Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 11 December 2019

Abstract and Keywords

After the Prophet Muhammad died in 632 CE, the early Shiʿis claimed that ‘Ali, the Prophet’s cousin and son-in law, was his only legitimate successor. They also insisted that only the Prophet’s family members, the ahl al-bayt, were qualified to lead the Muslim community after him. When ‘Ali became the fourth Caliph of the Muslim community in 656 CE, Shiʿism emerged as a recognized religious movement in Islam. What sets Shiʿism apart from the majority Sunnis is the notion of the divinely inspired and charismatic leadership of the imams. This article focuses on Shiʿism in America by describing the four major Shiʿi groups: the Twelver Shiʿis, the Nizari Ismaʿilis, the Bohra Ismaʿilis, and the Zaydis. It examines the ethnic factor in American Shiʿism, nationalism and American Shiʿism, women and American Shiʿism, religious leadership in the Shiʿi community, and outreach programs by Shiʿi centers. It also looks at the Universal Muslim Association of America, the conversion of African Americans to Shiʿism, the impact of 9/11 on the American Shiʿi community, and political awareness among American Muslims.

Keywords: Shiʿism, Islam, America, Twelver Shiʿis, Nizari Ismaʿilis, Bohra Ismaʿilis, Zaydis, nationalism, African Americans, American Muslims

Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.