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date: 15 December 2019

Subject Index

Subject Index

Note: The letters f, t, and b indicate entries located in figures, tables, and one box. (p. 713)

A
absence culture, 166
absorption, 93, 326
accountability, 91t
acquired talent, 209, 210
acquisitions, Tata Group, 651–654
“adhocracy” cultures, in hospitals, 340
Adhocracy culture types, 560, 561t
“affect circumplex,” 137, 138
affective aspects, of organizational climate, 59
affective climate, 136, 137, 139, 145, 146, 181
affective culture, questions for research, 148
Affective Events theory (AET), 138, 145, 148
aggravator, 180
aggravator effects, 189–190
aggregate behavior, 153, 154
aggregated employees’ perceptions, 448
aggregation
justifying, 488
level of, 300–301
agricultural communities, 556
agriculture, development of, 555
alignment, 106
between cultural values and organizational practices, 392
culture strength operationalized as, 505
future direction questions, 231
at McDonald’s, 621–622, 624–625, 627, 629
mechanism of, 444
between organizational climate and organizational objectives, 392
anomie, 556, 558
antecedents
of climate strength, 520, 523
of culture strength, 506–507
of ethical climate, 417
of safety climate, 321–324
specifying varieties of, 466
of unethical intentions and behaviors, 416
artifacts
of a career learning culture, 225
described, 386
of exclusive career cultures, 224
of on inclusive career culture, 223
as one of Schein’s levels of culture, 460
in an organization’s facilities, 248
as outermost layer of culture, 157
of a performance-oriented career culture, 226
of a protean career culture, 221
related to a career learning culture and climate, 226
stories becoming, 126
supporting organizational career culture, 222–223
as visible and tangible, 122
Artistic cultures, 560, 561t
“As Is” scales, 281, 283
assessment
3M basic culture, 572–575, 580–582
affecting group performance management, 95t
assumptions, 386, 476, 479. See also basic assumptions
“atmosphere,” of the organization, 236
attitudes/beliefs at McDonald’s, 623–624, 627–628, 628–629
attraction-selection-attrition (ASA), 368
cycle, 32, 227
model, 25, 26, 28, 32, 33, 37, 282
paradigm, 50
processes, 157, 219, 522
theory, 110
authentic positive emotional displays and behaviors, 140
aviation industry, safety climate scale developed for, 329
B
basic assumptions. See also assumptions
conceptualized, 157
as one of Schein’s levels of culture, 460
outlined by Schein, 169
of protean career culture, 221
becoming orientation, 123–124
behavior(s)
arising from values, 277
commonly accepted and expected, 336
consistent with the CLT perceived as more acceptable, 105
disincentives for culturally inconsistent, 45
focusing on, 477
function of both the person and the environment, 215
as the mode of change, 476
more proximal predictor of accidents than climate, 161
as one triadic reciprocal determinant, 68
as an outer layer of culture, 156
preceding cognition, 463
productive and counterproductive, 153–172
shared norms of, 140–141
shared perceptions of typical, 155
behavioral norms, 154–155, 571–572
behavioral reactions, 478
“being there” syndrome, 251
beliefs, 105, 106, 110, 589–590
benefits, 577
best practices, identifying, 280
between-group competition, 557
bidimensional conceptualizations, of culture strength, 497t, 498
big data
definitions of, 198–199
embracing, 210
power of, 12–13, 200
providing greater clarity, 201
theme, 197
birth stage, 239, 240t, 244–245 (p. 714)
“blame and shame” cultures, 346
“bottom-up”
effects on service climate, 314
mechanisms, 269
boundary conditions, 185, 298, 365–366, 525
brand building, 644
bribery, rejection by Tata Group, 644, 649–650
buffering effects, 180, 187–189, 19eti
Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance and Change, 457, 458, 459–461, 460f, 475, 476
at PepsiCo, 585, 587
C
career climates
defined, 215, 230
learning and performance, 225–227
linking organizational culture and career outcomes, 217–219
strength of, 229–230
types of, 219–227, 231
weakening, 229
career climates and cultures, typology of, 220t
career culture, defined, 215
career cultures and climates, in organizations, 215–232
career development. See also leadership development
inclusive opportunities for, 223
career learning culture and climate, 225–226
career performance culture and climate, 226–227
career-relevant climate, 231
careers
climate and culture for, 684
organizational culture, climate and, 216–217
caring ethical climate, 416, 428
Caring factor, 328
celebrations, 74
Center for Creative Leadership (CCL), 106
central, enduring, and distinct (CED), 444
“chains of socialization,” literature on, 45
“championing,” 268
champions, role of, 262
change
constant, 469
as a continuos process, 472
inevitability of, 471–472
initiating in a single department, 269
studies in climate and culture, 461
studying, 16
sustaining, 475
triggering emotions, 479
types or levels of, 463
change agents
leadership focus on being, 102
sticking too long with one model, 470
chimpanzees, life among, 554–555
China, organizational complexity, 667–670
“choice-within-constraints” theory, 290
civic virtue, 159
Civility, Respect, and Engagement in the Workforce (CREW) intervention, 188
civility climate, measuring, 184
clan culture, 107, 340, 342, 560, 561t
clarity dimension, of climate, 459t
“classic entrepreneurial cultural transformation crisis,” 252
climate. See also climate and culture; climate strength; culture and climate
about organizational policies, practices and procedures, 199
analytic level different from the descriptive level, 301
antecedents of, 490
attributes of, 46–47
as behavior-outcome contingencies, 165
boosting different types of resources, 187
breadth of, 28–29
categories of, 158, 403
comprised of many different facets, 236
concept rooted in psychology, 199
configural approach in the study of, 535
consensus about the definition of, 533
consisting of members’ perceptions of signals, 218
as constructed of individual perceptions, 258
defined, 29, 65, 216, 336, 473, 475–476
determining employee perceptions of culture, 313
dimensions of, 458f, 459t
distinguishing from team behavioral processes, 171
effect on customers’ counterproductive behaviors, 313
examining specific focused, 492
existing at the work group level, 680
focused “toward something,” 29
focusing on what happens, 532
as a focus of scholarly research and publication, 201
front-line process, 338–339
impacting employee strain and SWB, 191
improving, 458
influencing culture, 377
leading to the beliefs and basic assumptions constituting an organization’s culture, 684
less subject to direct upper management actions, 249
linking organizational outcomes, 451
links with performance in heath care, 343–345
management as primary antecedent of, 473
more micro, 473
more subjective, 218
motivation primary outcome, 473
organization having multiple, 492
patient safety and, 347–348
related to specific domains, 180
relationship-oriented facets, 308
for service, 182
at stages I to VII, 250–254
studied as a systems construct, 101
study of having a relatively long history, 533
supportive of innovation, 388
taxonomies of, 548
within teams, 353
values in action, 338
as the what of organizational culture, 136
climate, culture, and organizational citizenship behavior literature, 162–163
climate, culture, and unit-level productive behavior, research on, 159–163
climate and culture. See also culture and climate
affective side of, 137
assessment of, 192
audits, 475
big data, say-do approach, 197–210
big data and, 199–208
change, 476
competitive advantage, 685–686
as differentiated phenomena, 681–682
differentiating, 136–137
as distinct but complementary constructs, 484
emerging from systems of stimuli, 684–685
emerging issues in research on, 490–494
influence on sustainability actions, 260
inherently linked to one another, 532
integrated model of, 271
of leadership, 104f
limitations on how the organization carries out, 680
measurable, 685
as mediators, 190
models linking in the stressor/strain relationship, 180f
as moderator variables, 187–190
as multilevel phenomena, 681
organizations having multiple foci for, 682–683
outcome and process foci for, 14–15
outcomes and process foci for, 295–296
in practice, 17–18
psychological dynamics of, 559
reciprocally related, 680–681
research, 484–494
strength of, 496–527
in the stress process, 191
viewed as stressors, 180
(p. 715)
climate constructs, multiple higher-order, 539
climate/culture changes, 493
climate culture constructs, 490–491
climate/culture constructs, 492–493
longitudinal changes in, 493–494
theorizing as mediators and moderators, 490
climate/culture strength, 491–492
climate dimensions, 108, 182, 402
“climate for,” 29, 538
climate for authenticity, 184
“climate for burnout,” 403
climate for employee well-being, 158
climate for engagement, 15, 403, 404–405
defined, 405
influenced by senior leadership support, 407b
integrated framework, 405–409
positive associations with key job resources, 405
preliminary test of a model, 406–408b
respecified model, 407b
climate for justice, 371
climate for service
conceptualized and studied, 309
creating a, 38
defined, 405
global leadership, 673
within organizations, 180
climate for well-being, 158, 166, 170
climate of authenticity, 188
climate of efficacy, 189
climate of fear, 136, 141
climate of silence, 142, 147
climate perceptions
convergence of, 322
decreasing aggregate strain and enhancing aggregate SWB, 191
differing from other organizational perceptions, 318
primarily shaped by immediate organizational context, 304
strength of, 391
climates for something, 403
alternative taxonomies of, 403–404
circumplex taxonomy of, 404f
influencing job resources, personal resources, and job demands, 408
climate strength, 312, 366
as alignment-based, 449
antecedents, 520, 511–514t, 524f
conclusions, limitations, and future research, 523–525
cross-level direct effects, 518–520
as a deep-level diversity variable, 510–512, 513
defined, 510
empirical evidence supporting the moderator role of, 516
empirical studies on antecedents of, 519–520t
empirical studies on the influences of, 511–512t
future research, 524
of a group, 491
influences, 510–523
leadership and, 521–522
limitations of empirical research, 524
linking culture strength with, 526–527
measures of, 277
moderating relationship between work-unit climate and one of outcomes considered, 515
moderating relationships between unit climate and indicators of patient safety, 515
as a moderator, 510–516
notion of, 229
operationalization based on dispersion measures, 525
organizational functioning and, 344–345
referring to consensus among organizational members, 387
referring to degree of perceptual agreement or consensus, 497
related to individual satisfaction and affective commitment, 523
relationship with work unit processes, 524
research on, 510–525
role at an organizational level, 112
single-level studies, 510, 515–517
work unit characteristics and, 522–525
climate summary, 132
climate surveys, application of, 402
“climate with a heart,” 231
climcult, notion of, 549
climcult model, 271, 405, 406b, 408, 408b, 450
cluster analysis, 541, 548
coaching, 72–73
Coaching factor, 328
coercive isomorphism, 280
cognitions
beginning with, 477
influence on employees, 59
cognitive change, interventions leading to, 477
cognitive climate, 181
collaboration
construct of, 383–384
culture of, 387
described, 382
spirit of, 225
collaboration and conflict, comparing to conflict, 385–386
collaboration tasks, outcomes for, 384
collaboration task types, conflict across, 390–391
collaborative leadership style, 555
collective efficacy, 184, 189
collective identities, 445, 446
collectivism
German samples scoring low on, 285
vs. individualism, 661
moderating effects, 375
Russia’s cultural scores on, 284
commitment, 106
commitment dimension, of climate, 459t
commons, becoming unsustainable, 146
communication
as basis of organizing, 119
centrality to organizational culture, 133
comprised of symbols, messages, and meanings, 119, 121
conceptualizing along three dimensions, 119
as constitutive of organizations, 121
defined, 118, 119–120
in organizations, 118
studying directly at second hand, 119
types of work-related, 120
communication climate, 130–131
communication modes, types of, 118
communication network, 323, 520
communication processes, focus on, 121
compensation
fairness of, 369
impact on a variety of outcomes, 207
types of, 202
competence
concept of, 558
at the Mayo Clinic, 615–616
competing values framework (CVF), 106–107, 403–404, 505, 536, 540
as a basis for organizing culture studies, 537
measuring culture in health care, 340
meta-analysis of research data relevant to, 682
regarded as the most comprehensive and reflective of organizational culture, 547
research using adopting a simplistic approach, 355
studies using, 342
variations in patterns of belief, 112
competition, 554, 557
competitive advantage, 36, 37, 39, 685–686
competitive climate, 189
compilation emergent processes, 487, 491–492
complementary fit, 30
Compliance factor, 328
composition models, 370, 486–487, 489
composition process, of emergence, 487
conceptual and methodological issues, 15–17, 441–442
conceptual frameworks, 485–490
configural analyses, 541–545
advanced, 545–547
basic approach in organizational research, 541
hypothetical, 534, 534f
configural approaches
beneficial to study multidimensional nature of climate, 540
to culture, 540
examining culture and climate as broad multidimentional contextual variables, 16–17
incorporating interdependencies considering the “whole,” 549
usefulness for culture and climate, 536–538
using cluster analysis in study of climate, 548
using to examine culture and climate simultaneously, 549
utilizing to address the complexities of culture and climate, 533
configuration characteristics, 545–547
configurations
assumptions about, 535
deductive approaches to, 544–545
elevation and, 546f
inductive approaches to, 541–544
procedures for identifying, 534
confirmatory latent class analysis (CLCA), 545, 547
conflict, 384–385
described, 382
team outcomes and, 385
within teams, 353
conflict and collaboration, integrative framework of, 388f
conflict norms, 142
conscious capitalism, Tata Group, 644–645
consensus
of an HRM system, 527
reflecting a shared social environment and common beliefs, 519
in regard to HRM system, 526
resolution of debates and evolution of, 489–490
Conservation of Resources theory (COR theory), 187
consistency
defined, 498, 503–504
of an HRM system, 526
measuring, 503
positively related to performance, 504
referring to culture strength, 498
relation to measures of organizational effectiveness, 503
significantly related to performance measures, 504
types of, 526–527
consolidation stage, 246
constructs, integrating, 388–393
context
climate and culture as, 26–30
defined, 25, 533
environment surrounding organizations, 338
role of in staffing, 25–26
for staffing, 24
of training, 47
contingent reward transactional leadership, 370
contrary effects, 282
control climate, 184
Conventional cultures, 560, 561t
Core People Process lifecycle, 593–599
corporate culture, essence of, 247
“corporate environmentalism as sustainability, 259
Corporate Ethics Virtues Model (CEV), 430, 433
corporate social (ir)responsibility (CSR), 371
“corporate social responsibility” (CSR), 259
cost management, Tata Group, 654
counterproductive work behavior (CWB), 153, 361
categorizing, 164
climate for well-being and, 166
defined, 163
directly linking cultural values and assumptions to, 167
focused climates and, 164–165
organizational culture and, 166–167
organizational culture and unit-level organizational citizenship behavior and, 168–170
research on, 163, 313
unit effectiveness and, 164
“courses of action,” in life cycle models, 239
creativity, sparked by diversity, 388
cross-level effects, 281, 327, 518
cross-level influences of climate strength, 517–520
cross-level moderator, climate strength as, 517–518
CSR (corporate social responsibility)
employee-centric treatments of, 372
Tata Group, 644–645
CSR climate, 262, 371
cultural agility, global leadership, 671–673
Cultural Agility Climate measure, 673
cultural changes
making happen, 208–210
over time, 248–249
“cultural civil war,” 252
“cultural framing,” 268
cultural intensity, interaction with cultural strength, 526, 527
cultural misalignment, example of, 387
cultural norms, 3M, 571–572
cultural parameters, 80–85
cultural typology matrix, 248t
cultural value dimensions, case of multiple, 540
cultural values
attracting potential employees, 282
of bank branches, 542
of companies, 278
some more essential, 547
culture. See also climate and culture; culture and climate
about shared values beliefs, fundamental ideologies, and shared assumptions, 199
as abstraction, 132
accepted as a property of a social system, 199
affecting culture, 278–283
approaches to focusing on values, 277
attributes of, 46–47
becoming a liability, 203
carrying more weight than climate, 461
causing climates to emerge, 680
changing the organization’s, 240–241
characteristics of, 288
of chimpanzee groups, 554–555
compared to climate, 377
concept anchored in anthropology and sociology, 199
created and maintained by its own members, 258
dealing with deeper organizational values and beliefs, 476
defined, 27, 29, 65, 218, 277, 336, 554, 560
defining an organization’s, 206
defining in terms of values, 137
dimensions to, 200
dominant, 340
dominating everyday business communication, 201
evolving, 68
existing at the organizational level, 681
existing independently from individual perceivers, 218
functional versus dysfunctional, 247–248
function of, 554
helping to determine the type of reward system, 460
holistic, 29
impacting employees directly, 186–187
influencing interpretation of justice events, 377
layers of, 157
levels of, 248
literature review on, 261
manifestations of, 248
manifested through communication, 122
Mayo Clinic, 604, 613–615, 618
measurement of, 685
mechanisms for embedding, 111
more stable than climate, 532
organizational effectiveness and, 560–562
origins of, 556–559
overall strength of, 561
as a phenomenon of groups, 70
positive or negative impact upon organizational performance, 236
produced through verbal and nonverbal communication, 123
providing underpinnings for why it happens, 532 (p. 717)
reflecting deep ogranizational phenomena, 532
research on in health care, 340
as a resource deployed by employees and middle managers, 267
for safety, 346–347
self-perpetuating nature of, 147–148
sharing similar features, 560
at stages I to VII, 249–254
stated versus real, 247
strong versus weak, 247
types of, 374
values and context, 337–338
valuing stability, reserve, and application of craft, 206
as the why of organizational behavior, 136
culture and climate. See also climate and culture
definitional and phenomenological domains of, 449–450
as distinct, 374
effects of increasing size on, 250–251
effects of life cycles on, 249–254
in health care, 336
influencing performance on generative tasks, routing tasks, and judgment tasks, 388–390
interactions between, 271
interrelationships with organizational life cycles, 247
model in a health care context, 337
multidimensional nature of, 538–541
nature and interrelationship of, 236
needed for benefits of staffing to transfer from the individual level to the organizational level, 36
related to productive and counterproductive behavior, 156–159
shaping staffing, 33–37
staffing shaping, 37–39
at stage III, 251–252
at stage IV, 252
used and defined within organizational scholarship, 258
variation within organizations in relation to, 348
culture and climate strength
meaning of, 496–498
research on, 525–526
culture change, 94–96
“culture embedding mechanisms,” 236
culture embedding mechanisms, 248, 684
culture of leadership, shared beliefs, 104
culture parameters, distinct, 525
culture strength, 8–9
antecedents, 506–507
complex operationalizations of, 505–506
conceptualization of, 497–498t
conceptualizing as the degree of within-unit agreement about culture elements, 525
conclusions, limitations, and future research, 507–510
consequences of, 499–505
defined, 342, 498
empirical studies on the consequences of, 500–501t
hypothetical dysfunctional consequences of, 509
linking with climate strength, 526–527
measured with multi-item scales, 502–505
measures of, 277
measuring, 498, 502
operationalized as alignment, 505
operationalized by means of discriminant analysis, 505
positive relationship with performance reliability, 503
predicting short-term future company performance, 502
promoting consistency and consensus, 526
referring to degree of alignment between employees’ goals and management’s goals, 498
related to indicators of organizational performance, 507
related to organizational performance/effectivenss, 506
relationship with performance reliability, 503
relationship with work outcomes, 504
research on, 499–510
Culture Strength Assessment (CSA), 504, 506
culture types, 107
associated with intervention success, 342
both in CVF and OCI, 540
categories of, 248
measured by descriptions of cultural scnearios, 505
not necessarily independent, 547
typology of for health care organizations, 347
customer assistance, positive or negative, 305
customer complaint, 305
customer feedback, 300, 309
customer participation, 299
customer-related outcomes
link with service climate, 306
of service climate, 307–309
customers
attitudes and behavior affecting employees’ climate perceptions, 309
desiring good service, 308
evaluating service quality, 306
window into the internal functioning of the organization, 307
customer services
characteristics of, 298–299
negative behaviors by employees, 170
D
DAC ontology of leadership, framework based on, 113
data. See also big data
guiding workforce changes, 209
new expanse of permitting ample theory testing, 210
stored per company, 198
decline-revitalization stage, 246–247
decline stage, 240t, 241, 254
dedication, 93, 326
deep structure, 258, 476
“defensive” behaviors, 254
definitional clarification, between CWB and deviance, 163
deliverers, of fair treatment, 363
demands-abilities fit, 30, 31, 33, 35
Denison Organizational Culture Survey, 278, 503
deon, meaning obligation or duty, 362
deontic justice, 374
deontic perspective, 362
descriptive norms, 155, 163
descriptive norms and individuals’ personal norms, 166
“developing stability,” emphasis on, 240
development
broad category of, 403
leadership climate of, 109–110
development plan, creating for managers, 38–39
deviance, 163
deviant behavior, 142, 143
deviant organizational climate, 142
dialectical model, of organizational change, 469t
dialectics change model, 468
Digitt, culture as an impediment to change, 201–204
dimensions
additional proposed, 547
broad spectrum encompassing culture and climate, 539
gauging relative importance of individual, 547
major forces in the environment, 464
of OCB, 159
studied in generic approach, 538
direct assessment, 30
direction, 106
direction, alignment, and commitment (DAC), 114
direction-alignment-commitment (DAC) ontological framework, of leadership, 102
discourse, 123
discourse analysis, as an analytical tool, 129
dispersion composition models, 488, 491–492
dispersion indices, as indicators of culture strength, 499
dispersion models, 373, 487 (p. 718)
distinct relationship models, studies comparing, 513
distractions, 92
distributive justice, 361, 375
distributive justice climate, leading to burnout, 364
diversification, 3M, 570
diversification stage, 240t, 241, 246
diversity
awards, 223
issues of, 58–59
rejection of values of, 144
at the Tata Group, 655
diversity climate, 389
DNA
of the culture of the company, 249
of an organization, 472
double-loop learning, 141
Dr. Charlie. See Mayo, Charles H.
Dr. Will. See Mayo, William J.
“dustbowl empiricism,” 210
dysfunctional cultures, disappearing, 556
dysfunctional organizational culture, 167
E
early humans, emergence of, 555
e-coaching, 96
economic conditions, challenging performance and performance management, 85t
effectiveness, 559
effective organizations, 561
efficacy climate, 184, 192
emergence
concept of, 554
typology of, 487
“emergence enabling process,” 35
emic (qualitative approaches), 9
emic methods, anthropologists case studies of cultures via, 7
emotional display rules, 59, 137, 143
emotions
induced, 478
managing, 59
as a whole-of-organizational phenomenon, 137
emotion work, 143
empirical differentiation, between CWB and deviance, 163
empirical studies
on the antecedents of climate strength, 519–520t
of the influences of climate strength, 511–512t
employee antecedents, of ethical climates, 417
employee back-up, 305
employee characteristics, as a boundary condition, 311–312
employee-customer relationships, reciprocity in, 308–309
employee empowerment, 279, 304
employee engagement, 92–94
average level of, 209
concept of, 400
from culture to, 562–563
described, 326
statistically significant factor influencing voluntary turnover, 210
employee engagement drivers
country-level, 664–666
global leadership, 669–670
employee justice concerns, 361–362
employee justice perceptions, 360–377
employee opinion surveys, 673
employee performance ratings, 628
employee preferences, global leadership, 669–670
employee protection
different levels of, 319
positive and negative leadership, 305
employees
approach shaped by service climate, 297
assessment of the real priority of safety, 319
big data existing about, 198
as children in a parent-child relationship with the CEO, 127
connecting to networks outside the organization, 269
consenting to working in hazardous conditions, 127
developing co-existing specific climates, 331
discriminating between procedures instituted and those executed, 327
experiencing ongoing pain and suffering, 143
failing to engage in mandated forms of display, 143
focusing on strengths of rather than weaknesses, 140
impact of organizational culture on, 185
perceptions of practices important for achieving desired organizational outcomes, 304
perceptions of the treatment of others, 361
satisfaction at 3M, 574
say-do gaps involving, 198
silence of, 366
systematically disadvantaged, 224
Tata Group, 649
telling stories, 124
employee surveys
3M Standard Opinion Survey, 574
OHS (Organizational Health Survey), 588
Employee Value Proposition (EVP)
global leadership, 662–663
McDonald’s, 627
employee voice, research on, 74–75
employee well-being
climate for, 313
molar climate of, 537
primacy of, 200
employment, providing opportunities to gain acceptance, 558
“employment at will,” 278
employment contracts, 228
enacted policies, 320
enacted values, 46, 684
engaged employee, described, 92–93
engagement. See also employee engagement
becoming a central focus, 410
climate for, 400–411
concept of, 562
correlated with every index of organizational performance, 562
culture of, 84
defined, 400, 405
influencing downstream outcomes, 408
job resources consistently associated with, 401
predictive of organizational performance and competitive advantage, 401
retaining employees, 210
support for, 93–94
engagement drivers. See employee engagement drivers
engagement models, additional research on, 410–411
Enterprising cultures, 560, 561, 561t
entitlement mindset
McDonald’s, 623–624
3M, 572
environmental antecedents, of ethical climate, 428–429
environmental conditions, affecting group performance management, 95t
environmental management systems, 263t, 266
environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA), 555
equifinality
assumption about, 535
notion of, 541
errors
dealing with, 338
responses to, 347
espoused beliefs and values, 460, 476
espoused values, 46
associated with service endorsements, 302
consisting of consciously held beliefs, 157
generally not uniformly enacted, 129
needing to be consistent with practices, 549
not always aligned with enacted values, 52
of organizations, 48
ethical climate(s)
antecedents of, 417
associating with various outcomes, 436 (p. 719)
characteristics of empirical studies, 418–428t
conceptualization and operationalization of, 416–417
consequences of, 429–430
defined, 415
different, 416
of different units, 428
dimensions of, 435
in organizations, defined, 165
predicting ethical decision making, 371
related to psychological well-being and dysfunctional behavior, 416
relationship with unit-level CWB, 165
review of the literature, 415–430
stressors shaping, 190
strong compared to weak, 390
ethical climate and culture
evaluation and suggestions for the literatures on, 434–436
review of the literature, 415–436
ethical climate literature, review of, 165
Ethical Climate Questionnaire (ECQ), 416–417
ethical criterion, 416
ethical culture, 374, 430–434, 547
antecedents of, 434
approaches to assessing, 433
characteristics of empirical studies on, 431–432t
conceptualization and operationalization of, 430
consequences of, 434
measuring, 435
ethical unit culture, linked with ethical leadership, 165
ethics, Tata Group, 645–646
etic approaches, 7
etic stance, compared to emic stance, 374
evidence-based management, 82–84
evolutionary change process model, 469–470
evolutionary model, of organizational change, 469t
evolutionary theory, group level selection and, 554
evolution change model, 468
exclusive career culture and climate, 224–225
exclusive climate, 220t
expansion stage, 245
Experience Sampling Method (ESM) study, 144–145
external environment, 369, 459
F
facet-based justice climate, 364–365
facets, of justice, 361
facet-specific climates, 258–259, 262
fairness perceptions, 362
fairness theory, 374
family, basic unit of group living, 559
“family type atmosphere,” 250
feedback. See also surveys
critical events enhancing the value of, 91t
for development separated from feedback for administration, 83
moderating goal-performance relationship, 70
as motivation, 584
feedback administration, 90t
feedback orientation, 90t
feedback surveys, 96
femininity vs. masculinity, global leadership, 661–662
first-line managers, PepsiCo, 591, 593
fit
assumptions about, 535
levels of, 30, 31
subjective and objective, 31
Flamholtz Life Cycle Model, 242–243, 243t
focus, of an organization’s climate, 46
focused climates, 158
literature on, 164
molar climates and, 492
research on, 158
focus on customers, McDonald’s, 625–626
forgiveness, climate of, 367, 392
foundation issues, 303, 306
founders
constructing a fledgling organization’s shared identity, 446
creating and embedding culture in organizations, 103
cultures of, 278–281
hiring people who share their values, 282
legacies of, 684
needs, traits, and values of, 68
telling stories, 124
framework, of culture, climate, and unit-level behavior, 156–159
franchisees, McDonald’s, 621
freedom to defect, 556
freedom within a framework, McDonald’s, 625
free-riding, 556
front-line processes, in health care organizations, 338–339
future research, areas for, 168–171
fuzzy set analysis, 547–549
G
Gazprom, 283–285, 287
generative tasks, 383–384, 388–389
generosity, Mayo Clinic, 611, 617, 618
“getting at,” basic underlying assumptions, 479
“g” factor, in organizational performance, 562
GLEAM (Gay Lesbian Employees Advocates and More), 223
“global achievement career climate,” 231
global enterprise resource planning, 624–625
globalization. See also Tata Group, globalization
increasing pressures on multinational organizations, 287
lens of, 128–129
Tata Group, 638
global leadership. See also leadership
China vs. United States, 667
cultural agility, 671–673
global talent, 656–666
next steps, 674–675
organizational complexity, 659–660, 666–670
self knowledge, 660, 670, 671–673
Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) project, 105–106, 112, 276
global unit behavior, 155
goals
affecting individual and group performance, 70–71
for growth and business development at 3M, 579–580
influencing and influenced by individuals entering an organization, 368
most proximal motivator of human behavior, 67
seen as relevant at lower levels, 86
strong indicators of an organization’s culture, 74
goal setting
link between informal and formal practices for, 87–88
as a motivational tactic, 65
participation in, 74
goal-setting theory, 69–72
Great Place to Work Institute, 127
grounded in action orientation, 124
group absence norms, 167
group and organizational leadership, 323–324
group cohesion, 367, 522
group competencies, 95t
group life
during the EEA, 555
key to long-term survival, 441
people needing to participate in, 558
group performance management, 94, 95t
group potency, 184
groups
factors affecting performance management in, 94, 95t
versus individuals, 557–559
natural history of, 554–556
“growing pains,” 244
growth stage, 239, 240t
H
health care
changes in, 57
climate, culture, and organizational performance in, 340–345
expenditures globally, 335 (p. 720)
model of culture and climate in, 337f
professional subcultures in, 348–353
research limitations, 339–340
studies linking culture and climate to outcomes, 341–342t
health care industry
interventions improving performance, 335
safety climate scale developed for, 329
health care organizations
complexity of the functions of, 336
diversity of aims, 355
factors shaping culture and climate of, 337–340
likely to comprise several types of subcultures, 348
health care performance, climate and culture for, 335–356
Healthy Organizations, described, 186
Healthy Work Organization, recent work on developing and testing models of, 192
helping behavior, 159
Heritage Week, Mayo Clinic, 606
heterogeneity, 298, 311
hierarchical cluster analysis, conducting first, 544
“hierarchy” cultures, in hospitals, 340
Hierarchy culture types, 561, 561t
higher-order climate factor, 328
higher-order factor analytic approach, 537–538
high learning goals, 70
high performance work systems (HPWS), 171, 365
“high-pressure service climate,” 314
high-reliability organizations, 389
hiring strategy, 3M, 578
holidays, organizational complexity, 669
human beings, inherent needs, 66–67
human capital resources
defined, 25
emergence of, 35–36
organizational performance outcomes and, 36–37
staffing practices contributing to the formation of, 26
human needs, socioanalytic view of, 558t
Human Resources, 3M, 574, 576
human resources (HR) processes, purpose of, 585–586
Human Resources Management (HRM) practices, 227, 355, 526, 527, 535
human resources practices, 303–304, 339
humans, evolution of, 558
hunter-gatherer lifestyle, 555
Hurricane Katrina outreach, Mayo Clinic, 617–618
I
identity theory, 444, 445
ILM analysis, 204, 209
implicit leadership, theories and prototypes, 104–105
inauthentic emotional expression, 143
incentives
driving adoption of sustainability practices, 266
rewarding performance, 73–74
at 3M, 574
inclusion programs, issues of, 58–59
inclusive career culture and climate, 223–224
inclusive climate, 220t, 224
independence ethical climate, 416
Indian independence, Tata Group, 637
indirect assessment, 30
individual competencies, affecting group performance management, 95t
individual initiative, 159
Individualism-Collectivism (I-C), 189–190
individualism vs. collectivism, global leadership, 661
individual knowledge, skills, abilities, other characteristics and individual performance and, 34–35
individual level, lower-level constructs at, 485
individual-level justice, 361–364
individual level of analysis, 181
individual outcomes, affecting group performance management, 95t
individual perceptions, not occurring in a vacuum, 363
individual perceptions of organizational priorities (iPOP), 443, 449, 452f
individual performance
affected by SOT programs, 51–52
categories of, 48
dependent on capabilities and effort, 82
individual performance behavior, 35
individuals
groups versus, 557–559
influenced by others, 368
motivational forces within, 66
perceiving organizational signals differently, 218
inductive approaches, to configurations, 541–544
informational justice, 183
injuctive norms, 155
injustice
sources of, 363
stories of, 369
innovation climate
climate strength, 520
in one division complementing a quality-based climate in another, 549
promoting dissent and risk taking, 392
reducing negative impact of work demands on organizational performance, 389
institutionalization stage, 246
institutional theory, 279–281
instrumental climate dimension, 181
instrumental ethical climates, 416, 429
instrumental motivation, for seeking distributive and procedural justice, 361
intangible services, 298, 310
integration
of modes of conceptualizing climate, 533
as part of the diversification stage, 241
integration approach, 527
integrative perspective, 681
integrity, acting with, 93t
interactional justice, 183, 362
interactions, 123, 132
inter-climate relationships, 331, 492
interdependence
among service providers and between service providers and internal employees, 310
as a boundary condition, 516
effect on interaction of procedural and distributive justice, 375
internalization
process of, 447
psychological mechanism of, 453
internal mobility, 205f, 209
internal service, as a boundary condition, 312
interpersonal relations climate, related to employee strain, 183–184
interpersonal relationships, 305
interpretive turn, of organizational communication, 120
inter-team working, 353, 354
interunit justice cllimate, 373
interventions
affecting group performance management, 95t
changing the organization, 471
to facilitate change, 479
guidelines for, 192
implementing to improve or change culture, 111
organizational, 477
studies evaluating needed, 194
intervention strategies, studies testing, 330
intraunit justice climate, 372–373
Investigative cultures, 560, 561t
investment, in employee protection, 319
isomorphic pressures, 280
J
Jaguar Land Rover (JLR), 651–654
James-Lange theory, 476, 477, 478
J.N. Tata Endowment, 637, 639, 645
job and organizational change, 85t
job attitudes, as an outcome of ethical climate, 429
Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R), 401, 406b
Job Demands-Resources theories (JD-R theory), 187 (p. 721)
job performance
effect of procedural justice climate on, 364
generic model of, 325
judgment tasks, 384
effective performance in, 389–390
justice
as a norm of moral behavior, 362
as a social contagion, 368–369
sources of, 362–364
justice and national culture, 375–376
justice and organizational culture, 374–375
justice climate, 15, 164, 169, 364–367
as a boundary condition, 365–366
versus climate for justice, 370–371
compared to justice culture, 376
as a cue for relationships, 367
defined, 182–183, 390
focus of, 371
hierarchy among the dimensions of, 188
interplay with justice culture, 377f
interunit versus intraunit, 372–373
measurement and modeling of, 370
measuring, 373
moderating nonjustice relationships, 366–367
relationship of dimensions of with dimensions of unit burn-out, 516climate strngth
relations with employee strain, 183
roots of, 183
serving as symbol, 376
summary, 373–374
team-level versus organizational level, 371–372
justice climate emergence, 367–370
justice climates
large number of, 365
now formed, 360
justice climate strength
construct of, 488
defined, 366
effect of ASA on, 368
justice culture, 15, 360, 374–376, 377
justice perceptions, as multilevel phenomena, 364
justice theories, 183
classic, 361
K
key constructs, theoretical foundations of, 45–48
k-means clustering, 543–544
k-means methods, 542
knowledge network, 141
knowledge structures, 141, 144
Kroc, Ray (at McDonald’s), 620, 621, 625
KSAOs, 33–34, 37
Kuenzi and Schminke taxonomy, 403
L
labels, for communication, 118
latent class analysis, 492, 544, 549
latent loyalty, 307
latent profile analysis, 492, 543f, 544
law and code ethical climate, 416
law firms, hiring practices, 223, 224
“lawfulness,” to organizational growth and internal development, 241
lay managers, favoring a distinctly individualistic value system, 350
leader antecedents, of ethical climate, 417, 428
leader-driven (top-down) mechanisms, 269–270
leader facilitation and support, climate dimension of, 108–109
leader-member exchange (LMX), 103, 323, 521
leaders
characteristics of, 105
chosen by founders, 68
delineating new roles and responsibilities, 263t
embedding culture in organizations, 8
espousing and reinforcing organizational culture and climate, 392–393
establishing positive norms, 140
formulation and maintenance of strategic organizational climate, 450
fostering climates, 393
framing sustainability issues, 263t
with global responsibilities, 18
influencing employees’ behaviors, 162
linking employee actions at work to their behaviors at home, 265
making personnel decisions, 53
managing individual and team performance, 82
modeling positivity, 141
needing a combination of leadership styles, 95–96
responding to crisis in culture-consistent ways, 52–53
as role models, 557
selection and development of, 192
setting bold goals for their comany’s actions on sustainability, 263
setting goals establishing a culture of innovation versus safety, 75
signing on to voluntary standards programs, 263t
telling stories to express and confirm their view of the organization, 124
values and preferences of incorporated into work group norms, 557
leadership. See also global leadership
affecting engagement, 562
central to climate and culture formation and maintenance, 683–684
climate and culture of, 22, 104f
effect on organizational climate, 323
framework for the culture and climate of, 103–111
at front-line level, 355
having effects on unit-level OCB through climate, 162
impact on organizational culture, 506
important when organizational service climate is not favorable, 306
influencing both the level and dispersion of culture and climate, 112
key driver of organizational effectiveness, 557
key influence on team effectiveness, 354
as one aspect of a more general organizational climate, 108
of the organization, 157
organizational effectiveness and, 559–560
predicting performance outcomes, 343
promoting positive ethical climates, 430
relationship with culture, 236
role in organizations, 101–114
role of, 11
source of organizational culture and climate, 304–306
substantive relationship with climate strength, 523
tenure and stability of affecting ability organizations to maintain focus on patient safety, 347
tyrannical, autocratic, and dictatorial forms of, 562
Leadership at McDonald’s Program (LAMP), 627
Leadership Attributes, 3M, 576
leadership beliefs
in organizations, 106
shaping leadership practices (believing is seeing), 110–111
leadership climate
focusing on leader behaviors, 107
no agreed approach to, 109
origins of, 102–103
strength and, 521–522
leadership climate and culture, 111–114
leadership climate of development, 109–110
leadership climates and culture, future research directions, 114–115
leadership climate strength, 518, 519
leadership culture, 104
leadership culture and climate
aligning, 112–114
linking, 110–111
leadership development. See career development
leadership dimensions, relevant to the service, 305
leadership hierarchy, PepsiCo, 586, 589–593
leadership practices, shaping beliefs (seeing is believing), 111
leadership processes, perceptions of, 107–110
leadership-safety climate relationship, 323
leadership styles, 305–306, 417, 521
Leadership Survey, 3M, 572–573
“leadership value chain,” 563 (p. 722)
leadership visibility, related to procedural justice climate, 370
“learned helplessness,” feeling of, 227
learning
affecting group performance management, 95t
emphasizing as a value, 354
from failure, 575
increasing job competence, 93
support for career-long, continuous, 96–97
learning climate, 220t
learning goal orientation, 225
learning orientation, Tata Group, 648
lenses, 125–129, 130
lens of narrative reproduction, 121
lens of politics and power, 121
life cycle model, 237, 468–469, 469t
lifetime employment, 3M, 578–579
linear direct effects, of climate strength, 516–517
linkage research, concept of, 297
local context, organizational complexity, 668–669
locus of analysis, 416
“long-term goals,” in life cycle models, 239
looking around, 362
looking in, 362
looking out, 362
loyalty
to the organization, 223
re-defined, 307–308
M
macro processes, in organizations, 13–14, 213
macro themes, of this handbook, 680
main effect
climate and culture as, 180
organizational climate as, 181–185
main effects model, 508, 509
management
composition of upper, 228
lens of, 127
role in 3M employee engagement, 574–575
management and governance, Mayo Clinic, 611–613
management and leadership, 228–229
management commitment
challenges in detecting real, 319–321
single higher-order factor representing, 328
unraveling true, 320
management practices
change and, 475
positively associated with employee attitudes, 304
Management Skills Assessment Instrument (MSAI), 107
managerial incompetence, base rate of, 562
managerial practices, 300, 473
manager quality performance index (MQPI), 596–597
managers
assessing culture strength of other organizations, 503
enacting exclusive career practices in their selection and promotion, 225
failing to deal with their employees’ attitudes and behavior in the workplace, 147
hiring and promoting incompetent, 87
influencing employees’ engagement, 92
promoting a climate of engagement, 93–94t
Marakose, Kuruville, acquisitions at Tata Group, 647
“market” cultures, in hospitals, 340
Market culture types, 561t
marketing
defining uniqueness, 686
Tata Group, 654
market insulation, indicators of, 202
marketplace, feedback from, 56–57
masculinity vs. femininity, global leadership, 661–662
maturity stage, of an organization, 239–241, 240t
Mayo, Charles H., 17, 604–609, 618
Mayo, William J., 611, 612–613
Mayo, William Worrall, 17, 604–606, 618
Mayo Clinic
architecture, 605–606
culture, 604, 613–615, 618
the doctors Mayo, 604–606
expansion to FL and AZ, 606
founding of, 604–606
future directions, 618–619
Heritage Week, 606
history of, 17
Hurricane Katrina outreach, 617–618
management and governance, 611–613
the Mayo way, 604–606
patient-first legacy, 606–608
patient satisfaction scores, 606
team-based medicine, 608–610, 618
values, 611, 615–618
Mayo Properties Association, 611
the Mayo way, Mayo Clinic, 604–606
Mayowood, home of Charles Mayo, 606
McDonald’s
business transformation, 18
decline, 621–625
early growth, 621
founding of, 620
future, 629
global worth, 620
leadership, 628
number of locations, 620
owner/operators. see franchisees
performance/accountability, 622–623
QSC&V (Quality, Service, Cleanliness, and Value), 621
success, 626–629
three-legged stool, 620–621
turnaround, 624–628
meaning
attached to patterns, 684
defined, 374
employees attach to policies, procedures, and practices, 318
negotiated through communication, 119
not given by one to another, 124
as a social phenomenon, 129
measurement. See also assessment; surveys
approaches to, 288–289
of culture and climate in health care, 336
mediator effects, climate culture operating via, 181
mediators, 190, 450, 490
medical clinicians, identity of, 350
medical managers, attitudes and beliefs, 350
members, championing or “sell” new issues, 267t
methodologies, of research on ethical climate and culture, 435
microclimates, 200
micro processes, in organizations, 10–13
“middle up,” advancing issues from, 268
mimetic isomorphism, 280, 287
Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company. See 3M
Mistry, Cyrus, 640–644, 655
mode of delivery, of new information, 49
moderating effects, of organizational climate or culture, 187
moderator variables
climate and culture as, 180, 187–190
concept of strength serving as, 491
enhancing and weakening performance, 70
molar approach
limited, 538
to organizational climate, 492
to the study of climate, 537–538
molar climate, 158, 181, 492, 539
molar or macro climate, 180
motivation, in the workplace, 66–68
motivational tactics, 65–76
motivational tactics and culture, integrated model of, 76f
motivators
peer pressure, Mayo Clinic, 610
straight-salary employment, Mayo Clinic, 610, 618
MQPI (manager quality performance index), 596–597
MultiCo, planning a culture change, 204–206
multifoci justice, 362–363
multifoci justice climate, 365, 370
multi-item scales, measuring culture strength, 502–505
multi-level studies, examining cross-level influences of climate strength, 517–520
multinationals, Tata Group, 655–656 (p. 723)
multisource feedback, 89–92
mutual respect
cultural values of, 390
Mayo Clinic, 616
N
Nano (car), 635, 655
narrative reproduction, lens of, 126
national and organizational culture constructs, core of, 277–278
national culture
affecting organizational career climates, 231
affecting work settings, 213
as another layer of culture, 349
culture of an organization existing in conjunction with, 186
of early life internalized, 277
as an example of unclassified construct, 539
global talent, 660–662
influence of, 337
justice in relation to, 375
organizational complexity, 667
nationalism, Tata Group, 637
needs
categories of, 558
of human beings, 66–67
theory, 406b
needs-supplies fit, 30
altering human capital resource emergence process, 35
emphasizing, 38
explaining recruiting and attrition, 33
between specific facets of the person and the job, 31
negative affective organizational culture, 142–144
negative climate, not necessary for CWB, 165
negative emotions
as a consequence of life and fluctuating moment-by-moment, 148
embedded in organizational values, 142–143
learned directly or vicariously, 147
playing a critical role in human survival, 142
negative ethical climate, 165
negative organizational climate, 141–142
“negotiated order,” culture as, 267
networks
connecting individual employees across organizations, 269
connecting to larger, 267t
“newcomers,” 246, 251
New Product Vitality Index (NPVI), 573, 580–581
new venture stage, 244–245
no effect, 281
normative isomorphism, 280, 281, 282, 289
norms
assessing, 155
as the deeper layer, 156
going beyond average individual behavior, 160
leadership hierarchy effects (PepsiCo), 590
peer focused, 156
for responding to justice-related events, 371
of shared behavior, 140–141
turning conflict into collaboration, 391
nurse clinicians, values of, 350
O
object orientation, 123
“occupational communities,” literature on, 45
OCM (organizational climate measure), 404, 539
OHS (Organizational Health Survey), 588, 593
“old timers,” 251
“old times,” 246
online assessment centers, 96
openness
cultural norms emphasizing, 391
demonstrating, 93t
lack of, 479
operationalization, 434–435
opportunities, sustainability issues framed as, 263–264
optimism
as a hallmark of American culture, 288
related to engagement, 401
organization(s)
aligning leadership beliefs with practices, 113
becoming more bureaucratic or mechanistic in form, 237
becoming obsessed with overly prescriptive rules for emotional display, 143
bringing about change in, 441
career cultures and climates in, 215–232
classifying into culture types, 535
defined, 122
emerging from communication, 121
establishing unique competencies for, 112
having multiple differentiated climates and cultures, 681
with higher climate strength, 491
isomorphic with culture, 122
leadership role in, 101–114
more leeway to dismiss members, 278
perceptions of leader development in, 109
positive and negative affect in, 137
sharing environments to show within-society homogeneity, 280
as social actors, 445
tending to become homogenous, 110
understanding the behavior of, 448
unit-level behavior in, 154–156
units of, 301
organizational antecedents, of ethical climates, 428
organizational behavior
dilemma of researchers, 540
field of, 448
values with implications for financial performance, 236
organizational career climates, 217f, 230
organizational career cultures and climates, 222–223
organizational career signals, 217
organizational career signals and climate, 227–229
organizational change, 457–481
components, 477
with loosely coupled systems, 480
methods of, 470–471
as normal condition of organizational life, 472
perspectives on, 468–470
practice of, 479–480
research, 480–481
research supporting some “rules” of, 466–468
rich data on, 683
stemming more from environmental impact, 460
organizational change and development, overview of research on, 461–466
organizational characteristics
affecting performance management, 81–82
serving as “signals,” 227
organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), 75, 153, 361
becoming normative, 169
employees performance, 311–312
from a global unit behavior perspective, 163
process climates and, 161–162
studying at higher levels of analysis, 159
organizational climate, 28–29, 131–132, 220t, 236–237, 443. See also organizational climate and culture; organizational culture; organizational culture and climate
antecedent conditions, 449
antecedents and consequences of, 444
background and context, 458–459
changes in, 493
changing, 473–476
communicative studies of, 130–132
compared to organizational culture, 29–30
concept of, 299
(p. 724)
created and maintained by organizational actors and social network structures, 387
defined, 10, 65, 179, 216, 382, 387, 402
described, 46, 108, 180, 402–403
differentiated from culture, 137
difficult to change, 457
as a domain-specific or “functionally specific” construct, 403
emerging study of, 448
focus on, 443
instead of pockets of social climate, 448
as a main effect, 181–185
mapping antecedents of, 450
model of, 448
modes of studying, 537–538
more temporary, 382–383
muddled meaning of, 454
nature of, 249
negative aspects predicting adverse health effects, 339
as an organizatinal-level attribute, 448
organizational identification examining the consequences of, 444
at the organizational level of analysis, 451
as a perceptible framework, 258
providing a bridge to explain organizational performance, 453
versus psychological climate, 435–436
psychological orientation of scholarship in, 445
relationship with communication climate, 131
research on, 4–6, 108, 461
review, 261–262
signifying organizational-level of analysis, 451
similarities with organizational culture, 29
Tata Group, 648
theorizing antecedents of, 447–451
types of, 181
viewing through lens of organizational identity, 450
organizational climate and culture. See also organizational culture and climate
defining, 179–180
related to unit-level productive and counterproductive behavior, 168
organizational climate level priority, 391
organizational climate measure (OCM), 404, 539
organizational climate scholarship, 443–454
organizational climate strength, 448, 524
organizational communication, 119–121
organizational complexity, global leadership, 659–660, 666–670
organizational compliance, 159
organizational crisis, impact on performance, 85t
organizational culture, 26–28, 104–106. See also organizational climate; organizational climate and culture; organizational culture and climate
affecting climate, 303
assigning a value to employees based on gender and ethnicity, 128
begining with a leader, and trickling downward, 192
changing, 123, 476–479
communicative study of, 121–130
comparing with organizational climate, 132–133
comprising observable artifacts, espoused values, and underlying assumptions, 302
conceptualized, 236, 382
core aspects of, 140
deep structure of, 386–387
defined, 10, 122–125, 180, 216, 459
described, 45
developing, 80
differences reflective of cultural values between countries, 287
differentiated by core beliefs, 106
emphasis on is more than on to what it is specifically related, 295
essential features common to definitions of, 122
evolutionary view of, 553–563
foundation on which climate rests, 312
fragmented, 492
goals and evolving, 68
impossible to change, 457
influencing national culture, 213
leadership and, 103
lenses for studying, 125–129
levels of, 476
levels of phenomena providing tools for detecting mixed signals, 230
as a main effect, 185–187
measuring, 506
mediating effects of justice perceptions, 375
mimetic changes in, 57
model developed by Schein, 157
models applied to the study of, 28
moderating effect of justice on OCBs, 375
modes of studying, 536–537
more explicit than societal culture, 278
multilevel and aggregation issues in, 489
nested within a societal culture, 278
organizational complexity, 667–668
origins of, 4
overriding aspects of societal cultures, 289
physical manifestation of, 386
quantitative measures of, 124
referrring to shared values, normative beliefs, and underlying assumptions, 496
relationship with economic organizational performance, 502
relationship with unit-level productive behavior, 162
researching using classical anthropological methods, 199
research on, 461
Schein’s three levels of, 221
source of, 279
studying by focusing on in-depth studies within one organization, 130
studying other organizational phenomena, 130
summary, 129–130
as symbol, language, ideology, belief, ritual, myth, 27–28
taxonomy of, 561t
transition between, 277
types of, 186, 536
organizational culture and climate, 258–259. See also organizational climate and culture
configural approach to the study, 532–549
derived from founder or founders, 249
directions for future research, 39–40
emerging and changing over time, 683
Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI), 185–186, 278, 536
as a measure of behavioral norms, 162
profiles across dimensions from, 540
Organizational Culture Profile (OCP), 157, 506, 537, 540
organizational culture research, 6–9
organizational culture review, 261
organizational culture survey (OCS), 536
organizational culture tradition, 121
organizational culture transmission, 124
organizational development, pyramid of, 244f
“organizational direct effect,” 35
organizational DNA, 248
organizational effectiveness, 504, 505, 526, 559–562
organizational financial performance, 309–310
organizational functioning, integrated model for, 409f
“organizational growing pains,” 242
organizational growth, stages of, 238–241, 240t
Organizational Health Survey (OHS), 588, 593
organizational identification (OID), 16, 444, 447
linking individual attributes with organizational performance, 453
process of, 452
a subtype of broader concept of social identification, 447
organizational identity (OI), 15, 16, 444–446
characterized as a shared cognitive framework, 445 (p. 725)
compared to organizational identification, 452
conceptualized, 444
described, 441
equating with social forms, 446
as a guide for theorizing, 447
link with sPOP strength, 450
positing in place of organizational culture, 449
relationship with organizational culture, 449
sense-giving role of, 445
organizational knowledge structures, 141
organizational language, culture reflected in, 302
organizational leader-driven mechanisms, 262–266
organizational level, 300–302, 435–436
organizational-level attributes, 178
organizational-level competitive advantage, 24
organizational-level justice climate, 372
organizational-level outcomes, 48
organizational-level performance, 45, 54–55
organizational life, 558
organizational life cycles
defined, 235–236
implications for corporate culture and climate, 235–255
organizational life cycle theory, 236–237
organizational loyalty, 159
organizationally relevant outcomes, 451–453
organizational member-driven mechanisms, 266–271
organizational members
attention to sustainability issues, 267t
inferring strategic priorities from day to day work, 450
influencing climate or culture in a bottom-up fashion, 262
more powerful getting less powerful to accept their views, 127
organizational needs, meeting changing, 94–96
organizational orientation to emotion, 140
organizational outreach, Mayo Clinic, 617–618
organizational performance, 56, 499
organizational priority alignment, 444, 451
organizational reputation, 227, 369
organizational signals, 227–229
organizational socialization, 47
organizational staffing, 24–26
organizational storytelling, 369
organizational structure
formalization of, 238
influencing individual-level justice perceptions, 369
relationship with climate strength, 522
organizational transitions, nature of, 241–242
organizational version, of OCL, 451
organizational work climates, link with career orientation, 217
organization change research (1974-1999), summary of reviews concerning, 465t
organization climate strength, 519, 520,
organization development (OD), 461
organization-wide superordinate goals, 69–70
orientation
described, 47–48
effects of culture and climate on, 48–50
outcomes
categories of, 336
customer- and productivity-related, 307–310
of ethical climate, 429
specific to health care, 339–340
overall justice, perceptions of, 363
overall justice climate, 365, 377
owner/operators. See franchisees
ownership, sense of, 390
P
Partner Brand strategy, 621, 625
“parts” approach, strategic climare representing, 538
passion for service, concept of, 313
patient-first legacy, Mayo Clinic, 606–608
patient-first values, Mayo Clinic, 615
patient mortality
as outcome measure, 339
rates, predictors of, 344
patients, dying from preventable errors, 345
patient safety
complexity of managing, 347
cultures and climates influencing, 345–348
indicators of, 515
Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations survey, 347
Patient Safety Indicators, 348
patient satisfaction scores, Mayo Clinic, 606
patterns
disrupting existing, 265
of stimuli, 684
pattern simplicity, 521
pattern variability, 521
pay and benefits, 3M, 577
pay effects, on voluntary turnover, 207f
pay for performance, 206, 577
“pays to be green” debate, 260
people, ignoring attributes of, 29–30
PepsiCo
Burke-Litwin model, 585, 587
case examples from, 17
core people processes, 586–588, 593
Core People Process lifecycle, 593–599
introduction, 584–586
leadership hierarchy, 586, 589–593, 600
relationships between climate and culture, 680–681
time horizon for change, 586, 599–601
perceived organizational priorities (POP), 443, 449, 454
perceivers, organizing fairness perceptions, 362
perceptions and beliefs, variation in, 112
perceptual vantage points, classified, 362
performance
climate and culture affecting, 162
definition expanded to include OCB, 159
effect of culture and climate on, 48
effects of goals on, 70
individual level of, 51
linking to career success, 85t
measuring, 355
measuring in health care sector, 340
reciprocal effects of on culture and climate, 55–57
3M, 579
performance/accountability at McDonald’s, 622–623, 626, 627–628, 630
performance aids, for information, knowledge, training, and best practices, 96
performance appraisals, 228, 362
performance climate, 220t, 226
performance goal orientation, 225
performance improvement, Tata Group, 646–648
performance improvement/feedback-oriented culture, inducing, 90t
performance information, gathering, 87
performance management, 79–97
challenges to, 84–85
critical analysis of, 85–88
future challenges and directions for, 96–97
as individual, group, and organization-level indicators of climate, 88–94
organizational characteristics affecting, 81–82
premises underlying, 83–84t
unintended consequences, 86t
as a vehicle for culture change, 80
performance management process (PMP), Tata Group, 650–651
performance management systems, 85t, 147
perishability, 298–299
personality
as a determinant of occupational performance, 560
leader’s affecting service climate, 305
pivotal role in leadership effectiveness, 560
strong service climate constraining expression of employees,’ 312
(p. 726)
person-environment (PE) fit, 185
defined, 26, 30
theory, 30–32
pet projects, 3M, 570, 580
Plan to Win, McDonald’s program, 625–628
policy execution, 321, 327
political behavior, 147, 252
positive affective culture, 140, 141, 148
positive affective organizational climate, 138–139
positive affective organizational culture, 139–141
positive and negative organizational climates, coexisting, 144–146
positive culture and climate, impediments to developing, 146–148
positive cultures, generalizable acros culture types, 683
positive emotions, 139, 140, 148
positive service climate, 299, 301, 311, 312
Post-it® Note project, 575
power and politics, lens of, 127–128
Power Distance
in Germany, 285
in Russian society, 285
power distance vs. authoritarianism, global leadership, 661
practical implication, of research on climate and culture, 191–192
preferences, country-level, 663–664
problem performers, challenging performance and performance management, 85t
procedural justice, 183, 361, 375
procedural justice climate, 192
assessing, 364
fostering improved team performance, 390
interacting with hierarchical status within organizations, 366–367
unrelated to aggression rates, 164
process climates, 158
foundational to strategic climates, 170
human outcomes, 685
relationships with unit-level OCB, 161
process climates and cultures, 296
process conflict, 385
process models of organizational change, 469t
process variables, 95t
product line, 3M, 570, 579
professional associations, 338, 352
professional cultures, 351, 352
“Professionalization Stage,” in Flamholtz’s model, 239
professionalization stage, 240t, 245–246
professional subcultures, 349, 350
professions
learning display rules in graduate training, 59
pressures emerging within, 280
socialization into, 336
profiles, of dimensions of climate and/or culture, 442
Project GLOBE, 276, 281, 283, 288
“proof of concept,” 244
prosocial behaviors, 162, 304, 430
protean career cultures and climates, 221–222
protean climates, 220t, 222, 226
psychological climate, 513
compared to organizational climate, 46
defined, 108, 533
dimensions positively related to SWB, 181
not always aligned with organizational climate, 52
psychological component, to organizational climate, 179
psychologically safe environment, 92
psychological safety, climate of, 389, 401
psychological work ownership, 324
pyramid at each stage, 244–247
Pyramid model, at different stages of growth, 243–244
“Pyramid of Organizational Development,” 243
Q
quality
indicators of, 310
of patient care, 339
R
rating standards, to evaluate employees, 87
reactions
to change attempts, 477
regarding proposed change, 478
Realistic cultures, 560, 561t
“real” or actual culture, 247
recipients, effects of change on, 467
reciprocity, 363, 452
recognition dimension, of climate, 459t
recruitment, moderating effects of, 50
referent-shift composition models, 370
referent-shift consensus composition model, 489
referent-shift consensus measures, of CWB, 167
referent-shift consensus model, 487, 488
reflecting, on what is unfolding in the change process, 468
relational reasons, employees caring about justice for, 362
relationship conflict, 385
Relative Weights Analysis (RWA), 664
reputation
distinct from storytelling narratives, 369
of an organization, 227
research siloes, 289–290
resistance to change
correlates of, 467
nature of, 470
by recipients, 468
resources, examining, 187
response surface modelling, 370
responsibility dimension, of climate, 459t
Restaurant Operations Improvement Process (ROIP), 626
retaining, emphasis on, 683
reversed influence, 282–283
“reverse dominance hierarchy,” 555
“Revival” phase, 241
rewards and compensation, 228
reward strategy, Tata Group, 651
reward systems
designing, 472
emphasizing careers and long-term value, 205
as expressions of culture, 206–208
rights to membership, Tata Group, 653
“right to work,” law in Michigan, 280
risks of change, 3M, temporary worsening, 573
risk taking
3M employee engagement, 575
Tata Group, 644
rituals, 125, 386
role-identity theory, 446
Roman Catholic Church, 217
routine tasks, 384
rules, varying across groups, 556
rules ethical climate, 416
rules of membership, Tata Group, 648
ruthless opportunism, career culture of, 228
RWA (Relative Weights Analysis), 664
S
safety
climate for, 29, 46
cultures and climates for, 345–348
cultures associated with high levels of, 346
extent of airline investments in, 320
investment in, 319
organization’s focus on, 49
safety behavior, 161, 325
safety climate, 317–331
affecting a number of generic outcomes, 326
antecedents of, 321–324
associated with improved compliance, 389
caused by organization’s accident and injury rates, 182
conceptual model of, 318, 325f
consequences of, 324–326
core meaning of, 318–321
defined, 318, 346
described, 182, 370
dimensionality of, 328
factorial structure of, 329f
improvement, 330
interacting with other specific climates, 331
link with safety outcomes, 347–348 (p. 727)
multi-level model of, 326–328
negatively related to team-level unsafe behaviors, 165
notion of, 180
predictor of subjective and objective safety outcomes, 318
promoting consistency and risk avoidance, 392
relationship with accidents/injuries, 161
research on, 170
versus safety culture, 318–319
universal versus industry specific, 328–330
unsafe behaviors and, 165
safety climate and culture, 318, 331
safety climate and/or culture, body of research on, 317
safety compliance, 161
safety culture, safety climate versus, 318–319
safety knowledge, 325–326
safety participation, 161
safety policies
personal meaning of, 321
priority of, 318
Saklatwala, Nowroji, at Tata Group, 637, 642
sales, Tata Group, 654
say and do, observed dichotomy between, 206
say and do data, juxtaposition of, 210
“say” data, sources of, 210
say-do gaps, 197–198
scientific study, of workplace stress, 177
scree plot, hierarchical cluster analysis, 542f
seeing is believing, 111
selection processes, moderating effects of, 50
self-development, 159
self-interest, “tragedy of the commons” effect and, 146–147
self knowledge, global leadership, 660, 670, 671–673
self-management, 88–89, 445
senior leadership
chasing every management fad, 55
exerting influence on climate for engagement, 408b
importance of, 355
PepsiCo, 589–590, 592, 600
sense-making, 471
effect of, 368
organizational identity as a form of, 445
processes, 520
SERV*OR (Service Orientation) service climate scale, 300
servant leaders, PepsiCo, 591
service
climate for, 29, 46
involving simultaneous production and consumption, 297
macro approach to, 314
as a process, 299
reflected by selection and/or reward systems, 303
service climate, 299–302
affecting service performance, 310
antecedents, 302–306
associated with servant leadership style, 305
boundary conditions for effects of, 310–312
compared to internal service, 312
cross-level moderating effect of, 302
dimensions of, 300, 301t, 513
effect of customers, 313
establishing, 303
estimating financial and market performance correlates of, 310
facets, 308
helping to standardize the service delivery process, 311
impacting how employees react to engaging in service behavior, 187
outcomes for multiple stakeholders, 298
outcomes of, 306–310
predicting service performance, 309
reducing employee strain and enhancing SWB, 182
related to customer satisfaction, 310
relationship with customer-related outcomes, 309
remaining insulated from organizational culture, 303
service climate research, summary of, 298f
service performance, 302, 309
service quality, 297–314
cynicism, 303
dimensions of, 307
improved ultimately conducive to customer retention, 308
indicators of customers’ perceptions of, 513
leaders conveying importance of, 305
service recovery effort, 305
service relationships, evolving over time, 308
service type, as a boundary condition, 310–311
SERVQUAL model, 307
sexual harassment climate
future research on, 171
research on, 165
shape
important for customer service and financial performance outcomes, 547
predicted more important than elevation or visibility for externally focused outcomes, 546
representing pattern of “ups” and “downs” across all measures, 545
shared meaning
measuring, 181
not always achieved, 119, 120
orgainizational climate reflecting a sense, 179
sharedness
constituting functional equivalence between climate constructs, 488
of culture, 258
culture about, 277
degree varying across organizations and work units, 527
experience of, 70
high degree of needed for leadership culture, 114
in organizational climate literature, 497
shared norms
of behavior, 140–141
in toxic organizations, 143–144
shared perceptions, 484
antecedents of, 449f
demonstrating, 403
of desirable behavior, 301
notion of, 402
of organizational priorities (sPOP), 449
within an organization regarding the treatment of customers or clients, 182
shared POP, antecedents of, 443
shared social perceptions, climate referring to, 320
“shocks,” patient safety and culture affected by, 347
“Should Be” scales, 281, 283
signaling theory, 227
similarity-attraction paradigm, 508, 513, 522, 523
simultaneity, 299
Sinha, Sunil, 640, 645, 647, 649
situational attributes, compromising safety commitment, 320
situational strength, 491, 510
Six Sigma methodology, 3M, 571, 575–576
Skinner, Jim (at McDonald’s), 625, 628
SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound) goals, 70, 86–87
social actor view, 445, 446
social constructionist view, 445, 446
social contagion, 368
social context
importance of, 191
model of staffing in, 32–39
through social influence processes, 367
social control, 499, 508
Social cultures, 560, 561, 561t
social exclusion, 144
social identity, 223, 446
social identity theory, 446, 447, 450, 454
social influence, theories of, 436
social information processing, 367–368
social interaction, 507, 516, 523
socialism, Tata Group, 637
socialization
defined, 47
effects of culture and climate on, 48–50
within groups influencing helping behaviors, 364
including the influence of professional associations, 338
(p. 728)
socialization, orientation, and training (SOT) process, segregating newcomers from insiders, 53
socialization, orientation, and training (SOT) programs, 44
culture and climate affecting performance via, 50–55
directions for future research and management practice, 57–60
emotions as content and outcomes of, 59
feedback from participants in, 55–56
impact of organizational culture and climate on, 44–45
impetus to change, 56
incorporating diversity awareness into, 58
inertia in, 58
mode of delivery of, 59–60
for new hospital physicians, 48–49
tradeoffs between generic and organization-specific, 45
tradeoffs between generic or company-wide versus job-specific, 58
socially shared perceptions, 322
social network theory, 367
societal and organizational culture, 105, 276–291
societal cultures
affecting cultures of organizations, 278
assumptions and norms drawn from, 127
conceptualizations of, 277
one born into, 277
organizational cultures within, 283–287
premise of, 276
providing mechanism to interpret the world, 279
reflecting shared values, 289
sportsmanship, 159
stability
of HRM system consistency, 527
of justice perceptions, 369
organizational culture of, 389
staff engagement
in health care organizations, 338
health care organizations with higher levels of, 344
high in the best-performing hospitals, 347
staffing
culture and climate context of, 32f
culture and climate shaping, 33–37
directions for future research, 39–40
field of, 24
not often recognized as important, 25
shaping culture and climate, 37–39
shaping the organizational context, 26
within the social context, 23–40
subfields in, 24
turnover in health care organizations, 339
staffing model, in social context, 32–39
staffing practices, individual KSAs and, 33–34
stage I, creation of organizational culture and climate, 249–250
stage I (new venture), 244–245
stage II (expansion), 245, 250–251
stage III (professionalization), 245–246
stage IV (consolidation), 246
stage models, of growth and development, 237–238
stages, using specific criteria to define, 238
stages of growth, 239, 245t
stage V (diversification), 246, 252–253
stage VI (institutionalization), 246, 253–254
stage VII (decline-revitalization), 246–247, 254
standards dimension, of climate, 459t
Starbucks, 81
status
within groups, 556
opportunities to earn, 558
stewardship assumption, 102
stories
communicating cultural norms and expectations, 123
creating perceptual environments for organization members, 126
purpose of, 124
as a reflection of organizational culture, 80
told in a company, 248
straight-salary employment, Mayo Clinic, 618
strain, defined, 178
strategic approach, to climate, 538
strategic climates, 158
high levels of specific, 159
linking with core assumptions, 168
looking at, 181
measurement of, 538
organizational outcomes, 685
related to strain and SWB, 186
relevant for guiding team planning processes, 171
standing out as being potentially relevant, 182
“strategic environmentalism,” 259
strategizing, 472, 480
strategy
defined, 239
as ongoing process, 480
reciprocal relationship with culture, 66f
strength
aspects of, 525
concept of, 163
of culture, 8–9
of culture and climate, 391
research on, 442
stress
defining, 178
in the workplace, 177
stressors
defined, 178
linked with employees’ reports of bullying victimization, 166
necessary for the greater good, 190
resilience against the negative effects of, 518
stress process and well-being, 180–181
strong culture, 203, 247, 391, 503
structural contingency theory, 237
structure
basis for emergence of the collective construct, 486
compared to function, 487
modifying the organization’s, 472
preferences for, 107
subclimates
existence of, 527
influencing performance in health care contexts, 354
subclimates/subcultures, exploring, 681
subconscious goals, 71–72
subcultures
based on subgroups formed, 492
complex system of interacting and often conflicting, 352
of employees bifurcating on their trust in and support for their leaders, 126
existence of, 527
in health care contexts, 348
hindering collaboration in cross-functional teams, 681–682
implications of, 386
influence of, 154
in large, complex organizations, 210
mediating role of, 348–349
within an organization, 112
in organizations, 295
strength and pervasiveness in health care, 355–356
types of, 45–46
subjective and objective fit, 31
subjective well-being (SWB), 179
success factors of international assignees, 671–673
sudden acceleration problem, 248, 249
superordinate goals, 69–70
supplementary fit, 30
Supplier Performance Index (SPI), 626
suppliers, McDonald’s, 621
support, for engagement, 93–94
support climate, 184–185
supportive autonomy, 221
supportive climate, 184–185
as a buffer, 189
impacted by the behavior of leaders, 192
supportive work environment, creating a, 85t
survey-based approaches, to the study of cultures, 533, 536
survey methods, 7, 685
surveys. See also assessment (p. 729)
dominating work on culture as well as work on climate, 685
employee opinion surveys, 673
Leadership Survey, 3M, 572–573
normative databases for, 574
OHS (Organizational Health Survey), 588
as “pulse” sampling of employees, 199
360-degree feedback, 673
3M Standard Opinion Survey, 574
sustainability
approaches or practices, 268–269
business responses and, 259–261
of change, 475
culture and climate shaping, 270
defined, 257
empirical work on, 261–262
goals in the PMP (performance management process), 590
interactions with culture and climate, 270–271
organizations promoting, 684
referring to issues about the larger world and larger environment, 682
roles, responsibilities, and managerial practices bringing, 264–265
shaping organizational culture and climate, 257–271
as a societal issue, 13
sustainability issues
encouraging communication around, 265
framed by leaders as threats or opportunities, 263–264
individual employees and managers champion or “sell,” 267–268
influence of on organizational culture and climate, 262
symbolic interactionism, 161, 354
symbolic performance, lens of, 125–126
symbolic social interaction, 322–323
symbols, 45, 125, 374
systematic literature reviews, insights from, 262
systems (policies and procedures), change and, 475
T
Taj Mahal Hotel, building of, 637, 644
talent
ability of organizations to attract and retain, 219
built from within, 202
enhancing internal supply of, 209
shift toward “building” over buying, 205
to sustain change, 475
talent identification, at Tata Group, 650
tangibility-intangibility continuum, 298
target, of justice or injustice, 362
“target similarity effect,” 363
task conflict, 385
task process, conflicts over, 385
Tata, Dorab, 637, 642
Tata, Jamshetji Nusserwanji, 636–637, 639, 642, 644
Tata, JRD, 637–638, 642, 651
Tata, Ratan
on brand building, 648
on bribery, 650
contributions of, 642
globalization, 651
leader of Tata Group, 635–636
overview, 640
on philanthropy, 645
on Tata Group acquisitions, 643–644
TBEM (Tata Business Excellence Model), 646
TQMS (Tata Quality Management Services), 646
Tata Airlines, 637
Tata Aviation Services, 637
Tata Business Excellence Model (TBEM), 646–648
Tata Code of Conduct, 649
Tata Exports, 638
Tata Group
acquisition of Corus, 644, 651
brand building, 648
Code of Conduct, 428
control of the brand, 644
evolving over time, 683
focus on excellence, 646–648
formal agreements and audits, 649–650
future of, 655
globalization, 651–654
leadership, 639, 661–645, 649–650, 653
lessons learned from, 656
organizational climate, 648
organizational culture, 18, 636–639, 641, 644–646, 648, 64, 650–651
overview, 636
performance improvement, 646–648
rejection of bribery, 644, 649–650
talent identification, 650
TBEM (Tata Business Excellence Model), 646–648
TMTC (Tata Management Training Center), 650
TQMS (Tata Quality Management Services), 646
Tata Group leaders
Gopalakrishnan, R., 653, 654
Marakose, Kuruville, 647
Noronha, Christabella, 645
Saklatwala, Nowroji, 637, 642
Singh, Manamohan, 637
Tata, Dorab, 637, 642
Tolia, Chetan, 650
Tata Industries, orientation of the founder, 680
Tata International, 638
Tata Management Training Center (TMTC), 650
Tata Quality Management Services (TQMS), 646
Tata Sons, 643
TBEM (Tata Business Excellence Model), 646–648
team-based management, Mayo Clinic, 611–613
team-based medicine, 17
Mayo Clinic, 608–610, 618
team climate, 354, 515
team-level justice climate, 371–372
teams
described, 94
as a dimension of subcultures, 353
managing collaboration and conflict in, 392–393
nested within broader social aggregates, 383
teamwork
Mayo Clinic, 609, 618
in organizations, 382
similar definition to collaboration, 383
teamwork dimension, of climate, 459t
team working
climate for, 353–354
crucial to delivering patient care, 355
in health care, 339
value of interdisciplinary, 350
technological grounding, 128
technology, lens of, 128
teleology model, of organizational change, 469t
teleology process model, 468
tenacity, Tata Group, 644
textual reproduction, lens of, 126–127
Thematic Apperception Test, 71–72
theoretical mechanisms, linking ethical climate/culture to outcome, 436
theories
about dimensions of climates, 548
formally espoused versus theories-in-use, 320
testing and building, 547–549
used to define groups based on assumed configurations, 544
threats, sustainability issues framed as, 263–264
360 and upward feedback surveys, 87
360 degree feedback, 89, 597–598, 673
3M
basic culture, 571–574, 580–582
becoming a growth company, 576–581
culture of innovation, 17
employee engagement, 573–575
entitlement mindset, 572
Human Resource Principles, 576
innovation, 570, 572–573, 575–576, 580
Leadership Attributes, 576
overview, 569–571
Post-it® Note project, 575
product line, 579
Six Sigma methodology, 571, 575–576
Standard Opinion Survey, 574
time, 3M, 570, 580
TMTC (Tata Management Training Center), 650 (p. 730)
Tolia, Chetan, talent identification at Tata Group, 650
“toolkit,” culture as, 271
“toolkit” paradigm, 27
top-down and bottom-up mechanisms, 270
“top-down” mechanisms, 269
top-down processes, 369–370
TQMS (Tata Quality Management Services), 646
“tragedy of the commons” effect, 146–147
training
described, 47
effects of, 102
effects of culture and climate on, 48–50
skills to collaborate and engage in conflict, 393
specific to sustainability, 266
training and development, 228
traits, influencing behavior, 67
transformational factors, 461
transformational leaders
acting as gatekeepers, 323
engaging followers and inspiring adaptive performance, 95
fostering culture homogeneity, 506
offering better protection to members, 324
transformational leadership, 111
consensus about, 519
findings on, 112
linked to ethical climates, 417
positively related to culture homogeneity, 507
positively related to safety climate strength, 521
relationship with culture strength, 506
triadic reciprocal determinism, 68–69, 69f
tribal culture, much as Freud (1913) described, 555
tridimensional conceptualizations, of culture strength, 497t, 498
“triggering” activities, altering employees’ perceptions, 265
“triple bottom line,” 257, 259
trucking industry, safety climate scale developed for, 329
true (vs. espoused) priority, of safety, 320
trust
as an affective and cognitive component, 387
building, 87
existence within the organization, 141
in leadership, 562
rebuilding, 142
showing a propensity to, 93t
in top management, 467
“20% time,” 222
U
uncertainty avoidance
correlated with Power Distance, 284
German scoring on, 285–286
global leadership, 661
Russia’s discrepant scores on, 283
unethical behavior, as an outcome of ethical climate, 429–430
unidimensional conceptualizations, of culture strength, 497t, 498
unidirectional cause, 680
unintended consequences of performance management, 86t
uniqueness, defining, 686
unit(s)
cohesion scores, 521
developing collective understandings of acceptable or unacceptable behavior, 169
investigation of culture or clilmates across, 549
refering to social collectives, 154
United States vs. China, global leadership essentials, 667
unit-level behavior
in organizations, 154–156
as an outer layer of culture, 162
unit-level counterproductive behavior, 163–168
unit-level organizational citizenship behavior, overview of research on, 159–160
unit-level outcomes, linking culture and climate to, 48
unit-level performance, 52–53
universal safety climate scales, 329
UN Milennium Development Goals (MDG), 259
“unsustainability,” reducing, 260
up and out career dynamics, 209, 210
up-line leaders, PepsiCo, 590–591, 592–593
V
value engineering, Tata Group, 654
values, 67–68
in action, 140, 142–143
of the career culture, 221
of a company founder, 75
described, 122, 386
gap between espoused and enacted, 302
leadership hierarchy effects (PepsiCo), 589
Mayo Clinic, 611, 615–618
of nurse clinicians, 350
of the organization, 338
of organizational career culture, 223
with potential to lower levels of theft, 167
preferred, 277
Tata Group, 645
“values” paradigm, 27
variability
across dimensions, 545
in climate and culture perceptions, 682
vastly consequential, 559
variables
number of included limited by sample size, 542
selecting, 541
variance in behaviors and beliefs, reduced by strong, crystalized cultures, 51
vigor, 93, 326
vision
for the organization’s future, 477
Tata Group, 644
voice, 74–75
voice climates, facilitating, 392
voluntary commitments, influencing day-to-day practices, 265–266
volunteerism, Mayo Clinic, 617
W
Wal-Mart, 264, 270, 668
ward culture, 349
ward’s method for deriving configurations, 543f
“weak culture,” 247
weak or fragmented cultures, 386
well-being, climate and culture impacting, 180–181
“Western” managerial education, leading to decreased cultural variability, 279
Western ways of thinking, dominance of, 287–288
withdrawal, as an outcome of ethical climate, 429
work environment
characterized by positive affect, 138
combining high level of autonomy with high level of support, 221
comprised of observable features, 387
structural attributes of, 321–322
types of, 560
work interdependence, fostering social interaction, 521
work-life balance, global leadership, 669
work motivation, 66–68
work ownership, 324
work ownership climate, serving as a foundation climate, 331
workplace injuries and illness, losses from, 317
workplace stress, scientific study of, 177
work settings
changing variables, 477
typologies of culture orientations in, 7t
work teams, collaboration and conflict in, 382–394
work unit climate
within the context of the Burke-Litwin model, 481
effect on performance, 458
keeping track of, 476
NASA’s 39 items composing, 473, 474t
represented by the work unit mean, 524
work unit members, 520, 522