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date: 10 December 2019

(p. 461) Index

(p. 461) Index

Note: Page references followed by a “f” indicates figure.

A
ability self-assessment, proxy model for, 74, 75
accidents, local dominance and, 81
accountability, 94, 279, 292–93
anonymity and lack of, 289
cues manipulation, 287
acquisitive and protective goals, 61–62
active deception, 18
active minorities, 332, 334
ad damnum monetary amounts, in damage awards, 401–2
adolescents
deviance and risk-taking behavior of, 271
health behavior and peers of, 8, 383–85
working alliance with, 369
adults
deceptive and unfair advertising directed at, 405–6
health and social networks of, 8, 385–87
inhibitory norms model for, 385
adverse outcomes, in Milgram’s obedience research, 17
advertising
deceptive and unfair, 404–7
gender influenceability and, 43–44
affect as information model, 249
affect-cognition priming model, 76–77
affective deviants, ostracism of, 209
affective reactions, 80, 245
in EASI, 241–42, 249
of emotional expressions, 7, 240–41
expectancy violations negative, 243
persuasion and, 246
affective responses, in social comparison, 77
afterimage effect, 324
agency
of females, 35–36
gender and, 33–35, 38–39
of males, 36–37, 38
agenda, in self-identification theory, 222
agentic state theory, of Milgram, 138–39
agents of social influence
emotions as, 250–51
social norms as, 149–56
theory and emotions, 7, 237–52
aggression, 205, 279, 291
anonymity relation to, 282–83
deindividuation and self-awareness, 284–88
individuation and deindividuation cues, 286–87
ostracism production of, 207, 212–13, 214
reduced self-awareness and, 284–88
agreeableness, 246, 308
agreeing dynamics, 93–95
agreement patterns, in Asch’s dilemma, 92
AIM theory, 249–50
alignment, 87, 88
conversational, 96, 100
descriptive and injunctive norms, 152–53, 154, 159
alliance ruptures, 368
Allportian trait-based approach, to personality, 54, 64–65
alone/evaluation condition, 186–88
ambiguity and uncertainty, 169, 170
ambivalent arguments, 321–22
analogue studies, 362
anger, 238, 241, 247
conformity, happiness and, 248, 250
core relational themes of guilt and, 251
of Cyberball, 208
EASI theory on, 248
verbal expression, interpersonal effects of, 244
anonymity, 279, 290
aggression relation to, 282–83
antisocial behavior from, 285
CMC use and, 291, 293–94
in deindividuation, 176, 286
diffusion of responsibility and, 176
identifiability and, 281–82, 286, 289
inhibitions and, 283
lack of accountability and, 289
privacy and, 22
SIDE model and, 293
antagonistic power relation, 320
antecedents, in resistance to influence, 438f
anticompliance, 94
anticonformity, 87, 89, 90
antinormative behaviors, 294–95
antisaccade task, 194, 195
antisocial behavior, from anonymity, 285
antisocial influence, law literature and, 410–11
applied research, ethical issues in, 23
appraisal theories, on discrete emotions and happiness, 241
aptitude tasks, 330
arousal, 169, 190, 323
dominant responses and, 184
prepotent dominant responses and, 196
social loafing reduction of, 176
Asch, Solomon, 55, 91–92, 94, 95, 205, 211, 300, 340, 433
Asch paradigm, conformity and, 55, 205, 211, 300, 340, 433
Asch’s dilemma, 94, 95
attribution account, 91
dissent in, 91, 92
divergence and convergence in, 91
moral epistemology account, 91–92
social identity theory, 92
assimilation, 71, 419, 423
contrast and, 77–80
downward, 81
proxy model and, 78
upward, 78
asynchrony, 99
attentional focus manipulation, 288
attitude, 4
-behavior relation, MODE on, 369–70
interpersonal effects formation of, 247
intrapersonal effects formation of, 246
personal relevance and stronger, 154
resistance to influence and, 439–40, 448, 451
vested, 330
attitude change, 317, 325, 327, 328, 333
counterarguing and, 438
ELM and, 369
inducement, in ingroup minorities, 269
research, 374
attractiveness, 120–21, 416
attribution account, 91
(p. 462) attributions, of leadership, 349–51
audience, SIDE model relevant, 292
audience experiments, 185, 186, 232
authoritarianism, 59, 137
authority, 5, 107, 108
illegal directives from perceived, 409–10
obedience to, 139
social media and, 117–18
autocratic leaders’ preference, under uncertainty, 265
autokinetic effect, conformity use of, 156, 175
automaticity, 219, 220, 222–24, 231
automatic self-presentation
context cues and, 229–32
cued activation and self-description, 228–29, 231
habitual behavior patterns and, 221, 229–31
habitual response and, 223
nonconscious mechanism for, 220, 223, 230
positive identity-images and, 228, 232
recall, 224
routine behavior response patterns, 229
RT, 225
self-descriptions, 225–26
self-presentational effectiveness, 224–25
self-regulatory resources, 227–28
autonomy respect, 22–23
B
background self-presentation, 222–23, 231
bait-and-switch, 114t, 115
balance, in ethical decision making, 27
bandwagon effects, 269
behavioral norms, 148
behaviors. See also consumer behavior; helping behavior
of adolescents, 8, 271, 383–85
antisocial, from anonymity, 285
automatic self-presentation and, 221, 229–31
collective, 349
decision making and social norms, 386
descriptive norms influence on, 366
environmental, 148
ingroup, 150, 310
injunctive norms for, 149–50
interpersonal, 232, 233
manipulations and antinormative, 294–95
normative feedback for change of, 8
ostracism correction of, 6, 205, 211, 212, 214
priming-based explanation of, 150
salient, 365, 366
social norms interventions influence on, 156
social norms marketing for change in, 151–52
spontaneous from deception, 17–18
synchrony and prosocial, 99
beliefs, 74, 75, 83, 223
BFI-4 measure, of Five Factor Model of personality, 63
bias
overdetection, 213
self-descriptions positive, 226–27
success, 90
toward decision-making groups shared knowledge, 302–3
big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE), 82
Big Five in personality, 54, 57, 60, 63, 75, 345
Big Six HEXACO model, of personality, 54
black sheep effect, 210, 266, 301
blind obedience, 129
blocking, Machiavellianism and, 60
boomerang effect, 437
brand-related identity, 421–22
breaching, of confidentiality, 24
broken windows theory, 150
Brown v. United States, 399
burdensome individuals, 210
Byrne, David, 457–60
bystander effect, 155, 165–72, 173, 176
C
cause-and-effect relationships, 151
celebrity endorsers, 416–17
celebrity testimony, 404
central processing route, of ELM, 369, 370
change. See also attitude change
within groups, 7, 299–311, 331
through ingroup prototypes, 268
minorities, 267, 269, 318
social norms marketing for behavior, 151–52
upward comparison for motivating, 381–82
charisma, of leaders, 349
charm, as social influence tactic, 59
children
deceptive and unfair advertising directed at, 405
dissent and, 96
imitation of, 97
parents’ health behavior influence, 8, 382–83
precise copying by, 97
selectivity of, 100
trust development in, 96
working alliance with, 369
classic domains research, 246–49
clients, working alliance with, 367–69
clinical interventions
on adoption of social influence, 372–73
CBT, 371, 375
common factors model, 372–73
compliance social norms and clinical outcomes, 8, 363–66
content and process thread, 372
counseling, 361, 367, 369, 374
defined, 363
future directions of, 373–74
identification, 8, 366–69
ineffective therapies, 361
internalization, 8, 260, 361, 369–76, 434
MI, 8, 363, 370–73, 376, 434
PFI, 371
practitioners’ concerns, 361
psychotherapy, 361, 366–67, 370, 375
social influence definition, 362–63
social influence research, 362–73
theories, 362
tripartite model, 8, 9, 373
working alliance and clinical outcomes, 366–69
clinical outcomes, 361
internalization and, 369–72, 434
social norms and, 8, 363–66
working alliance and, 366–69
coaction/evaluation condition, 186–88
coaction experiments, for mere presence, 185, 186
coercion, as social influence tactic, 59
coercive power, 388
coevolutionary theories, in cross-cultural issues, 95–96
Cognitive Affective Processing System, 54
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 371, 375
cognitive conflict, 319
cognitive dimension, of SIDE model, 293, 294
cognitive dissonance, 134
cognitive efforts, 227
cognitive interference, 188
cognitive processing, minority influence and, 268
cognitive reasoning, cognitive efforts and, 227
cognitive resources, 6
automaticity and minimal, 224
descriptive and injunctive norms, 155
emotional expression and, 168
for honest trait responding, 226
HSM and, 327
recall and, 224
RT and, 225–26
self-descriptions and, 225–26
self-presentation effectiveness and, 224–25, 231
social norms influenced by, 154–55, 160
collaborative filtering, 75–76
collaborative remembering, 95
collective behaviors, 349
collectivism
norms of, 303–4, 310
radicalism and, 271
in transformational leadership, 349
collectivist countries, conformity in, 95
(p. 463) commitment and consistency, 107, 108
bait-and-switch, 114t, 115
FITD, 114t, 115–17
lowball procedure, 113–15, 114t
mindlessness and, 114t, 117
minimal risk research and, 19
common factors model, 372–73
common-rule scales, SAM and, 79
communication
CMC, 291, 293–94
in likeable qualities, 120
messages and persuasive, 270, 437, 448
social norms marketing, 152
communion, 33
female stereotype on, 34, 35, 37, 38
gender and, 34, 39–41, 45
comparison of self, to ingroup prototypes, 261
comparison problems, in GRE-quantitative test, 196–97
compensatory control theory, on extremism, 271
competence
female problem of, 35–36, 40
in idiosyncrasy credits model, 346
male stereotype of, 33, 34–35
competing or converging processes, 241–42
complex languages, from conformity, 87
compliance, 3, 5, 361, 435
consistency and, 56–57
to conversion, 318–19
Cyberball susceptibility test, 212
EASI theory on, 247
forewarning and, 444
group influence as, 290
implicit theories of personality and, 56
inoculation and, 445
interpersonal effects and, 246, 248
mindlessness hypothesis, 109, 123
ostracism and, 207, 211–13
overview of, 107
principles of, 108
reactance and, 442–43
response, to social influence, 260
as social influence component, 362–63
social interaction, 108–9
social norms and clinical outcomes, 8, 363–66
tactics, 110–23, 114t
compliance proneness, 53, 58–59
computer, as social entity, 426
computer-mediated communication (CMC), anonymity and, 291, 293–94
confession of a co-defendant (FRE Rule 105), 399–400
confidentiality, breaching of, 24
conflict, 299, 306, 311, 317, 319
conflict elaboration theory (CET), 330
conflict negotiation, 320
conformity, 3, 71, 299, 305, 434
accomplishments of, 89, 90
anger and happiness, 248, 250
anticonformity, 87, 89, 90
Asch paradigm, 55, 91–92, 94, 95, 205, 211, 300, 340, 433
autokinetic effect and, 156, 175
by commission, 175
EASI theory on, 248
gender differences in, 44, 45
group size effect on, 94
health and, 382
in idiosyncrasy credits model, 346
increase test, in Cyberball, 211
individualism and dissent, 303–4
informational influence on, 5, 175, 205, 300
to ingroup behavior, 153
interpersonal effects and, 246, 248
locus of control and, 55
need for approval and, 55–56
normative influence on, 5, 175, 300
by omission, 175
opinion deviance punishment and, 300–302
ostracism and, 207, 211–13
personality and, 55–56
from pluralistic ignorance, 302
question booth technique, 55
social influence compared to, 5, 83
as social inhibition concept, 175
strong and weak, 89, 90
conformity, in interactions, groups, culture, 101
agreeing and disagreeing dynamics, 93–95
alignment, 87, 88
anticompliance, 94
Asch’s dilemma, 91–92, 94, 95
collectivist countries, 95
complex languages from, 87
cross-cultural issues, 5, 95–96
human survival from, 5, 87
matching choices, 96–100
ordinary fashions and decisions, 92–93
social information and, 90
social learning, 90
social norms from, 87
success bias, 90
trust development, 96
wisdom of crowd effect, 88–89, 93
confusion of responsibility, 173–74
conscientiousness, dissent correlation with, 308
consent to search and seizure, 408–9
consistency, 317, 321. See also commitment
antagonistic relation with power, 320
compliance and, 56–57
conflict negotiation and, 320
influence relation, 320
synchronic and diachronic, 319
constructive deviance, 310
consumer behavior, 8, 415
normative influence on, 418
persuasion knowledge, 417–18
social norms influence on, 419–20
source effects, 416–17
word of mouth, 424–25
consumer research, 27, 415
future of, 425–26
on gift giving, 8, 419
on word of mouth, 8, 424–25
content measures, for dependent personality, 58
content thread, in clinical interventions, 372
context/comparison model, 329–30
context cues, 221, 229–32
contrast, 71
affect-cognition priming model, 76–77
assimilation and, 77–80
downward comparison theory, 76, 77
Mr. Clean-Mr. Dirty experiment, 76
precomparison negative affect, 76–77
upward, 81
controlled self-presentations, 220
recall and, 224
RT and, 225
self-depreciation in, 224
self-descriptions, 225–26
self-presentational effectiveness, 224–25, 231
self-regulatory resources, 227–28
convergence, 93–96, 100
culture and, 89–91
thinking, 322–23, 328
conversational alignment, 96, 100
conversion, 317
from compliance to, 318–19
effect, 324
minority, 326–27, 331
conversion theory
on majority group influence, 321
on minority group influence, 267–68, 318, 320–21
core relational themes, of anger and guilt, 251
correction, as ostracism function, 6, 205, 211, 212, 214
corrective advertising, 406
corrective function, of ostracism, 6, 212, 214
counseling, 361, 367, 369, 374
counterarguing, 437, 438, 448
creativity, 6, 62, 305–6
crisis of control, 279
critical social learning, 87
criticism, 134, 299
of group culture, 307
ingroup membership protection for, 306–7
reform process from, 304, 310
cross-cultural issues, in social dynamics, 5, 95–96
crowd century, 279
cued knowledge activation
priming procedures for, 229, 232
self-descriptions and, 228–29, 231
cueing effect, 193
(p. 464) cues
accountability and manipulation of, 287
context, 221, 229–32
individuation, deindividuation and aggression, 286–87
in social environment, 230
culture, 307. See also cross-cultural issues, in social dynamics
conformity and, 5, 87–101
convergence and, 89–91
divergence in, 87–101
emotion display rules, 243
farmer’s and hunter’s dilemma, 88–89
obedience and, 136
perceived appropriateness influenced by, 243
reference group effects across, 420
tastes and fashions, conformity and divergence in, 92–93
Cyberball, 205, 206, 210
anger and sadness of, 208
conformity increase test, 211
susceptibility to compliance test, 212
D
damage award anchors, 401–4
Dark Triad Dirty Dozen, 60–61
debriefing, 24–25
deception, 11
active, 18
in consumer behavior research, 27
debriefing on, 24
ethical arguments against, 17
ethical review boards on, 26
in FITD technique, 116
forewarning of, 25
intrinsic, 21
in laboratory and field research, 15, 16–17
lying, 18
methodological control increased by, 18
in Milgram’s obedience research, 15, 17, 21, 25
in minimal risk social influence research, 19–20
passive, 18
purpose, in social influence research, 17
in racial stereotypes study, 16–17
research types, 18–19
severe and mild, 19, 20
spontaneous behavior elicited from, 17–18
Stanford prison study extreme, 18
deception by omission. See passive deception
deceptive and unfair advertising
corrective advertising, 406
directed at adults, 405–6
directed at children, 405
DTCA, of prescription drug, 406–7
expansion and inconspicuous qualifications, 406
FTC and, 404–5
puffery, 406
decision-making groups, bias toward shared knowledge of, 302–3
dehoaxing, 24
deindividuation, 434
aggression and self-awareness, 284–88
anonymity in, 176, 286
group and individual identity in, 285, 289
group norms and, 283–84, 290
identifiability factor and, 281
individuation cues and aggression, 286–87
manipulations and antinormative behavior, 294–95
Milgram’s obedience research and, 288–89
model on process of, 281
normative influence in, 283–84
postdeindividuation research, 289–95
problems with, 288–89
research, 280–82, 288, 294
self-awareness lost in groups and, 176
SIDE model, 279, 284, 291–94
social inhibition compare to, 176
variability, valence, cues and norms, 282–83
deindividuation theory, classical, 7, 292–93
“Deliberative Trouble? Why Groups Go to Extremes” (Sunstein), 458
demand characteristic, in deindividuation research, 280–81, 288
demographics, resistance to influence and, 440
dependency measures, format and content, 58
dependent personality, 53, 58
depersonalization, 289–92
Derakhshan, Hossein, 458
derogation
of deviant ingroup members, 301
normative deviants experience of, 266–67
descriptive norms, 6, 147, 363–65
behavior influenced by, 366
cognitive resources and, 155
injunctive norms alignment with, 152–53, 154, 159
in social media, 120
social norms marketing communication of, 152
social validation and, 118–19
desensitizing, 24
desire for control, 53, 57–58, 138
Desire for Control scale, 57–58, 59
developmental psychology, 5
deviance and marginalization, 323
in adolescence, 271
affective deviants, 209
conformity pressures delivery and, 304–5
constructive, 310
group nous and, 300–301
group ridicule and, 300
ingroup, 267, 301, 306–7
normative deviants, 266–67
opinion deviance punishment, 300–302
outgroup members, 266, 306–7
social exclusion from, 301
social identity and, 266–67
deviance regulation theory, 152
diachronic consistency, 319
differentiation, 419
diffuse status characteristics, in gender, 37
diffusion of responsibility, 165, 169
anonymity and, 176
situational factors for, 171
in social loafing, 175
direction of comparison factor, 77
direct-to-consumer advertisements (DTCA), of prescription drugs, 406–7
disagreeing dynamics, 93–95
discrete emotions, 241, 243, 251
disenfranchisement, 457
dispositional independence, Desire for Control scale measure of, 59
dissent, 87, 88, 299, 326
in Asch’s dilemma, 91, 92
children and, 96
conformity, individualism and, 303–4
conscientiousness correlation with, 308
from extrovert identity-image, 308
from group, 93
group change and, 307–11
group decision making effect from, 305–6
group locomotion interruption by, 300
leadership and, 310
low agreeableness and, 308
minority group influence and, 310
in nonconformist hypothesis, 94
participants, 307–8
strategies for effective, 310–11
transformative influence on groups, 304–6
uniformity disruption by, 300
dissenters
group newcomers as, 309
high identifiers as, 307–8
most effective, 308–9
dissenting minority and majority, 323
dissociation theory, 328–29
distributive fairness, 342, 343
divergence, 5
in fashion and taste, conformity and, 92–93
in interactions, groups, culture, 87–101
social dynamics and, 93–96
thinking, 322–23
diversity, of individual learning, 89
dominant response
arousal and, 184
social facilitation and, 184, 186, 189–90
door-in-the-face (DITF) technique, 56, 111–13, 250
(p. 465) double bind, 33, 36, 39, 45
downward assimilation, 81
downward comparison, 72, 76, 77, 381, 423
drive effects, 184, 186
drive interpretation, of social facilitation, 184
drive theory, 189
dual-process models, of minority influence
afterimage effect, 324
evidence for, 320–21
mathematical models, 324–25
objective consensus approach, 325–26
self-categorization theory, 326–27
dual-process models, of persuasion, 268, 447
dynamic social impact theory, 83
E
EASI theory, 251–52
on anger, 248
on compliance, 247
on conformity, 248
emotional expression and, 249–50
inferences and affective reactions, 241–42, 249
on inferential processes, 242–43
on information processing, 242
on persuasion, 246–47
echo chamber, 459–60
disenfranchisement, 457
ignoring of facts, 457
reality-based community avoidance, 457
social media, 457–58
“The Echo Chamber” (Byrne), 457–60
education interventions, health and, 8, 389
ejection, as ostracism function, 6, 205, 213–14
elaboration likelihood model (ELM), 33, 110, 249–50, 328, 373
attitude change and, 369
central processing route, 369, 370
internal mechanisms of resistance and, 447
mindfulness and, 370
peripheral processing route, 369
superficial processing, 369
emotional contagion, 424
emotional contrast strategies, 251
emotional expression, 167–68
affective reactions of, 7, 240–41
agreeableness for social harmony, 246
anger, 208, 238, 241, 244, 247–48, 250, 251
EASI and theoretical perspectives, 249–50
effectiveness of, 250
guilt, 241, 245
happiness, 241, 244, 248, 250
interpersonal effects of, 6, 237, 238, 243–49
intrapersonal effects on, 243, 246, 251
in leadership, 238, 245, 246
in negotiation, 238
sadness, 208, 238, 241
socialization processes for, 168
emotional regulation, social influence and, 250
emotion blends, 251
emotions
culture display rules, 243
discrete, 241, 243, 251
social influence role of, 238–39, 250–51
support of, 386
emotions, as agents of social influence theory, 237–39, 244–52
affective reactions of, 7, 240–41
competing or converging processes, 241–42
inferential process of, 6, 241
information processing, 242
perceived appropriateness, 242–43
valence, discrete emotions and emotion blends, 241, 243, 251
empathic concern, Milgram’s obedience research and, 138
empirical legal studies, 395, 396–99, 404, 406, 408–10
enforcement, of social norms, 6, 147, 156–58, 160–61
engagement, 98, 370–71
entitativity, 263
entity theory, of personality, 56
environmental behaviors, 148
epistemic motivation, in information processing, 242, 372
error management theory, 206
ethical decision making, 11–14, 27
ethical dilemmas, 11, 12
for applied research, 23
of conflicting role expectations, 23
of right to withdraw, 25–26
ethical issues, in social influence research, 4
applied research issues, 23
ethical decision making influences, 11, 12–14, 27
ethical dilemma, 11, 12, 23, 25–26
ethical safeguards, 11, 23–26
in field research, 15–17
institutional review, 26–27
internet research, 23–24
in laboratory, 15–17
Milgram’s obedience research, 15, 129, 134
research ethics evolution, in psychology, 14–15
ethical principles, 22–23
ethical review process, 11, 26
ethical safeguards, 23
debriefing, 24–25
forewarning, 25
institutional review, 11, 26–27
in Milgram’s obedience research, 25
right to withdraw, 25–26
in Stanford prison study, 25
ethical standards, codification of, 15
ethnic identity, 421
evaluation apprehension, 165, 173, 183
drive produced by, 184
groupthink and, 177
public embarrassment and, 172
social loafing and, 176
evaluhancement, 72–73, 80–81
evidence
for automatic self-presentation, 223–29, 231
dual-process models, of minority influence, 320–21
inadmissible, 399, 403
limited use, 399–400
types, 400
evoking stage, of MI, 371
evolutionary psychology, personality psychology and, 64
exchange leadership, 346–48
expansion qualifications, 406
expectancy violations, 243, 331
expectations, social psychophysics and, 78
expectation states theory, 33, 37–38, 264
expert power, 388
explicit advertising claims, 405–6
explicit self-description, 226–27
external review boards, 24
extremism, 270–72
extrovert identity-image, 225
dissent from, 308
of leaders, 345
study, 232
eyewitness suggestibility, 8, 396–97
Eysenck Personality Inventory, 55–56, 58, 60
F
failed leadership, 7–8
fairness, 342, 343
fairness principle violation, ostracism for, 210
false confessions, 8, 397
false consensus, 364, 366
false uniqueness, 364, 366
farmer’s dilemma, in social learning, 88–89
fashion and taste, conformity and divergence in, 92–93
favorable image, of self, 228, 230, 232
fear appeals, 250, 375–76
Federal Drug Administration (FDA), 406
Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 404–5
feelings of capability, 171–72
females
agency and, 35–36
communion stereotype, 34, 35, 37, 38
competence problem of, 35–36, 40
double bind for, 36, 39, 45
influence deficit of, 45
likeable qualities stereotype, 33
male resistance to influence of, 41–42, 45
stereotypes of, 264
(p. 466) field research. See laboratory
field simulation, Stanford prison study as, 20–21
fitting compared to standing out, 61
Five Factor Model, of personality, 54, 75, 345
BFI-44 measure of, 63
General Causality Orientation Scale and, 63
obedience and, 57
social influence tactics and, 60
flexible minorities, 320
focus of attention, 192, 195, 288, 322
mere effort account and, 194
in social facilitation, 188, 190
Stroop color-word task and, 190
focus theory, social norms and, 147, 148, 149, 150, 153, 159
followership, 140
foot-in-the-door (FITD) technique, 56, 114t, 115, 250
Milgram’s obedience research variable of, 140–41
NFC and, 117
self-perception process in, 116
foreground self-presentation, 222, 231
forewarning, 25, 437, 443, 444
format measures, for dependent personality, 58
fraud, 407–8
frequently asked questions (FAQs), in debriefing, 25
friendship, 121–22
frog pond effect, 82
G
gender, 4–5
agency and, 33–35, 38–39
communion, 34, 39–41, 45
diffuse status characteristics and, 37
influenceability, advertising and, 43–44
male resistance to female influence, 41–42, 45
obedience and, 136–37
social role theory on, 33, 36–37
stereotypes, 33, 34–36
theoretical explanations for effects of, 36–38
gender differences
in agency, 37, 42
in communion, 34, 37–41, 45
in conformity, 44, 45
expectation states theory on, 33, 37–38, 264
in influenceability, 33, 36, 42–45
in performance, 34–35
in persuadability, 43, 44
General Causality Orientation Scale, 63
general typology, 449
Ghonim, Wael, 458
gift giving, 8, 415, 416, 419
goal-dependent automaticity, 222–23
goal setting, for motivated task performance, 6, 199–200
Goffman, Erving, 219
Golden Rule, 110
government programs, social norms marketing of, 152
GRE-quantitative test, 196
group change, 299, 331
dissent and, 307–11
intragroup dynamics, 7, 300–307
group locomotion, dissent interruption of, 300
group members
metacontrast principle, 261, 262
prototypicality for, 260, 261
group newcomers
minority influence from, 334
negativity toward, 309
group norms
conformity toward, 262
deindividuation and, 283–84, 290
innovation credit, 265
leaders’ deviation from, 264–65
leadership change of, 263
group norms, extreme
extremism and radicalization, 270–72
group polarization, 269–70, 291–92
social identity and, 269–72
group nous, deviance and, 300–301
group polarization, 291–92
bandwagon effects, 269
persuasive arguments/informational influence, 270
self-categorization theory on, 270
social comparison/normative influence approach, 269–70
group processes, 259
minority group influence, 268–69
polarization, 269–70
groups. See also ingroup prototypes; outgroup prototypes
bias toward shared knowledge, of decision-making, 302–3
conformity and divergence of, 92–93
conformity and size of, 94
decision making effect from dissent, 305–6
deindividuation and self-awareness loss in, 176
deviance and ridicule in, 300
diffusion of responsibility and norms of, 171
dissent and transformative influence on, 304–6
dissent from, 93
identification function, 303
identity in deindividuation, 285, 289
influence as compliance, 290
maintenance via fairness and respect, 342
membership benefits, 259
normative influence within, 301
ostracism improvement of functioning, 210–11
persuasion, compliance and conformity in, 246
polarization of, 269–70
political, 333–34
reference, 6, 153–54, 420–22
self defined through, 265
size effect, on conformity, 94
social dynamics of, 5, 91–96
speaking from ignorance effect, 94
structured norms of, 263
understanding of self and, 259
uniformity within, 261, 301
wisdom of crowd effect, 88–89, 93
groupthink, 93, 176, 299, 310
evaluation apprehension effects and, 177
loyal deviance and, 93
mindguards for, 177
psychological conditions for, 306
unanimity illusion, 177
Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, 58–59
Guideline for Online Research, 22
guilt, core relational themes of anger and, 251
H
habits, automaticity underlying, 223, 231
habitual self-presentations, 227, 228, 229–31
halo effect, 121
Hamilton, Alexander, 459
happiness, 241, 244, 248, 250
health
adolescent peers, 8, 383–85
adult social networks, 8, 385–87
education interventions, 8, 389
health care providers, 8, 381, 387–89
health-related media messages, 8, 381, 389–90
parents and family, 8, 382–83
public health programs, 8, 389–90
social comparison processes, 8, 382
social power and, 388
social support for, 386–87
social systems influence, 8, 389–90
upward comparison and, 382
health care providers, 8, 381, 387–89
health-related behaviors, 148
health-related media messages, 8, 381, 389–90
helping behavior, 6, 166–67, 169, 171
herding instincts, 93
heuristic-systematic model (HSM) of persuasion processing, 327–28, 447
hidden-profile paradigm, 302
high identifiers, as dissenters, 307–8
Holocaust, 129, 132, 136, 142
honest trait responding, 226
(p. 467) human survival, conformity and, 5, 87
hunter’s dilemma, in social learning, 88–89
hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal (HPA) axis, 196
I
identifiability, 279
anonymity and, 281–82, 286, 289
factor, deindividuation and, 281
identification, 361. See also self-identification theory
in clinical interventions, 8, 366–69
social influence and, 260, 363
in tripartite model, 8
identity, 219, 220. See also social identity
approach among friends, 224
background self-presentation and, 231
brand-related, 421–22
clarification from uncertainty, 265
ethnic, 421
group and individual in deindividuation, 285, 289
intergroup relational, 265
leaders as entrepreneurs of, 343–44
maintenance of desired, 230
self-presentation and, 219, 221–22
signaling, 422
threat, 329, 330
identity-images
automatic self-presentation positive, 228, 232
extrovert, 225, 232, 308, 345
in foreground self-presentation, 222, 231
introvert, 225, 233, 345
self-identification theory on, 221–22
self-promoting, 224
idiosyncrasy credits model, 346
if-then logic, 148
illness, local dominance and, 81
imitation, 87
engagement importance for, 98
faithful quality of, 97–98
individual learning and, 90
mimicry as form of, 98
selective nature of, 97
implanted false memories, 408
implicit advertising claims, 405–6
implicit self-positivity, 226, 227
implicit theories, of personality
compliance and, 56
DITF technique, 56, 111–13, 250
FITD technique, 56, 114t, 115–17, 140–41, 250
impression management model, 172
inadmissible evidence, 399, 403
inclusionary needs, 207
inconspicuous qualifications, 406
incremental theory, of personality, 56
individualism, norms of, 303–4, 310
individual learning, 89, 90
individuals
identity, in deindividuation, 285, 288
social dynamics of, 91–96
individuation, 212, 286–87, 303
inferences, in EASI, 241–42, 249
inferential process, 7
on attitude formation, 247
EASI theory on, 242–43
of emotional expression, 6, 241
on happiness, anger, sadness, guilt, 241
inferior targets, in contrast and assimilation, 77–78
influence, 290. See also informational influence; majority group influence; minority group influence; normative influence; resistance to influence
of adolescent peers and friends, 8, 383–85
agents, in social networks, 425
antisocial, 410–11
of family members, for health behavior, 381, 382–83
of friends and family in adulthood, 8, 385–87
gender, agency and, 33–35, 38–39
by health care providers, 381, 387–89
latent, 317, 318–23, 325, 329, 332
manifest, 317, 318–23, 325, 332
parental, for health behavior, 8, 381–84
personality traits associated with, 5, 53–62
principles of, 447
prosocial, law literature and, 410–11
self-construal relationship with, 64
social systems, 381, 389–90
social systems, on health, 8, 389–90
undue, 408
utilitarian and value-expressive, 420
influenceability
gender and, 33, 36, 42–45
gender and advertising, 43–44
gender differences in, 33, 36, 42–45
influence principles
authority, 5, 108, 117–18
commitment and consistency, 5, 19, 107, 108, 113–17, 114t
liking and, 5, 107, 120–23
reciprocity, 5, 19, 108, 110–13
scarcity, 5, 107–10
similarity, 5, 73–74, 77–80, 98, 107, 120–23
social validation or social proof, 5, 107, 108, 118–20
informational influence, 260, 270, 318, 420
on conformity, 5, 175, 205, 300
within groups, 301
for ingroups, 261
referent, 261–62, 272, 290
informational power, 388
information processing, 317, 318, 331
epistemic motivation and, 242, 372
systematic processing and, 327
informed consent, 16, 22, 23, 25, 26
ingroup behavior, 153, 310
ingroup members
leadership and relative ingroup prototypicality, 341
opinion deviance protection for, 301, 306–7
as preferred leaders, 340–41
trust of, 264
ingroup minorities
attitude change inducement, 269
negative connotations association, 329
ingroup prototypes, 260
categorization, 326–27
change through, 268
criticism, 267
deviance and, 267, 301, 306–7
informational and normative influence for, 261
leaders’ charisma, 349
leaders trust and endorsement, 340–41
leniency contract in, 306–7
norms acceptance, 261
self comparison to, 261
solidarity, 311
subjective group dynamics theory on derogation of, 266, 301
systematic processing, 268
ingroup prototypicality, relative, 339, 341, 343, 344, 351
inhibitions, anonymity and, 283
inhibitory norms model, of adult social networks, 385
injunctive norms, 6, 364, 366
activation of, 159
cognitive resources and, 155
descriptive norms alignment with, 152–53, 154, 159
innovation
group norms credit for, 265
minorities change, 318
social change explanation and, 318
team, 334
inoculation, 437
inoculation theory, 444–45
institutional review, 11, 26–27
institutional review boards (IRBs), 134
instrumental support, 386
integrative models, of majority and minority influence
CET, 330
context/comparison model, 329–30
dissociation theory, 328–29
leniency-contract, 329–30
source-context elaboration model, 328
interactional fairness, 342
interference effect, 186
intergroup
leadership, social identity theory of, 265
mechanisms, 332–33
relational identity, 265
relations between minorities and majorities, 332
(p. 468)
sensitivity, 267
sensitivity effect, 307, 308–9
unfairness, 343
internalization, 361, 373
clinical outcomes and, 369–72, 434
ELM models, 369–70
fear appeals, 375–76
MI, 8, 370–72
social influence and, 260, 363
internal mechanisms, of resistance, 268, 447
Internet research
debriefing difficulty in, 24
laboratory research compared to, 22
respect for autonomy and nonmaleficence and, 22–23
Interpersonal Adjective Scales, on social influence tactics, 60
interpersonal behavior, 232, 233
interpersonal effects, 3
inferential process for attitude formation, 247
in negotiation, 244
on persuasion, compliance, and conformity, 246, 248
interpersonal effects, of emotional expressions, 6, 237, 238
of anger verbal expression, 244
classic domains research, 246–49
evidence from neighboring fields of inquiry, 243–46
interpersonal processes, in social comparison theory, 5, 7, 261, 381
intersubjectivity, 261
intimidation, 170
intragroup, 3
conflict, 311
distributively fair leaders in, 343
fairness, 343
mechanisms, 331–32
intragroup dynamics, 7
collective improvement and, 303–7
conformity, individualism and dissent, 303–4
decision-making groups and bias toward shared knowledge, 302–3
dissenters transformative influence, 304–6
opinion deviance conformity and punishment, 300–302
opinion deviants and critics protection, 266, 306–7
intraindividual mechanisms, 331
intrapersonal effects, of emotional expression, 3, 243, 246, 251
intrapersonal processes, gender and, 4–5, 33–45
intrinsic deception, 21
intrinsic motivation/creativity, 6, 62
introvert identity-image, 225, 233, 345
J
judicial decision making
damage award anchors, 403–4
inadmissible evidence, 403
Ju/’hoansi anthropological study, 158, 160
juror decision making, 8
damage award anchors, 401–2
evidence types, 400
inadmissible evidence, 399
limited use evidence, 399–400
pretrial publicity, 398
stealing thunder, 400–401
story model, 398
verdict options, 402–3
K
knowledge
bias toward shared, 302–3
cued, 228–29, 231, 232
persuasion, of consumer behavior, 417–18
L
laboratory and field research
deception in, 15, 16–17
ethical issues in, 15–17
informed consent, 16
Internet research compared to, 22
latent influence, 317, 318–23, 325, 329, 332
law, 435
antisocial and prosocial influences, 410–11
consent to search and seizure, 408–9
deceptive and unfair advertising, 404–7
eyewitness suggestibility, 8, 396–97
false confessions, 8, 397
fraud, 407–8
implanted false memories, 408
as instrument of social influence, 8, 409
judicial decision-making, 403–4
juror decision making, 398–403
legal regulation of social influence, 8, 396, 404
legislative decision making, 404
legitimacy of legal authorities, 409
morality of law, 409
obedience to illegal directives, 409–10
persuasion and, 395
psychology and, 395, 404, 410–11
as social influence instrument, 8, 409
undue influence, 408
leader categorization theory, 350
leader-member exchange model, 346–48
leaders
Big Five traits of, 345
charisma of, 349
endorsement of, 340–41
fairness of, 342
group norms deviation, 264–65
intergroup unfairness, 343
intragroup fairness, 343
personality characteristics of, 344–46
trust of, 340–41
leadership, 237
attributions, 349–51
constructive deviance, 310
dissent and, 310
emotional expression in, 238, 245, 246
exchange, 346–48
expectation states theory, 254
failed, 7–8
gender and, 45
group norms change by, 263
personality traits for, 263
as resource control and exchange, 346–48, 352
social harmony and, 246
social identity and, 263–66
social influence and, 340
successful, 7–8
transactional, 339, 348–49, 351
transformational, 263, 339, 348–49, 351
under uncertainty, 265–66
leadership, social psychology of, 352
attributions, 349–51
fairness and respect, 342
idiosyncrasy credits model, 346
ingroup members as leaders, 340–41
leader-member exchange model, 346–48
leaders as identity entrepreneurs, 343–44
leadership and relative ingroup prototypicality, 341
leader traits, 344–46
psychological groups, 339–41
resource control and exchange, 346–48
support via un-fairness, 343
transformational leadership, 263, 339, 348–49, 351
leadership-categorization theory, 263–64
leader stereotypes, 339, 350–51
legal psychology, 395, 411
legal regulation, of social influence, 8
legal systems social influence, 8
legislative decision making, 404
legitimacy, as prototypical appearance, 264
legitimate power, 388
leniency contract
in ingroup prototypes, 306–7
of majority and minority influence, 329–30
likeable qualities
in communication, 120
female stereotype of, 33
liking, 5, 98, 107, 120–23. See also similarity
limited use evidence, 399–400
linear conformity, as unbiased social learning, 89
local comparisons, BFLPE and, 82
local dominance
illness and accident perception, 81
related attributes hypothesis and, 81
social comparison and, 81–82
local norms, in social norms interventions, 153–54, 159–60
(p. 469) locus of control
conformity and, 55
Machiavellianism and external, 60
Milgram’s obedience research and, 137–38
lowball procedure, 108, 113, 114t
public nature of, 114, 115
social acceptability of target request and, 114–15
low-contributing others, ostracism of, 209
low identifiers, in reference groups, 153
low self-esteem, 80
loyal deviance, groupthink and, 93
lying, as deception form, 18
M
Machiavelli, Niccolo, 60
Machiavellianism, 53, 60–61, 62
majority group influence, 7, 318, 323. See also integrative models
consistency and, 321
convergent thinking, 328
conversion theory and, 321
self-categorization theory on, 326–27
systematic processing, 327
males
agency of, 36–37, 38
competence stereotype, 33, 34–35
influence advantage of, 33–34
resistance to female influence, 41–42, 45
manifest influence, 317, 318–23, 325, 332
manipulation tactics, 59
attentional focus, 288
in close personal relationships, 60
in resistance to influence, 440–41
manualized treatments, in social psychology, 374
marginalization. See deviance and marginalization
marketing, social influence in, 8, 415. See also social norms marketing
future research directions, 425–26
identity signaling, 422
normative influence, 418
persuasion and, 416–18
reference group effects, 420–22
social comparison, 422–23
social contagion, 424
social identity, 421–22
social media and, 416, 425–26
social networks, 424–25
social presence, 423–24
mass-media outlets
health campaigns, 389, 390
social norms marketing via, 151
matching choices of others
imitation, 87, 90, 96–98
mimicry, 87, 98–99, 424
synchrony, 87, 99–100
mathematical models, 324–25
mediators, 6, 188–89
mere effort account
antisaccade task, 194, 195
central executive function of working memory, 195
cueing effect and, 193
motivation and, 189
no-evaluation participants and, 190, 191, 193
potentiate dominant or prepotent responses, 189–90
RAT, 189
social presence effect and, 192
stereotype threat, 194, 195, 196
mere presence, 183
audience experiments for, 185, 186
coaction experiments for, 185, 186
drive effects increased by, 184, 186
Stroop color-word task and, 185
tests of, 185–86
message typologies, 449–51
metacontrast principle, for group members, 261, 262
methodological control, deception increase of, 18
mild deception, 19, 20
Milgram, Stanley, 15, 17, 21, 25, 26, 57, 129–43, 288–89, 433–34
mimicry, 87
bodily actions copied in, 99
defined, 98
as imitation form, 98
liking and rapport from, 98
negative consequences of, 98–99
social contagion and, 424
mindfulness, ELM and, 370
mindguards, for groupthink, 177
mindlessness, 113, 114t, 117
mindlessness hypothesis, 5, 123
pique technique, 109
that’s-not-all technique and, 113
minimal risk social influence research, 19–20
minorities, 317
active, 332, 334
influence obtained for, 318, 323, 324, 329
informational and normative pressures, 318
innovation change, 318
intergroup relations between majorities and, 332
latent influence, 318, 321
negative connotations of, 329
rigid and flexible, 320
social attributes of, 326
social conflict maintained by, 319
minority dynamics, 87, 94
minority group influence, 299, 310, 317, 335
cognitive processing and, 268
conversion theory on, 267–68, 318, 320–21
creativity effect from, 305–6
dual-process models, 320–27
extensions and applications, 330–34
from group newcomers, 334
integrative models of, 327–30
negotiating conflict, 320
political groups, 333–34
self-categorization theory on, 326–27
social and cognitive conflict, 319
on social change, 267
in social context, 268–69
social identity and, 267–69
social movements, 7, 334
specific minority groups, 333–34
work groups, 334
minority influence research, 317, 334–35, 433
from compliance to conversion, 318–19
convergent and divergent thinking, 322–23
dual process evidence, 320–21
initial evidence for, 319–20
innovation and social change explanation, 318
intergroup mechanisms, 332–33
intragroup mechanism, 331
intraindividual mechanism, 331
specific mechanisms for, 331–33
minority source status, 331
mock jury study, simulations and, 20
modeling, 381–83, 385, 387–88
molecular task analysis, 6, 183–200
mood as input model, 249
moral epistemology account, 91–92
morality of law, 409
motivated task performance, 188–89
goal setting, 6, 199–200
intrinsic motivation/creativity, 6, 62
social loafing, 3, 6, 175–76, 211
motivation, 198
epistemic, 242, 372
intrinsic, 6, 62
mere effort account and, 189
personality individual differences of, 54
RAT and, 190
Self Determination Theory on, 54
stereotype threat and, 6, 194, 195, 196
to test, 190
motivational interviewing (MI), 363, 373, 434
engagement stage, 370–71
evoking and planning stages of, 371
future research, 376
internalization approach, 8, 370–72
motivational power, of social norms, 160
Motivation and Opportunity as DEterminants (MODE), 369–70, 373
Mr. Clean-Mr. Dirty experiment, 76
N
naturalistic studies
debriefing in, 24
on social norms, 151
need for approval, conformity and, 55–56
(p. 470) need for cognition (NFC), 113, 117
Need for Uniqueness scale, 420
negative social support, 387
negative-subject effect, 440
negotiation, 237
conflict, 320
emotional expression in, 238
interpersonal effects in, 244
NEO-Five Factor Inventory, Gudjonsson Compliance Scale and, 59
no-evaluation participants, 190, 191, 193
noncomformist hypothesis, 90, 94
nonconscious mechanism, for automatic self-presentation, 220, 223, 230
normative conflict model of dissent, 308
normative deviants, 266–67
normative influence, 260, 272, 363, 385
on conformity, 5, 175, 205
in deindividuation, 283–84
within groups, 301
for ingroups, 261
in marketing, 418
pluralistic ignorance from, 301–2
norm enforcement, 6
for social order, 158
social sanctions, 147, 156–58, 160–61
norms, 385. See also descriptive norms; group norms; injunctive norms; social norms
behavioral, 148
group structured, 263
of individualism and collectivism, 303–4, 310
ingroup acceptance of, 261
misperceptions about, 364
provincial, 153–54, 159–60
social informative nature of, 259
subjective, 365, 418
O
obedience, 3, 5, 57, 130–35, 140–43, 433
to authority, 139
blind, 129
culture and, 136
Five Factor Model of personality and, 75
gender, 136–37
to illegal directives from perceived authorities, 409–10
ostracism and, 207, 211–13
personality, 137–38
obedience research, of Milgram, 4, 433–34
adverse outcomes in, 17
agentic state theory, 138–39
baseline procedure, 130–31
deception in, 15, 17, 21, 25
deindividuation and, 288–89
desire for control and, 138
empathic concern and, 138
ethical issues involving treatment in, 15, 129, 134
ethical safeguards in, 25
experimenter and teacher relationship, 139–40
followership, 140
future research directions, 143
Holocaust question, 132, 142
individual differences in, 135–38
locus of control and, 137–38
modifications to, 21
personality role, 57
predictions and results, 131–32
replication of, 27, 129, 134–35, 137
results explanation, 138–42
right to withdraw in, 26
self-presentation and, 139
situational variables and social influence, 140–42
social identity theory and, 139–40
variations of baseline procedure, 132–34
virtual reality versions of, 135, 137
objective consensus approach, 325–26
objective nonambiguous tasks, 330
objective self-awareness theory, 284
online identity signaling, 422
openness, 63–64
opinion comparison, 75–76
opinion deviance, 299
conformity and punishment of, 300–302
ingroup members’ protection for, 301, 306–7
opinions tasks, 330
O’Reilly, Bill, 459
ostracism, 248
aggression produced by, 207, 212–13, 214
behavior correction from, 6, 205, 211, 212, 214
common experience of, 208
conformity, compliance, and obedience, 207, 211–13
corrective function of, 6, 212, 214
Cyberball paradigm, 206
ejection function of, 6, 205, 213–14
group functioning improvement from, 210–11
inclusionary needs, 207
individuation of others, 212
power/provocation needs, 207
protection function of, 6, 205, 208–9, 214
selective targets of, 6, 209–10, 266, 301
sensitivity to, 206
social exclusion and, 208
social pain from, 208
solitude seeking, 207
temporal need-threat model of, 206–8, 211
TIPPR model and, 198, 199
outgroup categorization, 326–27
outgroup prototypes, 260–62
deviant, 266, 306–7
P
parents
children health behavior influenced by, 8, 382–83
health and, 8, 381–84
health modeling, 383
passive deception, 18
perceived appropriateness
culture influence on, 243
factors for, 242
personality factors influence on, 243
status influence on, 243
perceived authority, 409–10
peripheral processing route, of ELM, 369
personal ethical decision making, 12–13
personality, 4, 5
Allportian trait-based approach to, 54, 64–65
Big Five in, 54, 57, 60, 63, 75, 345
Big Six HEXACO model, 54
daily life and individual differences, 62–63
Eysenck Personality Inventory, 55–56, 58, 60
factors, perceived appropriateness from, 243
implicit theories of, 56, 111–13, 114t, 115–17, 140–41, 250
intrinsic motivation, 62
leaders’ characteristics, 344–46
leadership traits, 263
Milgram’s obedience research role of, 57
motivation individual differences, 54
recommendations, 64–66
resistance to influence and, 440
social inhibition trait reference, 166
social psychology and, 434
source and target of influence and, 54
uncertainty intolerance as trait, 263
well-being and, 62, 64
personality psychology, evolutionary psychology and, 64
personality research, 54–57
personalized feedback intervention (PFI), 371
personal narratives, in psychotherapy, 370
personal relevance, 6, 154
persuadability, gender and, 43, 44
persuasion, 4, 237, 361, 435
affective reactions and, 246
comparison and, 83
dual-process models of, 268, 447
EASI theory on, 246–47
HSM processing of, 327–28, 447
interpersonal effects and, 246, 248
knowledge, of consumer behavior, 417–18
law and, 395
marketing and, 416–18
in psychotherapy, 370
research, 374
resistance to, 8, 268, 438, 447
Persuasion Knowledge Model (PKM), 156–57
persuasive communication and messages, 270, 437, 448
(p. 471) planning stage, of MI, 371
pluralistic ignorance, 165, 167, 170–71, 174, 177, 178, 364
conformity from, 302
from normative influence, 301–2
poison parasite defense, 446
police interrogations, false confessions from, 8, 397
politeness theory, 437, 450
political groups, 333–34
positive automatic self, 226, 229
potentiate dominant responses, 189–90
social threats production of, 196
TIPPR model, 196–99
precise copying, by children, 97
precomparison negative affect, 76–77
prepotent dominant response, 6, 191, 194
arousal and, 196
RAT and, 197
TIPPR model, 196–99
prepotent responses model, 6, 189–90
The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (Goffman), 219
pretrial publicity, 398
priming-based explanation, of behaviors, 150
priming procedures, for cued knowledge activation, 229, 232
The Prince (Machiavelli), 60
privacy, 21–22
private self-awareness, 287–88
procedural fairness, 342, 343
procedural priming, in SAM, 79
process thread, in clinical interventions, 372
Procrustean bed, 368
professional ethical standards, 13
prosocial behavior, synchrony and, 99
prosocial influence, law literature and, 410–11
protection, as ostracism function, 6, 205, 208–9, 214
protective goals, 61–62
prototypicality. See also ingroup prototypes; outgroup prototypes
for group members, 260, 261
ingroup relative, 339, 341, 343, 344, 351
provincial norms, in social norms interventions, 153–54, 159–60
provocation needs, 207
proxy model, of social comparison
ability self-assessment in, 74, 75
assimilation and, 78
SAM and, 80
psychological group, 339–41
psychological jurisprudence, 395
psychological reactance theory, 441–42
psychology
law and, 395, 404, 410–11
research ethics evolution in, 14–15
psychotherapy, 361, 375
persuasion and personal narratives in, 370
working alliance and, 366–67
public consumption, 415, 416, 420, 422, 423, 424
public health programs, 8, 389–90
public nature, of lowball procedure, 114, 115
public self-awareness, 287–88
puffery, 406
Q
queen bee syndrome, 42
question booth technique, 55
R
racial stereotypes study, deception in, 16–17
radicalization, 270–72
randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 374
rank-order paradigm, 72, 74
rapport, from mimicry, 98
Rawls, John, 459
reactance, 441–43
reaction time (RT), 193, 225–26
reality-based community avoidance, 457
reason, as social influence tactic, 59
recall, 224
reciprocity, 5, 107, 108
DITF technique, 111–12
Golden Rule, 110
mindlessness and, 113
minimal risk research on, 19
NFC and, 113
social networking and, 112–13
that’s-not-all technique, 112
reference groups, 6, 153–54
effects, in marketing, 420–22
low identifiers in, 153
referent informational influence, 283
for self-categorization, 261–62, 272, 290
referent power, 388
reform process, from criticism, 304, 307, 310
refusals, 437, 449
constructivism and, 450
politeness theory and, 450
summary of, 450–51
regression, as social influence tactic, 59
regulatory focus theory, 322
regulatory mechanism, 13–14
rejection, 205, 207, 209, 210, 211, 212
rejection sensitivity, 173
related attributes hypothesis
local dominance effect and, 81
opinion comparison and, 75–76
similarity and, 73–74
relationships
leader-member quality of, 347
manipulation tactics in close personal, 60
resistance effects on, 451–52
well-being and positive, 62
relative standing, 71, 73, 82–83
Remote Associates Test (RAT), 189, 190, 197
replication, of Milgram’s obedience research, 27, 129, 134–35, 137
research, 8, 83, 376, 425–26. See also specific types
on attitude change, 374
ethics, 11, 14–15
minimal risk, on reciprocity, 19
on persuasion, 374
resignation stage, in temporal need-threat model of ostracism, 207–8
resistance
internal mechanisms of, 268, 447
to persuasion, 8, 268, 438, 447
resistance messages
constructivism and refusals, 450
message typologies, 449–50
politeness theory and refusals, 450
refusal summary, 450–51
resistance to influence
antecedents, processes, and consequences, 438f
attitudes and, 439–40, 448
attitudes effects, 451
consequences of, 451–52
demographics and personality, 440
forewarning, 443–44
inoculation theory, 444–45
internal mechanisms, 447–49
by males to females, 41–42, 45
manipulative intent, 440–41
messages and refusals, 444–45, 449–51
persuasive messages and, 448
poison parasite defense, 446
relationships effects, 451–52
social engineering and, 447
stealing thunder, 400–401, 437, 446
threat to freedoms, 441–43
resistance typologies, 449
resource control leadership, 346–48, 352
response competition, social presence influence of, 192
responsibility
confusion of, 173–74
diffusion of, 165, 169, 171, 175, 176
Milgram’s obedience research removal of, 141
of researchers, 27
restorative justice, 409
reward power, 388
right to withdraw, 25–26
right-wing authoritarianism, 137
rigid minorities, 320
risky shift paradigm, 270
Rochester Interaction Record (RIR), 63
role expectations, ethical dilemma of conflicting, 23
role play, 20
routine self-presentations, 229
(p. 472) S
salient behavior, 365, 366
scarcity, 5, 107–10
schisms, 333
selective accessibility theory (SAM), 78, 79–80
selective targets, in ostracism, 6
affective deviants, 209
black sheep effect, 210, 266, 301
burdensome individuals, 210
disagreeable individuals, 209
fairness principle violation, 210
low-contributing others in group,