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date: 19 September 2019

(p. 617) Index

(p. 617) Index

A
academic achievement
cognitive abilities after adenotonsillectomy, 422, 423f
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 590591
school-aged children, 417418
sleep, 27, 572
sleep disordered breathing (SDB), 420421
temperament and sleep, 403406
Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), 12, 608609
actigraphy, 4, 189
clinical use of, and sleep diaries, 200201
comparison of sleep diaries and, 198199
example actigram, 192f
maternal sleep, 60
objective sleep measure, 418
parents of children with/without chronic illness, 145f, 146f
postpartum sleep, 58, 59, 60
sleep assessment, 190191
sleep duration, 398
sleep quality, 384386
validation studies of, 192, 195198
active sleep (AS), 35
during development, 39
infants, 3738
acute stress disorder (ASD), 151, 154
Adderall, 533
adenotonsillectomy
cognitive abilities after, 422, 423f
Down syndrome, 474
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 364365, 430
Adherence Barriers to CPAP Questionnaire (ABCQ), 366
adjustment and sleep, 389391
co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, 390
emotion regulation, 391392
future directions, 393394
sleep as protective and vulnerability factor, 392393
sleep difficulties, 386389
sleep duration, 382384
sleep quality, 384386
adjustment insomnia, 305
adolescent development
circadian timing system, 73f
future directions, 7576
multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT), 72f
process C, 7274
process S, 7172
puberty and circadian timing, 7374
sleep behavior, 7475
sleep patterns, 70
adolescents. See also delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD); late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA)
assessment of nocturnal fears and anxiety, 352353
behavioral treatments for insomnia, 317318
bright light therapy for insomnia, 320
cognitive therapy for insomnia, 319320
computer and Internet use, 115116
coping strategies, 291t
delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), 334336
delayed sleep/wake timing, 329
development, 315
developmental considerations, 285t
ethnicity and sleep, 102
evidence-based sleep intervention, 577578
household characteristics, 105106
illicit substance use and abuse, 532533
individualizing recommendations, 581
neighborhood characteristics, 106107
nocturnal fears and nightmares, 350351
normative sleep patterns, 577
pediatrician, 246247
processes regulating timing of sleep, 314
relaxation therapy, 319
sleep compression therapy, 319
sleep deprivation, 560561
sleep diaries and actigraphy, 199
sleep disturbance treatment of, with substance abuse history, 539541
sleep hygiene, 320, 579580
sleep patterns, 560561
sleep restriction therapy, 318319
stimulus control therapy, 318
substance abusing, and mental health, 539
treatment of nocturnal fears, 353354
validation studies in, 197198
adulthood. See also late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA)
age as a proxy for, 596597
behavioral perspective, 599
sleep behavior during emerging, 7475
sleep disorder referrals, 246
affective disorder, 335
affect regulation, sleep, 519
Africa, bedtime routines, 83
African-American children
asthma, 461
co-sleeping, 129
napping, 27, 91, 462
sleep, 101
sleep duration, 90
agreement rate (AR), definition, 192
alarm training, nocturnal enuresis, 375
alcohol
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 591592, 595
motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), 442443
sleep and substance abuse, 537538
sleep deprivation and, 444445
allergic diseases, 457458, 466467
allergic rhinitis (AR), 460, 461
asthma, 460461
atopic dermatitis (AD), 460, 461462
caregiver emotional distress, 463
caregiver monitoring at night, 463464 (p. 618)
child stress level, 465
cultural background of family, 464465
family context, 463464
future directions for research, 465466
future research questions, 467
morbidity associated with, 458459
non-adherence to treatment, 460
pathophysiological characteristics of, 459460
sleep behaviors and duration, 462463
sleep disorders, 462
socioeconomic status (SES) of family, 465
allergic rhinitis (AR)
pathophysiological characteristics, 459
sleep disorders, 462
sleep in children with, 461
Ambien (zolpidem), 521
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), 120, 575, 580
infant sleep practices, 131
Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, 127, 128, 130
American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM), 12, 18, 190, 249, 299, 308, 349, 520, 580, 604
American Board of Family Medicine, 12
American Board of Internal Medicine, 12
American Board of Medical Specialties, 249
American Board of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, 12
American Board of Pediatrics, 12
American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, 12
American Board of Sleep Medicine (ABSM), 11, 605, 606, 608
American Psychiatric Association (APA), 370
American Psychological Association, 3
American Sleep Disorders Association, 189
American Sleep Medicine Foundation, 604
American Thoracic Society, 362, 575
amitriptyline, nocturnal enuresis, 376
Angelman syndrome, sleep and, 476477
anticholinergic medications, nocturnal enuresis, 376
anxiety, 30
assessment, 352353
children’s sleep and, of parents, 103
disorders and sleep, 351352
insomnia and, 314
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 593594
sleep study assessment, 274
Apgar scores, 405
applied behavior analysis, 170, 173
applied functional analysis, 177182
architecture, sleep, 53
arousal, technology use and sleep, 120121
artificial neural networks (ANN), driving performance, 450
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), 209, 331
Asian children. See also China; Japan
co-sleeping, 464
sleep, 102
Asperger’s disorder, 479, 481. See also autism spectrum disorders
assessment
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 508
valid subjective and objective measures, 613
Associated Professional Sleep Societies, 614615
Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy (AABT), 2
asthma, 30, 140, 458. See also allergic diseases
pathophysiological characteristics, 459
sleep and smoking, 537
sleep behaviors and duration, 462
sleep disorders, 462
sleep in children with, 460461
Atarax (hydroxyzine), 487
atopic dermatitis (AD), 460, 461462
atrial natiuretic peptide (ANP), 373
attachment theory
co-sleeping, 132
parental presence, 176
self-soothing, 134
attention
cognitive abilities after adenotonsillectomy, 422, 423f
sleep restriction, 54
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 1, 30, 351, 466, 477
ABC’s of SLEEPING, 510, 512n.5
actigraphy and sleep diaries, 200
assessment, 508
behavioral contingencies, 510511
behavioral interventions, 555556
caffeine, 536
clinical case example, 251
clinical implications, 507511
comorbidity, 496
comorbidity with autism spectrum disorders, 481
delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) and, 335, 338, 339
diagnostic and clinical formulations, 508509
diagnostic criteria, 496
environment fostering success, 510
etiology and risk, 496497
future directions, 511512
insomnia and, 314
light therapy for, and DSPD, 337
literature review, 497507
meta-analyses, 498, 499501t, 502
narrative reviews, 505507
neurological disorder, 495497
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 364, 367
psychoeducation, 509
qualitative systematic reviews, 502, 503504t, 505
quantitative systematic reviews, 498, 499501t, 502
school problems, 294, 295
screening, 508
sleep disordered breathing, 401
sleep disruption, 53, 250
sleep study assessment, 274
student ratings of narrative reviews, 506t, 507t
systematic reviews, 497505
teaching coping skills, 511
treatment, 497, 509511
autism spectrum disorders, 30, 294. See also developmental disorders and sleep
age, 482
behavioral interventions, 555
biological mechanisms underlying sleep, 483
cognition and adaptive behavior, 482
comorbid medical conditions, 483
daytime behavior, 481
etiology of settling and night waking, 481483
families, 482483
insomnia and, 314
medical factors, 483
naps, 480481
night waking, 480
psychopathology, 481482
settling and sleep onset, 479480
sleep disturbances, 480
sleep study assessment, 274, 276
symptoms of, 482
total sleep, 480
AWAKE (Alert, Well, and Keeping Energetic), 450
B
baby book, Dutch National Health Service, 85
baby feeders, 9
Back to Sleep Campaign, 579
Bali, “fear sleep” phenomenon, 9293
Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), 447
baseline, observation, 170
basic personality, 25
Bates’ Infant Characteristics Questionnaire, 549
Battelle Developmental Inventory, 241
Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 241, 409
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), 180, 554
bed sharing
co-sleeping, 128
culture, 87
infant sleep location, 6162 (p. 619)
negative impacts of, 132133
rates by country, 130
bedtime fading, pediatric insomnia, 312
bedtime pass, pediatric insomnia, 311
bedtime routines
bed preparation chain, 175
culture, 87
maturing children, 306
pediatric insomnia, 311312
Bedtime Routines Questionnaire (BRQ), 226, 227t, 230t, 235t, 236t
bedtime worry, adolescents with mood disorders, 526
bedwetting. See enuresis; nocturnal enuresis
behavioral analysis, 169173
going to bed and falling asleep, 174176
infant and child sleep, 173177
night waking, 176177
behavioral assessment, 177182, 178
behavioral case formulation, 181182
direct functional analysis, 180181
future directions, 183
indirect methods, 178180
interviews, 178179
questionnaires, 179180
ratings, checklists, self-report measures, 179
behavioral contingencies, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 510511
Behavioral Evaluation of Disorders of Sleep Scale (BEDS), 226, 227t, 231t, 238t
behavioral insomnia of childhood (BIC)
bedtime fading, 312
bedtime pass, 311
extinction with parental presence, 310311
graduated extinction, 310
limit-setting type (BIC-LST), 307308
parent education and prevention, 309
positive routines, 311312
scheduled awakenings, 312313
sleep-onset association type (BIC-SOA), 307
unmodified extinction, 309310
Behavioral Insomnias of Childhood, 472
behavioral interventions
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 555556
autism, 555
child, 548550
children with developmental disorders, 20, 486487
future directions, 557
negative effects of, 556
parent, 551555
parent-child relationship, 550551
sleep problems in developmental disabilities, 484, 485487
behavioral measures
chronotype, 205208
sleep/wake patterns, 208209
behavioral model of insomnia, 305306, 316317
behavioral outcome, sleep, 27
Behavioral Screening Questionnaire (BSQ), 405
behavioral sleep medicine (BSM), 15, 603
accredited programs, 607t
clinical case examples, 250, 251
communicating need for referrals, 251252
credentialing through exam, 608
description, 603605
development, 604605
future directions, 253254, 609
indicators of need for referral, 249t
interdisciplinary treatment, 253
model of stepped care delivery of insomnia, 249f
models of pediatric sleep practice, 252253
need for stepped care model, 248251
patient referrals, 245247
patients for referral, 247251
pediatricians’ decision tree for referrals, 250t
pediatricians’ knowledge, 246247
practitioners, 605606
primary care physicians’ knowledge, 245247
referrals from pediatricians, 247
referrals from primary care in adult patients, 246
role in sleep laboratories, 608609
support for interventions, 244245
training, 606608
Behavioral Sleep Medicine (journal), 604
Behavioral Sleep Medicine listserv, 605
behavioral therapy-insomnia (BT-I), 520521
Behavioral Treatment for Persistent Insomnia, Lacks and Bertelson, 2
behavioral treatments
adolescents with mood disorders, 525
evaluating, for sleep problems in children, 1718
behavior-analytic service delivery, 173
Behavior Assessment System for Children, 294, 403
behavior chains, 174
behavior problems, sleep habits and, 402403
Being a Mother and Bonding Scale (BaMB), 550
Belgium
sleep duration, 90
video games, 119
Benadryl (diphenhydramine), 487
benzodiazepines, 595
Best Practice Project Management, Inc., 321
Better Nights/Better Days program, 575
bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP), 245, 251
biological day, 204
biological delay, circadian system, 419
biological night, 204
biopsychosocial models, sleep, 18, 612613
bipolar disorder, 515516
sleep disturbance, 518
sleep disturbance as early marker for, 518
Bland Altman analysis, 196, 199
body mass index (BMI). See also obesity; pediatric obesity
obstructive sleep apnea, 363
pediatric obesity, 430
Bosnia, sleep in children, 153, 159
Bosnia-Herzegovinian refugees, 152
brain
maturation and function, 4950
sleep and developing, 4849
Brazil, sleep problems, 88
breastfeeding
co-sleeping, 131, 132
infant feeding, 5961
Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ), 19, 179
bright light therapy (BLT), pediatric insomnia, 320
bruxism, 245, 253, 357
building-block conflicts, development, 27
burst measurement design, 28
C
caffeine
adults, 534
cognitive performance, 535
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 595
mental health disorders, 535536
sleep of children and adolescents, 533536
technology and, 535
Call of Duty 4, 117
Cameroon, sleeping practices, 83
Canada
caffeine, 534
sleeping practices, 83
Canadian Pediatric Sleep Team, 575
Canadian Pediatric Society (CPS), 580
Canadian Sleep Society (CSS), 580
cancer patients, 143
Canterbury earthquakes, 183
Canterbury Sleep Project, 183
caregivers. See also pediatric chronic illness
beyond parenting, 140, 141142
daytime functioning, 144
disturbance of child’s sleep, 143
emotional distress, 144, 146, 463
emotional stress, 143
location of child’s care, 143
medical management responsibilities, 142143
night monitoring, 463464
potential causes of sleep disruptions, 142143 (p. 620)
prevalence of sleep disruptions, 142
psychology of, 8485, 144, 146
sleep diary and actigraphy, 196
sleep quality, 144
Catapres (clonidine), 487
Caucasian children, sleep architecture, 91
cell phones, technology and sleep, 117
Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement (CAREI), 562, 565567
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
pediatric obesity, 430
Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 334
central nervous system (CNS), sleep ontogenesis, 34
cerebral palsy, 143, 274
Child Behavior Characteristics Scale, 180, 548, 556
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), 30, 180, 240, 383, 400, 549, 556
Child Depression Inventory (CDI), 388
Child Development, Wolfson and Carskadon, 2
Child Life Council, 261
Child-Parent Relationship Scale, 551
child psychology, conceptual models of sleep and sleep dysfunction, 1819
children. See also children’s sleep; sleep study experience
actigraphy, 199
assessment of nocturnal fears and anxiety, 352353
behavioral treatments for insomnia, 317318
daytime behavior, 548549
evaluating behavioral treatments for sleep problems in, 1718
health outcomes, 550
mood, 548
outcome of behavioral interventions, 548550
parent-child relationship, 550551
pediatrician, 246247
progressive independence of, 306
school readiness, 397398
sleep diary, 193f, 199
sleep difficulties, 386389
sleep disruption and neurocognitive/behavioral functioning, 5154
sleep duration, 382384
sleep quality, 384386
temperament, 549550
treatment of nocturnal fears, 353354
validation studies, 196197
variability in sleep schedules, 385386
witnessing violence, 150151
Children’s Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), 403
Children’s Chronotype Questionnaire, 208
Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), 387
Children’s Memory Scale (CMS), 416t
children’s sleep. See also culture and children’s sleep; social determinants of sleep; violence
behavior analysis, 173177
ecology of, 8185
household characteristics, 102106
marital conflict, 105106
marital status, 104
parental behavior, 102106
physical and social settings, 8283
terrorist attacks, 153154
war and displacement, 152153
Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CHSQ), 19, 353, 389, 402, 404
Children’s Sleep Hygiene Scale (CSHS), 402
Children’s Sleep Wake Scale (CSWS), 226, 227t, 230t, 236t
Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), 387, 536
Child Uplift, Inc., website, 299
China
Internet addiction, 116
IQ testing in children, 54
sleep duration, 90
sleep patterns, 88
chloral hydrate (Noctec), 487
chromosome 15 disorders
Angelman syndrome, 476477
Prader–Willi syndrome, 475476
chronic illnesses. See also pediatric chronic illness
family’s cultural background, 464465
family socioeconomic status, 465
morbidity associated with allergic disorders, 458459
sleep in children with, 457458
chronic sleep deficits, 2930
chronobiotic chaos, 144, 145f, 146f
chronotherapy, delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), 339340
chronotype
adolescence, 75
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 587588
morningness/eveningness, 205208
Munich Chrono Type Questionnaire (MCTQ), 74f
cigarette smoking, sleep and substance use, 536537
circadian, term, 73
circadian clock
lengthening the intrinsic period of, 332
phase of, 4142
circadian education, sleep and, 523524
circadian rhythms
allergic disorders, 460
behavioral measures, 205209
chronotype, 205208
circadian timing system, 204205, 419
core body temperature, 209
disturbance, 245
endogenous melatonin, 209215
factors affecting melatonin, 211212
future directions, 217
and light, 327328
measuring intrinsic circadian period (tau), 215216
measuring phase shifts, 215
melatonin assay, 212
morningness/eveningness, 205208
physiological measures, 209215
plasma and salivary melatonin phase markers, 213214
postpartum, 59
salivary melatonin overnight data, 213f
sampling melatonin, 210211
schematic of circadian timing system, 206f
sleep deprivation, 443
sleep regulation, 71
sleep/wake patterns, 208209
urinary aMT6s phase markers, 214215
circadian system, late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 587588
Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ), 226, 228t, 232t, 239t
climate therapy, 10
clinical behavior analysis, 173
CLOCK gene (gClock), 207, 332, 340
clonidine (Catapres), 487
cognition, sleep disruption, 415
cognitive ability, sleep, 572
cognitive/behavioral functioning
brain maturation and function, 4950
future directions, 55
role of sleep in memory and learning, 50
sleep and developing brain, 4849
sleep disruption and children’s, 5154
sleep quality and behavior, 54
cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), 317, 318320, 520521
cognitive therapy (CT), 319320
relaxation therapy, 319
sleep compression therapy, 319
sleep restriction therapy, 318319
stepped care model, 248, 249f
stimulus control therapy, 318
cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT), 605
cognitive deficits
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 590
sleep disordered breathing (SDB), 421423
cognitive performance
caffeine, 535
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 590591
sleep and, 399401, 519
sleep disordered breathing (SDB), 421 (p. 621)
cognitive therapy (CT), pediatric insomnia, 319320
Collaborative Home Infant Monitoring Evaluation (CHIME), 196
collective violence, 150
objective measures, 154155
subjective measures, 151154
terrorist attacks, 153154
war and displacement, 152153
Comfort Measure model, 277. See also Rainbow Comfort Measures© (RCM©); sleep study experience
Comfort Positioning, 266267, 268f
guidance and praise, 271272
guiding principles, 258, 259t
medical team, 260, 262t
preparation supplies and diversional items, 265t
community violence, interpersonal, 157158
comorbidities
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 496
autism spectrum disorder, 483
delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), 334336
pediatric insomnia, 313, 314, 320321
sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and obesity, 435436
sleep study, 274
Composite Morningness Scale (CMS), 207
computer, technology and sleep, 115116
conceptual behavior analysis, 173
conditioned response, 171
conditioned stimulus, 171
conduct disorder (CD)
comorbidity of, 496
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 367
confidentiality, late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 592593
confusional arousals, 355
Connecticut, school start time, 564
Conners Parent Rating Scale, 401, 402
Conners Rating Scales, 240
constant conditions, 73
constitutional temperament, 403
Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), 130
Continuous Performance Test (CPT), 416t
continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), 11, 245, 251
children, 272, 278
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 365366, 367
coping strategies
ADHD, 511
adolescents, 291t
infants, 289t
preschoolers, 290t
school-aged children, 290t
sleep study, 265270
toddlers, 289t
core body temperature (CBT), circadian output, 209
corticosteroids
allergic diseases, 459
cancer, 143
cortisol
napping, 25
sleep after childhood, 92
co-sleeping. See also bed sharing
alternative viewpoints, 131133
attachment theory, 132
controversies, 130133
cultural patterns, 8889
culture or ethnicity, 132
dangers of, 130131
family’s cultural background, 464465
future directions, 137
infant sleep, 128, 136137
origins by culture, 82
prevalence, 129130
sleep study experience, 273
craniofacial abnormalities, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 366
Croatia, sleep in refuges, 152, 153, 159
cross-cultural research, sleep, 82
crossover point, human phase response curves, 328
culture
adolescent sleep, 75
bedtime routines, 8384
co-sleeping, 132
customary practices, 8384
developmental niche, 8586
developmental research, 87
exploring variation, 8285
family and chronic illnesses, 464465
future directions, 93
identifying, in development, 8593
individualism and collectivism (I/C) contrast, 86
napping, 91, 462
physical and social settings, 8283
psychology of caretakers, 8485
sleep after childhood, 9293
sleep architecture, 9192
sleep duration, 9091
sleep problems, 8790
sleep variation, 27
sleep timing, 91
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), 8990
uses of, in sleep research, 8687
customary practices
caretakers, 8485
culture and children’s sleep, 8384
cystic fibrosis, 140
D
default technologies, 182
delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), 204
adolescent, 316, 327
affective instability, 335
alterations in phase relationships, 333
alterations of response to light, 332333
changes in light exposure patterns, 333
circadian disorder, 419
circadian rhythms and light, 327328
clinical presentation, 329330
cognitive-behavioral therapy, 521
consequences and comorbidities, 334336
delayed sleep/wake timing, 329
diagnosis and assessment, 329330
epidemiology, 330331
etiological contributors, 333334
future directions, 341
hypnotics, 340
lengthening intrinsic period of circadian clock, 332
light therapy, 336338
melatonin, 338339
molecular genetics, 331332
mood disorders, 517
phase response curve (PRC), 328, 328f
prescribed sleep/wake scheduling, 339340
psychiatric comorbidities, 335336
role in insomnia, 320
sleep impairments, 334335
treatments, 336340
delta waves, 35, 51
depression, 1, 30. See also mood disorders
children’s sleep and, of parents, 103
insomnia and, 314, 315
insomnia and risk of, 517518
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 593594
postpartum, 6263
sleep and adjustment, 393
unipolar, 516
Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale–Short Form (DASS–21), 180
desmopressin, nocturnal enuresis, 376
Desyrel (trazodone), 487
Developmental Assessment of Young Children, 241
developmental disorders and sleep, 471472, 487488. See also autism spectrum disorders
Angelman syndrome, 476477
autism spectrum disorders, 479483
behavioral interventions, 486487
behavioral treatments, 485487
chromosome 15 disorders, 475477
Down syndrome, 473474
education, 488489
Fragile X syndrome, 474475
future directions, 488489
impact on daytime functioning, 472
impact on families, 473
medication, 487
melatonin, 487
parent education, 486
Prader–Willi syndrome, 475476 (p. 622)
randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 488
Rett syndrome, 478479
sleep hygiene, 485486
sleep problems, 472473
Smith–Magenis syndrome, 478
treatment of children, 483487
Williams syndrome, 477
Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY), 399, 407, 416t
developmental niche, 82, 86f
culture, 8586, 128
immigrant families, 128129
developmental polysomnography, 11
developmental psychopathology, 25
developmental science, 2426
future directions, 31
integrating sleep and developmental research, 2930
sleep study, 2629
diabetes, 140
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 496
caffeine and mental health, 535
circadian rhythm sleep disorder, 331t
hypersomnia, 516
insomnia, 305, 516
nocturnal enuresis, 371
Rett syndrome, 478
sleep and behavior problems, 401
diazepam (Valium), 595
Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (1994), 534
Differential Ability Scales (DAS), 399, 400, 416t
dim light melatonin offset (DLMOff), 213214
dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), 7374, 213214
adolescent insomnia, 316
adolescents with substance abuse history, 540
circadian rhythms and light, 328
computation of, 214, 217
diphenhydramine (Benadryl), 487
direct functional analysis, behavior, 180181
Directional Stroop paradigm, 406, 407
discriminated operant, 170
discriminative stimulus, 171
disorders of arousal, 354355
confusional arousals, 355
sleep inertia, 355
sleep terrors, 354355
sleepwalking, 354
displaced children, collective violence, 152153
displacement hypothesis, technology use and sleep, 120
domestic violence, children witnessing, 150151, 160
dominant posterior alpha rhythm, 36
Down syndrome, 39, 472, 479, 480
parent education, 485
sleep and, 473474
sleep study assessment, 274
Dream Content Questionnaire for Children (ChDCQ), 226, 228t, 232t, 239t
driver distractions, motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), 442
drivers education programs, 5
driving. See drowsy driving
driving accidents, 5
drowsy driving. See also sleep deprivation
future directions, 451
insufficient sleep, 444
late adolescent/emerging adult, 597
legal implications, 448449
potential interventions, 451t
school start time, 444
sleep deprivation and, 441
sleep deprivation and alcohol, 444445
Drowsy Driving Act of 2011, 448
Dutch families
sleep architecture, 92
sleep timing, 91
Dutch National Health Service, baby book, 85
Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), 553
Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale, 319
E
Early Adolescence Temperament Questionnaire, 405
Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE), 240
Early Head Start Program, 575
Early Learning Accomplishment Profile-revised, 241
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), 553, 554
education. See also medical education
children with developmental disabilities, 488489
materials for sleep education, 299
parent, and prevention of pediatric insomnia, 309
parents of developmentally disabled children, 485, 486
sleep and temperamental self-regulation, 404406
sleep science, 614615
temperament, academic achievement and sleep, 403406
electroencephalography (EEG), 353
development of sleep EEG, 37
EEG changes during first twelve months, 3840
EEG changes from one to five years, 40
EEG patterns, 36
high-voltage, slow-frequency EEG pattern (HVS), 37, 38
low-voltage irregular EEG pattern (LVI), 3738
sleep cycle overview, 363
sleep ontogenesis, 3440
sleep organization and EEG patterns in neonatal period, 3738
sleep study, 276
electromagnetic fields, technology use and sleep, 121122
electromyogram (EMG), 353
electro-oculogram (EOG), 353
emerging adulthood, 586587. See also late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA)
emotional distress, caregivers, 144, 146
emotional stress, pediatric caregivers, 143
emotion regulation, sleep and adjustment, 391392
energy balance
equation for eating and activity, 433434
imbalance and obesity in children, 430431
England, Internet addiction, 116
entrainment, 205
enuresis, 357, 370. See also nocturnal enuresis
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 364
environmental contributions, sleep science, 613
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), melatonin, 212
epidemiology
delayed sleep phase disorder, 330331
nocturnal enuresis, 371
epilepsy, 483
Epworth Sleepiness Scale, 116, 535, 552, 561
eszopiclone (Lunesta), 595
ethnicity, 107t
adolescent sleep, 102
asthma in children, 461
co-sleeping, 132
health risk behaviors, 447t
infant sleep, 100
napping, 101
school-aged children’s sleep, 101102
school problems, 296
sleep duration, 384
toddler and preschooler sleep, 100101
European-American children, napping, 27
European Sleep Research Society (ESRS), 580
European Union, caffeine, 534
eveningness
adolescents with mood disorders, 522523
chronotype, 205208
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 587
questionnaires, 207, 208, 332
event in context, 28
event-related potentials (ERPs) (p. 623)
sleep and brain processing, 406, 407
sleep quality, 401
excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS)
adolescents, 522523
Angelman syndrome, 476
late adolescent/emerging adult, 589590
pediatric scale, 353
Prader–Willi syndrome, 475, 476
Smith–Magenis syndrome, 478
Williams syndrome, 477
executive function
future directions, 408409
school and preschool, skills, 406408
school readiness, 398
sleep disordered breathing (SDB), 421
sleep disruption, 415
experimental analysis of behavior, 173
experimental design, sleep science, 613614
externalizing behavior. See also adjustment and sleep
children, 294
emotion regulation, 391392
sleep and children, 54, 381, 387
extinction, 172, 510
extinction with parental presence, pediatric insomnia, 310311
Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, 30, 549
F
fall asleep at the wheel, driving accidents, 5
familial advanced sleep phase disorder (FASPD), 330
families
autism spectrum disorder, 482483
children with developmental disabilities, 488
impact of poor child sleep on, 473
managing child’s allergic disorder, 463464
sleep science, 612613
structure of, and children’s sleep, 103
technology recommendations, 123124
Family Stress Scale, 338
fear sleep, phenomenon in Bali, 9293
females, Rett syndrome, 478479
Finland, television watching, 115, 121
Flint Infant Security Scale (FIS), 180, 550, 556
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 321
caffeine, 534
CPAP, 365
forced desynchrony, 73, 216
formula, infant feeding, 5961
forward collision warning system, 451
Fragile X syndrome
melatonin, 487
sleep and, 474475
free-running intrinsic period, circadian rhythm, 216
functional analysis, 178
behavior, 170
behavioral assessment and, 177182
direct, 180181
indirect, 178180
functional assessment, 178
G
gender
health risk behaviors, 447t
sleep and adjustment, 392393
technology use, 119
General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), 180, 553
generalization gradient, 171
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), sleep and, 351, 352
General Sleep Disturbance Scale, 552
girls, Rett syndrome, 478479
gist-based decision making, late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 598599
global developmental delay, 472
Global Infant Temperament Scale, 549
grade point average (GPA), late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 588, 589, 590, 591
graduated driving licensing (GDL), 450
graduated extinction, pediatric insomnia, 310
Guided Participation Model, 179
Gulf War, sleep in refugee children, 153, 154
The Handbook of School Psychology, 296
H
Hassles and Uplifts Scales, 64
Hawaii Early Learning Profile, 241
Head Start, 400, 549
health care. See behavioral sleep medicine
preparation considerations for, 262t
health disparities, children’s sleep, 107108
health education, schools, 293
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 592
Healthy People 2020, 296, 614
Healthy Sleep Habits, Happy Child, 12
Helping Your Child Sleep Through the Night, Cuthbertson and Schevill, 2, 12
hippocampal-neocortical dialogue, memory, 5051
Hispanic children
co-sleeping, 464
sleep, 101102
sleep architecture, 91
histamine, 460
history taking, nocturnal enuresis, 374, 375t
homeostasis
sleep deprivation, 443
sleep-wake (process S), 7172
Hong Kong, sleeping practices, 83
hormones, sleep and obesity risk, 432433
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), 554
Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 607t
hospitals, location of child’s care, 143
household characteristics, 107t
adolescent sleep, 105106
infant sleep, 102103
school-aged children’s sleep, 103105
toddler and preschooler sleep, 103
Huggy Puppy intervention, 163
human leukocyte antigen (HLA), delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), 331
hydroxyzine (Atarax), 487
hypersomnia
adolescents with mood disorders, 524, 525
mood disorders, 517
hypertension, 10
hypnotics, delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), 340
hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA), 352
hypoxemia, 423424
I
Iceland, napping, 27
IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary and lifestyle induced health Effects In Children and infantS) study, 90
image rehearsal therapy (IRT), 605
imipramine, nocturnal enuresis, 376
immigrant families, developmental niche, 128129
impulsivity, sleep deprivation and, 447
indeterminate sleep (IS), 35, 3738
India
sleep duration, 90
sleeping practices, 83
indirect methods, behavioral assessment, 178180
Individuals with Disabilities and Education Act (IDEA), 240, 241
Infant Behavior Questionnaire, Japanese version, 84
Infant Characteristics Questionnaire, 405
infants
care responsibilities, 62
cognitions around sleep, 62
coping strategies, 289t
developmental considerations, 281t
feeding method, 5961, 129
maternal health and sleep, 575576
normative pattern of sleep, 573
sleep deprivation, 417
sleep diaries and actigraphy, 198199
sleep hygiene recommendations, 579
sleep intervention/prevention program, 573
sleep location, 6162
sleep organization and EEG patterns, 3738 (p. 624)
validation studies, 195196
validation studies of preterm, 195
infant sleep. See also co-sleeping; self-soothing
behavior analysis, 173177
contextual factors, 129
co-sleeping, 128, 129133
ethnicity, 100
household characteristics, 102103
neighborhood characteristics, 106
parental expectations, 128129
research diary, 193f
self-soothing, 128, 133136
Infant Sleep Questionnaire (ISQ), 179
insomnia, 2
autism spectrum disorders, 479
children with developmental disabilities, 484485
depression risk, 517518
melatonin, 488
mood disorders, 517
parental, 64
pediatric populations, 305307
treatment approaches, 246
Institute of Medicine, 296
insufficient sleep
drowsy driving, 444
pediatric obesity, 429
intelligence
cognitive abilities after adenotonsillectomy, 422, 423f
sleep disordered breathing (SDB), 419420
sleep disruption, 415
interdisciplinary treatment, sleep disorders, 253
intermittent nocturnal incontinence, 370. See also enuresis; nocturnal enuresis
internalizing behavior. See also adjustment and sleep
children, 294
emotion regulation, 391392
sleep and children, 54, 381, 387
International Air Transport Association (IATA), 212
International Children’s Continence Society (ICCS), 370, 371
International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision (ICD-9), 247
International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD–2), 305, 329t, 349, 354, 371
International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Revised (ICSD), 399
Internet
addiction treatment, 116
technology and sleep, 115116
interpersonal violence, 150
community violence, 157158
intimate partner violence, 156157, 159
objective measures, 158159
physical and sexual abuse, 155156
sexual abuse, 158159
subjective measures, 155158
interventions. See also preventative interventions
children with developmental disorders, 486487
child’s sleep study night, 272277
efficacy, 613
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 592
reducing motor vehicle accidents, 449451
sleep and obesity, 435
sleep program, 5
support for behavioral sleep, 244245
interviews, behavioral assessment, 178179
intimate partner violence. See also violence
children witnessing, 151
interpersonal violence, 156157, 159
intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), 205
IQ (intelligence quotient), sleep disruption, 52
Iraq War, sleep in refugee children, 153
Israel, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), 89
Israel–Lebanon War, children’s sleep, 152
Italy
sleep aids, 84
sleep problems, 88
sleep routines, 27
sleep timing, 91
J
Japan
bedtime routines, 83
Infant Behavior Questionnaire, 84
sleep duration, 90
sleep patterns, 88
sleep routines, 27
Johns Hopkins University, 607t
Junior Operators’ Bill, 448, 449t
K
Kaufmann Assessment Battery for Children (K–ABC), 416t
K-complexes, 36, 40, 479
Kenya
American embassy bombing, 153, 154
sleep duration, 90
sleeping practices, 83
kindergarten, readiness skills, 397398
Korea. See South Korea
Kyleigh’s Law, 449
L
language, sleep study environment, 263, 286288t
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 586587, 599600
academic achievement, 590591
adult perspective for treatment, 599
affective, cognitive and academic issues, 590
age as proxy for adulthood, 596597
alcohol, 591592
chronotype and circadian factors, 587588
cognitive functioning, 590591
confidentiality and record-keeping, 592593
daytime sleep problems, 594595
diagnostic and treatments factors, 593594
future directions, 599
gist-based decision making, 598599
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 592
intake information for treatment, 594596
interventions regarding sleep schedules, 592
nighttime sleep problems, 595
parental control, 587
risk assessment, 598
school schedules, 588, 589590
sleep complaints, 594
sleep requirements of, 587
sleep schedule, 588589, 594
sleep schedule decisions, 597598
sleepy driving, 597
social and behavioral neuroscience, 596
substance use, 591592, 595596
total sleep time (TST) and sleepiness, 589590
trauma, 594
treatment for sleep and sleep-related disorders, 592593
Law of Effect, Thorndike, 171
learning
role of sleep, 50
sleep, 572
learning disability (LD), 294
lifespan perspective, development, 25
light
alterations of response to, 332333
changes in light exposure patterns, 333
circadian rhythms and, 327328
human phase response curves, 328f
melatonin synthesis, 211212
technology use and sleep, 121
light therapy, delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), 336338
Likert scale, tools, 225, 226
limit setting, 510
longitudinal studies, sleep science, 612
long-term potentiation (LTP), memory, 51
Louisville Behavior Checklist, 240
Lunesta (eszopiclone), 595
M
Maggie’s Law, 448
major depressive disorder (MDD), 515
Malaysia
(p. 625) dream work, 93
sleep architecture, 92
Manual for Standardized Techniques and Criteria for Scoring of States of Sleep and Wakefulness in Newborn Infants, 11
Manual of Standardized Terminology, Techniques, and Scoring System for Sleep Stages of Human Subjects, 11
marijuana
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 595
sleep and substance abuse, 538
marital conflict
child with chronic illness, 141
quantity and quality of sleep, 105106
marital satisfaction, 6364
marital status, children’s sleep, 104
Maternal Cognitions about Infant Sleep Questionnaire (MCISQ), 226, 227t, 229t, 234t, 235t, 551
maternal sleep. See mothers
measurement. See also surveys and screening
framing questions, 30
future directions, 31
sleep behaviors, patterns and disorders, 19
sleep in developmental system, 2829
media devices, technology and sleep, 118. See also Internet
medical education
pediatric specialists, 252
sleep disorder knowledge, 245246
medical management responsibility, caregivers, 142143
medication
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 509
children with developmental disorders, 487
medicine. See also behavioral sleep medicine
pediatrics as discipline, 910
sleep, as discipline, 1013
melatonin, 595
assay, 212
autism spectrum disorder, 483, 487
circadian pattern, 209
delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), 338339
factors affecting endogenous, 211212
Fragile X syndrome, 475, 487
human phase response curves, 328f
insomnia, 488
measuring endogenous, 209215
metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), 211
plasma and salivary, phase markers, 213214
postpartum, 59
salivary, data collected overnight, 213f
sampling, 210211
Smith–Magenis syndrome, 478
urinary aMT6s phase markers, 214215
memory
role of sleep stages, 5051
short-term, 52
sleep, 572
sleep disordered breathing (SDB), 420
sleep disruption, 52, 415
sleep restriction, 54, 418
mental health, 2
mental health disorders
caffeine and, 535536
substance abusing adolescents, 539
meta-analyses, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 498, 499501t, 502
microsleep episodes, driving performance, 445
mild sleep loss, 406
Milwaukee Health Department, 127
minimum core body temperature (MCBT)
circadian rhythms and light, 328
light therapy, 337
Minnesota, School Start Time Study, 562564, 565568
Missouri Children’s Picture Series (MCPS), 240
mixed-frequency EEG pattern (M), 38
models
behavioral sleep medicine practice, 253t
conceptual, of sleep and sleep dysfunction, 1819
pediatric sleep practice, 252253
stepped care delivery of insomnia interventions, 249f
stepped care for pediatric behavior sleep medicine, 251f
molecular genetics, delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), 331332
Monitoring the Future study, 532, 533
monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, 372373
mood disorders
affect regulation, 519
cognitive functioning and sleep, 519
developmental considerations, 522523
future directions, 526527
insomnia and depression risk, 517518
psychological intervention for sleep disturbance in adolescents with, 522526
public health problem, 515516
sleep and obesity, 519
sleep disturbance and relapse, 518519
sleep disturbance as bipolar disorder marker, 518
sleep disturbance as mechanism in, 517520
sleep disturbance in, 516517
substance use and sleep deprivation, 519520
suicidality and sleep deprivation, 520
treatment components, 523526
treatment options and practices for sleep disturbance, 520521
treatment options and practices for sleep disturbance in adults with, 521522
morningness/eveningness
chronotype, 205208
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 587
morningness/eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), 207, 332
Morningness/Eveningness Scale for Children, 208
mothers. See also parents; postpartum
depression and sleep, 63
infant and sleep of, 575576
sleep quality, 63
motivational interviewing, adolescents with mood disorders, 523
motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). See also drowsy driving
alcohol, 442443
drowsy driving, 443
factors increasing risk of, 442443
future research directions, 451
Graduated Driving Licensing (GDL), 450
high-risk driving situations, 442
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and driving risk, 447448
potential interventions to reduce, 449451
psychosocial issues, 442
sleep deprivation, 441
smoking, 442
technology for monitoring driving, 450451
Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue Scale (MAF), 552
multimedia use, technology and sleep, 118
multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), 72, 353
Munich Chrono Type Questionnaire (MCTQ), 74f, 208
muscular dystrophy, 143
music, technology and sleep, 117118
N
napping
age and culture, 27
autism spectrum disorders, 480481
cortisol, 25
culture, 91, 462
ethnicity, 101
narcolepsy, 245, 250, 253
narrative reviews, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 505507
National Academy of Sciences, 296
National Assembly on School Based Health Care (2011), 293
(p. 626) National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 294
National Center for Education Statistics, 561
National Center on Sleep Disorders Research, 458
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, 459
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 4, 5, 393
National Institute of Mental Health, 248
National Institutes of Health, 334, 604, 614
National School Lunch Act (1946), 293
National Sleep Foundation (NSF), 294, 321, 535, 580
Sleep in America Poll (2004), 415
Sleep in America Poll (2006), 418, 560
Sleep in America Poll (2011), 4, 116, 117, 122, 306, 443, 523
website, 299
negative reinforcement, 171172
neighborhood characteristics, 107t
adolescent sleep, 106107
infant sleep, 106
school-aged children’s sleep, 106
toddler and preschooler sleep, 106
Nelson’s Textbook of Pediatrics, 12
Netherlands
childrearing, 85
Internet addiction, 116
neurocognitive assessment, sleep disruption, 415416
neurodevelopmental disabilities, 1
sleep study assessment, 274, 276
neuroendocrine changes, sleep and obesity risk, 432433
neuroscience, late adolescent/emerging adult, 596
newborns, sleep hygiene recommendations, 579. See also infants
New England, school start times, 564
New York City, children’s sleep after 9/11 attacks, 153154
New Zealand, sleeping practices, 83
nicotine
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 595
sleep and substance use, 536537
nightmares, 347, 348351. See also nighttime distractions
adolescents, 350351
preschoolers, 349350
school-age children, 350
nighttime distractions
adolescents, 350351
anxiety disorders and sleep, 351352
assessment in children and adolescents, 352353
confusion arousals, 355
disorders of arousal, 354355
evaluation of parasomnias, 357358
future directions, 359
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 595
nightmares, 348351
nighttime fears, 347348
parasomnias, 354. 358
parasomnias associated with REM sleep, 356357
preschool children, 349350
psychiatric disorders, 358
(p. 627) REM behavior disorder, 356357
rhythmic movement disorder, 356
school-age children, 350
sleep enuresis, 357
sleep inertia, 355
sleep talking, 355356
sleep terrors, 354355
sleep-wake transition disorders, 355356
sleepwalking, 354
treatment of, in children and adolescents, 353354
treatment of parasomnias, 358
nighttime fears, 347348. See also nighttime distractions
adolescents, 350351
assessment, 352353
preschoolers, 349350
school-age children, 350
treatment in children and adolescents, 353354
night-to-night variability in sleep, mood disorders, 517
night waking
Angelman syndrome, 476
autism spectrum disorder, 481483
autism spectrum disorders, 480
behavior analysis, 176177
Down syndrome, 474
Rett syndrome, 479
Smith–Magenis syndrome, 478
Williams syndrome, 477
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 294
Noctec (chloral hydrate), 487
nocturnal enuresis, 370, 376377. See also enuresis
alarm training, 375
anticholinergic medications, 376
assessment, 374, 375t
definitions, 370371
desmopressin, 376
diagnostic criteria, 371
epidemiology, 371
etiology, 371372
high arousal thresholds, 372373
history taking, 374, 375t
impact on child and family, 373374
management, 374376
relationship between, and sleep, 372373
risk factors, 372
sleep disordered breathing (SDB), 373
treatment, 374376
tricyclic antidepressants, 376
urotherapy, 374375
nocturnal polyuria, 372
Nocturnal Rhinoconjuctivities Quality of Life Questionnaire (NRQLQ), 461
non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, 10, 35
brain maturation and function, 4950
sleep cycle, 363
nursing care, schools, 293
O
obesity. See also pediatric obesity
future research for variables, 434435
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 364, 366
potential mechanisms linking sleep duration to risk of, 432434
sleep and, 519
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 335336
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 10, 245, 251. See also pediatric obesity
adenotonsillectomy, 364365
continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), 365366
Down syndrome, 473474
driving risk, 447448
future directions, 367
insomnia and, 315
obesity, 364, 366
pathophysiology, 362363
prevalence, 363
referral for polysomnography, 313
sleep cycle overview, 363
sleep insufficiency, 399, 430
special pediatric populations and, 366367
symptoms of, 363364
treatment of, 364366
treatments in children, 366
obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), 17
ontogeny, sleep EEG, 3440
operant behavior, 170
oppositional defiant disorder
comorbidity of, 496
insomnia and, 314
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 367
overanxious disorder of childhood, 348, 351, 352
Oxford Library of Psychology, 1
oxybutynin, nocturnal enuresis, 376
P
Pacific Islanders, sleeping practices, 83
pain, sleep, 19
parasomnias, 245
associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, 356357
definition, 354, 359
evaluation of, 357358
REM behavior disorder (RBD), 356357
sleep enuresis, 357
treatment of, 358
parental behaviors, infant sleep, 102103
Parental Concerns Questionnaire, 555
Parental Interaction Bedtime Behavior Scale (PIBBS), 226, 227t, 229t, 233t, 234t
parental presence, bedtime routine, 175176
Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment Scale, 550
Parenting Matters Treatment Program, 575
Parenting Stress Index (PSI), 553
parents. See also pediatric chronic illness; postpartum; sleep study experience
adolescents with mood disorders, 522
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 510
books for, 299
cognitions around infant sleep, 62
individualizing recommendations, 581
infant care responsibilities, 62
infant feeding method, 5961
infant sleep location, 6162
insomnia education and prevention, 309
interaction with infant, 5962
mood and mental health, 553555
outcome of behavioral interventions, 551555
parent-child relationship, 550551
postpartum depression, 6263
relationship with partner, 6364
sleep and health, 551552
sleep and obesity, 435
sleep difficulties of children, 386389
sleep disruptions of typically developing children, 141
sleep in postpartum, 5859
technology use, 120
warmth and rules, 106
well-being, 552553
pari passu, 51
Pavlovian behavior, 170
Pavlovian response, 171
Pavlovian stimulus, 171
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), 400, 416t, 417
pediatric chronic illness. See also allergic diseases
actigraphy for parents of children with and without, 145f, 146f
caregiving ability, 144
caregiving demands, 141142
co-sleeping, 464465
daytime functioning after sleep disruptions, 144146
disturbance of child’s sleep, 143
emotional distress, 144, 146
emotional stress, 143
future directions, 147
location of child’s care, 143
medical management responsibilities, 142143
psychological distress, 144, 146
sleep disruption prevalence among caregivers, 142
sleep disruptions, 140141
sleep disruptions in parents, 141
sleep quality, 144
Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS), 353
pediatric insomnia
adolescence (age 1018), 314321
bedtime facing, 312
bedtime pass, 311
behavioral insomnia of childhood (BIC), 307308
behavioral treatments for children (age 15), 308313
behavioral treatments in older children, 317318
bright light therapy, 320
cognitive and behavioral therapies for insomnia(CBTi), 318320
cognitive therapy (CT), 319320
comorbid conditions, 313, 314, 320321
extinction with parental presence, 310311
future directions, 321322
graduated extinction, 310
middle childhood (age 610), 313314
parent education and prevention, 309
pharmacological treatment, 321
positive routines, 311312
preschoolers (age 15), 307313
relaxation therapy, 319
scheduled awakenings, 312313
sleep compression therapy, 319
sleep hygiene education, 320
sleep restriction therapy, 318319
stimulus control therapy, 318
unmodified extinction, 309310
pediatric obesity. See also obesity
areas for future research, 434435
children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), 430
cross-sectional studies, 431432
definition and significance, 429431
eating and activity behaviors, 433434
energy balance equation, 433434
future directions, 436
impact of weight loss for comorbid, and SDB, 435436
neuroendocrine changes, 432433
potential mechanisms linking sleep duration to risk of, 432434
prospective studies, 432
sleep and weight status, 431432
sleep intervention targets, 435
sleep variables for targeting, 434435
targeting underlying factors for, 435
Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, 180, 549
Pediatrics Allergies in America Survey, 461
Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ), 19, 226, 227t, 230t, 237t, 353, 536
Ped-IMMPACT consensus group, 19
peer influence, late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 590
PERCLOSE, driving performance, 450
periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), 320
Personality Inventory for Children (PIC), 385
pervasive developmental disorder, 314, 479, 482. See also autism spectrum disorders
pharmacological treatment, pediatric insomnia, 321
phase-response curve (PRC), 4142
bright light therapy for insomnia, 320
light, 205
physical abuse, interpersonal violence, 155156
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), 64, 65, 552
plasma melatonin, 210211
polysomnography (PSG), 10
developmental, 11
maternal sleep, 59
parasomnias, 358
referral for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 313
sleep assessment, 189, 275, 276
sleep study, 256, 258
study setup, 264265
video games and sleep patterns, 119
Williams syndrome, 477
pontogeniculooccipital (PGO) waves, 35, 51
positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy, 608
positive reinforcement, 171172
post-extinction response bursts, 172
postpartum. See also parents
consequences of disturbed, sleep, 6264
definition, 58
depression, 6263
evidence-based pediatric intervention, 573574
future directions, 67
interventions to improve, sleep, 6466
normative pattern of sleep, 573
parental sleep in, 5859
randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 64
relationship with partner, 6364
sleep intervention/prevention program, 573
socioeconomic status (SES), 66
weight retention, 64
postpartum women, 2
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 1, 151, 154
abused children, 156
sleep and, 351, 352
(p. 628) Prader Willi syndrome, 472, 479, 480
napping, 481
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 366
sleep and, 475476
sleep study assessment, 274
predictive value for sleep (PVS), 192
predictive value for wake (PVW), 192
pregnant women, 2
prenatal exposure
alcohol, 537538
nicotine, 537
Preschool Adjustment Questionnaire, 402
Preschool Behavior Questionnaire, 402
preschoolers
bedtime facing, 312
bedtime pass, 311
behavioral treatments for insomnia, 308313
coping strategies, 290t
developmental considerations, 283t
ethnicity, 100101
extinction with parental presence, 310311
future directions, 408409
graduated extinction, 310
Head Start, 400
household characteristics, 103
kindergarten readiness skills, 397398
neighborhood characteristics, 106
nocturnal fears and nightmares, 349350
normative pattern of sleep, 574
parent education and prevention, 309
parents as agent of change, 309
pediatric insomnia, 307313
positive routines, 311312
preschool executive function skills, 406408
scheduled awakenings, 312313
sleep and cognitive skills, 399401, 417
sleep and temperamental self-regulation, 404406
sleep disordered breathing (SDB), 401402, 421
sleep habits and behavior problems, 402403
sleep hygiene recommendations, 579
sleep in early childhood, 398399
sleep insufficiency, 399
sleep intervention/prevention program, 574575
temperament, 403
temperament, academic achievement and sleep, 403406
unmodified extinction, 309310
prescription medication, late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 591
preventative interventions. See also interventions
adolescents, 577578
early postpartum and infancy, 573574
evidence-based pediatric sleep curricula, 573
future directions, 580582
resources, 580
school-aged children, 576577
sleep and health optimization, 572573, 578, 582
sleep hygiene strategies, 578580
toddlers and preschoolers, 574576
PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis), 497
Problem Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ), 386
process-C (circadian phase)
adolescent development, 7274
adolescent sleep, 314
sleep and, 4142
sleep and wakefulness, 327328
sleep regulation, 71
process-S (time spent awake)
adolescent development, 7172
adolescent sleep, 314
sleep and, 41
sleep and wakefulness, 327328
professionals, technology recommendations, 123124
Profile of Mood States (POMS), 180, 554
progressive muscle relaxation, 604
proportional integration mode (PIM), 197
psycho-cultural model, sleep, 81
psychoeducation, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 509
psychological distress, caregivers, 144, 146
psychological intervention, sleep disturbance in adolescents with mood disorder, 522526
psychopathology
autism spectrum disorder, 481482
developmental, 25
psychosocial issues, motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), 442
puberty, circadian timing, 7374
Puerto Rican families, sleep timing, 91
punishment, 171
Q
qualitative systematic reviews, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 502, 503504t, 505
quality of sleep
behavior, 54
caregivers, 144
child’s sleep, 384386
event-related potentials, 401
marital conflict and, 105106
mothers, 63
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, 64, 65, 552
school performance, 17
quantitative systematic reviews, ADHD, 498, 499501t, 502
questionnaires. See also surveys and screening
behavioral assessment, 179180
quiet sleep (QS), 35
during development, 39
infants, 3738, 131
QUOROM (Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses), 497
R
radical behaviorism, 172
Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital, 20
Rainbow Comfort Measures© (RCM©). See also Comfort Measures model; sleep study experience
benefits, 278t
model of care, 256, 257, 258259
preparation considerations, 262t
randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
children with developmental disabilities, 488
postpartum sleep, 6466
rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, 10
brain maturation and function, 4950
discovery of, 48
EEG of, 36
infants, 35
mood disorders, 517
sleep cycle, 363
ratings, 179
reactivity, 403
record-keeping, late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 592593
refugees, sleep and violence, 152
regulation, 403
reinforcement, 171
relapse
prevention in adolescents with mood disorders, 526
sleep disturbance, 518519
relaxation therapy, 319, 604
reliability, 225
respondent behavior, 170
response in context, 28
rest-activity cycle, sleep, 10
restless legs, Williams syndrome, 477
restless legs syndrome, 245, 253
comorbid with insomnia, 320
insomnia and, 315
Restless Legs Syndrome/Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (RLS/PLMD), 241
retinal hypothalamic tract (RHT) pathway, 72, 73f
Retrospective Infant Characteristics Questionnaire, 405
Rett syndrome, sleep and, 478479
Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scales (RCADS), 388
Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), 388
Rhode Island, school start times, 562, 564
rhythmic movement disorder, 356
risk-taking behavior
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 598
(p. 629) sleep deprivation and, 446447
sleep variables, 449f
substance use, and sleep, 446447
Rob’s Law, 448
room sharing, infant sleep location, 6162
rumination, adolescents with mood disorders, 526
S
SafeTRAC, driving performance, 450
salivary melatonin, 210211, 213f
scheduled awakenings, pediatric insomnia, 312313
school-aged children
academic performance and sleep, 417418
common complaints, 248
coping strategies, 290t
developmental considerations, 284t
ethnicity, 101102
evidence-based sleep intervention, 576577
household characteristics, 103105
neighborhood characteristics, 106
nocturnal fears and nightmares, 350
normative patterns of sleep, 576
pediatric insomnia, 313314
pediatric obesity, 430
sleep disturbances, 134
sleep fragmentation, 134135
sleep hygiene recommendations, 579580
schools
assessment of sleep problems, 298299
dealing with sleep and behavior problems, 296298
extent of children’s problems, 294
future directions, 298
nursing care, 293
performance and sleep quantity/quality, 17
readiness of preschoolers, 397398
resources for educators, 298299
schedules for late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 589590
sleep behavior of adolescents, 75
sleep in relation to school problems, 294296
sleep problems and role of, 292294
School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS), 353, 561, 562
school start times, 559560, 568569
adolescent sleep patterns and sleep deprivation, 560561
barrier to changing, 565568
benefits of later high school, 565
future directions, 569
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 588, 589590
Minnesota study, 562564, 565568
motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), 444
precedence of early high school, 561
research on delayed high school, 561565
Screen for Children Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), 387
screening. See also surveys and screening
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 508
screen time, technology and sleep, 118, 124
seasonal affective disorder, 336
secondary outcomes of behavioral interventions, 547548, 556557
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 555556
autism, 555
child, 548550
future directions, 557
negative effects, 556
parent, 551555
parental well-being, 552553
parent-child relationship, 550551
parent mood and mental health, 553555
parent sleep and health, 551552
Second Intifada, sleep in refugee children, 153
security blanket, sleep aids, 84
seizures, sleep study assessment, 274
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 314, 353
self-regulation
future directions, 408409
sleep and temperamental, 404406
transition skills, 398
self-report
measures, 179
sleep diary, 194f
self-soothing
behavior analysis, 173174
controversies, 135136
future directions, 137
infant sleep, 128, 136137
night waking, 176177
prevalence, 133
research, 133135
sleep diaries and actigraphy in infants, 198199
separation anxiety, sleep and, 351, 352
September 11 attacks, sleep in children, 153154
serotonin, autism spectrum disorder, 483
sexual abuse, interpersonal violence, 155156, 158159
simulated driving, 445
Singapore, sleep patterns, 88
sleep. See also adjustment and sleep
affect regulation, 519
circadian education, 523524
cognitive functioning, 519
conceptual models of, and dysfunction, 1819
cultural variation, 27
developing brain, 4849
developmental perspective, 2426
electrophysiological characteristics of, 3537
memory and learning, 50
nocturnal enuresis and, 372373
obesity and, 519
risk-taking behavior, substance use and, 446447
social context, 99100
special populations, 1920
SLEEP (journal), 615
sleep aids, culture, 87
Sleep and Its Disorders in Children, 12
Sleep and Settle Questionnaire (SSQ), 226, 227t, 229t, 233t
sleep apnea. See also obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
obstructive, 10, 11
Prader–Willi syndrome, 475476
sleep architecture, 53, 9192
sleep assessment
actigraphy, 190191
adolescent development and emerging adulthood, 7475
clinical use of actigraphy and sleep diaries, 200201
comparing sleep diaries and actigraphy, 198199
future directions, 201
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 594596
measurement, 19
polysomnography (PSG), 189
validation studies of actigraphy, 192, 195198
sleep compression therapy (SCT), 319, 604
sleep cycle, overview, 363
sleep deficits, chronic, 2930
sleep deprivation. See also drowsy driving
adolescents, 560561
adolescents and later high school start times, 565
changes in driving performance with, 445446
circadian and homeostatic factors, 443
determining sleep onset, 445446
drowsy driving, 441
etiology of, 443444
future directions, 451
impulsivity, 447
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 593594
microsleep episodes, 445
risk-taking behaviors and, 446447
simulated driving, 445
sleep onset and sleepiness, 446f
sleep patterns from adolescence to adulthood, 443444
substance use, 446447, 519520
suicidality, 520
sleep development, 37
EEG (electroencephalography) changes during first twelve months, 3840
(p. 630) EEG for one to five years, 40
EEG patterns in neonatal period, 3738
future directions, 43
sleep diaries. See also surveys and screening
assessment, 190, 191
clinical use of actigraphy and, 200201
comparison to actigraphy, 198199
diaries and logs, 240
direct functional analysis, 180181
example, 193f
infant sleep, 193f
self-report, 194f
sleep disordered breathing (SDB), 1617, 5253
academic performance, 420421
adolescents, 198
cognitive deficits, 421423
cognitive reasoning, 421
Down syndrome, 474
ethnicity, 101
executive functions, 421
impact of weight loss for comorbid obesity and, 435436
indicators, 401402
intelligence, 419420
memory, 420
nocturnal enuresis and sleep, 373
pediatric obesity, 430
sleep insufficiency, 399
Sleep Disorder Inventory for Students (SDIS), 353
sleep disorders. See also nighttime distractions
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 593594
measurement, 19
medicine, 11
pediatricians’ knowledge of, 246247
primary care physicians knowledge of, 245246
screening measures, 16
Sleep Disorders Inventory for Students–Adolescents (SDIS–A), 225, 228t, 232t, 239t
Sleep Disorders Inventory for Students–Children (SDIS–C), 225, 227t, 230t, 236t, 237t
sleep disruption/sleep disturbance
adolescents with substance abuse history, 539541
bipolar disorder, 517, 518
children’s neurocognitive/behavioral functioning, 5154
children with developmental disorders, 20
cognition, 415
current options and practices for treatment, 520521
delayed sleep phase, 419
early marker for bipolar disorder, 518
executive function, 415
future directions, 424
insomnia and depression risk, 517518
intelligence, 415
mechanism in mood disorders, 517520
memory, 415
neurocognitive assessment, 415416
neurocognitive tests, 416t
potential mechanisms, 423424
prevalence of, 414415
relapse, 518519
sleep deprivation and restriction, 416418
sleep disordered breathing (SDB), 419423
treatment in adults with mood disorder, 521522
Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC), 19, 404, 226, 228t, 231t, 238t, 353
sleep duration, 381
assessing short sleep and weight status, 431432
culture, 9091
potential mechanisms linking, to obesity risk, 432434
sleep and adjustment, 382384
sleep enuresis, 370
Sleep Habits Survey (SHS), 19, 389
sleep hygiene, 88, 91, 124
adolescents, 579580
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 510
behavior for healthy sleep, 113114
children with developmental disabilities, 485486
education and insomnia, 320
going to bed and falling asleep, 174176
parasomnias, 358
parents of newborns and infants, 579
parents of preschoolers, 579
parents of toddlers, 579
recommendations, 580581
school-age children, 579580
strategies, 578580
sleep impairments, adolescent delayed sleep phase, 334335
Sleep in American Poll (2004), National Sleep Foundation, 415
Sleep in American Poll (2006), National Sleep Foundation, 418, 560
Sleep in American Poll (2011), National Sleep Foundation, 4, 116, 117, 122, 306, 443, 523
sleep inertia, 355
sleeping arrangements, cross-cultural variability, 8283
sleeping through the night, 128. See also self-soothing
sleep medicine, medical discipline, 1013
sleep onset
autism spectrum disorders, 479480
determining, 445446, 446f
video game playing, 116117
sleep organization, 4043
process–C (circadian phase), 4142
process–S (time spent awake), 41
thermoregulation, 4243
ultradian rhythms, 43
sleep patterns
adolescence to adulthood, 443444
adolescents, 560561
measurement, 19
sleep problems
developmental study of, 2629
pattern differences by culture, 8889
prevalence and impact of, 1517
rate differences by culture, 8788
sleep promotion programs, concerns and barriers, 581582
sleep quantity, cognition and behavior, 54
sleep regulation, two-process model, 71, 443
Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder (SRBD) scale, 226, 228t, 231t, 238t
sleep research
conceptual models, 1819
education, 614615
environmental contributions, 613
experimental design, 613614
family systems, general systems, and biopsychosocial approaches, 612613
future directions, 21
individual differences, 612
intervention efficacy, 613
longitudinal studies, 612
measurements, 2829
novel therapies, 613
prevalence and impact of problems/disorders, 1517
special populations, 1920
subjective and objective assessment measures, 613
uses of culture in, 8687
Sleep Research Society, 604, 614
sleep restriction therapy (SRT), 318319, 604
sleep schedule, late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 588589, 594, 597598
Sleep Self Report (SSR), 353
Sleep-Smart program, 5
sleep spindles, 35, 36
infant, 39
Rett syndrome, 479
sleep study experience, 256257, 277
addressing needs of children and parents, 259272
building rapport, 271
child and parent needs, 257258
comfort positioning, 266267, 268f
coping strategies, 265270, 289291t
creating supportive environment, 270272
diversional items, 265t, 269 (p. 631)
future directions, 277279
guidance and praise, 271272
hands-on demonstration and visual aids, 264265
individual needs, 261
interventions prior to child’s study night, 272277
language and word choice, 263, 286288t
medical team definition, 260
participation and involvement, 260261
preparation considerations for health care professionals, 262t
preparation supplies, 265t
pre-procedural daytime visit, 275277
pre-procedural telephone all with parent, 274275
psychological preparation, 261265
Rainbow Comfort Measures© model of Care (RCM©), 258259
sleep talking, 102, 355356
sleep terrors, 102, 354355
sleep timing, culture, 91
sleep-wake behavior
adolescents, 7071
emerging adulthood, 75
ultradian rhythms, 43
sleep-wake cycling, 13, 25, 29
adolescents with mood disorders, 524525
delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), 339340
homeostasis, 71
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 587592
measurement, 208209
sleep-wake states, definition, 35
sleep-wake timing, adolescents, 73
sleepwalking, 102, 245, 354
sleep-walk transition disorders, 355356
rhythmic movement disorder, 356
sleep talking, 355356
sleepy driver, 5. See also drowsy driver
slow rolling eye movements (SEM), 445446, 446f
slow wave activity (SWA), sleep regulation, 71
slow wave sleep (SWS), 36, 40
memory, 51
nocturnal enuresis, 373
sleepwalking, 354
smart phones, 113
Smith–Magenis syndrome, 472, 478
smoking
children’s sleep and parents’ behavior, 103
motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), 442
sleep and substance use, 536537
snoring, 102
social context, sleep, 99100
social determinants of sleep
ethnicity, 100102
future directions, 108
health disparities, 107108
household characteristics, 102106
neighborhood characteristics and sleep, 106107
overview, 107t
social jet lag, 75
social networks, late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 590
Society for Research on Child Development (SRCD), 2
Society of Behavioral Sleep Medicine (SBSM), 603, 604, 606, 608
Society of Pediatric Psychology Assessment Taskforce, 179
socioeconomic status (SES)
ethnicity and sleep, 102
family with chronically ill child, 465
household characteristics and sleep, 102106
postpartum, 66
school problems, 296
sleep duration, 384
sleep efficiency, 385
technology use and sleep, 119120
Solve Your Child’s Sleep Problems, Ferber, 2, 12
somnambulism, 245
South Korea
adolescent sleep, 75
bedtime routines, 8384
Internet addiction, 116
sleep diaries, 191
sleep duration, 90
special populations, study of sleep in, 1920
spina bifida, 143
Standards of Practice Committee
American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 190
American Sleep Disorders Association, 189
Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale, 416t
Stanford University School of Medicine, 607t
State Normal School, 293
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), 180
stepped care model
insomnia interventions, 248, 249f
pediatric behavioral sleep medicine, 251f
stimulus control, 171
stimulus control therapy (CBT), 318
stimulus generalization, 171
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), 180, 383, 386
stress, chronically ill child, 465
substance use, 532, 541
adolescents and mental health, 539
alcohol, 537538
caffeine, 533536
effects of sleep on, 538539
future directions, 541
illicit, in adolescents, 532533
late adolescent/emerging adult (LA/EA), 591592, 595596
marijuana, 538
nicotine, 536537
risk-taking behavior, and sleep, 446447
sleep deprivation, 519520
treating adolescents with sleep disturbances and, 539541
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), 11, 39, 82
culture, 8990
task force by American Academy of Pediatrics, 127, 128, 130
sudden unexpected infant death (SUID), 130
suicidality, sleep deprivation, 520
6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), melatonin metabolite, 211, 214215
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), 41, 72, 73f, 205
Sweden, video gaming, 117
systematic reviews, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 497505
T
Taiwan
Internet addiction, 116
sleep duration, 90
sleep patterns, 88
Tayside Children’s Sleep Questionnaire (TCSQ), 226, 227t, 229t, 235t
Teacher Daily Report, 404
Teacher Report Form (TRF), 388
Teacher Temperament Questionnaire, 404
technology use
adolescents with mood disorders, 523
arousal mechanism, 120121
caffeine, 535
cell phone usage, 117
computer and Internet use, 115116
displacement hypothesis, 120
electromagnetic fields as mechanism, 121122
future research directions, 122124
light as mechanism, 121
limitations of prior research, 118119
listening to music, 117118
moderating factors, 119120
monitoring driving performance, 450451
multimedia use and screen time, 118
potential mechanisms, 120122
proposed model for effects on sleep, 123f
recommendations for families and professionals, 123124
relationship to sleep, 114119
sleep hygiene recommendations, 579580
sleep interruption, 122
television watching, 114115, 120 (p. 632)
theoretical implications, 119120
video gaming, 116117
television
sleep and exposure to virtual violence, 161
technology and sleep, 114115, 123
technology use and sleep, 120
Teminar, Malaysia, 93
temperament, 25
children, 549550
self-regulation, 398
sleep and, 403404
Temperament Assessment Battery for Children, 403
terminal link, 174
terminology, sleep stage, 43n.1
terrorist attacks, collective violence, 153154
Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch), 416t
texting, technology and sleep, 117
Thailand, 89
thermoregulation, sleep and, 4243
theta waves, memory, 51
Thorndike’s Law of Effect, 171
three-term contingency, 170
time above threshold (TAT), 197
Tips for Infant and Parent Sleep (TIPS), 575
toddlers
coping strategies, 289t
developmental considerations, 282t
ethnicity, 100101
household characteristics, 103
neighborhood characteristics, 106
normative pattern of sleep, 574
sleep hygiene recommendations, 579
sleep intervention/prevention program, 574575
Toddlers’ Behavior Assessment Questionnaire, 404
tolterodine, nocturnal enuresis, 376
topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs), 459
tracé alternant (TA), 37, 38, 53
translational behavior analysis, 173
trauma sleep, 88
traumatic brain injury, 333
traumatic stress, 151
trazodone (Desyrel), 487
tricyclic antidepressants, nocturnal enuresis, 376
Trisomy 21, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 366
two-process model, sleep regulation, 71, 443
two-stage model, memory consolidation, 50
U
Uganda, sleep in refugee children, 159
ultradian rhythms, sleep organization, 43
unipolar depression, 516
unmodified extinction, pediatric insomnia, 309310
urotherapy, nocturnal enuresis, 374375
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 212
US Military Academy, sleep-wake behavior, 75
US National Survey of Children’s Health (2003), 156
V
validation studies
actigraphy, 192, 195198
adolescents, 197198
children, 196197
infants, 195196
preterm infants, 195
validity, 225
Valium (diazepam), 595
Vicodin, 532
video gaming
sleep and exposure to virtual violence, 161
technology and sleep, 116117
violence, 117, 121
vigilance, adolescents with mood disorders, 526
violence. See also collective violence; interpersonal violence
children’s sleep in environments of, 159161
children witnessing, 150151
future research directions, 162163
sleep and exposure to virtual, 161
sleep of children in environments of collective, 151155
sleep of children in environments of interpersonal, 155159
video gaming, 117, 121
W
wake-up protocol, 525
War, collective violence, 152153
Washington DC, children’s sleep after 9/11 attacks, 153154
websites, resources for educators, 299
Wechsler Individualized Achievement Test (WIAT), 416t
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 3rd edition (WISC–III), 416t
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rdedition (WPPSI–III), 416t
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Revised (WPPSI–R), 407
weight loss, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 366
weight retention, postpartum, 64
weight status, assessing short sleep and, 431432
White American families, co-sleeping, 129
Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML-2), 416t
Williams syndrome, sleep and, 477
wind-down period, 525
word choice, sleep study environment, 263, 286288t
wrist actigraphy, paternal sleep, 59
Y
Young Adolescent Sleep-Smart Pacesetter Program, 5, 577
young adults. See drowsy driving
Z
zeitgebers, 205
zero crossing mode (ZCM), 197
zolpidem (Ambien), 521