(p. 213) Macro Processes in Organizations
Macro processes refer to the larger context in which the micro processes in Part 2 exist and function. Of course, the differences between a micro and a macro process are difficult to explicate. These both are processes that affect people and thus, the climate and culture of the setting; however, the macro processes form the ground against which the figures of the micro processes exist, and they can have their own impact on both organizational climate and culture—and the ways they happen is determined in turn by the climate and culture in which they emerge. Thus, there are both personal career development changes that are affected by climate and culture as described in chapter 12 by Hall and Yip and organizational life cycle developments and changes as illuminated by Flamholtz and Randle in chapter 13 that impact and are impacted by climate and culture. Career climate and culture impact how people in a setting experience the concern for their own development, so the issue is clearly on within-organization experiences. Hall and Yip describe in great detail the many processes that can exist in companies vis-à-vis the careers of employees and how they constitute the creation of different career experiences for those affected by them. On the other hand, Flamholtz and Randle remind us that the internal functioning and development of organizations is not something necessarily under the control of the organization and that these issues fluctuate over time as the organization grows and develops. Thus, as they note with numerous examples, organizational development and change are in many ways dependent on what happens outside the organization and the way the organization responds to environmental pressures and change.
Continuing the emphasis on the larger environment, this section of the Handbook is also concerned with societal pressures on organizations that impact the way work settings function, for example, pressures regarding sustainability issues, and these are conceptualized very nicely by Howard-Grenville, Bertels, and Lahneman in chapter 14. They reveal how climate and culture determine the response organizations make with regard to sustainability and then show how the response is, in turn, reflected in the climate and culture of the organization, both through “top down” leader-led activities as well as “bottom-up” actions by the broader employee base. Finally, there are different national cultures in which organizational climates and cultures emerge that also affect work settings. The issue of national culture (people do not conceptualize or study national climate!) and its effects on organizational culture are detailed in chapter 15 by Dickson, Kwantes, and Magomaeva. A very interesting feature of this chapter is the ways they see organizational cultures also influencing national culture, a topic that has received little attention to date.
This collection of chapters, conceptualized as a whole, reveal the many ways organizations impact the people in them, not only by the way they treat employee career development, but also the ways in which they are affected by and affect the larger world in which they operate. (p. 214)