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date: 14 December 2019

(p. 521) Index

(p. 521) Index

“n.” indicates material in notes. “f” indicates material in figures. “t” indicates material in tables.

AAI Foundation, 194
abaya, 432
abd al Rahman, Ibrahima, 17, 19, 90
‘Abduh, Muhammad, 79, 177, 272
Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem, 464
Abdullah, Daayiee, 221n.1
Abdullah, Umar Faruq, 125, 132
Abdullah, Zain, 212
Abdulmutallab, Umar Farouk, 487n.4
Abdul-Rauf, Mahmoud, 97n.2
Abedin, Huma, 81–82
Abercrombie & Fitch, 200
ablution, 161, 165. See also wudu
Abode of the Message, 121–22
abortion, 447, 451
Abou El Fadl, Khaled, 77, 79, 174, 485–86
Aboulhosn, Malhim Salloum, 143
Abraham (Prophet), 153, 170, 171
Abraham, Fahrid Murray, 463
Abu Bakr (Caliph), 102
Abu Ghraib prison, 365
ACCESS, 310–11, 448
Acts of Faith (Patel), 140
acupuncture, 452
adab, 125, 381
Adams, Hannah, 511, 513
Adams, John Quincy, 19
Adam’s World (DVD series), 246, 261–62, 467, 471n.11
Ad-Deen Allah Universal Arabic Association, 405
“Addressing Anti-Muslim Action in the United States and Canada,” 372
adhan, 22, 72, 160, 163, 293. See also call to prayer
adl, 270
adoption, 184, 443–44
adultery, 354
advertising
by CAIR, 75
“honor killing awareness” campaign, 188
by ICNA’s WhyIslam.com, 279
individualism and, 129
for Islamic clothing, 433
jihads, 264
matrimonial, 212
for runaway slaves, 15
by SIOA, 188, 497, 505n.15
of Sufi movements, 130
withdrawal of, from tv shows, 372, 375n.26, 384
Advisory Council on Faith-Based Neighborhood Partnerships, 140
al-Afghani, Jamal al-Din, 79
Afghani American Muslims, 114
Afghanistan
Al-Qaeda in, 516
“Burn the Qur’an Day” demonstrations in, 497
civil wars in, 104
emigration from, 42n.5
Soviet invasion of, 104, 462
Taliban in, 492, 516
War on Terror in, 10, 366, 378, 484, 491
Africa. See also specific countries
Ahmadiyya Movement in, 144
architectural influence on American mosques, 416
jihads in, 16
slaves from. See African slaves
spread of Islam in, 15–16, 33, 92, 138
Sunni trade networks in, 15
Tijani revival in, 127
African American Islamic Institute, 127
African American Muslims
aftercare of ex-convict, 299–300
in Ahmadiyya Movement, 23–24, 146–49
Arab American Muslims and, 24
in CAIR, 76
citizenship and, 90–92, 95
clothing choices of, 428–29, 435n.3
(p. 522) conversion of, 104, 275
dating, marriage, and, 212
da‘wa in communities of, 112, 275
diet of, 442
diversity and heterogeneity of, 87
global Islamic public sphere and, 478–79
health care for, 442
history of, 2, 15–26, 30–35
identity of, 24, 88–89, 95–96
incorporation of, 32–33, 40–42
ISNA and, 72
mosques for, 113, 147, 228, 230, 405
NOI and. See Nation of Islam
organizations for, 255
Pew and Gallap data on, 40, 479
political economy of gender and, 92–93
in prisons, 287–294
remarriage of, 214
September 11 terrorist attacks and, 30
Shi‘ism and, 104, 108, 112–13
social justice and, 95–96
solidarity with immigrant Muslims, 204n.10
Sufism and, 127–28
Sunnism and, 24, 36–37, 91, 104, 108, 112, 228
white supremacy and, 1, 91, 94–95
African Americans
Ahmadiyya Movement and, 23–24, 146–47, 480
Ali on, 23, 35
citizenship for, 90–91
disfranchisement of, 93
doctors/health care providers, 450
feminism and, 92–93
Great Migration of, 23
identification as, 89
identity of, 4, 23–26, 65
Islam as ancestral faith of, 26, 35
list experiment on attitudes towards, 333
music of, 21–22
organizations for, 65
political consciousness of, 479
in prisons, 291–92
proselytizing of, 274
wealth of, 94
women in civil rights movement, 205n.13
youth’s attraction to Islam, 95
African Muslims
Ali on, 35
Arab Muslims and, 15, 90
clothing choices of, 428
dating, marriage, and, 212
emigration of, 30–33, 75, 104
Khojas, 106–7
NOI on, 25, 26. See also Nation of Islam
in prisons, 287
Sufism and, 121, 127
in Tijani Order, 127
African Muslim slaves
da‘wa in communities of, 275
descendants of, continuation of faith by, 21
diet of, 17–18, 442
Diouf on faith and legacy of, 2, 15–22
education by, 237–38
emigration of, 15–17, 31t, 33
healing traditions of, 440
Islamic law on, 16
modern immigrants and, 40
music and, 1, 21–22
A Prince Among Slaves on, 468, 470
Sufism and, 121
treatment of, 90
African slaves
Black Nationalist movements and, 2
Catholic Church on, 26
emigration of, 16–17, 33
incorporation of, 33
music and, 21–22
Nation of Islam on, 25, 26
sexuality of, 460
Afsaruddin, Asma, 5, 174–185
afternoon prayer, 293
Aga Khan Award for Architecture, 139, 396
Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture, 139
Agha Khan Development Network, 138
Aghdashloo, Shohreh, 469
ahkam, 175
ahl al-bayt, 100
Ahl AlQuran International Qur’anic Center website, 150
Ahl-i-Hadith, 150
Ahmad, Mirza Ghulam, 23, 145, 146
Ahmad, Omar, 76, 77
Ahmadiyya Movement
African Americans and, 23–24, 146–49, 228, 480
background and history of, 23–24
chaplains from, 149
charity by members of, 149
on clothing/headdress, 146, 148
on congregational prayers, 149
da‘wa of, 276–77
education and, 148
first mosque in US, 228
(p. 523) Haddad and Smith on, 3, 144–150
identity and, 23–24
ISNA and, 72–73
missionaries from, 23, 144–48, 479
MSTA and, 146
in prisons, 149
Sufism and, 127
Sunnism and, 145–47, 149–150, 479
ummah and, 150
Ahmadu Bamba parade, 127
Aidi, Hisham, 90, 95
Aisha, 93
Akhter, Muhammad, 450
Akkad, Moustapha, 467
Akram, Wali, 228, 405
Alabama, 25
a‘lam, 108, 117n.17
‘Alami tariqa, 126
Alamo Rent-A-Car, 199
Al-Alaq, 414
Albania, 31t, 32, 34, 121, 405
Alberta, 116n.9
alcohol, 6, 17–18, 379, 442–44
Alcoholics Anonymous, 444
Al-Fatih, 246
Algeria, 80
Ali (film), 469
Ali Baba, 379
Ali, F. Mohammed, 24. See also Fard, Wallace D.
Ali, Kecia, 79
Ali, Noble Drew, 23, 24, 26, 35, 228, 479
Ali, Wajahat, 221n.1, 389, 466
Ali, Dawud Wharns by, 72
Aliens in America (tv show), 464
Aligarh Muslim University, 271
Aliya Bohra Isma‘ilis, 102
Al-Jazeera, 379
Alkhateeb, Shareefa, 195–96
Allah
conceptualizing, language and, 347
Divine Names of, 414
Fard as, 25
al-Hakim and, 141, 142
Khalifa and, 150–51
shahada on, 160
Virgin Mary’s mihrab and, 407
Allah Made Me Funny (comedy tour), 389, 468
All American Muslim (tv show), 375n.26, 384, 469, 512
All Dulles Area Muslim Society (ADAMS), 52, 222n.8
AlMaghrib, 216
Almontaser, Debbie, 187, 203n.23
Al-Qaeda
in Afghanistan, 516
“American Muslims: In Search of a Third Way” on, 352
Bush on, 492
decentralization strategy of, 378
FBOP Muslim Religious Services Providers and, 297
Global Relief Foundation and, 77
Islam and, 114, 476, 492
leadership of, 490
Park 51 mosque/community center and, 326
prisoners and, 297, 299
propaganda of, 378
Taliban and, 492
in tv show plots, 465
victory over, images of, 198
YouTube videos on, 378
altMuslim (website), 378
AltMuslimah (website), 380
al-Alwani, Taha Jabir, 340–42, 344–46, 482–85
Aly, Marwa, 57, 60
Aman, Yasser, 313
Amanullah, Shahed, 378
Amat’ullah, Nurah W., 56, 58–59
Amer, Ghada, 390, 393–95, 399
American Academy of Religion (AAR), 251n.43
American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC), 194, 498–99, 505n.19
American Baptist Convention (ABC), 501, 505n.25
American College of Physicians (ACP), 449
American Correctional Association, 293
American Druze Society (ADS), 143, 144
American Family Series (Hutchinson), 246
American Freedom Defense Initiative, 505n.15
American Islamic College (AIC), 244, 250n.31
American Islamic Propaganda, 226
American Mohammedan Society, 42n.1
American Moslem Brotherhood, 42n.1
American Mosque study (Bagby), 51, 230–31, 236n.8
American Muslim Alliance (AMA), 39, 77, 329
American Muslim Association, 70
American Muslim Council (AMC), 39, 77–78
American Muslim Mission, 37, 241
American Muslim Politics Council Coordination (AMPCC), 78
American Muslims (Khan), 352
“American Muslims: In Search of a Third Way” (Khan), 352
American Muslim Society (AMS), 71, 86n.1. See also American Society of Muslims
American Muslim Taskforce for Disaster Relief (AMTFDR), 71
(p. 524) American Muslim Task Force on Civil Rights and Elections, 329
American Muslim Veteran’s Affair Council, 59
American Muslim Women’s Association of Arizona, 195
American Open University (AOU), 245, 250n.31
American Public Health Association, 450
American Society for Muslim Advancement (ASMA), 132, 183, 389, 402n.1
American Society of Muslims, 37. See also American Muslim Society
American Sufi Muslim Association, 132
American Trust Publications (ATP), 67
amil, 102
Amin, Idi, 104, 107
Al-Amin, Jamil, 70
Anatolia, 32. See also Turkey
Angha, Nahid, 126, 131
Angha, Saleheddin Ali Nader, 126
Angha, Shah Maghsoud, 126, 128, 453
Angola, 17
An-Na‘im, Abdullahi Ahmed, 205n.12, 340–42, 349–351
Ansari, Bilal, 47–50, 61n.1
anthropology, 398–99
anti-Muslim discourse, 510–14, 517–18
Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act, 38, 83n.7
anxiety, 446
Aqeeda al-Tahawiyeen, 484
al-‘aql, 184
aql, 175
al-‘Aql (Shaykh), 141
Arab-American Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC), 38, 42n.2
Arab American Institute (AAI), 38, 42n.2, 194
Arab American Muslims, 24, 30, 37–42, 205n.11, 428, 443, 446
Arab American Political Committee (APAC), 115
Arab Americans
acculturation stress of, 446
African Americans and, 24
on Arab-Israeli conflicts, 36–38, 190
governmental surveillance of, 38
identity of, 39
Muslims. See Arab American Muslims
naturalization of, 34
organizations for, 38, 65, 255
political identity of, 38, 42
public opinion on, 366
racial classification of, 33–34
youth’s attraction to Islam, 95
Arab Community Center for Economic and Social Services (ACCESS), 310–11, 448
arabesque designs, 400, 410, 411
Arab Group for Muslim–Christian Dialogue, 367
Arabic language
“chaplain” in, 60
digitization of texts in, 377
Druze and, 144
gendered grammar of, 347
Gullah language and, 15, 18
imam’s knowledge of, 52
instructional materials for, 245
on mosques, 410–14, 420
on Nike shoes, CAIR and, 74
prison classes on, 296
salat/salawat in, 162
slaves’ writings in, 19–20, 90
teaching of, 239
University of Oklahoma courses for, 502
use in services in prisons, 298
Arab/Israeli conflicts, 36–38, 190
Arab Muslims
African Muslims and, 15, 90, 92
African trade with, 15
clothing choices of, 435n.2
colonialism and, 121
emigration of, 34, 37–40, 121, 405
nationalism in ancestral homeland and religiosity, 34
NOI and, 36–37
South Asian Muslims and, 39
spread of Islam into Africa and, 15
statistics on, 360–61
Arabs, 34, 405, 459–461
“Arab Spring,” 190, 379
‘Arafah, 171
Arba‘in, 105
architecture, 9, 72, 139, 233–34, 396, 400, 404–24
Archuletta, Hakim, 452
Arizona, 97n.3, 150, 451
Arkansas, 249n.13
Armenian Genocide, 364
Asaf (Shaykh), 126
Asani, Ali, 140
asceticism, 119
‘Ashura, 104, 168, 227
Asian Americans, 39
Asians, 33
Asiatics, 23, 24, 91
asr, 161. See also late afternoon prayer
assimilation, 33, 65, 227, 229, 254
Association of Ahmadi Boys, 148
Association of Arab American University Graduates (AAUG), 38
Association of Clinical Pastoral Education, 55
(p. 525) Association of Maidservants of Allah, 148
Association of Muslim Chaplains, 56
Association of Muslim Health Professionals (AMHP), 450
Association of Muslim Scientists and Engineers (AMSE), 67
Association of Muslim Social Scientists (AMSS), 67
Association of Physicians of Pakistani Descent in North America (APPNA), 450
Association of Theological Schools, 56
Astrolabe, Inc., 246
Athar, Shahid, 449
Atlanta
al-Farooq masjid, 408, 409f, 410f
Fox Theater in, 416
Islamic schools in, 240, 241, 248n.13
ISNA in, 309
Moorish revival architectural style in, 416
Nizari I-CERV initiatives in, 140
US Penitentiary in, 288
Atta, Muhammad, 490, 504n.1
audiotapes, 72, 377
Australia, 122, 497
Avicenna Institute for Natural Healing, 452
Awad, Muneer, 499
Awad, Nihad, 76
al-Awlaki, Anwar, 299, 378, 494, 504n.7
awliya, 120, 128
Ayoub, Mahmoud, 110
al-Azhar, 52, 152, 377, 381, 487
Azizah magazine, 434
“Azzam the American,” 378
Baba, Ahmed, 15
Baba Rexheb, 128
Bachmann, Michele, 81–82, 518
Bader Elmoneer Society, 103
Bagby, Ihsan, 4, 51, 54, 76, 196, 225–236, 331, 406
Baha’i, 117n.11
bai‘ats, 144
Baji Tayyibah (Shaykha), 131
Bakker, Freek, 467
Bali, 492
Bangladesh, 39, 106
al-Banna, Hasan, 120, 273, 484
al-Baqir, Muhammad, 100–101
Bard College, 51
Barelvi movement, 125
Barks, Coleman, 130
barley, 166, 345
Barzinji, Jamal, 480
al-Barzinji, Suhaib, 246
Bawa (Guru), 124, 128
Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship, 134n.15
bay‘a, 134n.19
Bayan Claremont, 56
Bay Area Association of Muslim Lawyers, 202
Ba-yunus, Ilyas, 67, 82n.2
Bayyinah Institute, 380
Bazian, Hatem, 244
Beacon Hill Correctional Facility for Women, 58
BEarth Institute, 452
Bektashi Sufi Lodge, 121
Belgium, 337n.21
Bell, Malcolm, Jr., 405
ben Ali, Zine al-Abadine, 198
ben Ibrahim, Ali, 102
Benedict XVI (Pope), 363, 368, 497, 501
Bengalee, Mutiur Rahman, 146–47
Benin, 21
Berbers, 15
Bermuda, 241, 249n.13
Berry, Maya, 194
“Beyond Islamic Roots—Beyond Modernism” (Daftari), 400
Bhutto, Benazir, 149
Bhutto, Zulfiqar Ali, 149
Bibi Fatima, 452
Bible, 94, 354, 501
bid‘a, 120
Bilali, Salih, 16, 18
bin Abi Talib, ‘Ali 100, 102, 105, 113, 138, 160
bin Laden, Osama, 38, 336n.3, 378, 490, 492, 504n.7
Black Mecca (Abdullah), 212
Black Muslim Religion in the Nation of Islam (Curtis), 91
black nationalist movements
Ahmadiyya Movement and, 147, 276
Ali and, 23, 35, 228
conversion to Islam and, 230
Fard and, 35
Garvey and, 35
in interwar period, 32
schools of, 240
slavery and, 1
black power movement, 229, 230
Black Routes to Islam (Aidi & Marable), 90
blacks, 97n.1. See also African Americans
black seed oil, 442
“blasphemy laws,” 497
Bloomberg, Michael, 495
blues music, 22, 238
Blyden, Edward Wilmot, 479
Bohra Isma‘ilis, 102, 138, 153n.2
Bones (tv show), 464
Book of Sufi Healing, The (Chishti), 451
“boomerang” effect, 366
(p. 526) Bosnia, 83n.9
Boston, 367, 408, 487n.4, 492
Bowen, John, 478
Brass Crescent Awards, 384
Brazil, 17, 21
breast cancer screening, 448
Breivik, Anders, 379, 498
Buddhists, 50, 58, 140, 505n.12
burial associations, 34, 226
Burns, Hakima Karima Kristie, 452
burqa, 198, 431
“burqini,” 433
Bush, George W.
on Al-Qaeda, 492
AMPCC on, 78
on antiterrorism law, 83n.7
CAIR poll on, in 2000 presidential elections, 74
on Islam, 6, 76, 491
“Muslims for Bush,” 80
on NSA’s wiretapping program, 493
on War on Terror, 491
Bush, Laura, 516
Bush administration, 205n.11, 352, 377, 516
calendar, FCNA lunar, 169
California
Bay Area Association of Muslim Lawyers in, 202
CDCR, 54–58
Claremont Lincoln University, 56
Druze in, 143, 144
full-time Muslim schools in, 241
I-CERV initiative in, 140
Iranian Americans in, 106, 107
Los Angeles. See Los Angeles
Mohammed Schools in, 248–49n.13
MPAC Young Leaders National Summits in, 263
Pacifica Institute, 481–82
prisons, Islam in, 288, 289–290
San Francisco, 202, 329, 389
San Quentin prison, 288
Sufism in, 107
California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR), 54–58
calligraphy, 130, 392, 398–401, 410–14, 420
call to prayer
Bilali Mohamed’s text on, 19
description of, 163
at “Great Muslim Adventure Day,” 72
loudness of, neighbors and, 165
music and, 22, 238
in prisons, 293
shahada in, 160
Calvinism, 291
Camel, Battle of the, 93
Campbell, Hettie, 20
Campus Watch, 81
Canaanite Temple, 23
Canada, 101, 122, 497. See also individual providences
cancer screenings, 448
capitalism, 345, 429
capital punishment, 485, 488n.8
Carolina Center for the Study of the Middle East and Muslim Civilizations, 502, 506n.27
Carroll, Adem, 70
Carson, André, 332
Cathedral of St. John the Divine, 389
Catholic Relief Services (CRS), 71
Catholics
allegiance to Vatican, 477
on depriving Muslims constitutional rights, 327, 336n.6
dialogue with Muslims, 71, 368, 370
discrimination of, 259–260
emigration of, 1
incorporation of, 34
stigmatization and, 205n.11
Caucasians, 33–34, 287. See also whites
Cave of Hira, 167
Celebrate Mercy website, 380
cemeteries, 34, 164
census data, 30, 42n.1, 334
Center for American Progress, 499, 517
Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 204n.7
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 494
cervical cancer screening, 448
Cesari, Jocelyne, 4, 64–82
Chappelle, Dave, 469
charity
by African Muslim slaves, 18–19
by Ahmadiyya Movement members, 149
fasting and, 168
governmental scrutiny of donations to, 249n.19
government scrutiny of, 317
by ICNA, 70, 72
MSA activities for, 258–59
by Nizari Isma‘ilis, 139–140
online resources for, 381, 383
repentance through, 167
sadaqa/sadaqat, 18–19, 166–67
September 11 terrorist attacks and, 317
vs. volunteerism, 305
Charles Drew University, 312
Chehab, Sara J., 8, 340–355
Chicago
Ahmadiyya Movement in, 23, 146, 276
AIC in, 244
chaplaincy training in, 297
Council of Islamic Organizations of, 202
ethnographic studies in, 329
IFYC in, 140, 263–64
IMAN in, 263, 311, 313–14
Islamic schools in, 241
Mosque Foundation in, 229
MSTA in, 23
Naqshbandi Order in, 125
Nation of Islam in, 24, 240
Webb at Columbia Exposition in, 121
child birth, 447
China, 58, 515
Chishti, Hakim Ghulam Moinuddin, 451
Chishti Sufi Order, 121, 481, 488n.5
Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), 369, 372
Christian Identity movement, 517
Christianity. See also specific denominations
Ali and, 23, 35
Arab Americans and, 42n.2
arbitration of issues in, 514
colonialism and, 198, 271, 513
Current Population Survey on American, 42n.1
democracy and, 514
Fard on, 35
harvest festivals and, 20
immigrants to US and, 30, 32, 34
incorporation and, 34
Islamic traditions and, 78
Islamophobia and, 511–15
nationalism and, 517
on natural law, 174–75
in prisons, 289, 291
race and, 35, 146
relations between Islam and, 7–8, 359–360, 362–374
Sadiq on influence of, 276
shari‘a and, 354
textbooks on, 247–48
churches, attacks on, 363
Churchill, Winston, 514
circumcision, 447
Cisse, Hassan, 127
citizenship, 2, 6, 90–92, 94–95, 517
Civil Rights Act, 37, 73
civil rights movements, 37, 70, 73–74, 94, 205n.13, 290
Clara Muhammad Schools, 240–41
Claremont Lincoln University, 56
Clarion Fund, 378
cleanliness, 161
clergy, 4, 49–50, 55. See also chaplains; imams; ministers; pastors
clinical pastoral education (CPE), 55, 56
Clinton, Bill, 81
Clinton, Hillary, 497
clothing
of African Muslim slaves, 17
in Ahmadiyya Movement, 146, 148
Bohra Isma‘ilis dress code for, 102
for hajj, 170
health and, 443
hybridity in, 95
Kamal’s study of, 9–10, 426–434
modesty concept for choosing, 9, 427, 435n.4
NOI dress codes for, 91
for prayer, 161
Sufi women’s, 131
for ‘Umrah, 170
in War on Terror, 198
Clotilda (ship), 21
CNN, 327, 505n.10
coffee, 125
Cohen, Roger, 496
Cold War, 205n.11, 479
colleges/universities
chaplains for, 50–51, 57–58, 60–62
Fast-a-thons at, 258–59, 319
ICNA activities at, 70
Islam Awareness Week at, 258
Islamic studies programs in, 244–45, 502
Islamophobia of graduates of, 496
Muslim communities associated with, excluded from CAIR study, 75
Pipes on sympathetic, 81
progressive reformism in, 192
religious studies classes in, 244
Wahhabi movement outreach at, 113
colonialism
Arab Muslims and, 121
assimilation and, 227
Christianity and, 198, 271, 513
da‘wa and, 268, 271
fundamentalism and, 343
health, medicine, and, 440
intellectual thought and, 340, 343
Islamic law and, 175–76
legacy of, 364, 513
Sufism and, 120
women and, 198
(p. 528) Committee on Ecumenical and Interreligious Affairs, 71
Common Fare Program, 295, 301n.13
Common Word Between Us and You, A, 367–371, 374n.11, 501, 505n.24
communists, 205n.11, 280, 515
Community Café, 263
COMPASS, 319n.1
Comprehensive Crime Control Act, 292
computers
ICNA programs for, 72
Internet. See Internet
social media. See social media
World Wide Web. See World Wide Web
Computer Speaks, The (Khalifa), 150–51
Conference of Catholic Bishops, US, 370
Congo, 17
congregationalism, 41
congregational prayers
adhan for, 163
in Ahmadiyya Movement, 149
attendance at, 48, 162–63, 196–97
at campus MSAs, 258
civic engagement and, 234
on college/university campus, 60
elements of, 163
for festivals. See eid prayers
at funerals, 164
at home, 163
leader of, 50–51, 59–60, 163, 192
in military, 59, 60
in mosques, 162–65, 227, 231–32, 407
NOI on, 229
in prisons, 288, 293–94, 298
progressive reformism and, 192
Qur’anists on, 153
special occasions for, 164
women at, 47–48, 79, 163, 192, 236, 423f
Connecticut, 53, 57–58, 249n.13, 365
constitutionalism, 349
“Constitution of the Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims, The,” 139
consumerism, 430
conversion, from Sunnism to Shi‘ism, 104
conversion, to Christianity, 21, 30
conversion, to Druze, 141
conversion, to Islam
in Africa, 15, 513
of African Americans, 65, 104, 108, 112–13, 146–47, 275
Ahmadiyya Movement and, 23, 144, 146–47, 228
Black Nationalist movements and, 230
dating, marriage, and, 212, 214
forced, 510, 513
by Hindus, 102, 117n.12
on Iberian Peninsula, 513
of Latinas/Latinos, 281
Messiah and, 146
vs. reverting to natural religion, 281
scholarly research on, 281
Sufism and, 122, 133
by women, 107–8, 192
converts
clothing choices of, 429
first, in US, 226
Islamic organizations and, 67, 76
marriage of, 212, 214
migration flow of, 31t
mosques and, 147, 226, 231
online resources for, 284n.25
politics and, 88
in prisons, 55, 111, 286, 291–93
shahada and, 160
single, 212
cooke, miriam, 204n.6
Corbin, Henry, 453
Cordoba Foundation, 131
Cordoba School of Professional Studies, 244
corn, 345
cosmopolitanism, 429, 478
Côte d’Ivoire, 17
Coulter, Ann, 514
Council of Islamic Schools in North America (CISNA), 67, 241
Council of Masaajid of North America, 150
Council of Shi‘a Muslim Scholars in North America, 109–10
Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR)
AMFTDR and, 71
Cesari’s study of, 73–77
on hate crimes, 74, 75, 384, 498, 499, 505n.19
ICNA and, 70, 71
membership of, 39, 76
mission statement of, 73
mosque studies by, 74–75, 423
online resources of, 76–77, 384
political activities of, 73–77, 329
on prayer in the workplace, 165
September 11 terrorist attacks and, 73, 75, 77
transnational networks of, 480
Unus on, 83n.5
women in, 76, 194–95
Council on Islamic Education, 250n.40
Council of Islamic Schools in North America (CISNA), 241
creationism, 153
Crenshaw, Kimberle, 88, 89
Crusades, 364, 510, 514
(p. 529) “cultural humility,” 447
cultural identity, 8–9, 65, 82, 210–12, 218–221
culture, 4, 8–9, 159–172
“culture of poverty” theory, 97n.5
Current Population Survey, 42n.1
curses, 452
Curtis, Edward, 91, 479
“cyberimperialism,” 382
Daftari, Fereshteh, 400
“dagger” effect, 365–66
dahiras, 127
da‘is, 102, 270, 278, 279, 281
Dana, Karam, 234
Dances of Universal Peace Movement, 122–23
daraba, 348
dar al-da‘wa, 268–69, 274
dar al-harb, 274
Dar al-Islam mosque, 421–22
dar al-shahada, 274
al-Darazi, Muhammad ibn Isma ‘il, 141
dars, 281
Darsh, Sayyid Mitawalli, 423
Darul Arqam Schools, 241
Dar-ul-Islam movement, 290, 406
Darul-Uloom Al-Madania, 52
dating, 71, 210–13, 222n.4, 222n.6, 222n.7, 382, 443
da‘wa/dawah
activities associated with, 281
in African American Muslim communities, 112, 275
of Ahmadiyya Movement, 276–77
civic activism and, 278
colonialism and, 268, 271
concept and practice of, 277
definition of, 268
education and, 272, 275, 277–79
al-Faruqi on, 277–78
fiqh and, 274
ICNA and, 69
imperialism and, 268
Internet and, 278–280
Islamists and, 273–74
ISNA literature on, 67
Khan (Sayyid Ahmad) and Indian, 271–72
manuals and videos on, 278, 279
Moore’s study of, 5–6, 268–282
of Moorish Science Temple, 277
in MSA, 256–59
of Nation of Islam, 277
online resources for, 381
prayer and, 269–270
in prisons, 290, 298
Qur’an and, 269–272
scholarly analysis of, 275, 283n.14
September 11 terrorist attacks and, 280
shahada/shahadah and, 269, 274
Shi‘i communities and, 110–12
sunna and, 270
Sunni communities and, 112
ummah and, 270
Da‘wah Highlights, 279
Dawoodi Bohras, 102, 138
Dawud bin Ajab, 102
Dawud bin Qutb Shah, 102
Dearborn
ACCESS in, 310–11, 448
attendance at Friday prayers in, 227
early Muslim settlers in, 116n.7
Iraqi American Muslims in, 106
Islamic Center of America, 103
Lebanese American Muslims in, 103, 106
religious scholars in, 109
women in centers in, 107
Zaydis in, 103
“Declaration of Our Common Will, A,” 501, 505n.25
Deen Show, The, 284n.26
Defense Department, 179. See also military, US
democracy, 341–44, 351, 353, 468, 514, 516
Democratic Party, 74, 328, 330, 496
demographic data, 29–30, 42n.3, 74, 474, 487n.1
Deobandi movement, 125
Department of Education, 203n.3
depression, 446
Detroit
Ahmadiyya Movement in, 23, 146, 276
Bohra Isma‘ilis in, 102
Clara Muhammad Schools in, 240
Ecumenical Theological Seminary in, 56
Ekkholy’s studies in, 197, 227–28
ethnographic studies in, 329
FBI raids of Shi‘i organizations in, 114
Mohammed School in, 248n.13
MSTA in, 23
Nation of Islam in, 24
Shi‘i communities in, 103, 109, 115
Detroit Arab American Study (DAAS), 330, 337n.15
devil, 171. See also Satan
DeWulf, Noureen, 469
dhabiha procedures, 442
dhikr, 164, 168
Dhul Hijjah, 170
diabetes, 442, 443
Diallo, Ayuba Suleyman, 16–19
dialogue, 71, 369, 370, 506
“Diaspora aesthetics,” 410–11
Dièye, Abdoulaye, 128
al-din, 184
al-Din, Tahir Sayf, 102
din al-fitrah, 277–78
din al-tawhid, 141. See also Druze
Diouf, Sylviane A., 2, 15–26, 405
Disciples of Christ, 369, 372
discrimination
Ahmadiyya Movement and, 23–24
CAIR and, 74, 75
from comparison, 511–14, 518
EEOC on religious, 202
in films/tv shows, 466
headdresses as basis for, 199–200
health and, 445–48, 450
institutional and structural, 94
Islamophobia and, 496
political instrumentalization and, 328
religiosity and, 32
Wadud on, 346
by Whole Food, 375n.25
divorce
dowers and, 182
by Druze, 142
gender and, 218–19
Hammer on marriage, family, and, 209, 217–220
Islamic law on, 175–77, 179, 200–201
Jewish, rabbinical courts on, 496
khul ’, 218
MacFarlane’s study of, 219, 223n.17
marriage contract on, 214
by Nizari Isma‘ilis, 139
Qur’an on, 217–18
remarriage after, 214, 219
in Shi‘ism, 139, 142
social stigma attached to, 218–19
support during, 444
Djilfos, 16
doctors/health care providers, 446–450
domestic violence
Alkhateeb on, 196
CDC on deaths due to, 204n.7
divorce and, 201, 219, 223n.17
hadith and, 196
ISNA conferences on, 67
jihad against, 264
online resources for, 383
PFP on, 196
victim support organizations, 195–96, 444
Wadud on Qur’an translations and, 348
doo-wop music, 1
Douglass, Susan L., 5, 237–248
Drew, Timothy, 23. See also Ali, Noble Drew
driver’s licenses, 199
drones, 491, 494
drug abuse, 444
Drums and Shadows (Bell), 405
Druze, 3, 140–44
Druze Cultural Centers, 143
Druze Research and Publications Institute USA, 141
Druze Society, 143
du‘a/du‘at, 160, 164, 171
dues, 142. See also religious taxes; tithing; zakat
duha, 164
Duncan Black Macdonald Center Chaplain Training Program, 297
“Early Sunni Discourses on Women’s Mosque Attendance” (Sayeed), 423
Eastern Europe, 31t, 32–34, 466. See also individual countries
Eastern Orthodox Church, 34, 368
eclecticism, religious, 121
e-commerce, 377, 433
economics, 345–46
Ecumenical Theological Seminary, 56
education
Ahmadiyya Movement and, 148
CAIR initiatives for, 75–76
da‘wa and, 272, 275, 277–79
for doctors/health care providers, 446–48
Douglass’ study of, 5, 237–248
Gallup and Pew surveys on, 331
ICNA programs for, 69–70
Khan (Aga) and, 138–140
Khan (Sayyid Ahmad) and Indian, 271–72
Rahman on reforms for, 343
September 11 terrorist attacks and, 7, 499–502
for Shi‘i communities, 109
for ‘ulama, 52
Van Baalen’s study of prison, 6
Education Week, 250–51n.42
Edwards, Jonathan, 513
egoism, 346
Egypt
adobe structures in, 422
architectural influence on American mosques, 411–12
al-Azhar in, 52, 152, 377, 381, 487
dictatorships in, US and, 515–16
Druze in, 141
Fatimid Dynasty in, 101, 138
The Innocence of Muslims video, riots over, 497
Isma‘ilis in, 101–2, 138
legal reform in, 175
Mamluk architecture in, 412
(p. 531) Muhammad (Elijah) invited to, 36
NAAMA in, 450
Qur’anists in, 152
religious debates in, 487
“Remarks on a New Beginning” speech at Cairo University, 360–62
revolutions in, 503
Rida on da‘wa in, 272
Egyptian American Muslims, 79
Egyptian Americans, 97n.1
Egyptian Muslims, 79, 101, 102, 138, 152, 487
Egyptians, 39, 42n.5, 97n.1, 152
Eid al-Adha, 139, 163–64, 168
Eid al-Fitr, 163, 168, 169, 295, 296
Eid al-Ghadir, 105
eid prayers
of African Muslim slaves, 20
attendance at, 75, 227
for hajj, 163–64
NOI on, 229
for Ramadan, 163, 168
in Shi‘i communities, 105
volunteers arranging for, 308
Eisenhower, Dwight, 36, 411
e-Khutba (website), 380
Elashi, Ghassan, 77
Elkholy, Abdo, 197, 227–28
Ellison, Keith, 332, 335n.2
Ellmers, Renee, 335–36n.3, 518
Elnakib, Sara, 450
Eltantawi, Sarah, 80
Emel magazine, 434
emergency medical treatment, 443
Emerick, Yahiya, 281
Enchassi, Imad, 503–4, 506n.28
end-of-life care, 447
end of the world, Khalifa on, 151
“enemy combatants,” 493
England, 17, 19, 181, 337n.21, 408, 492
Enlightenment, 92
ethnography studies, 191–92, 431
“Entry-Level” (Peretz), 203n.4
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 202, 203n.3
eschatology, Islamic, 151
esotericism, 121
Esposito, John L., 203n.4
Estevan, 116n.6
ethnicity, 88, 210–11
Europe. See also individual countries
Eastern. See Eastern Europe
elections in, scholarly research on, 337n.21
Golden Age of Islam and, 344
A Home in Europe Project, 336n.10
honor killings and forced marriages in, debates on, 204n.7
Islamophobia in, 336n.3, 384, 509
Isma‘ilis in, 138
mosque development in, 408
“racialization” of Muslims in, 477
Stop Islamization of Europe group in, 204n.7
Sufi Movement in, 122
evangelical Christians, 434
Evangelical Lutheran Church, 369
evening prayer, 161, 168, 295
evil eye, 445, 452
Ez el-Deen, Muhammad, 405
Facebook, 197–98, 378, 380, 384
Fadlallah, Mohammed Hussein, 109
Fahs, Hani, 367
Faisal, Daud Ahmed, 405
fajr, 161, 163. See also morning prayer
family, 5, 209–21
faqih/fuqaha, 174, 272
al-Farabi, Abu Nasr, 92
Farad, Wally, 24. See also Fard, Wallace D.
Fard, Muhammad, 442
Fard, Wallace D., 24, 288. See also Muhammad, Fard
Fariha (Shaykha), 131–32
farman, 101
al-Farooq masjid, 408, 409f, 410f
Farrakhan, Louis, 37, 127, 287
al-Faruqi, Isma‘il Raji
on conversion, 281
da‘wa and, 5, 277–78
death of, 191
education, commitment to, 275, 277
IIIT founder, 277, 480
on “Islamicity,” 283n.20
on Islamization of knowledge, 346, 480
on women’s roles and responsibilities, 191
al-Faruqi, Lamya, 191
fashion, Islamic, 426–434
Fast-a-thons, 258–59, 319
fasting
by children and youth, 167
Ekkholy’s studies on, 227
health and, 167, 443
‘ibadat, 160, 167–69
during medical treatment, 447
in prisons, 292, 294–95
purpose of, 18
during Ramadan, 167–69, 381, 443
by slaves, 18
by Sunnis, 168
by women, 167, 443
(p. 532) Fathy, Hassan, 421–22
al-Fatihah, 162
Fatima, 100, 138
Fatimid Dynasty, 101, 138
fatwas
banning of shari‘a and, 354
emails on, 378
from FCNA, 67, 68, 70, 178–181
against Mansour, 152
on medical issues, 451
on military service, 484, 488n.7
online searches for, 380–81, 383
on terrorism, 68, 70
al-Fayad, Dodi, 463
Faye, Harun Rashid, 128
Faye, Maryam Kabir, 131
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
CAIR and, 77
domestic spying by, 494
on Fard, 24
on hate crimes, 498–99, 505n.18, 507–8
Internet surveillance by, 376, 383
on Islam in prisons, 298–99
ISNA and, 68
Malcolm X’s assassination and, 25, 36
mosque surveillance by, 365, 366, 493–94
MSTA and, 41
NOI and, 35, 36, 41
September 11 terrorist attacks and, 492–93
Shi‘i organizations and, 114
Federal Bureau of Prisons (FBOP), 55–57, 297
Federation of Islamic Associations (FIA), 65
Federation of Islam in America, 36
Femen, 198
feminism
Amer’s art and, 394
anti-Muslim activists and, 188
al-Faruqis on, 191
Islamic organizations and, 205n.13
Islamophobic social comparisons and, 516
on legal inequalities in US, 516
marriage/family studies and, 209
modernism and, 185
Moore on plural form of term, 188, 204n.8
“naked shock troops of,” 198
Qur’an and, 88, 347
race and, 92–93
scholary analysis of Islam and, 188–193, 204n.8
fez, 17
Fifth Pillar of Islam, 21, 160, 169–172. See also hajj
films/tv shows
Islamophobia and, 462, 466, 471n.3, 512
at ISNA conferences, 389
online critiques of, 378
Rashid’s study of, 9, 459–470
September 11 terrorist attacks and, 460
by UPF, 467–470
fiqh
al-Alwani on, 483–84
aql and, 175
da‘wa and, 274
definition of, 174
efficacy of, 5
ijma‘ and, 175
ijtihad and, 175
imam’s knowledge of, 52
on medical and bioethics, 451
natural law and, 175
qiyas and, 175
Qur’an and, 175
shari‘a and, 174–75, 177
Shi‘ism sources of, 175
Shura Council of WISE and, 183–84
Sufism and, 125
sunna/sunnah and, 175
Sunnism sources of, 175
on teeth cleaning, 441
fiqh al-aqaliyyat, 179, 181, 483
Fiqh Council of North America (FCNA)
Al-Alwani and, 344
on American legal/social systems, 180
description of, 67
fatwas from, 67, 68, 70, 178–181
ISNA and, 67, 178
lunar calendar from, 169
on marriage, 200
MSA and, 178
objectives of, 178–79
opinions on website, 205n.16
Qur’an and, 179
schools of law and, 67
September 11 terrorist attacks and, 180–81
shari‘a and, 176, 178–79
sunna and, 179
First Amendment Center (FAC), 247
First Gulf War (1990-91)
American Muslim solidarity during, 190
government surveillance during, 38
interest in Islam during, 500
Iraqi military in, 104
Iraqi refugees from, 106
mosque fundraising and, 233
Muslim Brotherhood and, 78
Three Kings on, 465
Wahhabi movement and, 78
First Pillar of Islam, 160. See also shahada/shahadah
Fitna (film), 378
Five Pillars of Islam
Ahmadiyya Movement and, 149
description of, 269
Druze seven commandments and, 142
in FBI reports, 36
gender and, 172
healing through, 451
‘ibadat, 160
“media,” 390
salat/salawat, 160–65, 346, 423, 440. See prayer
sawm, 18. See fasting
shahada, 67, 160, 269, 274
Sufism and, 120
Zakat, 166, 345. See charity
Florida, 199, 241, 249n.13, 394, 416
Florida Family Association, The, 469, 512
food. See also diet
for African slaves, 17–18
at “Great Muslim Adventure Day,” 72
halal. See halal food
hybridity in, 95
kosher, 295, 442
offerings of Nizaris, 139
pork, 17–18, 295, 442, 443
in prisons, 288, 292, 295–96, 301n.13
Prophet Muhammad advice on, 441–42
for Ramadan, 168, 443
“soul,” 442
Ford, Wallace Dodd, 24
Fourth Pillar of Islam, 18, 160, 167–68. See also fasting
Frager, Robert, 129, 453
France, 175, 408, 497
Freeman, Sultaana, 199
freemasonry, 23, 228
Friday congregational prayer. See also jumu‘a/jumu‘ah
in Ahmadiyya Movement, 149
attendance at, 48, 163, 165, 231–32, 235, 239
at campus MSAs, 258
on college/university campus, 60
leader of, 50–51, 59–60, 79, 192, 346
in military, 59, 60
in mosques, 165, 227, 231–32, 407
NOI on, 229
places to hold, 308
in prisons, 293–94, 296, 298
Qur’anists on, 153
time of, 163
in women’s prisons, 47–48
ftp (file transfer protocols) sites, 377
Fulani, 16, 17
Fulbright program, 133
Future of Islam, The (Esposito), 203n.4
Gadahn, Adam, 378
Gallup Poll, 336n.13, 337n.17, 468
Gambia, 15
Garvey, Marcus, 34, 147, 276
Geller, Pamela, 203n.2, 203n.5, 497, 498, 505n.15, 518
gender
of chaplains, 47, 54–55, 58–60
citizenship and, 2
divorce and, 218–19
of film/tv Muslims, 460
Five Pillars of Islam and, 172
Hammer on marriage, family, and, 5, 209–21
in Islamophobic social comparisons, 518n.2
of jumu‘a attendees, 48
online roles, 380
political economy of, 92–93
progressives on, 78–79, 192–93
scholary analysis of Islam and, 188–193
Sufism and, 131
gender equality
Bible and, 94
“honor killing campaign” and, 188
ijtihad and, 93, 424
progressive reformism on, 192
Qur’an interpretations and, 94, 341, 423
Wadud’s work on, 340–42, 346–48
WISE Shura Council on, 184
Georgetown University, 51, 337n.18, 368
Georgia
African Muslims enslaved in, 16, 405
Atlanta. See Atlanta
Fayetteville, congregational prayers in, 423f
I-CERV initiative in, 140
National of Islam in, 25
prisons, Islam in, 288
Sufism in, 121
German Americans, 205n.11
Ghana, 17
al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid, 92, 133
Ghazali, Hamed, 239–240
Al-Ghazaly School, 241
Ghazi, Abidullah & Tasneemah, 246
ghusl, 441
Gingrich, Newt, 336n.3, 514
Glee (tv show), 469
globalization, 478
global Muslim public sphere, 475, 478, 486–87
Global Relief Foundation, 77
(p. 534) Golden Sufi Center, 122, 133n.10, 453
Gomez, Michael, 33
Gordon, Howard, 469
Gore, Al, 74
Gottschalk, Peter, 7, 507–18
Graduate School of Islamic Social Sciences (GSISS), 244, 344
Graham, Franklin, 511, 514
Great Britain
elections in, scholarly research on, 334
England, 17, 19, 181, 337n.21, 408, 492
Islamophobia in, 509
universalistic Sufism in, 123
Greek Orthodox Christians, 34, 368
Green Reentry project, 314
Grewal, Zareena, 97n.2, 211, 221
“Ground Zero mosque.” See Park 51 community center
groupthink, 327–28, 332
Guantanamo Bay, 57, 326–27, 365
Guinea, 16–17, 90
Gujarati language, 102
Gülen, Fethullah, 126, 481–82
Gülen movement, 126, 481–82
Gullah language, 15, 18
Gulpaygani, Lutfallah Safi, 109
Gurdjieff, G. I., 123
Habitat for Humanity, 502
al-Haddad, Habib Ahmad Mashhur, 125
Haddad, Rabih, 77
Haddad, Yvonne Y., 3, 137–153, 205n.11, 220
hadith
domestic violence and, 196
ICNA literature on, 72
imam’s knowledge of, 52
Khalifa on, 150, 151
Mansour on, 152
on marriage and family life, 93, 208
masjid an-nabi and, 406
on medical treatment, 440
on mental health, 445
Qur’anists on, 150–53
shari‘a and, 151
on Twitter, 380
on women in mosques, 424
Hadj: An American’s Pilgrimage to Mecca, The (Wolfe), 172
Hagar, 170–71
Haggee, John, 498
hair cutting/shaving, 171
al-Hajar al-Aswad, 170
hajj
Americans and, 172, 478
books on, 172, 172n.7
as ‘ibadat, 21, 160, 169–172
Inside Mecca on, 469
of Malcolm X, 25, 36, 290
of Mohammed (Warith Deen), 290
sha’wt during, 21
time for, 170
tweets during, 381
al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, 141, 142
halal art, 401
halal dating, 382
halal food
definition of, 72
diet based on, 442
at “Great Muslim Adventure Day,” 72
IFANCA on, 442–43
vs. kosher, 295
in prisons, 288, 292, 295–96
ratings for, on websites, 377, 379
vegetarian diet and, 295, 442
volunteering to find, 311
halaqas, 379
Hall, Stuart, 461
Halliday, Fred, 510
Halqa Islami Shamali Amrika, 68. See also Islamic Circle of North America
Halveti/Rifa’is Order, 126
Hamas, 77, 83n.3, 477
Hamilton, Ali, 116n.9
Hammer, Juliane, 5, 208–21
Hamza, Sidi, 126
Hanafi community, 406
Hanson, Hamza Yusuf, 80–81, 124–25, 132, 205n.11, 384, 484, 486–87
al-Haram al-Sharif, 170–71
Hart-Celler Immigration Act
imam professionalization and, 49
Islamic organizations and, 36
migration flow change after, 31t
national origin quotas removed by, 32, 37, 104, 264n.1
socioeconomic status and, 255
Sufism and, 123
Hartford Seminary
Chaplain Training Program, 53, 56, 59, 197, 244, 297
Hartford Institute for Religion Research, 30, 74–75
imam training program at, 197
Harvard University, 139
harvest festivals, 20, 166
Hasan, Nidal, 487n.4
Hashimite club, 103
Hashmi, Zarina, 389–392
(p. 535) Hassan, Hajjah Aliyah, 311
Hassan, Riffat, 79, 191
Hassan, Seeme and Malik, 80
hate crimes
of Breivik, 379, 498
CAIR on, 74, 75, 384, 498, 499, 505n.19
definition of, 498
effects of, 365–66
FBI reports on, 498–99, 505n.18, 507–8
headdress as focal point of, 199
health and, 446
against Hindus, 499
Islamic organizations’ monitoring of, 7
against Jews, 507
“othering” and, 328
tracking of, 498–99
against women, 199
hate groups, 517–18
hate speech, 497–98
Hathout, Hassan, 312
Hathout, Maher, 312
headdress
adjudication of lawsuits on, 199–200
in Ahmadiyya Movement, 146, 148
banning of, in Iran, 517
choosing to wear, 64, 199, 428–432
fez, 17
five “media pillars” of Islam and, 390
hijab. See hijab
kufis, 435n.4
for prayer, 161
in prisons, 47
scarves, 428–29, 433, 435n.1
on Sea Islands, 17
of slaves, 17
in Sufism, 125, 131
turbans. See turbans
United Airlines’ dress code on, 74
veils. See veils
health, 167, 439–454
heart disease, 443
Helveti-Jerrahis Order, 124, 129
Hendi, Yahya, 51
Herb’n Muslim (website), 452
Hermansen, Marcia, 3, 119–133
al-Hibri, Azizah, 181, 194, 200
hijab
choosing to wear, 199, 428–434
definition of, 431
in films/tv shows, 461
lawsuits on, 199–200
Muslimwakeup.com on, 79
scarves and, 435n.1
United Airlines’ dress code on, 74
YouTube videos on, 380
Hindus
anti-Muslim sentiments of, 510
Bohra Isma‘ilis and, 102
British colonialism in India and, 271
in chaplaincy, 50
hate crimes against, 499
Nizari Isma‘ilis and, 117n.12
as People of the Book, 140
public opinion on, 366
religious courts of, 505n.12
hip-hop music, 1, 95, 389
Hirschkind, Charles, 381
Hirschman, Charles, 41
Hispanics, 283n.13. See also Latinas/Latinos
Hizbollah, 114, 500
Hizmet movement, 126. See also Gülen movement
holistic healing, 447, 451
hollers, 22
Holy Land Foundation (HLF), 77, 83n.3, 477
“Homegrown Terrorism” (hearings), 373
Homeland Security, 81, 493
“honor killing campaign,” 188, 204n.7
Hooper, Ibrahim, 76
Horowitz, David, 518
Hosein, Shareda, 59, 60
houri, 347
House of Sand and Fog, The (film), 469
How to Eat to Live (Muhammad & Fard), 442
How to Tell Others About Islam (Emerick), 281
hudud, 485, 488n.8
hujjah, 138
Human Assistance and Development International (HADI), 382
Humanity First International, 149
Huntington, Samuel, 511, 515
Hurricane Katrina, 71
Husain, Altaf, 4, 304–19
Husayn bin ‘Ali, 100, 102, 104, 105, 113
Hussain, Amir, 374
al-Hussayen, Sami Omar, 377–78
Hussein, Rashad, 81
Hussein, Saddam, 105, 500, 516
Hutchinson, Uthman, 246
hypertension, 443
ibadat, 160, 177
Ibish, Hussein, 80
Ibn Abi Talib, 100, 102, 105, 113, 138, 160
(p. 536) Ibn Arabi, Abu, 123
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, 451–52
Ibn Rushd, Abu‘l Walid Muhammad, 92
Ibn Taymiyya, Taqî, 120
I-CERV initiative, 140
identity
Adam’s World and, 467, 471n.11
Ahmadiyya Movement and, 23–24
“civilizational,” 515
clothing choices and, 427, 430–34
cooke on muslimwomen label and, 204n.6
cultural, 8–9, 65, 82, 210–12, 218–221
development of, 350
health and, 445
Internet and, 382
intersectionality approach to, 88
political, 34, 38, 42, 65
racialization and, 477
racism and, 88
“self,” 352
September 11 terrorist attacks and, 7
Idries Shah Movement, 128
iftars, 168–69, 259, 294–95, 308
ihram, 170–72
ihsan, 124
ijma‘, 175
ijtihad
on adoption, 184
al-Alwani on, 340–42, 344–46, 483
continuous, 352
cyber gates of, 379
definition of, 483
on dower, 182
El-Fadl on, 485
fiqh and, 175
gender equality and, 93, 424
Ramadan on, 485
scholary analysis and, 354–55
taqlid and, 175, 344
on time of beginning and end of Ramadan, 345
women and, 93, 184, 185
zakat and, 345
Ikhlas Homeschool, 243
ikhtilaf, 177
Illinois
Board of Higher Education, 244
Chicago. See Chicago
Muslim Women Resource Center in, 195t
imagination, 453
imams
ahl al-bayt and, 100
chaplains and, 59–61
counseling by, 54, 201, 216, 453
divorce and, 218
educational criteria for, 52–54
gay, narrative by, 221n.1
gender of, 60
at hospitals, 56
Internet and, 379
Islamic Center of New England ad for, 51–54
in prisons, 293–94, 296–97
professionalization process for American, 49–52
roles and responsibilities of, 51–54
ruqyah by, for mental illness, 445
for salat/salawat, 163
setting for, 49–50
shari‘a and, 177–78
Shi‘ism on, 52, 100–102
training for, 52–54, 112, 197, 278–79
TSA and, 493
UMAA and, 112
women’s roles and responsibilities and, 197
Yuskaev & Stark’s study of, 4–5, 47–61
Zaydis on, 102
immigration, 1, 29–42, 71, 305–6
Immigration Act. See Hart-Celler Immigration Act
Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), 34
Inayati movements, 121, 122, 128, 130, 131
Inayat Khan, Hazrat, 121, 131
Inayat Khan, Zia, 122
incorporation, 10, 29–30, 32–34, 39–42
India
Ahmadiyya Movement in, 23, 144, 145
British colonial period in, 271–72
“Burn the Qur’an Day” demonstrations in, 497
emigration from, 30–34
hate speech in, 497
Hindu–Muslim antagonism in, 510
Indian Muslim Relief Committee on antipoverty efforts in, 311
Isma‘ilis in, 102, 117n.12, 138
legal reform in, 175
Nakshabendi brotherhood in, 83n.9
nationalism in, 34, 147, 272
Indiana, 103, 416
Indian American Muslims, 69, 103–4, 106–7
Indian Americans, 39, 449
Indian Muslim Relief Committee, 311
Indian Muslims, 103–4, 106–7, 117n.12, 121, 271–72, 510
individualism, 129
Indonesia, 144, 449, 492, 497
infertility, 443
“information terrorism,” 384, 388n.91
inheritance, 67
Inhorn, Marcia, 451
(p. 537) Inner-City Muslim Action Network (IMAN), 263, 311, 313–14
Innocence of Muslims, The (video), 365, 497, 498
InshaAllah Shaheed (blog), 376, 385n.2
Inside Islam: What a Billion Muslims Really Think (film), 468
Inside Mecca (film), 469
Institute for Social Policy and Understanding (ISPU), 223n.17
Institute on Religion and Civic Values (IRCV), 250n.40
intellectualism, 343
Intelligence Quotient (IQ), 94
Interfaith Statement in Support of Comprehensive Immigration Reform, 71
Interfaith Youth Core (IFYC), 140, 263–64
Internal Revenue Service, 69–70
International Association of Sufism, 107, 123, 126, 453
“International Burn the Qur’an Day,” 365, 372, 497
International Institute of Islamic Medicine, 449
International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT)
al-Alwani and, 344
al-Faruqi, Isma‘il Raji, 277, 480
American Family Series from, 246
founder of, 277, 480
GSISS, 244, 344
Islamization of knowledge, 340, 346, 480–81, 484
modernism and, 481
social studies series from, 246
State of Islam in American Universities, 244
training of chaplains and imams by, 52
transnational networks of, 480–81
weekend school instruction and, 239
International League of Muslim Women, 195t
international medical graduates (IMGs), 449–450
International Qur’anic Center (IQC), 152
Internet
CAIR on, 76–77, 384
clothing choices and, 430–34
cultural identity and, 8–9
dating and, 212
da‘wa and, 5–6, 278–280
e-commerce, 377, 433
global Muslim public sphere on, 475
identity and, 382
“information terrorism” on, 384
Khan’s study of, 376–385
Mandaville on discussions on, 10
on marriage and family life, 216
pornography on, 381
Ramadan discussions on, 169
September 11 terrorist attacks and, 377–78
Sufism and, 120
youth movements and, 264
Zaytuna courses on, 53
internment camps, 6
Interpreting Environments, Tradition, Deconstruction, Hermeneutics (Mugeraurer), 409–10
intersectionality approach, 88
In the Valley of Elah (film), 463
Iowa, 104, 226–27, 405
Iqamat-ud-Deen, 69
Iqbal, Muhammad, 79
Iqra’ International Education Foundation, 239, 246
Iran
American diplomatic relations with, 110
architectural influence on American mosques, 412
“boomerang” effect in, 366
dictatorships in, US and, 515–16
embassy hostage crisis in, 500, 507, 516
emigration from, 42n.5, 117n.11
Islamic law in, 176
Isma‘ilis in, 138
legal reform in, 175
Neshat’s art and, 392
nuclear weapons in, 517
revolution in, 104, 106, 190, 392, 462, 516
seminaries in, 52, 58
September 11 terrorist attack candlelight vigil in, 114
Shi‘i religious scholars in, 481
Shi‘i theological centers in, 109
as Sufism birthplace, 127
“Twitter revolution” in, 379
women in universities in, 517
Iranian American Muslims, 39, 103–14, 126–27
Iranian Americans, 449
Iranian Muslims, 31t, 103–4, 106, 114, 138
Iraq
Abu Ghraib prison, 365
Christian communities in, 365–66
dictatorships in, US and, 515–16
emigration from, 39, 42n.5
First Gulf War. See First Gulf War
Hussein’s regime in, 105
NAAMA in, 450
Shi‘i religious scholars in, 481
Shi‘i theological centers in, 109
socio-political conditions in, 105
US sanctions on, 365
War on Terror in, 10, 114, 365, 366, 378, 491
Iraqi American Muslims, 75, 104–6, 109, 114
(p. 538) al-‘ird, 184
Irish Americans, 205n.11
isha, 161, 164, 168. See also night prayer
Ishmael, 170–71
Islam
Ahmad on, 77
articles of faith of, 149, 155n.43
clergy in, 4, 49–50
commitment to, 211
congregationalism and, 41
definition of, 269
discursive tradition of, 52
Druze and, 142
five “media pillars” of, 390
Five Pillars of. See Five Pillars of Islam
global, 474–487
MSTA and, 23, 26, 41
NOI and, 25, 26, 36
relations between Christianity and, 7–8, 359–360, 362–374
“Remarks on a New Beginning” on, 360–62
Siddiqi on elements of faith and practice of, 4, 159–172
textbooks on, 246–48, 250–51n.42
Islam and the Blackamerican (Jackson), 26, 89
Islam Awareness Week, 258
Islamic American University, 245, 250n.31
Islamic Art: Mirror of the Invisible World (film), 468
Islamic Assembly of North America (IANA), 377–78
Islamic Book Service, 67
Islamic Center of America, 103, 109
Islamic Center of Cleveland, 415–16
Islamic Center of Greater Toledo, 414–16
Islamic Center of Michigan City, 103
Islamic Center of New England, 51–54
Islamic Circle of North America (ICNA)
background and history of, 68–72
civil rights movements and, 70
clothing worn at gatherings of, 429
interfaith activities of, 361, 370–71
in NMCI, 371
nonsectarian philosophy of, 310
Sisters’ Wing of, 195t
videos by, 72
WhyIslam.com media project of, 279
youth activities/programs of, 261–62
Islamic Cultural Center of Boston, 53, 408
Islamic Cultural Center of New York, 408, 411, 417–420, 424
Islamic Cultural Center of Washington, D.C., 408, 410–13, 491
Islamic cultural centers
aftercare of ex-convicts at, 299–300
Bagby’s studies of, 226–27
controversies over, 495, 505n.10
as education centers, 242
governmental scrutiny of, 493
iman’s roles and responsibilities for, 51–54
Kahera on architecture of, 408–24
mosques and, 408
NAIT and, 67, 68
as nonprofit organizations, 41
Ramadan gatherings at, 168
for Shi‘i communities, 109
singles meeting at, 211
structures for, 310, 495
titles to, 67
women in, 68
Islamic Democratic Discourse (Khan), 353
Islamic Educators’ Communication Network, 242
Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America (IFANCA), 442–43
Islamic Foundation, 246
Islamic Horizons Magazine, 51, 67, 239, 256
Islamic Information Center (IIC), 111
Islamic Institute of New York, 52
“Islamicity,” 283n.20
IslamiCity (website), 382
Islamic law. See also shari‘a
adaptation of, 353
on adoption, 184, 443–44
on alcohol, 444
colonialism and, 175–76
contingent and noncontingent aspects of, 177
on divorce, 175–77, 179, 200–201
on enslavement, 16
evolutionary approach to, 349–350
FCNA and, 67
on jumu‘a, 48
marji‘ on, 108–9
on marriage, 177, 200
modernism and, 177
on procreation, 443–44
on women’s roles and responsibilities, 422–23
Islamic Media Foundation (IMF), 67
Islamic Medical Association of North America (IMANA), 67, 449
Islamic Networks Group, 191
Islamic Online University, 245, 250n.31
Islamic organizations
for African Americans, 255
for Arab Americans, 38, 65, 255
assimilation and, 65
Bagby’s studies of, 226–27
Cesari’s study of, 4, 64–82
chaplain professionalization and, 56
(p. 539) civil rights movements and, 205n.13
establishment of, 3, 255
FBI raids of Shi‘i, 114
feminism and, 205n.13
fundraising by, 41, 372
government scrutiny of, 317
Hart-Celler Immigration Act and, 36
hate crime monitoring by, 7
lobbying groups, 73–78, 81, 115
religious, 66–73
scholary analysis of, 209
September 11 terrorist attacks and, 64–65, 78–82, 317
for South Asians, 39, 255
women in, 58, 76, 193–96, 205n.13
for youth, 254–264
“Islamic or Not?” (Daftari), 400
Islamic Party, 65, 406
Islamic Relief Worldwide, 71
Islamic Saudi Academy, 241
Islamic School of Seattle, 241
Islamic Schools League of America (ISLA), 242
Islamic School System, 111
Islamic Seminary Foundation, 53
Islamic Shura Council of North America (ISCNA), 70–71, 370
Islamic Social Services Association (ISSA), 68, 450
Islamic Society of North America (ISNA)
African American Muslims and, 72
Ahmadiyya Movement and, 72–73
AMFTDR and, 71
annual convention of, 67, 68
art exhibits by, 389
Cesari’s study of, 4, 66–68
chaplain endorsements from, 57
clothing worn at gatherings of, 429
conferences of, 67–68, 389
dialogue with Christians, 370
FCNA and, 67, 178
founding of, 39, 66, 480
Hanson and, 125, 132
interfaith/community activities of, 280
ISCNA and, 70–71
Islamic Horizons Magazine, 51, 67, 239, 256
Leadership Development Center, 68
literature and tapes from, 72, 239
on marriage and family life, 216
Mattson’s leadership of, 67, 193
mission statement of, 66
mosque study by, 236n.8
MSA and, 3, 66, 67, 309
Muslim Brotherhood and, 73, 480
in NMCI, 371
PATRIOT Act and, 57
Salafi movement and, 72
school surveys of, 242
September 11 attacks and, 4, 57, 68
services provided by, 67–68
Shi‘ism and, 72–73
Sisters’ Wing of, 195t
Sufism and, 72–73, 124, 133
Sunnis and, 67, 73
Wahhabi movement and, 73
website of, 70, 377
on women’s activities, 68
youth activities/programs in, 260–61
Islamic Studies and Research Association (ISRA), 125–26
Islamic University of Minnesota, 245, 250n.31
Islamic University of North America, 245, 250n.31
Islam in Urban America (Schmidt), 313
Islamists, 273–74, 283n.8, 297–98, 480, 482
Islam Online, 377
Islamophobia
Ahmadiyya Movement and, 148
anti-Americanism and, 352–53
comparisons and, 511–17
consequences of, 494–96
critics of, 508
definition of, 509
electoral strategies to increase, 327
emergence of, 374n.6
FCNA on, 180
films/tv shows and, 462, 466, 471n.3, 512
Gottschalk’s study of, 7, 507–18
interfaith dialogue and, 351
Internet and, 384
ISNA on politics and, 4
media and, 368
network to promote, 372
Obama administration and, 81–82
Park 51 center and, 517–18
professionalization of, 517
Qur’an interpretations and, 341
roots of, 364
Runnymede Trust report on, 509–10
scholary analysis of, 335
state laws on shari‘a and, 10, 495–96
textbooks and, 247, 250–51n.42
Time magazine on, 494–95
voting and, 336n.3
Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All (Runnymede Trust), 509–10
Ismail, Vehbi, 227
Isma‘ilis, 3, 101–2, 117n.12, 137–140, 150, 153n.2
(p. 540) Israel
American organizations supporting, 81, 144, 334
Arab conflicts with, 36–38, 190
Druze in, 140–41
emigration of Muslims from, 31t
Hizbollah and, 114, 115
Jerusalem, 34, 170
Lebanon, invasion of, 38, 500
Nazi items in, 497
NILI on, 373
Palestinian emigration and creation of State of, 32, 36
US support for, 365
istifta, 179
iwan, 414
Jaa Kosoy, 15
Jackson, Sherman, 26, 89, 133, 204n.10
Ja‘fari madhab, 175
Jaffe, Robert Ibrahim, 130
Jamaat Islamiyya, 68–70, 83n.4, 273, 283n.7, 480
Jama‘at-i Islami, 273
jamaat khanas, 101, 139
al-Jamal, Muhammad, 130
Jamarat, 171
janaza, 164
Japanese Americans, 205n.11
Jawami al-Ladha, 394
jazz, 1, 147
Jefferson, Thomas, 1, 511, 515
Jerusalem, 34, 170
Jesus (Prophet), 94, 145
Jeter, Rosalie P., 56. See also Amat’ullah, Nurah W.
Jews
anti-Semitic films and, 463
clothing for orthodox, 434
discrimination of, 259–260
emigration of, 1
fasting by, 168
in films/tv shows, 460
hate crimes against, 507
in NewGround, 263
rabbis, 50, 56
religious courts of, 496, 514
on Supreme Court, 1
jihads, 16, 247, 264, 376, 476, 504n.7
Jihad Watch, 188
jinn, 445, 452
Jiwa, Munir, 9, 389–401
Johnson, Lyndon, 104
Johnston, Samuel, 513
Jones, Nero, 17, 20
Jones, Terry, 365, 497
Jones, Tommy Lee, 463
Jordan, 31t, 135n.32, 368, 405, 449
journals, 23
Judaism, 78, 354. See also Jews
juhhal, 141, 143
Juma‘a, Ali, 485
Jumano Apache Tribe, 71
jumu‘a/jumu‘ah. See also Friday congregational prayer
attendance at, 48, 196
on college/university campus, 60
in mosques, 407
in prisons, 47–48, 60, 293–94, 296, 298
time of, 163
Jungian psychology, 129–130, 453
Justice Department, US, 81, 179, 377–78
Jyllands Posten cartoon contest, 363
Ka‘bah, 170, 172
Kabbani, Muhammad Hisham, 80, 124, 132, 481
kafalah, 184
kafirs, 151, 152
Kahamene’i, ‘Ali, 109
Kahera, Akel Ismail, 9, 404–24
Kahf, Mohja, 79
Kamal, Rabia, 4, 9–10, 254–264, 426–434
karamah, 181–83, 185, 194, 195, 195t, 205n.12
Karbala massacre, 100, 104
Kareen, Yahya Abdul, 290
Kazi Publications, 246
Kebe, Lamine, 16, 19
Keller, Nuh Ha Mim, 124–25, 132, 134n.16, 452
Kennedy, John F., 477
Kerry, John, 74, 329
Keyworth, Karen, 242–43
Khadijah, 93
Khafagi, Bassem, 77
Khalifa, Rashad, 150–51
Khalifa, Rose, 450
khalifah, 278
Khalil Gibran International Academy, 187, 203n.3
khalwas, 141–42, 144
Khan, Aga III, 101, 138
Khan, Daisy, 132
Khan, Faroque, 449
Khan, Karim Aga IV, 138–39
Khan, M. A. Muqtedar, 80, 340–42, 351–54, 357n.69
Khan, Nadia, 8–9, 376–385
Khan, Sayyid Ahmad, 271–72
Khan, Syed Ahmed, 79
Khan, Vilayat, 121–22, 128, 453
khateeb, khatibs, 52, 59, 293
(p. 541) Al-Khateeb, Sharifa, 315–16
Khattab (Imam), 414
Khera, Farhana, 194, 202
al-Khoei Foundation, 109, 111
Khojas, 106–7, 117n.12, 469
Khomeini (Ayatollah), 511
Khorasani, Hussein Waheed, 109
al-Khu’i (Ayatollah), 109
khul‘, 218
khutba/khutbah, 62, 163, 232, 293, 380. See also sermons
khuttab, 238. See also schools, Islamic
Kianfar, Ali, 126
killing, 354
Kimball, Charles, 7, 490–504, 504n.7, 506n.26
King, Peter, 280, 299, 365, 518
Kingsley, Ben, 469
Kinza Academy, 243
knowledge, Islamization of, 340, 346, 480–81, 484
Knowledge Networks, 336n.14
Kongo (kingdom), 22
kora, 22
Koran, 23, 77. See also Qur’an
kosher food, 295, 442
Kronemer, Alex, 246
kufis, 435n.4
Kurds, 405
Kuwait, 104
LA-8 arrest, 38
Lahaj, Mary, 59–60
Laird, Lance D., 6, 439–454
language, 211, 347
lard, 6
late afternoon prayer, 161, 162, 165
Latin America, 283n.13
Latinas/Latinos, 89, 95, 281, 460, 477
Latino American Dawah Organization, 283n.13
Lebanese, 33, 34, 39, 141–44, 405
Lebanese American Muslims, 36, 103–4, 106, 109, 114, 226–27
Lebanese Americans, 449
Lebanese Canadians, 116n.9
Lebanon
Christian-Muslim relations in, 366–67
civil war in, 104
Druze in, 140–44
emigration from, 31t, 34, 103–4, 226, 405
Hizbollah in, 500
Israeli invasion of, 38
Marine barracks bombing in, 507
NAAMA in, 450
Shi‘i religious scholars in, 481
Lekovic, Edina, 194
lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) folks, 220, 221n.1, 222n.7, 335, 443. See also homosexuality
Lewis, Samuel, 122–23, 128
Library Project, 76
Libya, 36
Lindh, John Walker, 301n.16
literacy, 19–20, 90
literature, 9, 71–72, 120, 503
Little, Malcolm, 25, 288. See also X, Malcolm
lobbying groups, 73–78, 81, 115
Lomax, Alan, 21–22
Loonwatch (website), 384
Lord of the Rings: Return of the King, The (film), 465–66
Lorton Reformatory, 288
Los Angeles, 107, 248n.13, 263, 297, 312–13, 329
Love in the Holy Qur’an (conference), 368
Love Park (art), 394
“Loving God and Neighbor Together,” 501
Lowe’s, 375n.26, 469
lutes, 22
MacArthur Fellowship, 395
MacFarlane, Julie, 200–201, 219, 223n.17
madhahib, 175, 236
Madinah. See Medina
madrasa/madrassah, 238, 271, 297, 422. See also seminaries; theological schools
maghrib, 161, 168. See also evening prayer
magic, 445, 452
Magid, Mohamed, 68, 213, 218, 222n.8
Mahdi, 23, 145
Mahomet the Imposter (Voltaire), 511
mahr, 182, 200
Maine, 405
majalis, 141–42, 144
Majlis Khuddam-ul-Ahmadiyya, 148
Makari, Peter, 8, 359–374
Making Muslim Space (Metcalf), 398
Maksoud, Hala, 194
Maktab Tarighat Oveyssi (MTO), 126, 453
al-mal, 184
malaka, 20
Malamati, 123
Malcolm X (film), 469
Mali, 15–17
Malik (Imam), 345
Malikis, 162
Mamluk architecture, 412
Mamout, Yarrow, 17–18
manasik, 170
Mandaville, Peter, 10, 474–487
Mandinka, 16
(p. 542) Mandvi, Asif, 469
Manji, Rizwan, 469
Mansour, Ahmed Subhy, 152
Marable, Manning, 90
Al-Marayati, Salam, 81
marital counseling, 52, 54, 196, 201, 216
marja‘iyya, 481
marjial-taqlid, 108–9, 114, 117n.17
markaz al-Islami, 408. See also Islamic cultural centers
Maronite Church, 34
marriage
annulments of, 496
arbitration of issues in, 217–18, 445
arranged, 211, 212, 382
career/professional lives and, 210, 214–15
ceremonies for, 213
of children, 138–39
college/university education and, 210, 215
contract for, 139, 182–83, 200, 213–14, 218
by Druze, 142
FCNA on, 200
Hammer’s study of, 5, 208–21
ICNA on, 71, 72
Islamic laws on, 177, 200
ISNA and, 67
literature on, 216
MacFarlane’s study of, 200–201, 219
negotiations in, 215–16, 220–21
of Nizaris, 138–39
polygynous, 138–39, 142, 175, 200, 212, 513
Qur’an on, 93, 210, 214–17, 222–23n.13
of same-sex partners, 220
scholary analysis of, 209
sharing of duties in, 210
stories of American Muslim, 221n.1
temporary (muta), 138–39, 142
by widows, 139
marriage contract, 139, 182–83, 200, 213–14, 218
Martinez, Priscilla, 243, 249n.22
Marwah hill, 171, 172
Maryamiyya Sufi movement, 123, 453
Maryland, 16, 17, 19, 147, 241, 248n.13
Mashaykhat al-‘Aql, 141–42
Masjid al-Farah mosque, 131–32, 407
masjid an-nabi, 406, 416
masjid/masajid. See also mosques
CDCR ad on chaplains and, 54, 55
definition of, 163, 225
doors in, 406
as education centers, 238
etymology of term, 406
financing of, 310
first, in US, 405
Kahera on architecture of, 9, 404–24
markaz al-Islami and, 408
of Prophet Muhammad in Medina, 170, 406, 416
Prophet Muhammad on, 163
salat prayers in, 163
volunteering at, 310, 315–16
maslaha, 180, 485
Massachusetts, 104, 243, 246, 367, 408, 487n.4, 492
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 139
matchmakers, 210–11, 382
matrimonial ads, 212
Mattson, Ingrid, 53, 67, 193
Mauritania, 80, 484
mawaddah, 214
al-Mawdudi, Abul A‘la, 120, 273, 283n.7
al Mawlawi, Faisal, 274
mazars, 120, 128
McCain, John, 82
McCloud, Aminah Beverly, 204n.10
McVeigh, Timothy, 38, 517
Mecca
Grand Mosque of, 170–71
Malcolm X in, 25, 36
Marwah and Safa hills, walking between, 171, 172
pilgrimage to. See hajj
prayers offered in the direction of, 161
Qur’an verses revealed to the Prophet in, 153
Ramadan times in, 169
Umrah visits to, 170–72
Zamzam, well of, 170–71
mecelle, 175
“media capitalism,” 470
Medicaid, 449
Medicare, 449
medications, 6, 443
medicine, 6, 439–454
Medicine of the Prophet (al-Jawziyya), 451–52
Medina
Malik’s interpretation of the Qur’an in, 345
mosques of Prophet Muhammad in, 170, 406, 416
Passover fasting in, 168
Qur’an verses revealed to the Prophet in, 153
Ramadan times in, 170
al-salaf al-salih in, 273
tomb of Prophet Muhammad in, 170
Umrah visits to, 172
Ziyarah visits to, 170
Mehanna, Tarek, 378–79
Mehdi, Anisa, 469
Melkite Church, 34
Mendendez, Erika, 499
(p. 543) mental health, 445–46, 452
Mernissi, Fatima, 191
Message, The (film), 467
Message International Magazine, 71
Messiah, 23, 141, 145, 146
Mexico, 393
Miami, 394
Michigan
Bektashi Sufi Lodge, 121
Dearborn. See Dearborn
Detroit. See Detroit
Highland Park mosque, 226
Kabbani’s order in, 132
National of Islam in, 25
Shi‘i communities in, 102–4, 106–7, 109, 116n.7
Mid-Atlantic Catholic-Muslim Regional Dialogue, 71
mihrab, 407, 413, 420
Milad celebrations, 126
Militant Islam Reaches America (Pipes), 203n.4
military, Ottoman, 104
military, US
barracks bombings, 507
chaplains for, 49–50, 55–57, 59
“Digital Engagement Team,” 378
dog tags, religious affiliation on, 36
fatwas on, 484, 488n.7
Fort Hood shootings by Maj. Hasan, 487n.4
NOI on service in, 35, 65, 288
al-Qaradawi on Muslims in, 484
videos by, 461
Millati Islami Twelve-Step program, 444
Mina, 171
Minhaj al-Qur’an movement, 125
ministers, 57–58, 497–98, 505n.16. See also pastors
Minnesota, 245, 335n.2
miqat, 170
Miracle of the Qur’an (Khalifa), 150
missionaries
from Ahmadiyya Movement, 23, 144–48, 479
emigration and, 34
Internet use by, 381
from Isma‘ili, 102
Moore on work of, 5
at Parliament of the World’s Religions, 121
Mississippi, 17, 19, 22, 249n.13
Missouri, 249n.13
Mitri, Tarek, 368, 374n.11
modernism
feminism and, 185
fundamentalism and, 343
IIIT and, 481
Islamic law and, 177
Khan (Sayyid Ahmad) and, 271, 273
Maryamiyya Sufi movement and, 123, 453
MSA and, 3
Sufism and, 120
in western art, 400
modesty
in Ahmadiyya Movement, 148
clothing choices based on, 9, 427, 435n.4
medical treatment and, 448
in prisons, 292, 293
secularism and, 199
in Venus magazine photos, 394
Mohamed, Bilali, 17–19
Mohammed, Elijah, 24, 65. See also Muhammad, Elijah
Mohammed, Farad, 24. See also Fard, Wallace D.
Mohammed, Warith Deen (W. D.). See also Muhammad, Wallace (Warith)
as American Muslim Association leader, 70
global Islam and, 286–87, 289–290
homeschooling of, 240
How to Eat to Live and, 442
as MAS leader, 65
as NOI leader, 49, 230, 290
prison followers of, 286–87, 289–290
Mohammed Schools Consortium of the United States and Bermuda, 241, 248–49n.13
Moore, Daniel Abd al-Hayy, 130
Moore, Kathleen M., 5, 187–202, 268–282, 474
Moorish Holy Temple of Science, 23
Moorish revival architectural style, 416
Moorish Science Temple of America (MSTA)
Ahmadiyya Movement and, 146
after Ali’s death, 228
background and history of, 23, 35
da‘wa of, 275, 277
FBI and, 41
global Islam and, 479
herbal remedies of, 442
Islam and, 23, 26, 41
migration flow and, 31t
modern activities of, 276–77
Nation of Islam and, 24–26, 30
in prisons, 287–88
as proto-American Islamic movement, 26, 30, 127, 228
Sufism and, 127
Mormons, 335, 434
morning prayer, 161, 163, 295
Morocco, 58, 80, 97n.1, 393, 411
Moses (Prophet), 168, 465
Moslem Sunrise, The (journal), 23, 146, 276
Mosque Foundation, 229
Mosque in America, The (Bagby et al.), 406
Mosque of Islamic Brotherhood, 406
(p. 544) mosques
access to, 165
for African American Muslims, 113, 147, 228, 230
aftercare of ex-convicts at, 299–300
architecture of, 9, 233–34, 406–24
Bagby’s studies of, 4, 51, 225–236, 239, 331, 406
CAIR studies of, 74–75, 423
chairs or pews in, 161, 230
churches and, 371
civic engagement and, 233–36
in community service programs, 233
converts and, 147, 226, 231
definition of, 225
development of, stages in, 408
direction of, 407
as education centers, 197, 228, 229, 232, 238–39, 242, 243
Ekkholy’s studies on, 197, 227–28
finances of, 234
first American, 405
Friday congregational prayer in, 165, 227, 231–32
functions of, 406
fundraising by, 41
governmental scrutiny of, 6, 41, 336n.5, 493
growth of, 51, 230–31
healing from mental illness in, 445
history of, 225–230
iman’s roles and responsibilities for, 51–54
in interfaith activities, 168, 229, 233, 234
Islamic cultural centers and, 408
Kahera on architecture of, 9, 404–24
King on, 280
leadership of, 49–52, 58, 165
madhhab following, 236
marriage ceremonies in, 213
NAIT and, 67, 68
neighbors and, 165, 232–33
of NOI, 229
as nonprofit organizations, 41
parenting/marriage enrichment activities in, 232
premarital counseling in, 213
Qur’an memorization classes in, 232, 243
Ramadan gatherings at, 168–69
ratings for, on Salat-O-Matic website, 379
relations between, 232
religious studies classes in, 232
rural vs. urban, 406–8
of Salafist movement, 236, 480
scholarly research on, 331
September 11 terrorist attacks and, 233, 234, 404
for Shi‘i communities, 109, 227, 236
singles meeting at, 211
social activities in, 197, 232
structures for, 233–34, 310, 336n.5, 404–24, 495
titles to, 67
vandalization of, 508
violent attacks on, during Ramadan, 499
voter registration drives in, 233, 234
Wahhabi movement outreach in, 113
websites of, 377, 378, 381
women in. See mosques, women in
youth activities/programs in, 197, 228, 232
zakat for, 166
mosques, women in
activities/programs for, 232
architecture and, 422–24
in China, 58
at congregational prayers, 162–63, 165, 196–97, 235–36
door for, 406
ISNA on, 68
ISSA on, 68
ratings for, on Salat-O-Matic website, 379
roles and responsibilities of, 58, 163, 165, 197, 228, 235–36
segregation of, 162–63, 196–97, 229, 235–36
WII on, 68
Mosque Study, US, 230–31, 234, 235
mu’adhin, 163
mu‘amalat, 160, 177
Mubarak, Hosni, 516
muftis, 377, 380, 383
Muhammad, Abdul-Rashid, 50
Muhammad, Abu al-Qasim (Prophet)
Ahmadiyya Movement and, 23, 145
birthday celebrations, 126
CAIR on textbook representation of, 74
in Cave of Hira, 167
da‘i Allah, 270, 282n.2
death of, 100
deification of, 151
on diet, 441–42
Fard on, 35
movies about the life of, 467
Muharram fasting by, 168
Qur’an revelations to, 167
sealing of prophecy by, 94, 145
shahada on, 160
successor to, 100
teaching by, 238
wives of, 93
Muhammad, Clara, 24, 240, 243
Muhammad, Elijah, 65
death of, 25, 230
Farrakhan and, 37
(p. 545) on house of worship, 229
How to Eat to Live, 442
imprisonment of, in WWII, 65, 288
international visits of, 36
as NOI leader, 24–26, 35–37, 91
on prayers, 228–29
“preachments” of, 25, 290
Muhammad, Fard, 35, 228. See also Fard, Wallace D.
Muhammad, Salahuddin, 51
Muhammad, Wallace (Warith), 37, 230, 479. See also Mohammed, Warith Deen
Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, 271
Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet (film), 246, 468
Muhammad: The Last Prophet (film), 467
Muharram, 168
Mujahid, Abdul Malik, 280, 467
Mummy, The (film), 466
Murfreesboro Islamic Center, 495, 505n.10
Murid Order, 127–28
murids, 119
murshidas, 58, 120
al-Murtada, al-Sharif, 117n.17
musallas, 238, 405, 407, 413f
Musawah, 205n.12
music
African slaves and, 1, 21–22
Ahmadiyya Movement and, 147
blues, 22, 238
call to prayer and, 22, 238
doo-wop, 2
in Druze services, 143
at “Great Muslim Adventure Day,” 72
hip-hop, 2, 95, 389
from ICNA, 72
jazz, 2, 147
Nakshabendi brotherhood and, 83n.9
nasheeds, 72
of Nizaris, 139
Qur’anic recitation and, 22, 238
Qur’anists on, 153
rap, 2, 72
Sufism and, 120, 130, 134n.30
Muslim Advocates, 194, 195t, 202
Muslimah Media Watch (website), 384
Muslimah Pride Day, 198
Muslim American Public Opinion Survey (MAPOS), 337n.16
Muslim American Society (MAS), 65, 86n.1, 245, 262, 480
Muslim Brotherhood, 73, 78, 81, 273, 480, 482, 484. See also Society of the Muslim Brothers
Muslim Chaplaincy Program, 56
Muslim Children of North America, 261
Muslim Community Center for Human Services (MCCHS), 311
Muslim Community School, 241
Muslim Congress, 111
Muslim Endorsement Council of Connecticut, 53
Muslim Family Days, 262
Muslim Home School in America (journal), 243
Muslim Home School Network and Resource, 243
Muslim Medical Association, 449
Muslim Medical Ethics (Brockopp & Eich), 451
Muslim Mental Health, Inc., 450
Muslim Mosque, Inc., 25, 89
Muslim Public Affairs Council (MPAC)
on hate crimes, 498, 505n.19
ICNA and, 71
lobbying by, 77
Al-Marayati’s appointment to, 81
on “Muslim block vote,” 329
South Asian American Muslims and, 39
transnational networks of, 480
women on, 194
Young Leaders National Summits, 263
Muslim Scouts (film), 246, 261–62
Muslim Spiritual Care Services, 56
Muslim Sports Days, 262
Muslim Student Association (MSA)
background and history of, 36, 256–57, 480
COMPASS, 319n.1
da‘wa in, 256–59
FCNA and, 178
history of, 308–9
iftars at, 168, 259
IMANA and, 449
interfaith activities of, 259–260
ISNA and, 3, 66, 67
leadership development in, 315
media and, 260
membership of, 257
modernism and, 3
Muslim Brotherhood and, 480, 482
NAIT and, 68
Salafi movement and, 481
secularism and, 3
September 11 terrorist attacks and, 259–260
services provided by, 257–59
Shi‘i-Sunni divisions within, 205n.10
socialism and, 3
Sufism and, 125
website of, 381
women in, 316
Muslim Teachers’ College, 241
Muslim Women Resource Center, 195t
(p. 546) Muslim Women’s Institute for Research and Development, 56, 58–59
Muslim Women’s League, 195
Muslim Women’s Resource Center, 195
Muslim Women United, 195t
Muslim World League, 110, 310, 377, 480
Muslim Youth of North America (MYNA), 67, 260–61
Muslims for Progressive Values (website), 382
Muslims in Dietetics and Nutrition, 450
Muslims on Screen and Television (MOST), 469
mustahdathat, 109
al-Musta’li, 102
Musta’li Isma‘ilis, 101–2
al-Mustansir (Caliph), 102
“Musulman,” 518n.1
muta, 138–39, 142
al-Mutawa, Naif, 467
muwahhidun, 141
Muzdalifah, 171
Myanmar, 363–64
“My Fellow American” (web-based series), 470
MysticMedicine (website), 452
Nadir, Aneesah, 450
al-nafs, 184
nafs, 124, 347
Nagamia, Husain, 449
Nakshabendi brotherhood, 80, 83n.9
Naqshbandi-Haqqanis Order, 124, 132
Naqshbandi Order, 123–25, 453, 481, 488n.5
Naqshbandiyya Islamic Educational Foundation, 125
Nashashibi, Rami, 313
nasheeds, 72
naskh of texts, 350
al-nasl, 184
Nasr, Seyyid Hossein, 110, 123, 130, 133n.13, 452, 453
Nassef, Ahmed, 79
nasut wa-lahut, 141
Nation of Islam, 30, 35, 37, 41, 43–45, 65, 87, 91, 97, 98, 104, 112, 127, 147, 216, 228–230, 255–290
Nation of Islam (NOI)
on African American Muslims prior to the 20th century, 26
Ahmadiyya Movement and, 23–24, 147
Arabs and, 37
beliefs and precepts of, 24–26
citizenship and, 91
congregationalism and, 41
da‘wa in, 275, 277
in demographic studies, 30
diet in, 442
disbanding of, 230
dress and behavior codes of, 91
fasting in, 292
FBI and, 35, 36, 41
founding of, 24, 255
Garvey and, 35
global Islam and, 479
identity and, 25–26
Malcolm X and, 25, 36
membership of, 31t, 91
on military service, 35, 65
mission of, 91, 275
modern activities of, 276–77
mosques of, 229, 230
MSTA and, 24–26, 30, 228
nationalist agenda of, 24
on Pledge of Allegiance, 35
on prayers, 229, 292
in prisons, 25, 287–290, 292
as proto-American Islamic movement, 26
schools of, 25, 35, 240–41
Shi‘ism and, 104
on slavery, 25
Sunnism and, 36–37, 112, 479
support for, 4
Tijani Order and, 127
on voting, 65
National American Arab Nurses Association, 450
National Arab American Medical Association (NAAMA), 450
National Association of Arab Americans, 38
National Commission on Terrorism, 81
National Council of Churches of Christ (NCC), 361–62, 369–371, 375n.17, 500
National Geographic, 469
National Institutes of Health, 450
National Interreligious Leadership Initiative (NILI), 373
nationalism, 517
National Medical Association, 450
National Muslim–Christian Initiative (NMCI), 361–62, 371
National Security Agency (NSA), 383, 493
National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (NVOAD), 71
Native Deen (hip-hop group), 389
natural law, 174–75, 185n.3
Natural Medicine (Chishti), 451
Navroz, 139
Nawawi Foundation, 132
Nazim (Shaykh), 124
Nazis, 497, 514
NCIS (tv show), 464–65
Nebraska, 106
(p. 547) Negroes, 23, 24, 89, 90. See also African Americans
NeighborNet, 69, 261
neoliberalism, 346
Neshat, Shirin, 390, 392–93
Netherlands, 497
Network of Progressive Muslims, 79
NewGround, 263
New Horizon School, 241
New Jersey, 23, 72, 241, 288, 405
New Mexico, 421–22
newspapers, 125
New York City
Ahmadiyya Movement in, 146
car bomb in, 487n.4, 492
Cathedral of St. John the Divine, 389
ethnographic studies in, 329
I-CERV initiative in, 140
ICNA activities in, 70, 71
Islamic Cultural Center of, 408, 411, 417–420, 424
Islamic Institute, 52
Khalil Gibran International Academy in, 187
Masjid al-Farah mosque in, 131–32, 407
Mohammed Schools in, 248–49n.13
MPAC Young Leaders National Summits in, 263
Murid Order in, 127
Muslim Women’s Institute for Research and Development, 56, 58–59
National of Islam in, 25, 240
Park 51 center. See Park 51 community center
Police Department’s domestic spying, 494
Synod House of the Cathedral of Saint John, 346
Times Square attempted bombing (2010), 487n.4, 492
TTQ in, 111
violent attacks near mosques in, 499
New York Disaster Interfaith Service (NYDIS), 71
New York Post, 518
New York State
Buffalo’s Ad-Deen Allah Universal Arabic Association, 405
Buffalo’s Darul-Uloom Al-Madania, 52
Department of Corrections, chaplains for, 55, 57, 58
FBI surveillance of mosques in, 365
New Lebanon’s Abode of the Message center, 121–22
Waterport’s ‘Alami tariqa, 126
New York Times, 493, 498, 501
Niasse, Ibrahim, 127
nigella sativa, 442
Nigeria, 15–17
night prayer, 161, 164, 168, 407
nikah, 200. See also marriage contract
Nike, 74
Nimatullahi-Gunabadi Order, 107
Nimatullahi Order, 107, 126, 127 99,
The (tv series), 467
niqab, 125, 148
nisab, 166
Nizari Isma‘ilis, 3, 101, 117n.12, 137–140
NOI. See Nation of Islam
noon prayer, 161–63, 165. See also Friday congregational prayer
Noorart, 246
North American Arab Medical Association, 450
North American Council of Muslim Women (NACMW), 196, 316
North American Islamic Trust (NAIT), 67, 68, 71, 83n.3
North Carolina, 125–26
North Dakota, 405
Norway, 498
“Not in the Name of Islam” petition, 77
No Welfare for Terrorists Act, 326–27
Nupe, 21
Nur, Bilan, 199
Nurbakhsh, Alireza, 127
Nurbakhsh, Jawad, 127
Nur Cemaat movements, 126
Nursi, Said, 126
Obama, Barack Hussein
on Abedin, 82
anti-Muslim activities and election of, 64
on “Burn the Qur’an Day,” 497
citizenship of, 91, 517
Muslim-American support for election of, 330
Muslim support for, 74
religion of, 1, 325, 327, 335n.1, 511, 517
“Remarks on a New Beginning,” 360–62
Obama administration, 81, 140, 326
Obsession (film),