- The Oxford Handbook of American Islam
- The First Stirrings of Islam in America
- Muslim Immigration to America
- Imams and Chaplains as American Religious Professionals
- Islamic Organizations in the United States
- African American Muslims
- The Twelver Shi‘is in America
- Sufi Movements in America
- Muslim Minority Groups in American Islam
- Practicing Islam in the United States
- Shari‘a and Fiqh in the United States
- Muslim Women in the United States
- Marriage in American Muslim Communities
- Mosques in the United States
- Developments in Islamic Education in the United States
- American Muslim Youth Movements
- <i>Da‘wa in the United States</i>
- Islam in American Prisons
- Volunteerism among American Immigrant Muslims
- Muslim Americans and the Political System
- The Intellectual Contributions of American Muslim Scholars
- Muslim–Christian Relations in the United States
- American Muslims in the Age of New Media
- Muslim Artists in America
- American Mosque Architecture
- Islamic Dress and Fashion in the United States
- Health and Medicine among American Muslims
- Muslims in Film and Muslim Filmmaking in the United States
- American Muslims and Global Islam
- The War on Terror and Its Effects on American Muslims
- Islamophobia and Anti-Muslim Sentiment in the United States
Abstract and Keywords
Throughout Islamic history the issue of leadership of the community has been of primary importance. The Sunni majority has identified Muslims who did not give allegiance to the Caliph as shiʿa, or sectarians. Two of the groups discussed in this chapter are part of the historical controversies over community leadership, and for all of them leadership remains a very important concern. Both the Nizari Ismaʿilis, led by Imam Aga Khan, and the Druze are offshoots of the Fatimid countercaliphate, which flourished for two centuries. The other two groups are more modern. The Ahmadiyya developed in the context of European occupation of Islamic lands and the reaction to Christian missionary activity and modernization. The Qur'anists, sometimes referred to as the Ahl al-Qur'an, share the beliefs of the United Submitters International regarding the Qur'an as the sole foundation of Islam. With long-term roots in attempts to understand the “right” way to live Islamically, they are more recent as an identified school of thought. All of these groups maintain a presence in the current configuration of Islam in America.
Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad is Professor of History of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations. She is the past president of the Middle East Studies Association and the American Academy of Religion, New England Region. She is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. She is a recipient of the Distinguished Alumnus Award for Outstanding Achievement and Distinction in Service to the Profession, Boston University, School of Theology (2007) and Scholar of the Year: Canadian Corporation for Studies in Religion (2002). Her extensive publications include Not Quite American? and Contemporary Islam and the Challenge of History.
Jane I. Smith retired in 2012 as Associate Dean for Academic Affairs and Senior Lecturer in Islamic Studies at Harvard Divinity School. Currently she is Professor Emerita at Hartford Seminary. She is the author of a number of books on such topics as Islam in America, Christian-Muslim dialogue, women in Islam, American Muslims and education, and minority Muslim communities in America.
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