration of Psychologists, 210
National Register Designation Program, 127
practice analysis, 114
attitudes
cultivating mindfulness, 226
entitlement, 445
lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) competence, 458, 463464
Attitudes Toward Research Measure, 192
attorney, remedial and disciplinary proceedings, 357358, 360
attributions, trainer-trainee relationships, 441
B
Balint training, professionalism, 501
behavior
cognitive and affective bases of, 6162
Commission on Accreditation (CoA), 57
ethical, in multiculturalism, 447448
psychotherapy supervision, 428429
benchmarking, self-assessment, 225226
Benchmarks Competencies, 55, 137, 138, 141, 176
Benchmarks Competencies Model, 110112, 116
Benchmark Work Group, 315
best practices
continuing education, 220221
evaluating trainees, 257259
psychology program leaders, 539
bicultural competence, 460461
Binet, Alfred, 19
Binet-Simon, 19
biphobia, 457
blaming the victim, trainer-trainee relationships, 444445
Blueprint III training model, 43
body image, 407408
Bordin, Edward, 26
Born this Way (song), Lady Gaga, 455
Boulder Conference, Scientist-Practitioner Model, 36, 37, 122, 185, 186
Boulder Conference on Graduate Education in Clinical Psychology, 2, 3, 4, 25, 27, 34, 40, 43, 54, 88
participants, 23t, 24t
postdoctoral training, 172
Boulder Model, 2, 25, 34, 36, 37
boundaries
academic setting, 346347
clinical supervision, 346347
cultural competence, 448
faculty roles and relationships with students, 348 (p. 569)
graduate assistants, multiple roles and multiple relationships, 349350
interns and post-doctoral fellows, 350
personal and professional, 328329
professionalism, 504
trainee confidentiality, 328329, 331
trainer challenges, 383
boundary crossing, 346
boundary violation, 346
Bronfenbrenner ecosystemic model, 319, 385
Buddhism, 412, 473
burnout, trainers, 381
buyer beware, 203
C
California Psychology Internship Council (CAPIC), 158
California School of Professional Psychology, 89
Canada
Agreement on Internal Trade, 207
independent practice, 206, 210
psychology licensure and credentialing, 201202
Canadian Interprofessional Health Collaborative, 107, 538
Canadian Psychological Association (CPA), 10, 100, 156
accreditation, 167168
licensure, 202
CANMEDS, Canada, 493
capstone experience, internship, 155, 160
career functions, mentoring, 273, 275
caring cycle, 223
Carter Center, 558
Cattell, James McKeen, 18
caveat emptor, 203
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 407
Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS), 122
centers of excellence, postdoctoral training, 181
Centre for the Advancement of Interprofessional Education, 538
certificate-minor model, religious issues, 476477
Chicago Conference, 156, 172
Child Guidance Movement, 19, 20
Child Study Movement, 18
Choosing a Vocation, Parsons, 19
Christian counseling, 481
Christianity, 412, 473
Christian schools, 482
Christian universities, religious distinctive programs, 477478
Chronicle of Higher Education, 551
chronosystem, 385
Civil Rights legislation of 1960s, 88
client welfare
boundaries, 146147
practicum training, 143144
clinical child & adolescent psychology, specialty board, 125t
clinical health psychology, specialty board, 125t
clinical neuropsychology, specialty board, 125t
clinical psychologists, 122
clinical psychology, 25
case example of supervision, 425427
gender, 422423
LGBT individuals, 461462
mental testing, 19
primacy of science in, 4041
specialty board, 125t
clinical science, definition, 40
clinical scientist, 516
clinical-scientist model
central characteristics, 4042
development, 3940
doctoral education in psychology, 91
doctoral training, 33, 3942
evaluation of, 42
implementation of, 42
internships, 45
primacy of science in clinical psychology, 4041
professional psychology, 3
research training, 187
training, 4142
clinical supervision, 294, 305. See also supervision
alliance, 297298
awareness of personal factors, 299
boundaries, 346347
challenges, 293, 305307
competence as organizing framework, 292293
competency-based, 294295
distinct professional competency, 293294
diversity, 298299
duty, 291292
effective practices and competency–based, 297305
ethics, 350352
evaluation, 301302
evidence-based, 306307
feedback, 302303
future direction, 305307
gatekeeping, 304, 351352
graduate education and clinical training, 292293
learning strategies, 303304
legal and ethical considerations, 300
management of countertransference, 299
multiple relationships in, 347348
outcomes, 304
psychotherapy-based supervision models, 296297
reflective practice, 301
self-care, 304305
skills, 297
supervisee competencies, 294295
supervisees with problematic performance, 304
supervision contract, 300301
supervisor competencies and training, 295297
supervisor responsibilities, 295t
clinical training
religious distinctive programs, 480481
structured, 518519
technological innovations, 514
cloning and theoretical abuse, 383384
Cochrane Library, 150
Code of Ethics
American Counseling Association, 362
American Psychological Association (APA), 221
cognitive & behavioral psychology, specialty board, 125t
cognitive-behavioral orientation. See also theoretical orientations
education and training, 71t, 7375
key competency domains, 75
training focus, 74
training processes, 7475
training structure, 74
cognitive complexity
questions, 245246
student selection, 245
cognitive psychology, 62
College of William and Mary, 88
Colorado, Amendment 2, 411
Commission for the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology (CRSPPP), 123124, 174
Commission on the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Psychology, 228
commitment, mentoring, 282
Committee on the Training of Clinical Psychologists (CTCP), 2, 24, 122
Committee on Training, U.S. Public Health Service, 23
Committee on Training in Clinical Psychology (CTCP), 2
common factors focus, psychotherapy training, 517518
common pool resources (CPR), 319
Commonwealth Fund, 20
communitarian model, competence problems, 319
companionate love, mentoring, 282
compassion fatigue, 223
competence. See also problems of professional competence (PPC)
clinical supervision, 292293
concept of, 225 (p. 570)
conceptualizing and assessing, 221223
ethics, 350352
evaluating trainees with, problems, 265266
evaluation of, 351
multiple factors of gender, 427
principles for assessment, 253
professional, and confidence, 276
religious issues in practice, 472474
trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 266, 378
competence constellations, 11
competencies
acquisition during practicum training, 137139
American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP), 128t, 129t
assessment of, 316
cultural, 439440, 443444
"eddy effect", 443444
mentoring, 278280
professional psychology, 35, 69, 398399, 532533
supervisor, 295297
Competencies Conference, 55, 109110, 135, 157, 176, 187, 222, 253, 320, 323, 532
Competency Assessment Toolkit for Professional Psychology, 113
competency-based education and training, 105107
ASPPB practice analysis, 114
assessment toolkit, 113
Benchmarks Competencies Model, 110112
challenges and vision for future, 115116
Competencies Conference, 109110
continuing professional development, 114115
doctoral-level initiatives, 109113
health professions, 107108
internship training, 166
licensure, 113114
nondoctoral models in psychology, 108109
Pikes Peak Model, 112
postdoctoral training, 181
psychology workforce, 556557
Practicum Competencies Outline, 110
recommendations, 115116
specialty-specific competency models, 112113
Competency Benchmarks, 187, 398, 399t, 400
The Competency Benchmarks Project, 363
Competency Benchmarks Work Group, 222
Competency Conference, 315
Competency Cube, 532, 542
competency domains
cognitive-behavioral orientation, 75
humanistic-existential orientation, 77
integrative training, 8182
psychodynamic orientation, 73
systemic orientation, 79
Competency Evaluation Rating Forms, 258
competency movement
core curriculum, 5455
definition, 253254
evaluation, 252253
reactions to, 254255
Competency Remediation Plan Template, 363
computer-aided psychotherapies, 521
Conference of State Psychology Associations, 202
confidence, mentoring, 276
confidentiality
boundaries of trainee, 328329, 331
clinical internships, 368369
documents governing, 366367
duty to protect, 371372
HIPAA vs. FERPA, 367368
limits for supervisors, 369370
policy and procedure documents, 358
relationships, 357
remediation plans, 365366
Connecticut, licensing act in psychology, 202
consortia models, internship governance, 161
consultation
internships, 369
practicum training, 138, 151
psychology program leaders, 535t, 541
consumption, research findings, 188
content
curricular assessment and gender, 423
psychotherapy supervision, 422
context, 400
core curriculum, 6264
exercise of privilege, 402405
identity status, 400402
privilege and oppression, 400405
training, 384385, 388389
continuing education
best practices in, 220221
conceptualizing and assessing competence, 221223
designating activities, 214217
developing infrastructure of, 229230
diminishing durability of professional knowledge, 228229
evaluation, 224226
intersection between personal and professional life, 223224
lifelong learning and, 214, 230231
mandating, 217218
measuring outcomes of, 218220
professional psychology, 114115
reflection, 224226
self-assessment, 224226
technology trends in, 226228
continuing professional development (CPD), 214217
coping strategies, training trainees, 386
core competency, trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 378
core curriculum, 52, 64
broad and general education, 55, 58, 5960
cognitive and affective bases of behavior, 6162
common and essential knowledge, 5354
competency movement, 5455
drawbacks and possible risks, 64
economics, 63
emphasizing context, 6264
epistemology, 64
essential courses for scientific information, 6061
general argument for, 5253
history, 54
licensure and accreditation requirements, 59
local cultures, 63
social class, 63
The Core Curriculum in Professional Psychology, Peterson, 54
core principle, 174
cost, professional training, 106
Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP), 29
Council of Chairs of Training Councils (CCTC), 47, 110, 135, 222, 323, 539
doctoral and internship training, 157158
internship toolkit, 164
practicum, 141, 142
professional practice, 176
Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs (CCPTP), 108, 320
Council of Graduate Departments of Psychology, 60, 252
Council of Graduate Schools, 272
Council of Representatives (CoR), 134, 255
Council of Specialties (CoS), 124
Council of the Chairs of Training Councils (CCTC), 532
Council of University Directors of Clinical Psychology (CUDCP), 46, 48, 320
Council on Higher Education Accreditation, 89, 106
Council on Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA), 9495, 99
Council on Medical Education and Hospitals, 88
The Counseling Psychologist (journal), 295 (p. 571)
counseling psychology, 2527
American Psychological Association (APA), 70
specialty board, 125t
countertransference
clinical supervision, 299
self-awareness, 424, 425
couple and family psychology, specialty board, 125t
Courageous Conversation, 157
courses
research training, 195
selection, 6061
credentialing
appropriate for specialties, 125126
education and training, 557558
emergence of specialty, 124125
profession of psychology, 10
psychology, in United States and Canada, 201202
qualified practitioners, 205207
crisis competence, concept of, 461
critical consciousness, 463
critical events
case example of gender-related, 431432
primary aspects of, 430431
Critical Events in Supervision (CES) model, 429
Cube Model, 55, 110, 176, 222, 253
Culkin, John, 400
cultural and individual differences, accreditation, 92
cultural competence
boundaries, 448
"eddy effect," 443444
education and training, 78
multiculturalism, 439440
trainers, 446
cultural incompetence, 442443
cultural matching, 448
cultural self-awareness, 447
culture, 397, 414415n.1
challenges of trainers, 382383
competence problems, 324327
creating, of ethics and ethical practice, 339340
diversity and trainee evaluation, 259261
language and, 410
local culture, 63
mentoring and sensitivity to, 279
multicultural education and training in psychology, 398400
role of program, in evaluation, 256257
culture and diversity, 397398
exercise of privilege, 402405
identity status, 400402
multicultural education and training, 398400
culture of competence, 4, 105, 223
clinical supervision, 292
methods to assess practitioner competence, 206207
postdoctoral training, 180181
professional psychology, 9
trainers, 387
Cummings, Nicholas, 29
curriculum, professionalism, 499501
D
deaf people, 406
decision making
ethical, 338339
gender, 423
Defense of Marriage Act, 411
defiant trainees, 444
delegation of work to others, practicum training, 144
dentistry, professionalism, 493, 495
Dent v. West Virginia (1889), 202
Department of Defense (DoD), 130
diabetes, 406
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 421, 456
dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), 144
didactic and experiential training
boundaries, 347
cognitive-behavioral orientation, 74
continuing education, 221
knowledge, 420423
professionalism, 499501
scientist-practitioner model, 35
theoretically informed training, 68
Directors of Clinical Training (DCTs), 140, 481
Directors of Training (DTs), 260, 321322
disabilities
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 372373
intersections of identity, 406407
Disciplinary Data System (DDS), 208209
disclosure
clinical internships, 368369
documents governing, 366367
duty to protect, 371372
HIPAA vs. FERPA, 367368
remediation plans, 365366
discrimination
multiculturalism, 447448
religious distinctive programs, 479
distance education, accreditation, 9798
distinct professional competency, clinical supervision, 293294
distress, trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 378
District of Columbia, 203
diversity, 62
accreditation, 92
clinical supervision, 298299
competence problems, 324327
creating welcoming climate, 446
cultural challenges of trainers, 382383
education and training, 7
graduate education and training, 438
hidden, of Judaism, 404
mentoring constellation, 284285
power, and student outcomes, 449
psychology program leaders, 539
psychology workforce, 554
sexual orientation and gender identity, 457458
supervisors and mentors, 165
trainee evaluation, 259261
trainers, 387
doctoral programs. See also student selection
administration of practicum, 140141
applicability of models, 4344
broad and general training, 165
degree type, 4344
education on religious issues, 476477
ethics and professionalism, 6
externships, 139140
historical context, 3334
in-house training clinics, 139, 140
interviews, 240241, 247
organizing and managing practicum, 139
practicum training in, 133134, 139141
psychology, 1, 3, 123
settings for practicum training, 139
student selection, 237238
trainee mentoring and supervision, 56
trainee selection and evaluation, 5
training models, 8
training plan, 139
training problems, 67
doctoral training
applicability of models in, 4344
clinical scientist model, 3942
contributions of models in quality training, 46
limitations of models in quality training, 4647
practitioner-scholar model, 3739
recommendations, 4849
scientist-practitioner model, 3437
Doctor of Behavioral Health program, Arizona State University, 29
Doctor of Psychology, invention of new degree, 20
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), 27, 4344
"Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell" policy, 453
downright denial, concept of, 443
due process, 208, 359, 360361
duty to protect, confidentiality and safety, 371372
dysconsciousness, 441442
dysphoria, 456 (p. 572)
E
Early Career Psychologist Committee, 549
early career psychologists (ECPs), 548549, 562563
accountability, 555556
competence-based education, 556557
definition, 548549
diversity and changing population, 554
electronic healthcare records, 556
evidence-based treatments, 556
healthcare system, 557558
healthcare system changes, 554555
interprofessionalism, 557
medical cost offset, 556
personal success, 552
preparation for success, 559560
programmatic success, 552554
questions to consider for success of, 561t, 562t
recommendations for, 560562
starting salaries, 550
student funding and debt load, 551
supply and demand of workforce, 558
trends impacting workforce, 551558
trends influencing success for, 554558
workforce, 549551
ecological model, 319
economics, professional psychology, 63
"eddy effect," cultural competency, 439f, 443444
education and training. See also early career psychologists (ECPs); race
academic integrity, 344346
benefits of internship program, 163
boundary issues and relationships in, 346350
cognitive-behavioral orientation, 71t, 7375
culture and context, 78
diversity-welcoming climate, 446
due process, 360361
ethical and legal context, 143145
evidence-based practice, 8283
gender, 409
graduate assistants, multiple roles and multiple relationships, 349350
history of multicultural, in psychology, 398400
humanistic-existential orientation, 71t, 7577
immigration, 409410
Individual and Cultural Diversity (ICD) competency, 405406
informed consent in, 343344
integrative trends in, 7982
intersections of identity, 405406
language, 410
lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) competence, 458464
plagiarism, 345346
psychodynamic orientation, 7073, 71t
psychology specialization, 23, 122123
publication credit, 345
race and ethnicity, 437, 446447, 449
religion in psychology programs, 475476
sex and gender, 419420, 432433
standards for independent practice, 209210
systemic orientation, 71t, 7779
trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 378
theory in psychology, 6870
Education Directorate, American Psychological Association (APA), 109110, 112, 141
efficacy, mentoring, 286
e-learning
continuing education, 221
training innovations, 511512
electronic communication, licensed psychologists, 210212
eligibility, accreditation, 92
Ellis, Albert, 475
elucidation of common factors, psychotherapy, 80
emotional intelligence (EI), psychology program leaders, 533
employment. See also early career psychologists (ECPs)
mentoring in, 285
networking and initial, 276
professional workforce, 549551
enacted stigma, 459
English as a Second Language (ESL), 403
entitlement, attitude, 445
entrustability, clinical supervision, 293
epistemology, professional psychology, 64
essentialism, sexual orientation and gender identity, 454455
essential tension, 123
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, 267, 300, 336, 337, 341, 398, 452, 476
ethics
boundaries in academic setting, 346347
boundaries in clinical supervision, 346347
boundary issues and relationships in education and training, 346350
challenges of trainers, 383384
clinical supervision, 300
competence and client welfare, 143144
competence issues, 350352
creating culture of, and ethical practice, 339340
decision making, 338339
evaluation of competence, 351
faculty roles and relationships with students, 348
gate keepers of profession, 351352
gender, 421422
graduate assistants, multiple roles and multiple relationships, 349350
informed consent in education and training, 343344
interns and post-doctoral fellows, 350
modeling self-care and wellness, 340342
multiple relationships in academic setting, 347348
multiple relationships in clinical supervision, 347348
personal psychotherapy, 342343
plagiarism, 345346
practicum training, 136, 138, 143145
professional relationships, 346347
program directors, 538539
promoting academic integrity, 344346
publication credit, 345
religious or spiritual interventions, 480
technology-assisted techniques, 523524
trainee evaluation, 264, 266267
trainers, 337, 383384
training, 6, 322324, 337, 338
ethics acculturation, 338
Ethics Code, 143, 369
confidentiality, 366367
problems of competence, 324, 328, 329
religion, 476
remedial interventions, 360362
training, 336339, 343, 345
unprofessional behavior, 373374
ethics course, mandatory, 224
ethnicity. See also race
intersections of identity, 408
matching model, 448
psychology workforce, 550, 554
European Federation of Internal Medicine, 493
evaluation. See also trainee evaluation
clinical supervision, 301302
competence, 351
continuing education, 224226
trainees, 5, 266
Evaluation of Professional Behavior in General Practice, 497
evidence-based practice (EBP)
clinical supervision, 306307
education and training, 8283
functional competency, 150
postdoctoral training, 181
research findings, 188
Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP), 3, 39, 59, 203, 204, 247, 553
exosystem, 385
exploitation, cloning and theoretical abuse, 383384
external accountability, accreditation, 93
externships, practicum in doctoral programs, 139140
F
Facebook, 522
face-to-face supervision, 511, 512
facilitative interpersonal skills (FIS), 5, 243244 (p. 573)
facilitators, 493
faculty
core curriculum, 57f
mentoring in hiring, 285
professionalism, 498
religious schools, 482
remedial and disciplinary proceedings, 360
trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 379384
training ecosystem, 320322
fairness, concept of, 361
false generosity, 445
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (1974) (FERPA), 323, 329, 358, 366
confidentiality, 369, 370
HIPAA vs. FERPA, 367368
safety, 371372
feedback
clinical supervision, 302303
recommendations for providing, 303t
felt stigma, 459
feminist supervision, psychotherapy, 428
feminist therapeutic approaches, psychotherapy, 421
figure-ground factor, gender, 432
financial relationship, doctoral and internship programs, 165169
First Amendment, 478
Footnote 4
accreditation, 464465
issues relevant to sexual behavior, 483484
provisions, 482483
forensic psychology, specialty board, 125t
formal learning, continuing education, 215, 216, 217
forward feeding, professionalism, 498499
foundational competencies
American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP), 128t, 129t
ethic and legal context, 143145
mentoring, 278279
practice-oriented ethical competencies, 145146
practicum training, 137138, 143150
professionalism, 143146
professional values and attitudes, 146147
psychology program leaders, 533, 534535t, 536539
founding fathers, professional psychology, 420
Freud, Sigmund, 67, 474
Fuller Theological Seminary, 478, 481
functional competencies
advocacy, 138, 152
American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP), 128t, 129t
assessment, 138, 150151
consultation, 138, 151
evidence-based practice (EBP), 150
interdisciplinary systems, 138, 152
intervention, 138, 151
mentoring, 279280
practicum training, 138, 150152
psychology program leaders, 535536t, 540544
supervision, 138, 144, 151152
funding
accreditation, 93
internship programs, 163164
postdoctoral training, 177
G
Gainesville Conference, 34, 36, 43, 157, 173
Gallup poll, 473
Galton, Francis, 18
gatekeeping
clinical supervision, 304
gender, 409
mentoring, 280
professional psychology, 351352
trainers, 321
gateslipping, 268, 321, 330, 384
gay men, term, 456
gender, 419, 420
case example of pre-practicum group, 424425
case example of supervision, 425427
case of critical event, 431432
competence in education and training, 7
countertransference, 424, 425
curricular assessment and, 423
education, training and supervision, 432433
intersections of identity, 408409
mentoring, 279
multicultural diversity, 422423
multiple factors of, competence, 427
paraphilic coercive disorder, 421
premenstrual dysphoric disorder, 421
professional ethics, 421422
psychology workforce, 550
psychotherapy-supervision models, 429431
repairing gender-related misunderstanding critical event, 430f
self-awareness, 423424
theoretical models of supervision and, 429431
trainee evaluation, 260
gender dysphoria, 456
gender identity, 452. See also lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)
attitudes, 463464
definition, 454
diverse and intersecting identities, 457458
essentialism and social constructionism, 454456
ethical principles, 452453
language and language use, 453454
LGBT development, 459461
psychology and social construction of, 456457
stigma, mental health and well-being, 459460
gender identity disorder, 456
gender knowledge, 420
gender self-awareness, 420
gender skills, 420
gender-transgressive, 454
geropsychology, specialty board, 125t
GI Bill, 88
Goddard, Henry Herbert, 19
gold standard, board certification, 126
governance, internships, 160161
Graduate Medical Education (GME), 123
Graduate Records Examination (GRE), 238239, 247, 248
graduate student/program rights, practicum training, 144145
graduate students. See also student selection
academic productivity, 275276
advising and mentoring in, 273274
clinical supervision, 292293
multiple relationships, 349350
power and diversity, 449
roles and relationships, 349350
training in ethics, 338
Graduate Study in Psychology, 549
graduate training models. See also research training
research emphasis, 186188
Greyston Conference, 27, 88
group psychology, specialty board, 125t
group therapy, remediation plan, 365
Guam, 203
Guidelines and Principles, 55, 5658f
Guidelines and Principles for Accreditation, 257
Guidelines and Principles for Accreditation of Programs in Professional Psychology, 358, 398
Guidelines for Psychological Practice in Health Care Delivery Systems, 152
Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Clients, 454, 457, 458, 461
Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists, 351
H
hair, identity status, 402, 411, 415n.2
half-life, professional knowledge, 228, 229
Hall, G. Stanley, 2, 18
Handbook of Counseling and Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Clients (2nd ed.), 461, 463 (p. 574)
Handbook of Counseling Psychology, Gelso and Lent, 186
Handbook on Licensing and Certification Requirements, ASPPB, 178
Harvard Red Book, 52, 53
Harvard University, 88
healthcare system
accountability, 555556
electronic healthcare records, 556
medical cost offset, 556
psychology workforce, 554555, 557558
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 323, 358, 366, 367
electronic healthcare records, 556
FERPA vs. HIPAA, 367368
safety, 371372
treatment information, 369
health problems, role of religion, 473474
health professions
competency-based education and training, 107108
professionalism, 493, 495
health service psychologists (HSP), 155, 168, 169
Health Service Psychology Education Collaborative (HSPEC), 158
heterosexism, 459
Heuristic Model of Nonoppressive Interpersonal Development (HMNID), 423424
Hinduism, 412, 473
HIV status, 358, 402
holistic approach, mentoring, 282
Hollingworth, Leta S., 20
Holmes, Sherlock, 62
homophilic, 456
homophobia, term, 459
homosexuality, 413
label, 455
mental disorder classification, 456
term, 456
Houston Conference, 112, 127
humanistic-existential orientation. See also theoretical orientations
education and training, 71t, 7577
key competency domains, 77
training focus, 76
training processes, 7677
training structure, 76
humanists, 493
humility, mentoring, 279
hyper-reality, 149
I
identity, 398, 455. See also gender identity; intersections of identity
continuum of target status, 401t
gender, 423424
intersections of, 405414
status, 400402
target identity status, 401
immigration, intersections of identity, 409410
impaired trainee, 378
impairment, 304
term, 315, 316, 378
terminology, 317
implementation, remediation plans, 363366
Implementing Regulation, 56, 58
imposter syndrome, 378
incidental learning, continuing education, 215
independent practice
credentialing, 205207
education and training standards for, 209210
Indiana University, 40
individual and cultural difference (ICD)
Individual and Cultural Diversity (ICD), 398399, 399t. See also intersections of identity
education and training, 398400, 414
exercise of privilege, 402405
Footnote 4 and accreditation, 464465
identity status, 400402
practicum training, 136, 138, 147148
privilege and oppression, 400405
program leaders, 535t
trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 448449
industrial/organizational psychology, specialty board, 125t
informal learning, continuing education, 215, 217
information technology
licensed psychologists, 210212
training innovations, 511515
informed consent
education and training, 343344
practicum training, 144
teaching and supervision, 343344
infrastructure, continuing education, 229230
in-house clinics, practicum in doctoral programs, 139, 140
innovations
common factors focus, 517518
integrating research infrastructures into psychotherapy, 515517
non-technology-based training, 515520
professional psychology, 10
research on psychotherapy training, 519520
socializing clinicians to psychotherapeutic processes, 518519
technological, in professional psychology, 510511, 524525
technology-based training, 511515
technology-based treatment, 520522
inquiry, clinical supervision, 301
in-session behavior, psychotherapy, 428429
Institute of Medicine (IOM), 107, 305, 538
institutional antitransgender prejudice, 466
institutional challenges, training ecosystem, 322324
institutional heterosexism, 466
Institutional Review Board (IRB), 195
instrumentation, trainee evaluation, 262264
Integrated Development Model (IDM), 429
Integrated Research Productivity Index (IRPI), 189
integrates model, psychology and religion, 478
integration-incorporation model, religious issues, 476
integrative psychotherapy
education and training, 8081
key competencies, 8182
integrity, professionalism, 146
intelligence quotient (IQ), 19
intended outcomes, mentoring, 282
intentional modeling, mentoring, 280
interaction sequences, critical event, 431
interactive techniques, continuing education, 220221
interdisciplinary systems
practicum training, 138, 152
program leaders, 535t, 537538
Interest in Research Questionnaire (IRQ), 192
internalized heterosexism, 460, 462
internalized stigma, 459
Internet, 510, 523524
licensed psychologists, 210212
online continuing education, 226228
internship imbalance
accreditation criteria, 9597
benefits of providing internship program, 163
competence problems, 319
funding considerations, 163164
internship quality, 162
potential solutions, 162163
scope of problem, 161162
timing in training sequence, 166167
workforce analysis, 164165
Internship Research Training Environment Scale (IRTES), 5, 194
internships. See also internship imbalance; student selection
accreditation as national standard, 167168
allied governance, 161
benefits, 163
boundary and relationship issues, 350
capstone, 160
confidentiality in clinical, 368369 (p. 575)
consultations, 369
doctoral student selection, 242243
exclusively affiliated, 159
governance, 160161
non-affiliated independent, 159
partially-affiliated, 159160
professional psychology, 4
religious distinctive programs, 480481
research training environment (RTE), 194195
stipends, 166
supply and demand imbalance, 161164
termination process, 362363
internship training, 155
advising and mentoring, 273274
applicability of models in, 4445
current issues and controversies, 164169
duration, 158
financial relationship between doctoral and, 165169
governance structures, 160161
historical developments, 155158
intern stipends, 166
models of training, 158
organizational structures, 158160
structures and mechanisms, 158161
timing in sequence of, 160, 166167
Interorganizational Council for the Accreditation of Postdoctoral Training Programs (IOC), 173
interpersonal challenges
trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 379
trainers, 381382
interpersonal warmth, mentoring, 279
interpreters, psychotherapy, 410
Interprofessional Education Collaborative, 108
interprofessionalism, workforce, 557
Interprofessional Professionalism Collaborative (IPC), 108
intersectionality, 457, 458
intersections of identity
ability differences, 406407
age, 407
appearance and size, 407408
clinical training and education, 405406
ethnicity, 408
gender, 408409
immigration, 409410
language, 410
political, 410411
race, 411412
religion and spirituality, 412413
sexual orientation, 413
socioeconomic status (SES), 413414
intersex, 409
interventions. See also remedial and disciplinary interventions
practicum training, 138, 151
psychology program leaders, 535t, 540
telehealth, 521522
interviews
facilitative interpersonal skills, 244245
student selection, 240241, 247
intimacy, mentoring, 282
Islam, 412, 473
J
Jewish schools, 482
"Jim Crow" laws, 403
Joint Council on Professional Education in Psychology (JCPEP), 89, 95, 173, 252
Joint Mid-Year Meeting of Training Councils in Psychology, 319
Journal of Counseling Psychology (journal), 462
Journal of Psychology and Christianity (journal), 481
journeyman, 124
Judaism, 404, 412, 473
jurisdiction, 203, 207
K
Kagan, Jerome, 62, 63
Keeton v. Anderson-Wiley (2011), 325, 326, 465, 484
Kelly, E. Lowell, 27
keystone experience, 4, 155, 160
knowledge
didactic education, 420423
lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) competence, 458, 459461
knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs).
psychology program leaders, 533, 534536t, 540
research training, 190191
knowledge atrophy, 228
Ku Klux Klan, 402
L
lab test, outcome monitoring, 513, 518
language
intersections of identity, 410
sexual orientation and gender identity, 453454
law of no surprises, 331
law of parsimony, 331
leadership. See also program leaders
psychology program leaders, 536t, 542543
Learning Environment for Professionalism Survey, 497
learning strategies, clinical supervision, 303304
legal challenges, training ecosystem, 322324
legal education, 53
legal liability
central principles protecting a program, 358359
consulting an attorney, 357358
disciplinary and remediation processes, 357363
documents, 358
due process, 360361
faculty and supervisors, 360
recommendation letters, 374375
termination from training program, 359360
termination process, 362363
timing for intervention, 361
legal principles
board certification in psychology, 129130
clinical supervision, 300
practicum training, 136, 138, 143145
trainee evaluation, 266267
training ecosystem, 322324
lesbian, 456
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT). See also gender identity; sexual orientation
advocacy, 462
APA accreditation, 464466
attitudes, 458, 463464
clinical work, 461462
developing LGBT competence through education and training, 458464
education and training, 7
ethical principles, 452453
Footnote 4 and sexual behavior, 483484
knowledge, 458, 459461
mentoring LGBT psychology students, 467
religious vs. LGBT training, 1011
research, 462
skills, 458, 461462
stigma, mental health and well–being, 459460
strength and resilience, 460461
training considerations, 466468
lesbian-gay-bisexual (LGB) issues, 413
lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender-queer (LGBTQ), 382383
letters of recommendation
remedial interventions and, 374375
student selection, 239240, 247
Levinson, Daniel, 272
Lewis, C. S., 474
Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME), 53
licensed, independent providers (LIPs), funding internships, 164
licensure
Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB), 106, 114, 134, 141, 142
Commission on Accreditation (CoA), 59
Competency-based education and training, 113115 (p. 576)
future issues, 209212
historical perspective, 202204
investigating complaints, 207209
mission and scope of psychology licensing laws, 204209
practicum and, 134135
professionalism, 373
profession of psychology, 5, 10
psychology, in United States and Canada, 201202
telepractice, 210212
lifelong learning, 214, 222, 230231. See also continuing education
professional psychology, 114115
trainers, 387
life structure, theory of, 272
Lincoln, Abraham, 88
local clinical scientist
model for professional psychology, 3, 63
research training, 186
local cultures, professional psychology, 63
Lorde, Audre, 401
Love’s Executioner, Yalom, 408
M
McFall Manifesto, clinical scientist model, 39, 40, 41
macrosystem, 385
management/administration
practicum training, 138
psychology program leaders, 536t, 541542
mandates, continuing education, 217218
marker, critical event, 430
Marple, Mrs., 63
master’s-level training, applicability of models in, 44
Mayo Clinic, professionalism, 494495
Mayo Clinic Model of Care, 495
Mayo Clinic Model of Education, 495
means of interpersonal functioning, 423
measures
complex and/or unintended skills, 264
trainee evaluation, 257258
Measuring Medical Professionalism, Stern, 492
media immersion, 149
medical education, 53
medical problems, trainers, 381
Medical Professionalism Project, 493, 494
Medical School Objectives, 107
medicine
history of professionalism, 493495
Medical School Objectives project, 107
professionalism, 492493
specialty areas, 121
Menninger Clinic, 173
mental health, role of religion in, 473
mental test, 18
mental testing, clinical psychology, 19
mentoring, 272273
academic productivity, 275276
assessing and reinforcing, with trainees, 286
balancing informal and formal approaches, 286
benefits of, relationships, 274277
career vs. psychosocial functions, 275
competencies, 278280
conceptual and methodological problems, 277
definitions, 273274
developmental networks, 283285
efficacy, 286
faculty/supervisor hiring, 285
foundational competencies, 278279
functional competencies, 279280
informal vs. formal, 274275
integrated model of, in professional psychology, 277278
LGBT psychology students, 467
Mentoring Constellation, 283285
microaggressions, 446
networking and initial employment, 276
outcomes in psychology training, 275276
prevalence in psychological training, 276277
professional competence and confidence, 276
professionalism, 499, 501
recommendations for program leaders, 285286
relational, 282
research training, 195197
satisfaction with training program, 276
self-care and wellness, 340342
teaching value of, 286
trainee evaluation and relationship bias, 261262
trainer preparation for role in, 285286
training, 56
mentoring constellation, 6, 283285
Mentoring Relationship Continuum Model, 6, 280283
mesosystem, 385
metacompetence, clinical supervision, 301
Michigan, disciplinary and remedial interventions, 362
microaggressions, 403, 404, 422, 446, 453454
Microaggressions Against Women Scale (MAWS), 422
microinvalidations, 403
microsystem, 385
Miller, James Grief, 22
mindfulness, cultivating attitude of, 226
mindfulness-based stress reduction, 148
minority stress, 460
MMPI, 19
modeling, self-care and wellness, 340342
Model Licensing Act, 134, 204205
model wars, 48
modernist approaches, trainee evaluation, 255
"moment in time" phenomenon, oppression, 403
Monitor on Psychology (journal), 285, 551
moral excellence, 338
moral responsibility, mentoring, 272
Morrill Land-Grant Act (1862), 88
multicultural diversity, gender, 422423
multiculturalism
avoiding racial differences, 440441
cultural competency, 439440
diverse and intersection identities, 457458
downright denial, 443
ethical behavior, 447448
race and racism, 446447
sexual orientation and gender identity, 453
Multidisciplinary Competencies in the Care of Older Adults at the Completion of the Entry-level Health Professional Degree, 108
multiple relationships
academic setting, 347348
clinical supervision, 347348
graduate assistants, multiple roles and, 349350
interns and post–doctoral fellows, 350
multiculturalism, 447
practicum training, 145
multiracial, term, 411412
Multistate Bar Examination (MBE), 53
Muslim, Islam, 412, 473
Muslim schools, 482
Mutual Recognition Agreement of the Regulatory Bodies for Professional Psychologists in Canada, 253
N
National and Canadian Registers of Health Service Providers in Psychology, 209
National Association of School Psychologists (NASP), 43, 113
National Conference on Internship Training in Psychology, 157, 173
National Conference on Postdoctoral Training in Professional Psychology, 173174
National Conference on Postdoctoral Training in Psychology, 174
National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology (NCSPP), 38, 39, 5455, 60, 109, 221222, 252, 320, 398, 532 (p. 577)
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2225, 34
National Institutes of Health (NIH), Individual National Research Service Awards (NRSAs), 177
National Mental Health Act (NMHA), 22, 25
National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology, 252
national standards, postdoctoral training, 173175
National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula, 109
Native American Spirituality, 412
Neisser, Ulric, 59
nested systems, training context, 385
New York Psychiatrical Society, 20
New York State Association of Consulting Psychologists, 21
New York University, 27
Nijmegen Professional Scale, 497
noncisgender, 409
nondoctoral competency models, psychology, 108109
non-formal learning, continuing education, 215216, 217
Northwestern Conference, 26, 27, 186
notice, 359
nursing, professionalism, 493, 495
O
obesity, 408
Objective Structured Clinical Examinations, 258, 302
online education
accreditation, 9798
continuing education, 226228, 512
operational definitions, trainee evaluation, 262264
oppression
concept, 402, 404
continuum of, 403t
discrimination, 403
exercise of privilege, 402405
oral examination, psychology specialization, 128
organizational & business consulting psychology, specialty board, 125t
organizational structures, accreditation, 9395
orientation and empathy, mentoring, 278279
outcomes
clinical supervision, 304
measuring continuing education, 218220
research training, 192
outcomes monitoring
lab test, 513, 518
research, 516517
training clinics, 513514
P
parallel process, concept, 149
parallels model, psychology and religion, 478
paraphilic coercive disorder, 421
Parsons, Frank, 19
past performance, reviewing, 225
patient centered healthcare (medical) homes (PCMH), 557558
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010), 537538, 554555, 557558. See also Affordable Care Act
Pedagogical Seminary (journal), 18
peers
evaluation feedback, 262
learning experience, 226
problems with professional competence (PPC), 384
professionalism, 496
recommendations for addressing, 388
Penfield, Wilder, 61
Pennsylvania State University, 27
personal factors, clinical supervision, 299
personality pathology, trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 379
personality psychology, education and training, 7980
personal problems, competence, 328
personal psychotherapy, ethical training, 342343
personal therapy, remediation, 328
Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, 473
physical therapy, specialty, 121
Physician’s Charter, 494
PICO mnemonic acronym, evidence-based practice, 150
Pikes Peak Model, 112
plagiarism, academic integrity, 345346
Plato, 497
police & public safety psychology, specialty board, 125t
political, intersections of identity, 410411
portrayers, 493
positive ethics, 338
post-doctoral fellows, boundary and relationship issues, 350
postdoctoral training, 171172
4 plus 2 model, 172
advising and mentoring, 273274
benefits of, 178
challenges to, 178180
content of, 175177
core principle, 174
defining, 172
development of national standards, 173175
formal vs. informal experiences, 177178
future directions, 180181
origins of, 172173
practicum hours, 179
recommendations, 180181
settings for, 175
postmodernist approaches, trainee evaluation, 255
power
abusive trainers, 444
blaming the victim, 444445
diversity and student outcomes, 449
false generosity, 445
nonabusive trainers, 438439
relationships, 437
supervisory relationships, 428
power-down position, 443
A Practical Guidebook for the Competency Benchmarks, 363
practice, scientific endeavor, 188189
practice-research network (PRN), 516517
Practicum Competencies Outline, 110, 135136, 137, 141
practicum training, 133134
background, 134135
competencies acquired during, 137139
doctoral programs, 139141
externships, 139140
foundational competencies, 137138
foundational competencies incorporation in, 143149
functional competencies, 138, 150152
future of, 152153
goals of, 135139
in-house training clinics, 139, 140
length of, 134
licensure, 134135
policies and procedures, 140141
postdoctoral, 179
preparation for, 135137
quality standards for, 141143
scientific knowledge and methods, 137, 149150
Practitioner Research Vertical Team (PRVT), 283
practitioner-scholar model, 38
central characteristics, 3738
development, 37
doctoral education in psychology, 91
doctoral training, 33, 3739
evaluation of, 39
implementation, 3839
internships, 45
practice emphasis, 3738
professional psychology, 3
research training, 186
role of science and research, 38
Vail Conference, 37
premenstrual dysphoric disorder, 421
pre-practicum group, case example, 424425
Prince Edward Island, psychology licensing law, 202
Princeton University, 88 (p. 578)
privacy
clinical internships, 368369
documents governing, 366367
duty to protect, 371372
HIPAA vs. FERPA, 367368
privilege, 401, 402405
problematic performance,
problems of professional competence (PPC), 314315, 330. See also trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC)
advances and accomplishments, 315317
areas needing attention, 317318
assessing competency, 316
boundaries of trainee confidentiality, 328329, 331
boundary between personal and professional, 328329
clinical supervision, 304
competence framework for, 315318
creating conceptual foundation, 315316
culture and diversity (macrosystem), 324327
faculty and trainers (mesosystem), 320322
future directions, 330331
impairment, 315, 317
institutional, ethical and legal challenges (exosystem), 322324
lack of typology of, 317318
personal problems, 328
personal therapy in remediation, 328
remediation, 327
signs of progress, 329
systemic conceptual models, 319
systemic understandings of, 318327
terminology, 315, 316317
trainees (mesosystem), 320
trainer involvement in assessment and diagnosis, 328
training ecology, 318
training ecosystem, 319327
profession, 201
professional competence, 223224. See also problems of professional competence (PPC)
clinical supervision, 293294
Professional Competencies Scale (PCS), 222223
professional development, board certification, 129130
professional gender bias, 421
professional intimacy, mentoring, 279
professionalism, 491492, 502504
addressing unprofessional behavior, 373374
assessment, 495497, 502504
assessment tools, 496497
core competency, 7, 9
creating a climate of, 498499
curriculum for, 499501
definitions, 492493
foundational competency in practicum training, 143146
gate keepers of profession, 351352
health professions, 493, 495
history of, 493495
licensing board, 373
medicine, 493495
practicum training, 137
problems of competence in attitudes and values, 501502
psychology, 493, 495
questions about, 373375
rationale for assessing, 495496
role modeling, 499
teaching, 497501
trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 378
training, 6
training the trainers, 497498
values and attitudes, 146147
Professionalism and Environmental Factors in Workplace Questionnaire, 497
professionalism cycle, 503
Professionalism in Nursing Behaviors Inventory, 497
Professionalism Inventory Scale, 497
Professionalism Mini-Evaluation Exercise, 497
professional knowledge, diminishing durability of, 228229
professional psychologists
early organization of, 2021
label, 254
professional psychology. See also practicum training; program leaders
advancing, and training models, 4748
APA guidelines, 399400
applicability of models in, 4345
career-long development, 11
challenges to integrating technology, 522524
clinical psychology, 25
communitarian engagement, 11
competencies, 35, 532533
counseling psychology, 2527
culture of competence, 9
defining, 2527
doctoral degree type, 4344
doctoral training programs, 1
founding fathers, 420
future of training, 811
integrated model of mentoring in, 277278
internship training, 4445
licensing and credentialing organizations, 10
master’s-level training, 44
modeling self-care and wellness, 340342
models of doctoral training, 8
non-technology-based training innovations, 515520
origins of, 1819, 30
practical training sequence, 89
professionalism, 9
program type, 43
religious and LGBT training psychologists, 1011
school psychology, 27
sequence of training, 400
specialization, 9, 120121, 130131
technological advancement, 510511, 524525
technology and innovation, 10
technology-based training innovations, 511515
technology-based treatment innovations, 520522
trainee selection, 9
trainers, 386387
trainer selection and preparation, 10
training models, 3
training-program leaders, 12
World War II (WWII), 2125
professional standards, practicum training, 138
proficiency, definition, 124
program leaders
characteristics of, 530532
competencies of, 533544
foundational competencies, 533, 534535t, 536539
functional competencies, 535536t, 540544
mentoring, 285286
program philosophy, accreditation, 92
program resources, accreditation, 92
program self-assessment, accreditation, 92
Project Professionalism, American Board of Internal Medicine, 492, 493
PsychLIT database, 189
psychoanalysis in psychology, specialty board, 125t
psychodynamic orientation. See also theoretical orientations
education and training, 7073, 71t
key competency domains, 73
training focus, 72
training processes, 7273
training structure, 70, 72
Psychological Clinic (journal), 19, 33
Psychological Clinical Science Accreditation System (PCSAS), 41, 42, 99
psychological contracts, mentoring, 282
psychological problems
trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 378379
trainers, 381
Psychological Review (journal), 221
psychological science, founding of, 1819 (p. 579)
psychologists. See also early career psychologists (ECPs)
religion and, 474475
title, 20
psychology. See also program leaders
credentialing qualified practitioners, 205207
evolution of education and training, 23
history of multicultural education and training, 398400
history of professionalism, 495
investigating complaints, 207209
nature and scope of practice of, 204205
nondoctoral competency models in, 108109
professionalism, 493
Psychology and Sexual Orientation: Coming to Terms, Bohan, 457
Psychology Bulletin, 62
psychology education, theory, 6870
Psychology Practice Acts, 143
psychology training
education and training in religion, 475476
mentorship in environments, 276277
theory, 6870
psychosocial functions, mentoring, 273, 275
psychosocial stress, trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 378
psychotherapy
challenges to integrating technology, 522524
clinical supervision, 296297
computer-aided, 521
direct research on, training, 519520
feminist therapeutic approaches, 421
personal, 342343
research infrastructures in training, 515517
role of religion in, 474
socializing clinicians, 518519
supervision case example, 425427
telehealth, 521522
use of interpreters, 410
psychotherapy supervision
feminist supervision, 428
in-session behaviors and events, 428429
literature review, 428429
psychotherapy-supervision models, gender, 429431
PsycINFO literature search, 150
publication credit, academic integrity, 345
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 346
public disclosure, accreditation, 93
Puerto Rico, 203
Q
Q-sort methodology, 421, 493
quality
accreditation, 92
internship program, 162
practicum training, 141143
quality training, 4647, 553
R
race
abusive trainers, 444
avoiding racial differences, 440441
cultural incompetence, 442443
discussing, and racism, 446447
diversity and trainee evaluation, 260261
downright denial, 443
dysconsciousness, 441442
intersections of identity, 411412
mentoring, 279
power and, 437438
sense of entitlement, 445
stereotypes and attributions, 441
racism
contemporary, 402403
discussing race and, 446447
dysconsciousness, 441442
Recommended Graduate Training Program in Clinical Psychology, 122
Redesigning Continuing Education in the Health Professions, IOM, 220
Reflection, continuing education, 224226
reflective power, mentoring, 280
reflective practice
clinical supervision, 301
practicum training, 137, 148149
trainers, 381
regulators, 493
regulatory boards, investigating complaints, 207209
rehabilitation psychology, specialty board, 125t
relational mentoring, 282
relationship bias, trainee evaluation, 261262
relationships
abusive trainers, 444
attributions, 441
benefits of mentoring, 274277
blaming the victim, 444445
confidentiality, 357
consulting an attorney, 357358, 360
cultural matching, 448
decision-making model, 339
"eddy effect," 443444
facilitative interpersonal skills, 243244
false generosity, 445
graduate assistants, multiple roles and multiple, 349350
informal vs. formal mentoring, 274275
interpersonal challenges of trainees, 379
interpersonal challenges of trainers, 381382
mentoring, 278
microaggressions, 446
nonabusive trainers, 438439
power, 437
practicum training, 137, 149
program leaders, 534t, 536537
stereotypes, 441
teaching value of mentoring, 286
trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 378
trainer-trainee challenges, 383384
relationship standard, practicum training, 145
relationship with accrediting body, accreditation, 93
religion, 473, 475
APA Ethics Code and Guidelines, 476
certificate-minor model, 476477
Christian universities and religious distinctive programs, 477478
doctoral programs, 476477
education and training, 78, 475476
integration-incorporation model, 476
intersections of identity, 412413
need for competence in addressing, 472474
psychologists and, 474475
religious distinctive model, 477
religious vs. LGBT training, 1011
role in mental, social and health problems, 473474
role in mental health, 473
role in psychotherapy, 474
role in society, 472473
religious distinctive model, 477
religious distinctive programs, 478480
academic freedom, 481482
Christian universities, 477478
clinical training in, 480481
discrimination, 479
education and training, 481484
Footnote 3, 478
Footnote 4, 478, 479
Footnote 4 and sexual behavior, 483484
Footnote 4 provisions, 482483
Fuller Theological Seminary, 478, 481
remedial, 356
remedial and disciplinary interventions
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 372373
consulting an attorney, 357358, 360
exposure to legal liability, 357363
implementing remediation plans, 363366
principles of texts governing, 358359
privacy, confidentiality and disclosures, 366372
professional issues, 373375 (p. 580)
timing for, 361
training programs, 370371
remediation
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 372373
competence problems, 327
entitlement of trainees to, 364365
faculty and trainer involvement in, 365366
flexibility in training program, 363364
implementation of plans, 363366
role of personal therapy in, 328
therapy in plan, 365
research
academic integrity, 344346
competence issues, 350352
integration of sex or gender, 420421
LGBT issues, 462
organizational psychology, 541
outcome expectations, 192
plagiarism, 345346
practicum training, 138
psychology program leaders, 535t, 540541
publication credit, 345
training outcome, 191192
Research Attitudes Measure (RAM), 191
Research Competence Scale, 191
Research Instruction Outcomes Tool (RIOT), 191
research knowledge and skills, 190191
Research Motivation Scale (RMS), 192
Research Outcome Expectations Questionnaire (ROEQ), 192
research productivity, 189, 189190
research self-efficacy, 191
Research Self-Efficacy Scale (RSES), 191
research training
attaining outcomes, 192197
consumption of research findings, 188
coursework, 195
distal outcomes, 188190
future directions, 197
graduate training models, 186188
internship, 194195
involvement in and production of original research, 189190
mentoring and advising, 195197
outcomes of, 188192
professional psychology, 185186
proximal outcomes, 190192
required research experience, 195
research interest, 191192
research knowledge and skills, 190191
research outcome expectations, 192
research self-efficacy, 191
research training environment (RTE), 193195
science-practice integration, 186188
supervised research experiences, 195
treating practice as scientific endeavor, 188189
research training environment (RTE), 186, 193195, 197
coursework, 195
experiences, 195
internship, 194195
professional psychology, 45
supervised experiences, 195
Research Training Environment Scale-Revised (RTES-R), 193
Research Training Environment Scale-short form (RTES-S), 193
Research Vertical Team (RVT) model, 283
residency programs, postdoctoral, 180
resolution
critical event, 431
gender-related, 431432
Rochester Objective Structured Clinical Evaluation (ROSCE), 302
Rogers, Carl R., 20, 25
romantic attitudes, trainee evaluation, 255
Rorschach Test, 19
Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, 493
rubber band approach, intervention, 361
S
safety, duty to protect, 371372
salaries
postdoctoral training, 177
professional workforce, 550
Schacter, Daniel, 61
Scholarly Activity Scale (SAS), 189190
scholarly productivity, 189
scholar-practitioner, 38, 91
school psychology, 27
graduate students, 151
specialty board, 125t
science
trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 378
treating practice as, 188189
science-practice integration
doctoral training models, 186188
research training, 186187
scientific information, essential courses, 6061
scientific investigations, Sherlock Holmes and Mrs. Marple as model, 63
scientific knowledge and methods
practicum training, 137, 149150
program leaders, 534t, 537
scientific rigor, 553
scientific skills, accreditation, 98
Scientist-Practitioner Inventory (SPI), 192
scientist-practitioner model
Boulder Conference, 122, 185, 186
central characteristics, 35
development, 3435
didactic and experiential training, 35
doctoral education, 33, 3437
doctoral education in psychology, 91
evaluation of, 3637
implementation of, 3536
internships, 45
LGBT issues, 462
professional psychology, 3
research, 516
research training, 186, 187
science-practice integration, 35
training, 25
training the scientist-practitioner, 3536
Searching for Memory: The Brain, the Mind, and the Past, Schacter, 61
selection. See student selection
self-assessment
clinical supervision, 301
continuing education, 224226
LGBT issues, 463464
practicum training, 137, 148149
professionalism, 500
trainers, 387
training trainees, 386
self-awareness
case example, 424425
developing cultural, 447
gender, 420, 423424
LGBT issues, 463464
mentoring, 279
professionalism, 500
program leaders, 534t, 536537
self-care
clinical supervision, 304305
modeling, 340342
practicum training, 137, 148149
professional competence, 223
trainers, 387
self-directed learning, continuing education, 216217
self-disclosure
mentoring, 280
supervision, 429
self-efficacy, research, 191
Self-Efficacy in Research Measure (SERM), 191
self-management, program leaders, 534t, 536537
self-reflection
core competency, 381
gender, 423
trainers, 387
self-study, accreditation, 9091
sense-of-self, mentoring, 276
sensitivity, mentoring, 279
sex, 419, 420. See also gender
sexism, 457
sexual minorities, 454
sexual objectification theory, 422
sexual orientation, 452. See also lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) (p. 581)
attitudes, 463464
challenges of trainers, 382383
definition, 454
discrimination, 411
diverse and intersecting identities, 457458
essentialism and social constructionism, 454456
ethical principles, 452453
Footnote 4 and sexual behavior, 483484
intersections of identity, 413
language and language use, 453454
LGBT development, 459461
psychology and social construction of, 456457
stigma, mental health and well-being, 459460
sexual prejudice, 467
sexual stigma, 459
Shakow, David, 2, 23
Shakow Report, 24, 25, 34
signature pedagogy, psychotherapy training, 72
Sister Outsider, Lorde, 401
size, intersections of identity, 407408
sizeism, 407
skills
clinical supervision, 297
lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) competence, 458, 461462
supervision, 426427
social class
professional psychology, 63
socioeconomic status (SES) and, 413414
social cognitive career theory (SCCT), 190, 193
social-cognitive theory, 73
social constructionism, sexual orientation and gender identity, 455457
social justice, 462
social learning theory, 340
social loafing, 321
social media, professionalism, 504
social networking, professionalism, 503504
society, role of religion in, 472473
Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues, 454, 483
Society for the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 484
Society of Counseling Psychology, 108
socioeconomic status (SES), intersections of identity, 413414
Socrates, 497
specialization
board certification process, 126130
credentialing, 125126
differentiating specialties, 123124
education and training, 122123
emergence of credentialing for, 124125
history, 120126
importance of, 121122
professional psychology, 9, 120121, 130131
specialty boards, 124, 125t
specialty, definition, 124
specialty-specific competency models, 112113
spirituality, 475. See also religion
intersections of identity, 412413
sponsorship, mentoring, 280
Stambovsky v. Ackley (1991), 559
standardization, trainee evaluation, 262264
Stanford–Binet, 19
State, Provincial, and Territorial Psychological Associations (SPTAs), 324
stereotypes, trainer-trainee relationships, 441
stipends, internships, 166
stress, trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 378
structured clinical training, 518519
student disclosure, practicum training, 144145
student-faculty relations, accreditation, 92
student selection, 237, 246248
case examples, 241242
cognitive complexity, 245246
doctoral internship, 242243
doctoral programs, 237238
example dilemmas, 244245
facilitative interpersonal skills (FIS), 243244
Graduate Records Examination (GRE), 238239, 247
interviews, 240241, 247
letters of recommendation, 239240, 247
training-research networks, 246247
supervision. See also clinical supervision
advising, 273
case example, 425427
challenges in technique, 380381
definition, 294
diversity, 298299
doctoral programs, 195
ethical challenges, 383384
gender competence, 427
informed consent in teaching and, 343344
practicum training, 138, 144, 151152
professionalism, 501
psychology program leaders, 536t, 541
psychotherapy, 422, 428433
psychotherapy-based models, 296297
skills, 426427
theoretical models of, and gender, 429431
training, 56, 388389
supervision alliance, 297298
supervision contract, 300301
supervisor hiring, mentoring in, 285
supervisors
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 372
boundary crossings, 347
confidentiality limits, 369370
remedial and disciplinary proceedings, 360
trainee evaluation and relationship bias, 261262
trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 379384
supervisory working alliance, 430f
supply and demand
internship imbalance, 161164
workforce, 558
support, mentoring, 281
syntonic, ego, 403
systemic conceptual models, competence, 319
systemic considerations, trainee evaluation, 255257
systemic orientation. See also theoretical orientations
education and training, 71t, 7779
key competency domains, 79
training focus, 78
training processes, 7879
training structure, 78
Systems Approach to Supervision (SAS), 429
systems thinking, program leaders, 541
T
Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California et al (1976), 367, 371, 372
target identity status, 401
task environment, 430f, 431
teaching
informed consent in, 343344
practicum training, 138
professionalism, 497501
psychology program leaders, 536t, 541
technical eclecticism, psychotherapy, 80, 81
technology. See also innovations
accreditation, 93, 514515
challenges to integrating, in professional psychology, 522524
communication, 522
continuing education, 226228
e-learning tools, 511512
licensed psychologists, 210212
outcomes monitoring, 513514
professional psychology, 10, 510511, 524525
training innovations, 511515 (p. 582)
telehealth
ethics, 523
psychotherapy, 521522
telepractice, licensed psychologists, 210212
teletraining, 10
Terman, Lewis, 19
termination
trainee from training programs, 359360
trainee remediation and, 364365
terminology, trainees with problems, 315, 316317
Thayer Conference, 28t, 29t, 88, 186
Thematic Apperception Test, 19
theology, psychology and, 479, 480
theoretical integration, psychotherapy, 80
theoretical orientations
cognitive-behavioral orientation, 71t, 7375
humanistic-existential orientation, 71t, 7577
influence of training approach, 6870
organization of training, 69f
psychodynamic orientation, 7073, 71t
systemic orientation, 71t, 7779
value of theoretically informed training, 68
theory
organization, 69f
psychology education and training, 6870
therapeutic lifestyle changes, 149
therapist, 433n.1
therapy, 433n.1
remediation plan, 365
They Became What They Beheld, Culkin, 400
Thoreau, Henry David, 548, 563
thousand flowers approach, 46, 47
timing
intervention for problems, 361
limitations for evaluation, 265
trainee evaluation, 258259
trainee evaluation, 251252
anxiety of trainee, 264265
assumptions, 265
best practices, 257
challenges to, 261266
choosing measures of, 257258
competence defined, 253254
competence problems, 265266
competencies movement, 252253
conflicting definitions and values, 263264
diversity and, 259261
ethical and legal aspects, 266267
feedback among peers, 262
future implications of, 267268
history of, 252255
instrumentation, 262264
measuring complex and/or unintended skills, 264
operational definition, 262264
reactions to competencies movement, 254255
relationship bias, 261262
role of program culture in, 256257
standardization, 262264
systemic considerations, 255257
time limitations, 265
timing of, 258259
trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 266
training evaluators, 266
trainees, 375n.1, 449n.1. See also problems of professional competence (PPC)
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 372
appeasing, 444
boundaries of confidentiality, 328329, 331
defiant, 444
mentoring, 279280
microaggressions, 446
promoting mentoring with, 286
questions for early career success, 561t, 562t
sense of entitlement, 445
teaching value of mentoring, 286
training ecosystem, 320
trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 266, 377379, 389. See also problems of professional competence (PPC)
core competency domains, 378
individual and cultural diversity (ICD), 448449
interpersonal challenges, 379
peers with PPC, 384, 388
professionalism, 501502
psychological difficulties, 378379
psychosocial stress, 378
recommendations, 385389
trainee-trainer matches, 384
trainers, 379384, 386387
trainer-trainee matches, 387388
training contexts, 384385, 388389
trainee-trainer matches
recommendations, 387388
working alliance, 384
trainers, 375n.3, 449n.1
abusive, 444
avoiding racial differences, 440441
becoming culturally competent, 446
blaming the victim, 444445
challenges in technique, 380381
cultural challenges, 382383
cultural incompetence, 442443
ethical challenges, 383384
interpersonal challenges, 381382
involvement in remediation plans, 365366
medical difficulties, 381
microaggressions, 446
nonabusive, 438439
power and competency, 439f
psychological assessment and diagnosis, 328
psychological difficulties, 381
recommendation letters and remedial interventions, 374375
trainees with problems of professional competence (TPPC), 379384
training ecosystem, 320322
training the, 497498
training. See also education and training; postdoctoral training; practicum training
avoiding harm, 447
contexts, 384385, 388389
culture and context, 78
ethical behavior in multiculturalism, 447448
ethical decision making, 338339
ethics, 338, 538539
evaluators for trainees, 266
future in professional psychology, 811
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2225
non-technology-based innovations, 515520
practical sequence, 89
promoting academic integrity, 344346
psychology, 23
scientist-practitioner, 3536
sequence of, 400
supervisor competencies and, 295297
technology-based innovations, 511515
theoretical orientation, 3
theory in psychology education and, 6870
Veterans’ Administration and, of psychologists, 22
Training and Education in Professional Psychology (journal), 1, 48, 59, 96, 111, 122, 157, 302, 326, 466
training ecology, competence, 318
training ecosystem
culture and diversity (macrosystem), 324327
faculty and trainers (mesosystem), 320322
institutional, ethical and legal challenges (exosystem), 322324
problems with professional competence (PPC), 319327
trainees, 320
training programs
common mistakes in intervention, 362
difficulties and efficacy, 67
doctoral degree type, 4344
ethics and professionalism, 6
internship, 4445, 158 (p. 583)
master’s-level training, 44
models across program type, 43
remedial and disciplinary interventions, 370371
success, 552554
termination from, 359360
trainee mentoring and supervision, 56
trainee selection, 5, 9
trainer selection and preparation, 10
unprofessional behavior, 373374
transactional leadership, 542543
transactional trainers, mentoring, 281
transformational leaders, 543
transformational mentors, 281
Triangular Model of Mentor Competence, 278
TRICARE, health-care program for Uniformed Services in America, 30
Turning Research Into Practice Database (TRIP), 150
Twitter, 522
U
United States
immigration, 409410
independent practice, 210
psychology licensure and credentialing, 201202
University of Illinois, 27
University of Leipzig, Wundt, 18
University of Michigan, 26
University of Pennsylvania, The Psychological Clinic, 3334
University Students’ Religious Liberty Act, 325326
U.S. Constitution, 478
U.S. Department of Education, 368
accreditation, 9394
licensing laws, 205
student disclosure, 323
trainee evaluation, 252
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 209, 367368, 371, 555
U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS), 22, 23, 34, 156
U.S. Virgin Islands, 203
V
Vail Conference, 40, 43, 44
practitioner-scholar, 37, 38, 186
trainee evaluation, 252
Vail Training Conference, 27
Vermont, independent practice, 206
Veterans’ Administration (VA), 2, 34, 42, 88
board certification and VA health care system, 130
mental health demand, 156
training of psychologists, 22
Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs), 175
video-conferencing, 510
Vineland Training School, 24
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), 323
virtual reality exposure, 522
virtue ethics, 338
virtuous character, 338
Visual Racial Ethnic Group (VREG), 411
Vocational Bureau at the Civic Service House, 19
Vulnerability, mentoring, 282
W
Wallin, J. E. Wallace, 20
Ward v. Polite (2012), 325, 326, 362, 484
Ward v. Wilbanks (2010), 325, 326, 362, 465, 466, 484
Web-based applications
continuing education, 226228
supervision, 511, 512
Weeks, Jeffrey, 455
weight, 407
Weinberg, George, 459
wellness, modeling self-care and, 340342
West Virginia, independent practice, 206
What is Emotion?, Kagan, 62
Wheel of Professionalism in Nursing, 497
Who’s Afraid of Post-Blackness, Touré, 403404
Wissler, Clark, 18
Witmer, Lightner, 19
Worcester State Hospital, 24
workforce. See also early career psychologists (ECPs)
accountability, 555556
competency-based education, 556557
diversity and changing population, 554
electronic healthcare records, 556
evidence-based treatment, 556
healthcare system, 554555, 557558
interprofessionalism, 557
medical cost offset, 556
personal success, 552
picture of early psychologists in, 549551
programmatic success, 552554
supply and demand, 558, 560
trends impacting psychology, 551558
truth in advertising, student and early career choices, 559560
Working Group on Problems of Professional Competence, 320
Working Group on Trainees with Competence Problems, 323324
World Professional Association for Transgender Health, 461
World War I (WWI), advance of applied psychology, 1921
World War II (WWII), 2, 30, 34, 88
growth of professional psychology, 2122
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2225
professional psychology history, 2125
VA and training of psychologists, 22
Wundt, Wilhelm, 18
Y
Yale University, 88
Yalom, Irvin, 408
Yerkes, Robert, 19