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date: 16 December 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The status and strategies of the Islamic organizations in the United States have been dramatically changed by 9/11. The ethnic, social, and cultural diversity of these organizations has been eclipsed by the perception of the “Muslim enemy” and therefore obliged past and new leaders to adjust to the political consequences of the War on Terror and the rise of Islamophobia.

Keywords: 9/11, Islamophobia, lobby groups, political participation, Islamic reform, ISNA, ICNA, Council on American-Islamic Relations

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