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date: 22 July 2019

(p. 905) Index

(p. 905) Index

Page numbers followed by t and f indicate a table or figure, respectively

Abbott, Grace, 487, 492
Aboriginal Canadians, 4, 281–315
atrocities against, 363
Canada’s recognition of rights of, 362
colonial context for crime, 297, 390–392
correctional system overrepresentation, 281–282, 290–292, 291t–293t, 294, 366, 388, 389
Cree Courts court-based initiative, 376–377
criminal involvement data, 294
data collection on, 8
educational data, 365–366
Elder participation in sentencing process, 361
empowerment efforts, 9
gang-related behavior, 296, 297
Gladue (Aboriginal Persons) Court, 373, 375–376
Healing Lodges, 403n5
homicide victimization overrepresentation, 432–433
homicides and gun crimes, 295–296
Indigenous justice practices, 371, 375–378
Law Reform Commission report, 366–367
legacy of colonization for, 362–366
life expectancy gap, 364
mistrust of the justice system of, 366–369
policy recommendations, 379–380
R v. Gladue court-based initiative, 375–376
racial bias perceptions against, 281, 369
Report of the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry of Manitoba, 368
Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples: Vol. 1–5, 367
reputed increased crime involvement, 295
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 367, 370–371
sentencing disparities, 307–308
underreporting of crimes by, 368–369
unemployment data, 366
victimization rates, 8–9, 294, 369, 388
Aboriginal Justice Strategy Summative Evaluation (2007; Canada), 377–378
Aboriginal Peoples and Criminal Justice: Equality, Respect, and the Search for Justice report (Canada), 366–367
Aboriginals Preservation and Protection Act (1939; Australia), 398–399
Act of February 5, 1917 (U.S.), 635
Act of March 4, 1929 (U.S.), 635
Acts Concerning Aliens (Alien Friends Act; 1798; U.S.), 632
Adams, John, 632
Advertising, political/race-oriented, 41, 46, 50
Advisory Committee on the Traffic of Women, 492
(p. 906) African Americans. See also Jim Crow laws
in Alabama and Georgia, struggles of, 605
arrest rates, vs. whites, 108, 111–112, 111t
beliefs of whites about, 7, 48, 70, 71
black-crime connection, 1–2, 48–54
carceral state and, 59
Census Bureau classification, 109t
civil rights movement and, 43–44, 55
death by policeman data, 141
death penalty support, 86
differential offending hypothesis and, 146–147
distrust for justice system, 71
drug offenses and incarcerations, 77, 196, 199, 201, 202, 203t, 204, 205f–208f, 207, 209–211, 215
Founding Fathers’ opinions of, 79
Great Migration (early 20th century), 2
Horton, Willie, legal case, 46, 52–53, 73
housing discrimination, 36
juvenile drug arrest data, 139
lethal violence overrepresentation, 431
life without parole sentences, 176–177
NCVS data and concerns, 125
negative opinion of police, 153
oppression history, 135
poverty rates, 36
race, crime, and public opinions, 70–99
Race, Crime and Public Opinion Survey, 76, 88
race/racism beliefs of, 73–74
racial divide hypothesis, 75
racial profiling of, 7, 89, 90, 107, 114
racialization of, in the U.S., 22–23, 70, 95–96
searches and seizures of, 143
Seattle, Washington, arrest data, 212
Sentencing Project arrest rate research, 199–200
stereotyping of, 75, 82, 92
“stop and frisk” operations against, 211
traffic/pedestrian stop disparities, 142
UCR arrest trend data, 111
victimization rates, 124, 124t
viewpoint of police brutality, 90
violence, increased involvement in, 7
African Americans, males
behavioral expectations, in disadvantaged communities, 256
homicide/victimization vulnerabilities of, 430
imprisonment data, 107
incarceration data, 70
police racial profiling of, 7, 89, 90, 107, 114
self-reporting of sexual intercourse, 128n6
African Americans, youth. See also Disadvantaged neighborhoods, Boston inner-city boys (case study)
data collection methods used with, 78
drug use, high school seniors, 119t
incarceration data, 70
Scottsboro Boys Case, 166–167
African Americans vs. Whites
arrest rates, 108, 111–112, 111t
differences in use of criminal justice system, 216
drug dealing comparison, 195
drug offense convictions data, 70
drug sales, 208
drug use rates, 204
drug-related arrest data, 194, 201, 215
imprisonment data, 107
incarceration rates (U.S.), 291
juvenile drug arrest data, 139
self-report data comparisons, 108
self-reported drug use reports, 194
sentencing/punishment disparities, 108, 111–112, 111t, 179
African Canadians
classification, 285
correctional system overrepresentation, 282, 290–294, 291t, 292f, 293t, 294
criminal involvement data, 294
denial of early prison release, 309
drug possession/trafficking overrepresentation, 297
gang-related behavior, 297
as hate crime targets, 295
homicides and gun crimes, 295–296
increased post-release conditions, 307
police mistreatment of, 300
(p. 907) racial profiling of, 301–304
sentencing disparities and harshness, 307–308
stop and search overrepresentation, 301–302
unemployment rates, 286
use of force against, overrepresentation, 304–305
violent victimization experiences, 294–295
Afro-Caribbeans, in Canada, 298–299, 313
Afro-Caribbeans, in England and Wales
arrest/imprisonment profile, 6
blame of, for crimes, 6
discrimination against, 4
immigration history, 325
offending rate overrepresentation, 347
oppression of in England, Wales, 1
plea-bargaining issues, 5
population data, 327t
strip search overrepresentation, 334
youth school issues, 349
Afro-Caribbeans, in Miami, Florida, 595
Ageton, Suzanne S., 117–118
Aggravated felonies class of crimes, 644
Ahlberg, Jan, 566–567
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 465
Alabama (U.S.)
Beason-Hammon Alabama Taxpayer and Citizen Protection Act, 477–478, 544–546, 585, 609–619, 641
challenges to reforms in, 609–614
criminal statutes, 476–478
devolution of immigration legislation in, 604
Hispanic Interest Coalition of Alabama v. Governor of Alabama, 478
implications of research, 616–617
Norris v. Alabama (1935), 166
Powell v. Alabama (1932), 166
reforms in, 603, 607–609
Secure-Communities initiative, 601
undocumented immigrants in, 600–601, 603–619, 620n1
United States v. State of Alabama, 478, 544
Alabama, Norris v. (1935), 166
Alabama, Powell v. (1932), 166
Alabama, United States v. (2011), 641
Alabama Coalition Against Domestic Violence, 610–611
Alaskan Native (AIAN), 109, 109t–110t, 111, 114, 176, 574
Albrecht, Hans-Jörg, 348, 837–838
Alexander, Michelle, 49, 57, 198, 217, 348
Alien and Sedition Act (1798), 34
Alien Friends Act (Acts Concerning Aliens; 1798), 632
Alien Nation (Brimelow), 471
American Bar Association (ABA), 459
American Bar Foundation, 138
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 534, 610
The American Criminal (Hooton), 489
American Indians
alcohol, substance abuse, 118–119
arrest rates, 108, 112, 115
Census Bureau classification, 109t
criminalization, negative impacts, 392–393
data availability for, 8
death penalty overrepresentation, 184, 397
declining violence rates, 124t
drug offenses (2000–2009), 203t
drug use, high school seniors, 119t
executions/mass executions of, 397
incarceration rates and disparities, 176, 388, 389
internal colonialism vs., 395
lack of scrutiny, for penal sanctions vs., 399
marijuana use data, 119
overrepresentation in criminal justice system, 388
punishment/rule of law on, 395
rape of women, by whites, 399
sovereign jurisdiction claims, 395–396
tribal/nontribal law enforcement of, 115
UCR index crime rate, 111
victimization rates, 8–9, 108, 123, 124t, 125, 128n9, 388
voting rights disenfranchisement, 392–393
Zion, James, on laws of, 395
American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology (Northwestern School of Law), 486–487, 496–497
American Journal of Sociology article (1896), 460
(p. 908) American National Election Studies (ANES), 71, 76
“The American Negro as a Dependent, Defective, and Delinquent” (McCord), 50
American Social Hygiene Association (ASHA), 492
American Sociological Association, 139
American South, politics of immigration, 600–621. See also Alabama; Georgia; Jim Crow laws (Jim Crow racism)
African Americans/Latinos protests against discrimination, 610
challenges to legislative reforms, 609–614
future research directions, 616–618
immigrant legislation, southern style, 605–607
Kentucky legislative attempts, 607
Mexican immigrants, 604, 619
Nashville, Tennessee, anti-immigrant rallies, 606
policy suggestions, 618–619
reforming Georgia and Alabama, 607–609
understanding southern immigration laws, 614–616
undocumented immigrants, 600–601, 603–619, 620n1
American White Cross Anti-Narcotic Association, 498
Anarchist criminality, 493–497
Anderson, Elijah, 256
Andrijevic, Mirko, 714
Annual Penal Statistics SPACE I, Survey 2010 (Council of Europe), 698n2
Anslinger, Harry J., 499–500
Anti-Drug Abuse Act (1986; U.S.), 197, 636, 644–645, 649
Anti-Drug Abuse Act (1988; U.S.), 197–198, 635
Antillean immigrants, in the Netherlands, 766–769, 770–774, 777–778, 782–783
Antipodes, race/ethnicity/crime in, post-mid-1900s, 8–9
Anti-Semitism, in France, 722, 733n3
Anti-terrorism, Crime, and Security Act (England; 2001), 332
Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA; U.S.), 33, 472, 515, 643
Archer, Dane, 430
Arizona, Miranda v. (1966), 647–648
Arizona Senate Bill 1070 (Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act; 2010), 476–477, 585, 594–595, 600–603, 607, 609, 611, 619, 620n8
Arizona v. United States (2012), 477, 642
Armstrong, Richard, 487
Arrests and arrest rates. See also Incarceration and incarceration rates; Sentencing and punishment
African Americans vs. whites, 108, 111–112, 111t, 179
Afro-Caribbeans, 6
Asian ancestry, 114, 115
in Canada, police arrest practices, 305–306
in disadvantaged neighborhoods, 219
drug arrest disparities, reasons for, 209–215
drug use disparities, 200t, 201, 201f, 202t, 205
drug use disparities, reasons for, 209–215
in England, Afro-Caribbean vs. Asians, 9
first-/second-generation immigrants, 6
in Germany, of Turks, 5
hard drugs vs. marijuana, 198
Human Rights Watch comment on disparities, 199
in Japan, rainichi foreigners, statistics, 745, 747–750, 747t, 752, 753f, 754, 755t
of Latinos, 593
mass incarceration/mass immigration, politics of, 468–472
of Mexicans, 26–27
of Native Americans, 108, 115
policing disparities, 108, 111–112, 111t, 138–140
rape/incarceration-arrest imbalance, 179
Sentencing Project, on racial disparities, 199
2009 state/federal prison data, 176t
UCR data, 110–112, 114–117
U.S. vs. Western Europe, generational differences, 562–564
violent crime percentages, 113t
(p. 909) Asian American youth, marijuana use, h.s. seniors, 119
Asians
alcohol, substance abuse, 118–119
anti-Asian sentiment, in the U.S., 634
arrest rates, 112, 115
in Canada, 285, 286
capital sentencing discrimination, 184
Census Bureau classification, 109t
crime rates, generational differences, 561, 562
in England and Wales, discrimination against, 328–338, 341–352
gangs, in Canada, 297
incarceration disparities, 176
UCR index crime rate, 111
victimization rates, 125
Astor, Avraham, 561
Aubry, Bernard, 838
Australia. See also Australia, indigenous population
banning of public executions, 397
criminalization, negative impacts, 393
immigrant population size, 669
Indian subcontinent immigrants, 6
indigenous group empowerment efforts, 9
indigenous populations, victimization of, 1, 4, 6, 8
Law Reform Commission of Western Australia, 367
National Inquiry into Racist Violence, 403n2
Northern Territory Emergency Response, 394
Queensland Crime and Misconduct Commission, 367–368
race-based riots in, 298
race/ethnicity data availability, 8
White Australia Policy, 363
Youth Level of Service Inventory, 394
Australia, indigenous population, 4
aboriginal empowerment efforts, 9
Aboriginals Preservation and Protection Act, 398–399
“Bringing Them Home” Report, 363
Circle Court model, 374
colonial context for crime, 390–392
comparative disadvantages of, 364–365
criminalization of, 387–390
death sentence overrepresentation, 397
disproportionate poverty of, 6
dominant group blame of crimes on, 1
Elder participation in sentencing process, 361, 374
empowerment efforts, 9
Final National Report (1991), 366
Flora and Fauna Act, 362
incarceration disparities, 399
Indigenous justice practices, 371, 373–375
justice system disparities, 6
legacy of colonization for, 362–366
life expectancy gap, 364, 365
mistrust of the justice system of, 366–369
Nunga Court model, 374
policy recommendations, 379–380
precolonization system of justice of, 362–363
public executions, allowance of, 398
R v Fernando (1992), 371–372
race/ethnicity data availability, 8
racial bias perceptions against, 369
Red Dust Healing, 403n5
Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody, 366
underreporting of crimes by, 368–369
victimization of, 1, 4, 6, 8–9, 387–390
women, victimization rates for, 388–389
Aversive racism theory, 80
Bail, Christopher, 673
Bail and pretrial decisions, 169–171
Bail Reform Act (1966), 168
Bail reform movement, 168
Baker, David, 395, 397
Barkan, Steven E., 92
Barlow, David E., 50
Barlow, Melissa H., 50
Barrio Dieciocho (18th Street) gang (Guatemala), 860–862, 868–870
Barsh, Russell, 395
Bean, Lydia, 512
Beason-Hammon Alabama Taxpayer and Citizen Protection Act (HB 56; 2011), 477–478, 544–546, 585, 609–619, 641. See also United States v. State of Alabama
Beck, Ulrich, 393
(p. 910) Beckett, Katherine, 48–49, 55, 56, 59, 201, 209
Bellair, Paul E., 120
Bernasco, Wim, 773
Bingham, Theodore, 489–490
Black-crime connection, 48–54
data from polls about, 48
drugs/war on drugs, 49
long-held beliefs about, 49–50
male overrepresentation, 51–52
media representations, 50–51, 52
physical features-related perceptions, 51
political significance of, 48–49
Progressive era statistics, 50
Blokland, Arjan, 773
Blueprints Program (Colorado Center for the Study of Prevention of Violence), 542
Blumstein, Alfred, 177–178
Board of Education, Brown v. (1954), 167
Bobo, Lawrence, 76, 77, 80, 88, 90, 96
Body-Gendrot, Sophie, 713, 714
Bonn, Scott, 92
“Border Under Siege” video (Viña), 31
Bosniak, Linda, 630
Bossi-Fini law (Eastern Europe; 2002), 746
Bourdieu, Pierre, 408, 409–410, 413, 418–419, 421, 427, 889–890. See also Cultural capital
Bowling, Benjamin, 330, 342–343, 837
Bracero Program (U.S.), 27–29
Brettell, Caroline, 531–532, 542
Brewer, Jan, 595
Brignoni-Ponce, United States v. (1975), 641
Brimelow, Peter, 471
Brindis, Claire, 574
“Bringing Them Home” Report (Australia), 363
British Crime Survey (BCS), 329–332, 330t
Brixton riots (1981; England and Wales), 321, 340
Broeders, Dennis, 784
Brown, Robert A., 141
Brown v. Board of Education (1954), 167
Bruly, Ed, 41
Brunson, Rod, 78
Buchanan, Patrick, 31
Buckler, Kevin, 86
Budd, Tracey, 334, 353n7
Bui, Hoan N., 509, 510, 561
Burgess, Ernest, 460
Bursik, Robert, Jr., 507, 592
Bush, George H. W., 45, 46
Butcher, Kristin F., 562, 563–564
Cahill, Clyde, 198
California
American Indian incarceration, 389
anti-Chinese immigrant campaign, 633, 640
anti-immigrant sentiment, 31, 633
capital sentencing discrimination, 184
criminal cases analysis, 173, 174, 184
death row population data, 184
Guatemalan gang origins in, 860
homicide victimization study, 570, 578–579n7
ICE jail personnel training, 533
language classes for immigrants, 539
Mexican immigration history, 24, 27–28
Pentecostal revivals in, 863
Proposition 187, 184, 459, 469, 601
trafficking of Chinese girls in, 493
undocumented immigrants in, 639
Calverly, Adam, 339
Canada. See also Aboriginal Canadians; African Canadians; Canada, black homicide victimization in Toronto, Ontario (case study); Canada, justice system racial bias
Afro-Caribbeans in, 298–299, 313
antiracism training, for police, 311
atrocities against indigenous population, 363
ban on collecting and disseminating race-based justice statistics, 281, 286–287, 309
bias perceptions, 281
blame of indigenous populations, 4
Census/”visible minority” designation, 283, 285–286
(p. 911) Commission on Systemic Racism in the Ontario Criminal Justice System, 300, 308–309, 311
correctional system, minority overrepresentation, 281–282, 290–294
Criminal Code, 373
criminal justice system, race-based data in, 286–289
criminal justice system, racial overrepresentation, 281–282
criminalization, negative impacts, 393
democratic racism and criminal justice, 309–312
distinct (3) racial groups, 285
diversity/tolerance image, 283–284
early precipitants of crime, 4
Employment Equity Act, 285, 314n1
first- vs. second-generation crime rates, 551–552
freedom of information requests data, 292–294, 292f, 293t
gangs/gang membership, 296
Gladue (Aboriginal Persons) Court, 373, 375–376
Hong Kong Chinese immigrants, 6
ICERD signatory status, 286
Indian subcontinent immigrants, 6
indigenous rights, recognition of, 362
Integrated Correctional Services, 289, 314n5
Integrated Criminal Court Survey, 289, 314n4
justice system disparities, 6
Kingston Pilot Project, 302
Law Reform Commission report, 366–367, 368
minority victimization, offending in, 294–297
Multiculturalism Act, 284
1980s, growing concern for racial minorities, 285
Ontario Human Rights Commission, 311
R v. Gladue court-based initiative, 375–376
race/ethnicity, defined, 284
race/ethnicity data availability, 8
racial discussions, intolerance for, 284–285
Racial Profiling Policy (Toronto), 310
“racial/ethnic intolerance” datasets, 93–94
Roots of Youth Violence Review, 311
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 367, 370–371
select racial groups in prisons, 292f
smuggling operations, 500
Toronto Region Statistics Canada Research Data Centre, 448n8
Toronto Youth Crime Victimization Survey, 296–297, 296t
War on Terror-inspired police tactics, 339
white inmates in federal prisons data, 292
Youth Level of Service Inventory, 394
Canada, black homicide victimization in Toronto, Ontario (case study) (1988–2003), 430–450
African American comparison, 447n3
background information (what is known), 432–434
Black Action Defense Committee, cross-checking, 436
characteristics of homicides, 437t–438t
conclusions, 431–432
data access limitations, 448n9
data and measures, 436, 438–439
discussion, 443–444
future research directions, 446–447
neighborhood content measurement, 440–442, 441t, 442t
neighborhood effects: multivariate analysis, results, 442–443, 443t
news media role, 433–434
“off-the-record” conversations, 448–449n10
policy implications, 444–446
“residential stability” index creation, 449n17
spatial distribution of victims, 439–440, 440f
Toronto Police Service, data collection from, 435–436, 449n11
Canada, indigenous population. See Aboriginal Canadians
Canada, justice system racial bias, 298–309
citizen perceptions of criminal justice, 298–301
corrections, 308–309
police arrest practices, 305–306
police use of force, 304–305
pretrial detention, 306–307
racial profiling, 301–304
sentencing, 307–308
(p. 912) Canadian Charter of Rights of Freedoms, 284
Canadian Constitution, 284
Canadian Police Survey on Youth Gangs, 295–296
Canadian Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 370–371
Canadian Vital Statistics Death Database, 448n9
Cao, Liqun, 299
Capps, Randy, 473–474
Carbone-Lopez, Kristin, 517
Carceral state, 54–61
civil rights movement and, 55–56
and “double regulation of poverty,” 59
and downsizing of social safety net, 59
Jim Crow and, 56–57
legislation, 56
mass incarcerations, 58
politics/political initiatives and, 54–55
present shift away from, 63–64
racialized social control, evolution of, 57–58
Scheingold’s view on punishment, 54
supposed role of race, 56–57
Caribbean Hispanics, 24
Case studies
African American girls, urban inequality, gendered violence, 252–274
black homicide victimization, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 430–450
inner-city boys/disadvantaged neighborhood, 224–249
sentencing violent juvenile offending in France, 834–857
Castles, Stephen, 672, 674
Castro, Fidel, 23
Catholic Charities CYO (California), 540
Cato Institute, 663
Cavazzoni, Signor, 500
Census Bureau (U.S.). See U.S. Census Bureau
Center for Sociological Research on Law and Penal Institutions (CESDIP; France), 709
Centers of Identification and Expulsion (Italy), 803–804, 807t
Central Alabama Fair Housing Center v. Magee (2011), 614
Central Narcotics Intelligence Bureau (Egypt), 499
Charging and plea bargaining decisions, 171–175
Charismatic Christianity, and gangs, in Guatemala, 861, 862–864, 867
Chavez, Leo R., 29–30
Cheliotis, Leonidas K., 338
Chicago, Illinois
American Institute of Crime and Criminality, 486–487
bombing studies, 496–497
Haymarket Square riots, 493–494
immigrant neighborhood crime levels, 530
pre-WW II delinquency areas, 488
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, 511
violent offending, generational differences, 560–562
violent offending, self-reports, 588–589
Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act (New Zealand), 371
Children of immigrants. See Immigrants and their children
Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), 514, 563, 592
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882; U.S.), 634
Chiricos, Theodore, 50, 84, 92, 180–181, 214
Christian conversions, of gangs, in Guatemala, 860–875
Chu, Doris, 299
Chy Lung v. Freeman (1875), 639, 640
Citizenship laws
EU-15 countries policies, 695–696
in France, 553, 695
in Germany, 553, 695
jus sanguinis citizenship, 690, 691t–694t, 695–696, 742
jus soli citizenship, 690, 691t–694t, 695–698, 697
OECD countries, laws for obtaining, 691t–694t
in Sweden, 553
in Switzerland, 553
in the United States, 690, 691t, 695
(p. 913) Civil Rights Commission (U.S.), 56
Civil rights movement (U.S.), 4, 28, 37, 43, 44, 55–56
Clary, United States v. (1994), 198
Clinton, Bill, 47, 465
Closed Educational Centers (CEF; France), 839
Clustering countries, studies of approaches to incorporation, 672–673
Cocaine. See Crack cocaine
“Code of the streets” (Anderson), 256
Cohn, Steven F., 92
Colorado Center for the Study of Prevention of Violence Blueprints Program, 542
Color-blind racism, 80, 218
Commission for Racial Inquiry (England), 343
Commission on Systemic Racism in the Ontario Criminal Justice System, 300, 308–309, 311
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (UN), 218
Committee to Review Research on Policy and Practices, 139–140
Commonwealth Immigrants Act (1962; England), 325
Comparative conflict theory, 72
Congress (U.S.). See also Laws on immigration and crime, in the United States; individual Immigration Acts
Act to Regulate Immigration (1882), 486
advice to Dillingham Commission, 486–487
aggravated felonies class of crimes, 644
Bracero Program, 27–29
Harrison Narcotic Act, 497, 499
Immigration and Nationality Acts, 29, 472, 507, 644, 645, 646, 649
immigration quota law, 26
Mann Act (1910), 489
PATRIOT Act passage, 34, 467–468, 472–473, 630, 650
Connell, R. W., 412
Constitution (U.S.), 56, 477, 628–629
Contra Wars, 23
Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview (Canada), 290
Crack cocaine
convictions of African Americans, 77, 107
Cuban/Mexicans vs. Puerto Ricans, 122
disparity, 52
harshness of penalties, 198
political rhetoric about, 49
powder cocaine vs., 88
SAMHSA data, 207
user profile, 196–197, 198, 207f, 208f
vs. other drugs, punishment disparities, 76, 88, 168, 186
Crawford, Charles, 180–181, 214
Cree Courts court-based initiative (Canada), 376–377
Crime and Disorder Act (England; 1998), 332
“Crime Report Reveals Menace of Integration” (Citizens Council of Greenwood), 56
Crime reporting (reporting of crime)
racial/ethnic disparities in, 115–116
reasons for not reporting crime, 116t
Criminal Alien Program (CAP), 473, 645
Criminal Justice Act (1991; England), 353n1
Criminal Justice and Public Order Act (England; 1994), 340
Crimmigration law and enforcement, 630–632, 648, 651–653. See also Laws on immigration and crime, in the United States
creation of earliest standards of, 634
criticism of/dismay about, 646, 651, 653
Flores-Figueroa shut down of, 652
Hispanic communities and, 630
investigation controversies, 647–648
potential for growth of, 641–642
Cropper, Porsha, 673
Crow, Matthew S., 214
Crutchfield, Robert D., 152
Cuba/Cubans
Castro Revolution in, 23
homicide rates study, 560
Mariel Cubans, 560, 592, 595
“Marielitos” boatlife (1980), 592
marijuana use, h.s. seniors, 119
marijuana use data, 119
U.S. homicide victimization rates, 522, 522f
(p. 914) Cullen, Francis T., 71, 73–75, 81, 82, 83, 84, 86–87, 90, 93
Cultural capital. See also Norway, black cannabis dealers in a white welfare state
Bourdieu, Pierre, description of, 409–410, 415
conversion to economic capital, 426
criticism of, 427
efforts at creating new forms of, 889
in England and Wales, 346
habitus as embodiment of, 410
“hipness” comparison, 413
social class and acquisition of, 415, 419, 746
street capital comparison, 409–410
Cultural heterogeneity
consequences of, 243–245
in poor communities, 241–243
Culture of Control (Garland), 60–61
Culture-conflict theory, 512
Current Population Survey (CPS), 518, 572
Customs Enforcement Agency (U.S.), 468
Czolgosz, Leon F., 494
Dancygier, Rafaela, 673
Davis, Angela, 395, 398
Davis, Zadvydas v. (2001), 651
De Jong, Jan-Dirk, 777
De Mistura Commission (Italy), 804
de Wenden, Catherine Wihtold, 714
Deal, Georgia Latino Alliance for Human Rights v. (2011), 641
Death penalty
African Americans/white support, 86
Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act, 33
political opposition to, 46
public opinion about, 52, 71, 73, 81
racial cue experiment, 77–78
Republican position on, 47
Declaration of Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UN; 2004), 402
Delinquency. See also Disadvantaged neighborhoods, Boston inner-city boys (case study)
Add Health findings, 120, 510
Chicago, pre-WW II, international immigrants, 488
family influences, 510–511
immigrant generational issues, 485–486, 488, 509, 564–566, 568
intervention programs, 541
Monitoring the Future findings, 122
negative impact of courts, 544
peer influences, 510–511
race-crime relationship indications, 147
self-reporting of, 121–122, 147, 273n5
sexual victimization and, 274n10
violence against women and, 271, 273n3
Il Delitto Politico e la Rivoluzione (Laschi), 494–495
Democratic Party (U.S.)
calls for civil rights legislation, 44
crime data collection proposal, 56
distancing from race and crime issue, 44–45
tough-on-crime policies, 197
tough-on-crime position, 46–47
vs. Republicans, on crime-fighting issue, 45
whites, abandonment of, 42
Democratic racism (in Canada)
criminal justice and, 309–312
defined, 283
Demuth, Stephen, 170, 214
Denmark, population percentage with immigration background, 671f
Deployment hypothesis, 150–151
Deportations
Act of February 5, 1917 and, 635
Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 and, 636, 649
appetite for, in the U.S., 639
broadening of crime-based grounds for, 642–646
Bureau of Immigration analysis, 491
to Central America, from the U.S., 860, 861, 864–866, 873–875
Congressional deportation actions, 629
crime-based rates for exclusion of, 629
as criminal punishment, 630
in France, 708, 717, 727, 729, 732
Harrison Act and, 500
Human Rights Watch and, 475
ICE and, 607
IIRIRA and, 472–473, 515, 535, 649–650
illegal border crossings and, 594
Immigration and Nationality Act and, 649
INS and, 649
in Italy, 793, 804–806, 807t, 812, 823n7, 825n37
in Japan, 756–758, 758f
mass deportation, in the U.S., 26–27, 467
(p. 915) in the Netherlands, 769, 775, 784
as percentage of immigration cases, 637
recidivism rates of deportables, 514
Republican administration increases, 676
RICO Latino deportation limitations, 33–34
rise of, in the U.S., 458
“self-deportation” by undocumenteds, 474, 600, 641
Supreme Court (U.S.) rulings, 466, 648, 651–652
undocumented immigration and, 467
U.S. budget, 32, 472
U.S. Presidential power of, 632
USA PATRIOT Act and, 468, 473
verbal/physical harassment of immigrants, 475
voluntary departure vs., 466–467
Desmond, Scott, 511
Devitt, Camille, 674
Diamond, Jack “Legs,” 499–500
Differential offending hypothesis, 146–147
Differential processing hypothesis (rubric), 148–151
deployment hypothesis, 150–151
individual police bias, 148
racial threat hypothesis, 72, 142
social conditioning model, 149
Dillingham, William P., 486
Dillingham Commission report (U.S. Senate)
Congressional advisement of, 486–487
immigrants and their children report data, 556
pre-World War II immigration, crime data, 486–490, 502, 508
DiPietro, Stephanie, 507, 511, 592
Disadvantaged neighborhoods. See also Disadvantaged neighborhoods, Boston inner-city boys (case study)
black reports of police treatment in, 153
characteristics of, 256
consequences of cultural heterogeneity, 243–245
convenience of arrests in, 219
crack addiction in, 196–197
cultural heterogeneity in, 241–243
data collection methods, 78
exaggerated perception of drugs in, 198
heightened narcotics policing in, 645
police concentrations in, 141, 145, 153, 210–211, 215, 257
racial threat hypothesis and, 149–150
sexual coercion/assault against young women, 266–268
sexual harassment against women in, 263–266
“street codes” in, 256
trust, requirements for development, 256–257
underpolicing in, 257, 258, 271
violence against women in, 254–272
violence in, 196–197
Disadvantaged neighborhoods, Boston inner-city boys (case study), 224–249
beefs between neighborhoods and consequences, 227, 230–233
bonds of mutual protection, 235
challenges/manly behaviors, 229
“code of the streets,” 231
community and policing strategies, 232
escalation limitation efforts, 231
findings summation, 225–227
implications for policy and practice, 247–248
implications for theory, future research, 245–247
interview excerpts, 228, 229, 230, 232, 233, 234, 236, 237–238
leveling of expectations, 233–235
negative role models, influence of, 226, 227, 233–235, 241
neighborhood-based identity, 231–232
neighborhoods, organization of, 228–229
older peers and cross-cohort socialization, 237–239
place-based antagonisms, 233
profile of teenage boys, 227–228, 231
public street life variances, 231
research methodology, 227–228
rivalries and violence, 230
violence, and bonds of mutual protection, 235
violence, and the age structure of peer groups, 235–237
violence, consequences of social organization of, 233–235
violence, institutional trust, cultural resonance, 240–241
violence, social organization of, 228–232
Disparity research, 4–5
(p. 916) Dobbs, Lou, 31
Doerner, Jill K., 214
Dole, Bob, 53
Doob, Anthony, 447–448n5
Douglas, Mary, 777–778
“Driving while black,” 114
Drug dealing. See also Norway, black cannabis dealers in a white welfare state
by African Americans, 197, 199, 215
in Italy, 81–811, 808, 813, 815
by Muslim immigrants, in Germany, 879–897
in poor minority neighborhoods, 210, 230–231, 238, 240, 258–259
smuggling, pre-World War II, 497–501
street capital and, 409
by youth, in Norway, 409–410, 411, 413, 415, 417–421, 424–426
Drug laws and race, 196–203
Anti-Drug Abuse Acts (1986, 1988), 197–198
arrest disparities, reasons for, 209–215
arrests and imprisonment, 199, 200t, 201, 201f
black arrests (1980–2009), 200t
crack cocaine issues, 197
decision-makers and, 216–218
incarceration, 201, 202t, 203, 203t
onset of tough-on-crime policies, 197
sentencing determination, 215
tough-on-crime policies, growth of, 197
United States v. Clary (1994), 198
vs. other drugs, punishment disparity, 76, 88, 168, 186
Drugs and drug use. See also Crack cocaine; Germany, Muslim immigrants in Frankfurt; Marijuana; War on drugs
arrest disparities, 200t, 201, 201f, 202t, 205
black arrest rates, 178
black-crime connection, 49
ethnicity comparisons, 108
general incarceration data, 194
hard drugs. vs. marijuana, 198
heroin trafficking, 497–498
immigrant generational data, 564–566
marijuana arrests, 198
Midwest Prevention Project, 541–542
racial characterizations, 196
racial disparities in arrests, 200t, 201, 201f, 202t, 205
SAMHSA surveys, 203–204, 205f–208f
self-report data, 119
user profile, 204, 205f–208f, 207
Du Bois, W.E.B., 76
Dukakis, Michael, 45–46, 47
Durkheim, Emile, 794
Eastern Europe
Bossi-Fini law, 746
crime of migrants from, 459, 766, 768, 775–776, 810
labor migration stagnation, present-day, 781
migration to Italy, 791–792, 811
migration to the Netherlands, 771–772, 785–786n3
migration to the UK, 325–326
pre-WW II migration to U.S., 484
prisoner overrepresentation in France, 709
trafficking of women from, 492
U.S. quota laws for, 26, 635
Eberhardt, Jennifer, 51
Edison, Thomas, 494
El Hadioui, Iliass, 777
El Paso, Texas, Latino crime and immigration data, 587–593, 596
Elliott, Delbert, 117–118
Ellis Island, New York, 489, 649
Emergency Program for Security Measures (Japan), 739, 749
Employment Equity Act (1986; Canada), 285, 314n1
Enforcement and Removal Operations (ERO)program (ICE), 475
Engbersen, Godfried, 782
Engel, David, 542
England and Wales, 321–353
Afro-Caribbean discrimination in, 1, 4, 6, 9, 325, 334, 346–347, 349, 837
anti-Muslim sentiment, 322, 332, 343–345
Anti-terrorism, Crime, and Security Act, 332
Asian/British Asian discrimination, 328–338, 341–352
Bangladeshi discrimination, 6, 325, 331, 334, 343, 345–347, 349–350
(p. 917) black discrimination, 321–352
British Crime Survey data, 329–332, 330t
Cantle Report (2005), 341
Commission for Racial Inquiry, 343
Commonwealth Immigrants Act, 325
Crime and Disorder Act, 332
Criminal Justice Act, 353n1
Criminal Justice and Public Order Act, 340
data capture/ethnicity categorization systems, 327–328
drug use data, 334
Eastern European immigration, 325–326
ethnicity in, 322–328, 327t
Gillan and Quinton v. United Kingdom, 343
homicide rates and patterns, 332
imprisonment data, 336–339
Indian immigrant discrimination, 6
inequality, socioeconomic status, education, 348–350
intergenerational patterns, family structures, 345–348
London 2011 riots, 323, 350–351
London Underground attacks, 322, 332, 346
Macpherson Inquiry, 322, 340–341
Ministry of Justice crime breakdown, 330
multicultural citizenry and space, 326–327, 327t
offending, explanations of, 345–350
offending, self-reported studies, 333–334
Offending Crime and Justice Survey, 333–334, 346, 353n8
ONS diversity data, 326–327
Operation Swamp ‘81, 321
Operation Trident, 332
Pakistani discrimination, 6, 322, 325, 331, 334–335, 338, 343, 345–348
Police and Criminal Evidence Act, 340, 341–342
police custody data, 334
police-citizen clashes, 322
policing, space, place, 350–351
policing minority ethnic communities, 339–341
policy responses, 332
population figures, 326
post-colonial journeys, multicultural spaces, 325–326
presence reports/sentencing patterns, 334–336
probation services, 339
race/ethnicity data availability, 8
racially motivated crimes, 331–332
racism by Prison System, 322
riots and demonstrations, 321–323, 332, 340, 341, 350–351
Scarman Inquiry, 321
stops and searches, 341–343
terrorism, security, and ethnicity, 343–345
Terrorism Act, 322, 340, 343–344
Ugandan immigrant discrimination, 6
U.S. data similarity, 8
victimization, data, 329–332, 330t, 350
victimization, explanations of, 345–350
Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act (EBSVERA), 468
Estonia, declining foreign-born population, 670
Estrich, Susan, 45–46
Ethnic conflict theory, 72
Ethnic-specific Latino homicide victimization, 522–523
Europe. See also European Union; Immigrants and their children, U.S. vs. Western Europe; individual countries
anarchists/anarchist crime, 493, 495
anti-immigrant sentiment, 676
citizenship laws, 695
Congress, immigration quota law, 26
criminalization/victimization of migrants, 730t
Dillingham Commission study of, 486
disparities in selected countries, 837–839
emigration data, 469
first- vs. second-generation crime rates, 552
gangster-run businesses, 500–501
generational differences in crime, 552–555
immigrant incorporation survey, 672–673
mid-1990s crime problems, 3–6
MIPEX project, 699n10
non-EU countries, in-flows of foreign population, 678t, 681
post-WW II multigenerational emigration, 2
race/ethnicity/crime, post-mid-1900s, 8–9
recruitment of guest workers from, 3–4
Somali refugee issues, 417–418
vs. U.S., serious offenses, 596
white slave traffic from, 489–492
WW I, reduction in immigrant labor in, 25
(p. 918) European Convention on Nationality, 700n17
European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia, 332
European Social Survey data, 672
European Union (EU). See also individual countries
attitudes towards immigrants, survey, 672–673
conditional jus soli citizenship, 695
emigration from, 325–326
formation of, 325
immigrant incarceration, by areas of origin, 814t
immigrant residents, by places of origin, 797t
immigrant victimization in, 569
immigrants charged with crime, by area of origin, 811t
immigration policy, 676
incarcerations by nationality, 727t
migration flows, 775–776
naturalization policies, 696
removal of borders, consequences of, 776, 779
restrictive migration policies, 768
European Union (EU) Treaty, 823–824n11
European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), 569
E-verify system (U.S.), 607
Ewing, Walter A., 559, 563
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). See also Uniform Crime Reports
creation of, 63
crime rate data, 43
crime statistic compilation, 110–111, 113t
Hate Crime Statistics, 517
Secure Communities program joint database, 473
Federation of Americans for Immigration Reform (FAIR), 533
Feilzer, Martina, 336
Fernandes, April, 152
Ferrari, Robert, 487
Ferron, Christine, 574
15th Amendment (U.S. Constitution), 56
Final National Report (Australia; 1991), 366
Finland, population percentage with immigration background, 671f
First Nation citizens (Canada). See Aboriginal Canadians
Fiske, Susan T., 34–35
Fitzgerald, Marian, 334, 345–456
Flamm, Michael, 44, 59
Flora and Fauna Act (New South Wales), 362
Flores-Figuero v. United States (2009), 652–653
Flynn, William, 495–496
Fong Yue Ting v. United States (1893), 466
Ford, Gerald, 43
Founding Fathers, opinions of blacks, 79
Fourth Annual Report of Criminal Statistics (Keiji Tokei Nempo; Japan), 744
Fourth Basic Plan for Immigration Control (Japan), 759
France, 708–734. See also France, sentencing violent juvenile offending (case study)
anti-Arab/anti-Muslim racism, 722
anti-Semitism, 722, 733n3
assassination attempts in, 494
as assimilation model, 672
citizenship laws, 553, 695
Constitution, 710
Council of Europe, police recommendations, 715
crime measurement limitation, 713
crimes against the person data, 717
demographic profile, 711–712, 712t
demonization of “the Other,” 714, 721
ethnic victimization, 721–722
ethnicity issue, 710–711
foreign population data, 669, 678t, 708
foreign prisoners in, 665t, 719, 838
foreign suspects, 717–719, 718t–720t
foreigner-immigrant overlap, 709–710, 711, 712t
immigration violations, 722–723, 723f
incarceration, 724–729, 725f, 726t–728t
issues and policies, 729–732
language diversity, 733–734n4
League of Human Rights, 715
migration by legal status, 682f
MIPIX score, 687t
(p. 919) naturalization laws, 8, 695, 700n18
1970s racial violence, 721
North African immigrants, 4, 8, 721, 722
offending, 716–723
Police Complaints Authority, 709, 713, 714, 733n1
police officers, interviews of, 713, 714
politics of crime and immigration, 721–722, 731, 732–733
pretrial detention overrepresentation, 713
prison inmate data, 8
property crimes, 716t, 718t, 719t
public attitudes towards immigration, 684t
race-based riots, 298, 721
racial profiling by police, 714–715
racial victimization, 721–722
racism, defined, 721
riots in, 298
sentencing, 723–724
sexual violence data, 716
Social Justice rating, 687t
trafficking of women through, 492
value-added policies in, 673
victimization, 714, 716–723
xenophobic hostility, 711, 721, 722, 730
youth “high risk” urban zones, 715–716, 721–722
France, sentencing violent juvenile offending (case study), 834–857
all violent crimes data, 845t
crime types, classification and frequency, 842t
findings, 844–852
findings, limitations, 853–854
findings, summary, 852–853
hypotheses/data: extralegal variables, 842–844
hypotheses/data: legal context, 841
hypotheses/data: legal variables, 841–842
implications, 854–856
INSEE study, 839
North African/black groups, 839
Ordinance of February 2, 1945 and, 835
prison overrepresentation, 839, 844–848
sexual crimes (assaults and rape), 848t
unsuspended sentence length, minority youth, 848–851, 849t, 850t, 851t, 852t
violent crimes, nonlethal and nonsexual, 847t
Franklin, Karen, 268
Freedom Defense Fund, 41
Freedom of Information Act, 534
Freeman, Chy Lung v. (1875), 639, 640
French National Consultative Commission on Human Rights, 729
Friendly House et al. vs. Whiting, 601
Gabbidon, Shaun, 73–74, 85
Gadsden Purchase (1853), 24
Galliani, Luigi, 496
Gallup polls, 71, 76, 84, 85, 87, 89, 94, 464
Gang rape, 254–255
Garland, David, 60–61, 398
Garner, Tennessee v. (1985), 140–141
Gartner, Rosemary, 294, 430, 433
Geary Act (1892; U.S.), 634
General Social Survey (GSS; Canada), 31–32, 71, 76, 79, 83, 300
Geneva Convention on the Status of Refugees, 803
Georgia (U.S.)
capital sentencing disparities, 182–184
challenges to reforms in, 609–614
devolution of immigration legislation in, 604
Gregg v. Georgia (1976), 182–184
Illegal Immigration Reform and Enforcement Act, 607–612, 614–617
Immigrant Enforcement Review Board, 608
reforms in, 603, 607–609
understanding immigration laws in, 614–616
undocumented immigrants in, 600–601, 603–619, 620n1
Georgia, Gregg v. (1976), 182–184
(p. 920) Georgia Latino Alliance for Human Rights v. Deal (2011), 641
Georgia Security and Immigration Compliance Act (2006), 606
Germany. See also Germany, Muslim immigrants in Frankfurt
citizenship laws, 695–696
foreign-born prison population, 837
immigrant incorporation approach, 672
immigrant population size, 669
limited delinquency problems, 568
“lost generation” in, 567
Muslim immigrants, dislike of, 567–568
naturalization laws, 695–696
second-generation immigrants crime rates, 552, 567
Turkish immigrants, incarceration rates, 5, 9, 567
Turks arrest, incarceration rates, 5, 9, 567
Germany, Muslim immigrants in Frankfurt
background of drug dealers, 880–882
findings of study, 882–883
future research directions, 893–897
group/subgroup data, 879
policy suggestions, 893–897
relation of German history, 885–886
social exclusion in the school system, 886–890
study description, 883–884
transition from exclusion to drug dealing, 890–893
types of drugs sold, 880
Gertz, Mark, 92
Getting Played: African American Girls, Urban Inequality, and Gendered Violence (Miller), research findings
gender, race, neighborhood context, 257–260
goal of research, 257
implications for policy and practice, 270–273
interviewed youth profile, 257–258
interviewed youth themes, 258–259
interviews/interview excerpts, 258, 261–268
neighborhood descriptions by youths, 259
neighborhood disadvantage, violence against women, 260–268
neighborhood sexual harassment, 263–266
related follow-up studies, 269
school-based sexual harassment, 273n7
sexual coercion, sexual assault, 266–268
witnessing physical violence against women, 261–263
young women’s concerns about men and boys, 260
Giardini, Giovanni, 558
Gillbourn, David, 349
Gilroy, Paul, 344–345
Gladue (Aboriginal Persons) Court (Canada), 373, 375–376
Godoy, Angelina, 48–49
Goldsmith, Pat, 570
Goldstein, Herman, 138
Goldwater, Barry, 55
Gomila, Frank, 501
Gonzales, Nancy, 510
GOP (General Opposition Party). See Republican Party
Gordon, Mirta, 843
Gore, Al, 53
Gorgeon, Catherine, 713
Gottschalk, Marie, 59–60, 63
Granholm, Jennifer, 41
Great Britain. See also England and Wales
civil unrest/riots in, 298
drug monitoring, post-WW I, 498
ethnic minorities, historical background, 325–326, 345
Jamaican migration to, 677
prison overrepresentation of foreign inmates, 783
race-based riots in, 298
racial profiling studies, 301, 302
rule of law application to racial minorities, 395
sentencing history, 643
view of indigenous law, 395
Great Migration, of African Americans, 2
Great Recession (U.S.; 2008), 36
Great Society liberalism, 44
Green, Eva, 672
Green, Ross Gordon, 369
Gregg v. Georgia (1976), 182–184
Group conflict theory, 72
Group position-group threat racism, 80
Group-based threats, 72–74
Group-position thesis, 72
(p. 921) Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of (1848), 24
Guatemala
U.S. immigrant incarceration rates, 562, 563
U.S. undocumented immigrant rate, 22, 32
Guatemala, Christianity, conversion and gang disaffiliation, 860–875
Charismatic Christianity, 861, 862–864, 867
conversions, 868–874
18th Street gang, 860–862, 868–870
gang originations, 860
MS-13 gang, 860–862, 865–868
Pentecostal Christianity, 861, 862–865, 867
security studies, 866–867
study methodology, 867–868
summary of study, 874–875
Guest workers. See also Germany, Muslim immigrants in Frankfurt
from Europe, recruitment of, 3–4
from Italy, migration of, 769
in the Netherlands, influx of, 769–770
Hagan, John, 73, 471–472, 475, 562
Haldeman, H. R., 62
Hall, Peter, 674
Halpern-Finnerty, Jessica, 539
Handlin, Oscar, 663
Haney Lopez, Ian, 49, 61, 217
Harrison, Benjamin, 633–634
Harrison Narcotic Act (1914), 497, 499
Hart, Hastings H., 460
Hart, Timothy C., 115
Hart Celler Act. See Immigration Act (1965; U.S.)
Harvard University 2006 African-American Survey, 76
Hate Crime Statistics (FBI), 517
Hate crimes
in Canada, 295
in England and Wales, 332
in France, 709
immigration association with, 516–517
in the U.S., 516–517
Hayes, Rutherford B., 633–634
Hazard, Angélique, 726, 727
HB 87 (Illegal Immigration Reform and Enforcement Act; Georgia), 607–612, 614–617
Healing Lodges (Canada), 403n5
Henderson v. Mayor of New York (1875), 639, 640
Henry, Frances, 298, 299, 310–311
Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 76
Heroin trafficking, 497–498
Hiatt, Robert A., 570
Higgins, George E., 85
Hindelang, Michael J., 146
Hirschi, Travis, 348, 767
Hispanic Interest Coalition of Alabama v. Governor of Alabama (Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals; 2012), 478
Hispanics (in the U.S.). See also Latinos; Mexican-American youth; Mexicans; Mexicans, historical racialization of; Mexicans, immigrants, in the U.S.
capital sentencing discrimination, 184
crime rates, generational differences, 563
crimmigration law and, 630
declining violence rates, 124t
differential offending hypothesis and, 146–147
drug arrest, prosecution disparities, 214
drug offense incarceration data, 203
hate crimes against, 517
Mexico-U.S. border crossing data, 639
multigeneration crime model, 10
overrepresentation in prison populations, 471
punishment opinions of, 79
“racialization” of, 10
residential segregation, 36
in southern states, 135
term (Hispanic) derivation, 23–24
traffic/pedestrian stop disparities, 142
UCR classification of, 114
United States v. State of Alabama and, 478, 544
victimization rates, 124t, 125–127
vulnerability to pretrial detention, conviction, imprisonment, 471
white race variation categorization, 653n2
Hobson, Richmond P., 498
Hochschild, Jennifer L., 673
Hodgson, Jacqueline, 724
Hofstee-van der Meulen, Femke, 784
(p. 922) Holian, David, 45
Homicide victimization
Current Population Survey data, 518
immigrant trends, in the U.S., 517–518
of Mexican immigrants, in the U.S., 522–523
overall, in the U.S., 518–520, 519f
race/ethic-specific, in the U.S., 520–521, 521f, 522f
San Diego study, 591
vs. Latinos, in the U.S., 506, 522–523
Hood, Roger, 335, 336
Hooton, Earnest, 489
Hoover, Herbert, 487–488
Horowitz, C. F., 517
Horton, Carol, 44
Horton, Willie, 46, 52–53, 73
Hull House (Chicago), 487
Human Rights Watch
on arrest rate racial disparities, 199
family separation, detention, deportation report, 475
on HB 56, 544–545
on incarceration of blacks, on drug charges, 201
Humes, Karen R., 128n2
Hummer, Robert A., 256, 273n2
Huntington, Samuel, 31
Hurwitz, Jon, 77–78, 92
Identification Act (Netherlands), 7386n5
“Illegal Aliens: Time to Call a Halt!”(INS; Reader’s Digest), 30–31
Illegal immigration. See Undocumented immigrants
Illegal Immigration Reform and Enforcement Act (HB 87; Georgia), 607–612, 614–617
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA; U.S.), 465, 472–473, 480n1, 515, 535, 585, 607, 630, 637, 644, 649–650. See also 287(g) program
Illinois Crime Survey, 496–497
Immigrant Enforcement Review Board (Georgia), 608
Immigrant incorporation
in the American south, 603
analysis of strategies, 577
benefits of, 541
changing immigration policies and, 675
characteristics of, 668
citizenship laws and, 690
clustering countries/studies of approaches, 672–673
description of, 667
in Eastern Europe, 726
economic bases of, 674–675
in the European Union, 729
integrative institutions, 543–544
migrants’ legal status and, 681
New Haven, CT study, 540
political incorporation, 673, 688, 690
public policies for, 686, 687t, 688
role in crime patterns, 552
Immigrants and their children, 551–579. See also Immigrants and their children, U.S. vs. Western Europe; Second-generation immigrants (in the U.S.)
Census Bureau findings (1936), 558
Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, 514, 563, 592
delinquency issues, 485–486, 488, 509, 564–566, 568
Dillingham Commission findings, 556
early research limitations, 555–556
family disintegration, 559
first vs. second generation arrest rates, 552
future research directions, 575–577
measurement difficulties, 571–575
New Jersey State Prison admissions, 558
“paradox of assimilation,” 559
policy recommendations, 575–577
second-generation arrest rates, 507, 551, 552
Sunderland, Edwin, findings, 556–557
third-generation risk factors, 509
U.S. Industrial Commission findings, 556
Wickersham Commission findings, 557
Immigrants and their children, U.S. vs. Western Europe, 558–571
arrest and incarceration generational differences, 562–564
(p. 923) delinquency and substance abuse, 564–566
fatal victimization, generational differences, 570–571
nonfatal victimization, generational differences, 569–570
offending patterns across generations, 559–560
violent offending generational differences, 560–562
Western European generational crime differences, 566–568
Immigrants in the U.S., crimes committed by and against, 505–524
Add Health study, second-, third-generation Hispanic students, 509
anti-immigrant sentiments, 508
community-based crime, 511–513
culture-conflict theory and, 512
Dillingham Report, 508
ethnic-specific Latino homicide victimization, 522–523
family-based factors, 510–511
generational differences in offending, 509–511
hate crimes vs. immigrants, 516–517
immigrant homicide victimization trends, 517–518
by immigrants and their children, 507–511
Latino homicide victimization rates, 506
lowered violent crime rates, 512–513
Mexican homicide rates, 523
neighborhood factors, 511
opportunity theory and, 511–512
overall immigrant homicide victimization, 518–520
peer-based factors, 511
race/ethnic-specific immigrant homicide victimization, 520–521
social disorganization theory and, 511, 515
UCR report data analysis, 512
Wickersham Commission report, 508
Immigration. See also Undocumented immigrants; United States (U.S.), politics of immigration and crime
in 1980, 1–3
by Afro-Caribbeans, in England and Wales, 4–6
analysis of countries as a whole, 670–677
Bracero Program, 27–29
California, Proposition 187, 459
in Canada, 283, 286, 447
complexity of race, incarceration and, 470
and crime, multigenerational model, 2–3, 345–348
and crime, post 2000 research explosion, 6–7
and criminality, pre-World War II, 484–502
from Cuba, to the U.S., 23
in England and Wales, 325–326, 344, 345–348
foreign-born composition data, 665–666, 665t–666t
illegal immigration, to the U.S., 28–29
incarceration links with, 663–698
Japanese policies, 740–744
lowered violent crime rates, 512–513
from Mexico, to the U.S., 25–26, 28–31
Netherlands research, 9–10
in Norway, 408, 416, 420
Page Act (1875), U.S., 459
post-1965 growth, in the U.S., 469
since the mid-1990s, 6–10
through the mid-1990s, 3–6
U.S. 287(g) program, 473–474
U.S. illegal immigration legislation, 465
U.S. research, 9–10
Immigration, analysis of countries as a whole
changing immigration policies, 675–677
clustering countries, 672–674
economic basis of immigrant incorporation, 674–675
Immigration Act (1875; U.S.), 634
Immigration Act (1891; U.S.), 459
Immigration Act (1924; U.S.), 635
Immigration Act (1965; U.S.), 29, 468–469
Immigration and crime, in U.S. communities, 529–547
acculturation/integration pathways, 540–541
Chicago/Los Angeles crime levels, 530
citizen conflicts in cooperation with police, 536
conclusions of study, 531
devolution of law enforcement and, 534–538, 543–544
external political/policy contexts, 532–533
(p. 924) immediate vs. long-time effects, 530
institutional integrative practices, 539–543
lawless characterization of immigrants, 532
local vs. federal policy conflicts, 538
policing of communities, 533–539
post-9/11 government targeting of nationalities, 537
research focus, 531–533
sanctuary cities and, 538
Immigration and Nationality Acts (U.S.), 29, 472, 507, 644, 645, 646, 649
Immigration and Nationalization Service (U.S.), 468
Immigration Commission. See Dillingham Commission
Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act (Japan), 741
Immigration Control Bureau (Japan), 738, 739, 750–752, 756–757, 760n1
Immigration Marriage Fraud Amendments (1986; U.S.), 635
Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA; 1986), 35, 601, 635
Immigrations and Customs Enforcement Agency (ICE), 532
Incarceration and incarceration rates. See also Mass incarceration
Aboriginal Canadians, overrepresentation, 388, 389
African Americans data, 3, 70, 83, 95–96, 201, 202
African Americans vs. whites, U.S., 291
American Indians, overrepresentation, 176, 388, 389
Asians, disparities, 176
Australia, indigenous overrepresentation, 399
data gathering difficulties, 668–669
drugs/drug use, general data, 194
foreign-born composition data, 665–666, 665t–666t, 669–670
in France, 724–729, 725f, 726t–728t
in Germany, Turkish immigrant rates, 5, 9
Hispanics drug offenses (U.S.), 203
immigrant generational differences, 558, 562, 563
immigration links with, 663–698
in the Netherlands, 5, 782–784
New Zealand, indigenous overrepresentation, 388, 389
Pacific Islanders, disparities, 176
rape/incarceration-arrest imbalance, 179
sentencing and punishment practices, 176–179, 176t, 178t
U.S. vs. Western Europe, generational differences, 562–564
Incorporation of immigrants. See Immigrant incorporation
Indigenous healing practices, 400–401
Indigenous populations. See also Aboriginal Canadians; American Indians; Australia, indigenous population; New Zealand, indigenous population
Alaskan Natives, 109, 109t–110t, 111, 114, 176, 574
colonial context for understanding, defining crime, 390–392
criminal system mistrust, 366–369
criminalization, negative impacts of, 392–394
criminalization and victimization, 387–390
Declaration of Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 402
in European colonies, 11
First Peoples (defined), 381n1
healing practices, 400–401
identity and healing, 399–401
Native Hawaiians, 109, 109t, 176, 203t
Pacific Islanders, 109, 109t–110t, 111, 113t, 114, 176, 285
punishment and the rule of law, 394–399
rights/politics of neoliberalism, 401–403
UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, 393
Industrial Commission (1901), 2
Institutional integrative practices, in U.S. communities, 539–543
Integrated Correctional Services (Canada), 289, 314n5
Integrated Criminal Court Survey (Canada), 289, 314n4
(p. 925) Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS), 518
International Centre for Prison Studies, 698n2
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD), 218, 286
International Narcotic Education Association, 498
International Social Survey Programme (ISSP), 673
Interracial dating, African American opinion of, 80
Ireland, population percentage with immigration background, 671f
Ishizawa, Hiromi, 530
Israel, declining foreign-born population, 670
Italian Americans, 459, 486, 489
Italian Institute of Statistics (Istat), 796
Italy, 791–828
adult foreigner detention data, 730
Albanian immigrants in, 791–792, 795, 797t, 803, 808, 810
anarchist violence in, 495
anti-immigrant political campaigns, 746
Centers of Identification and Expulsion, 803–804, 807t
citizenship laws, 693t
“clandestine” immigrants, border controls, 802–803, 805
criminalization, 801–806, 807t
De Mistura Commission, 804
foreign-born prison population, 665t, 760n5
human trafficking, 491
immigrant population proportion, 669
immigrant population size, 669
immigrants charged and police stops, 810–813, 811t, 812t
immigrés in France, 712t
in-flows of foreign population, 678t
labor migration, between regularity and regularization, 799–801, 801t, 822, 825n23, 825n29, 827n55
legal paradoxes and contradictions, 800
migration by legal status, 682f
migration laws, 799–801
migration of “guest workers,” 769
migratory flows, 795–798, 796f, 796t, 797t
MIPIX score, 687t
natives and “others,” 794–795
(non)linear equation between immigration and crime, 816–818, 817t
prison system, 813–816, 814t, 815t, 816t
prostitution in, 792, 808, 810, 812t, 814, 815t, 817t
reliability of official crime statistics, 807–810, 809f
residence permits, 799–800, 824n17
Romanian immigrants in, 792, 795–796, 797t, 798–799, 802, 810, 811t
Schengen Agreement, 802
Single Act on Foreigners, 799–800, 805, 819, 826n42
Tunisian immigrants in, 791, 797t, 803, 808, 811t, 814t, 823n9
undocumented immigration, 683, 792–793, 798–700, 802–805, 806f, 808, 811–813, 817, 820
victimization of immigrants, 819–820, 819t
Jackman, Mary R., 72
Jacson, Moana, 396
Japan, 738–761
age/gender composition, foreign nationals, 743t
arrests, rainichi foreigners, statistics, 745, 747–750, 747t, 752, 753f, 754, 755t
backdoor labor migration policies, 742, 750
border control policy, 760n1
crime, terms for, 739
“crime crisis” in, 739, 750–751
deportations (2001–2010), 758f
drug trafficking, 500
female slave trafficking, 491, 634
foreign-born prison population, 666t
Fourth Annual Report of Criminal Statistics, 744
immigrant classification in Canada, 285, 291t
Immigration Control Bureau, 738, 739, 750–752, 756–757, 760n1
immigration policies, 740–744
immigration/crime control convergence, 750–751
in-flow of foreign population, 679t
jus sanguinis citizenship, 742
laws for attaining citizenship, 693t
migration by legal status, 682f
(p. 926) MIPIX score, 687t
Moral Environment Law, 747
National Police Agency, 739, 741, 744, 745, 750
patterns of migrants from, 9
prosecution disparities, 752, 753f, 754, 755t
prostitution in, 747–748, 747t, 754
rainichi policing focus, 739–740, 741
self-perception of, 738–739
sentencing, rainichi defendants, 756
sentencing disparities, 756–758, 756t, 758f
statistics, sources of, 744
temporary vs. permanent foreign national residents, 741t
Three Hundred Thousand International Student Plan, 759–760
UCR classification of immigrant arrestees, 114
U.S. Census Bureau immigrant classification, 109t
U.S. “gentleman’s agreement” with, 25
White Paper on Crimes, 744, 745, 748, 752, 756t
Jefferson, Thomas, 79, 632
Jim Crow laws (Jim Crow racism)
beliefs of whites and, 52–53
carceral state and, 56–57
crime and, 44
demise of, 79–80
drug criminalization and, 216–217
overturning of, 28
Jobard, Fabien, 713, 724
Johnson, Bascom, 492–493
Johnson, James H., 76, 77, 88, 90
Johnson, Joseph D., 214, 854
Jones, Nicholas A., 128n2
Journal on Culture and Criminality (Tijdschrift over Cultuur en Criminaliteit) (Netherlands), 777
Junger, Marianne, 772
Jus sanguinis citizenship, 690, 691t–694t, 695–696, 742
Jus soli citizenship, 690, 691t–694t, 695–697, 695–698
Juveniles. See also Disadvantaged neighborhoods, Boston inner-city boys (case study); France, sentencing violent juvenile offending (case study)
drug crimes and arrests, 139, 200t, 413
in Japan, 739
life sentences, overrepresentation, 177
murders/black-on-black crimes, 93
in the Netherlands, 781–782
in New Zealand, 378
sentencing disparities, 5, 84, 140, 177
targeting of males, 139
victimization, in the UK, 331
violent offending, 146
Wickersham Commission study, 488
Kane, Francis Fisher, 497
Kangawa Prefecture Police (Japan), 749
Kemp, McCleskey v. (1987), 182
Kennedy, Randall, 179
Kent, Phil, 608
Kentucky, Padilla v. (2010), 651–652
Kerner Commission, 137
Kilpatrick, Kwame, 41
Kingston Pilot Project (Canada), 302
Kirk, David S., 594
Kleck, Gary, 214
Kleemans, Edward, 779
Kneeland, George, 491
Knowledge Network, Inc., 86
Kochel, Tammy Rinehart, 140
Komaie, Golnaz, 576
Koopmans, Ruud, 672, 783
Korean War, 28
Koss, Mary, 274n8
Kubrin, Charis E., 511, 513, 530, 591
Laissez-faire racism, 80
Lambou, Madeline Gomila, 501
Landesco, John, 496–497
Lang, Charles, 673
Langan, Patrick A., 141
Laschi, Rodolofo, 494–495
Latinos. See also Disadvantaged neighborhoods, Boston inner-city boys (case study); Hispanics (in the U.S.)
in Alabama and Georgia, struggles of, 605
Brewer, Jan, false claims about, 595
Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, 592
(p. 927) civil rights laws and, 37
consequences of immigration, 585
crime and immigration, San Diego, El Paso, Miami, 587–593
crime-related media portrayal, 51
cynicism of law/legal institutions by, 595
generational differences, incarceration rates, 36
Great Recession (2008) wealth shock, 36
group variations in crime patterns, 592–593
historical migration data, 21, 23, 584–585, 588
homicide victimization rates, 506
housing discrimination, 36
immigrant youth risk-taking behavior study, 574
League of United Latin American Citizens, 533, 540
loss of homeland, 35
nonfatal victimization, immigrant generational differences, 569–570
political demonization of, 31
political push for punitive legislation, 594
population surges in southern U.S., 646
poverty rates, 36
punitive actions against, 32
racialization of, in the U.S., 21–37
reactions to immigrant crimes by, 593–595
RICO and deportation limitations, 33–34
socioeconomic collapse of, 36
spatial/temporal examinations, 589–591
stereotyping of, 92
term (Latino) derivation, 24
2010 undocumented data, 32, 33
U.S. Border Patrol actions, 32
U.S. victimization rates, 506
USA PATRIOT Act and, 34
violent arrests data, 593
violent crime reductions, in the U.S., 586
whites’ beliefs about, 93
worker exploitation, 25, 28, 37
Lauritsen, Janet L., 118, 121, 128n6
Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (U.S.), 56
Law Reform Commission of Canada, 366–367, 368
Law Reform Commission of Western Australia, 367
Laws on immigration and crime, in the United States, 628–654. See also Beason-Hammon Alabama Taxpayer and Citizen Protection Act; Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act; Senate Bill (SB) 1070; USA PATRIOT Act; individual Immigration Acts
anti-Asian sentiment and laws, 634
anti-Chinese sentiment and laws, 633–634
Congressional deportation actions, 629
crimmigration law and enforcement, 630–632, 634, 642, 646–648, 651–653
deportation, crime-based grounds for, 642–646
detention controversies, 649–651
federal government power, source of, 628–629
immigration checks and raids, 645–646
immigration criminalization, racially charged origins, 632–635
immigration prosecutions, contemporary surge of, 635–639
investigative controversies, 647–648
investigative/detention powers gradients, 629–630
late 19th century political inability, 633–634
prioritization of crimes, 638–639
state/local, intervention laws, 639–642
Le Caisne, Léonore, 839
League of Human Rights (France), 715
League of Nations
Opium Advisory Committee, 498–499
trafficking of women study, 492
League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), 533, 540
Lee, Matthew T., 507, 513, 560, 587, 588, 589–590, 592
Lee, Tiane L., 34–35
Leerkes, Arjen, 596, 773, 782, 784
Legal status of immigrants, 681–683, 682f
Leiber, Michael J., 854
Levanon, Asaf, 674
Levine, Harry G., 197
Levy, René, 713
(p. 928) Lew, Vivian, 560–561, 578n5
Lewin-Epstein, Noah, 674
Lewis, John, 610
Liberals/liberalism (in the U.S.)
fears of being viewed as coddling criminals, 45
international migration and, 34
rise of law and order, decline of, 43–45
Lieberson, Stanley, 3
Liebling, Alison, 338
Life without parole (LWOP) sentences, 176–177
Linkage Act (Netherlands), 7386n5
Lombroso, Cesare, 494–495
London riots (2011), 323, 350–351
London Underground terrorist attacks (2005), 322, 332, 346
Los Angeles, California
immigrant generational fatal victimization data, 571
immigrant neighborhood crime levels, 530
immigrants vs. native-born homicide data, 560
Loury, Glenn C., 198
Lynch, James, 773
MacDonald, Arthur, 494–495
MacDonald, John, 587
Macpherson Inquiry (England and Wales), 322, 331, 340–341
Madison, James, 651
Magazine cover study, 29–30
Magee, Central Alabama Fair Housing Center v. (2011), 614
Majmundar, Malay, 466, 467
Makes Me Wanna Holler: A Young Black Man in America (McCall), 252
Manhattan Bail Project, 169
Mann Act (1910), 489
Maöri culture (New Zealand). See New Zealand, indigenous population
Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) gang (Guatemala), 860–862, 865–868. See also Guatemala, Christianity, conversion and gang disaffiliation
Mariel Cubans, 560, 592, 595
Marijuana. See also Norway, black cannabis dealers in a white welfare state
Anti-Drug Abuse Act and, 644
arrests for, 198, 210, 212t
ethnic use data, 120, 122, 196, 204–205, 210
federal criminalization of possession, 26
self-report usage data, 118–119, 119t
Toronto student, usage data, 296t, 297
Marriages of Convenience Act (Netherlands), 786n5
Martens, Peter, 567
Martin, Patricia Yancey, 256, 273n2
Martinez, Jorge, 152, 512, 513, 524, 560, 587, 588, 589–590, 591, 592, 593, 595
Martinez, Ramiro, Jr., 507
Martini, George, 497
Maryland, capital sentencing discrimination, 184
Mass incarceration
of African Americans, 57–58, 61, 70, 95–96, 98
of indigenous peoples, 389
Jim Crow comparison, 57, 217
as “new racial caste system,” 58
politics of, 468–472
public opinion, research review, 95–96
racialization of, 63, 70, 95–96
in the U.S., 468–472
Massey, Douglas S., 31
Mastrofski, Stephen D., 140
Mayor of New York, Henderson v. (1875), 639, 640
McCall, Nathan, 252, 268
McCleskey v. Kemp (1987), 182
McCord, Charles Harvey, 50
McGloin, Jean Marie, 511
McKay, Henry D., 461, 488, 590
McKenzie, Roderick, 460
McKinley, William, 494
McNulty, Thomas J., 120
Media
attention to drug abuse, 198
blacks and crime, representations of, 48, 50–52, 59, 89, 197
Canada, crime coverage, 281, 431–434, 449n10
(p. 929) cultural heterogeneity and, 243
England and Wales, crime coverage, 338, 339, 344, 348, 351
France, crime coverage, 713, 722, 729, 731–732
Germany, crime coverage, 895
illegal alien coverage, 469
influence of blacks vs. whites, 90
Italy, crime coverage, 791, 814, 816, 820, 827n53
Japan, crime coverage, 739, 745, 748, 754
Latinos, portrayal of, 22, 587, 592
negative image construction of offenders, 74–75
and punishment/crime control debates, 47
Melewski, Matthew, 178
Memorandum of Understanding (police-ICE), 537
Memphis Police Department, 141
Mendelberg, Tali, 44, 53, 217
Merton, Robert K., 767
Mexican-American War, 24, 679t
Mexican-American youth
discrimination against, 541
drinking levels, 122
marijuana use, h.s. seniors, 119t
offending rate variations, 122
violent crime, self-reporting, 122
Mexicans, historical racialization of, 24–32
anti-Mexican riots and actions, 27–28
arrests, mass deportations, 26–27
arrival in the U.S., 24, 25
braceros/Bracero Program, 27–29
as cheap labor source for whites, 25, 28
disenfranchisement of, 24–25
INS apprehension of Mexicans, 28
1990 population data, 25
overrepresentation in prison populations, 471
post-1965 undocumented immigration, 29–30
reduced living standards, 27
2010 undocumented data, 32
U.S. Border Patrol actions, 26, 30
U.S. recruitment of laborers, 25–26
Mexicans, immigrants, in the U.S.
alcohol abuse rates, 565
Catholic Church services for, 540
Census Bureau classification, 109t
day laborer attacks, by whites, 516
disproportionate real wage/earning data, 36
drug trafficking, by men, 491
historical background, 21, 23, 584, 636
homicide victimization rates, 506, 522–523, 522f
identification issues, 612
incarceration rates, 562, 665, 666t
IRCA’s amnesty program, 602
legal/illegal and immigration laws, 10
location preferences, 584, 586, 588–589, 592
marijuana use, 196
negative metaphorical descriptions, 30
overrepresentation in crime, incarceration, 471
population data (assorted dates), 10, 27, 32, 584, 620n1
post-World War I increased rates, 25
real wage/earning data, 36
in southern states, 604, 619
287(g) program results, 594
UCR classification of, 114
undocumented status, 32, 33, 35, 466, 469, 541
victimization vulnerabilities, 570
vulnerability to pretrial detention, conviction, imprisonment, 471
Mexico
Bracero Program, 27–28
circular immigration pattern from, 469
countries of emigration to, 679t
crack cocaine usage, 122
debt crisis, influence on emigration, 636
drug smuggling activities, 497
emigration from, as a “crisis,” 30
Hispanic/Latino migration percentage, 33, 639
immigrant percentage data, 22
legal immigration applications, 472
Mexicans as marijuana smokers, 196
population percentage with immigration background, 671f
U.S. acquisition of, 23, 663–664
U.S. restrictive immigration policies, 29
(p. 930) Mexico-U.S. border
border violence, 595
Brewer, Jan, false claims about, 595
crossing data, 639
drug smuggling activities, 497, 501
El Paso, Texas, crime and immigration data, 587–593
historical background, 26
militarization of, 28, 30, 35
1924 Border Patrol creation, 26
San Diego, California, crime and immigration data, 587–593
trafficking of women, 492–493
Mhlanga, Bonny, 336
Miami, Florida, Latino crime and immigration data, 587–593, 596
Michaud, Pierre-André, 574
Midwest Prevention Project, 541–542
Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX)
access to education measure, 696
description of, 688, 690
leadership of, 699n10
overall score, 687t
Social Justice in the OECD similarity, 689, 697
social justice rating, 687t
Migrant stocks and flows, 665t–666t, 669–670
Miller, Mark, 672, 674
Minority group threat theory, 72
Minuteman Project, 533, 546
Miranda v. Arizona (1966), 647–648
Mitchell, Ojmarrh, 181
Mitnik, Pablo A., 539
Moehling, Carolyn, 461
Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey
limitations of, 121
self-report data, 108, 117, 118–122
Moral Environment Law (Japan), 747
Morenoff, Jeff D., 509, 551, 561
Moreton-Robinson, Aileen, 370
Morjé Howard, Marc, 672
Moroccan immigrants, in the Netherlands, 5, 552, 567, 568, 570, 577, 766–774, 777–778, 781–783
Mosher, Clayton, 308
Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing Demonstration (MTO), 265
Mucchelli, Laurent, 717–718
Muha, Michael J., 72
Muhammad, Khalil, 50
Multiculturalism Act (1988; Canada), 284
Multigenerational immigrants. See Immigrants and their children
Multiple Cause of Death records (NCHS), 517
Murakawa, Naomi, 55–56, 59
Nagel, Udo, 663
Narring, Françoise, 574
Nashville, Tennessee, anti-immigrant rallies, 606
National Advisory Commission on Civil Disobedience, 137–138
National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, 137
National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, 198
National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), 517
National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 517
National Center for State Courts, 86
National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement (1931), 2, 460, 487–488, 745–746. See also Wickersham Commission
National Conference of Charities and Correction, 460
National Crime Commission (1925), 487
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 108, 115, 122–125, 274n10
annual rates, by race and ethnicity, 124t
Hispanic respondent classification, 128n4
limitations of, 124–125
UCR comparison, 123, 125
National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (U.S.), 568–569
National Inquiry into Racist Violence (Australia), 403n2
National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE; France), 839, 856n1
(p. 931) National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)
generational crime-related behavior data, 561
immigrant crime generational research, 509, 510
limitations of, 121
self-report data, 108, 117, 119–123
National Origins Act (1924; U.S.), 507, 635
National Police Agency (NPA; Japan), 739, 741, 744, 745, 750
National Police Complaints Authority (Commission nationale de déontologie sur la sécurité-CNDS) (France), 709, 713, 733n1
National Race and Crime Survey (NRCS), 77
National Race and Politics Survey (1991), 92
National Research Council, 139, 180
National Security Entry-Exit Registration System (NSEERS), 468
National Youth Survey (NYS), 108, 117–118, 120–123
Native Americans. See American Indians
Native Hawaiians, 109, 109t, 176, 203t, 396
Naturalization/naturalization laws. See also Jus sanguinis citizenship; Jus soli citizenship; U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service
deportation considerations, 690
in Europe, 8, 695–696
global variability, 8, 10, 668
OECD countries (2011), 691t–694t
politics of, 10
in the U.S., 696
Negative role models, 226, 227, 233–235, 241
“The Negro Criminal: A Statistical Note” (Sellin), 50
Neighbors Link program, 539–543
Neoliberalism, indigenous rights/politics of, 401–403
Netherlands, 766–786
anti-immigrant politics, 9
Antillean immigrants in, 766–769, 770–774, 777–778, 782–783
assimilation policies, 767
asylum seeker influx, 770–771
cohort studies, 772–773
crime patterns: asylum seekers, irregular immigrants, 774–775
crime patterns: established minority groups, 772–774
crime patterns: labor migrants from Central and Eastern Europe, 775–776
criminal justice in, 781–784
criminality, subcultural explanations, 776–778
criminalization, victimization data, 730t
data availability, 553
detention, 782–784
drug offenses, 783
EU immigrants influx, 771
extensive research accumulation, 9–10
foreign-born prison population, 665t, 675
foreign-born share of population, 671t
guest worker (labor migrant) influx, 769–770
human trafficking, social organization of, 768, 779–781, 780t
Identification Act, 7386n5
illegal residence/public safety research, 596
immigrant incorporation approach, 672
Indian subcontinent immigrants, 6
in-flows of foreign population, 678t
justice system disparities, 6
juvenile justice system, 781–782
law enforcement, selective, 781–782
Linkage Act, 7386n5
Marriages of Convenience Act, 786n5
migration by legal status, 682f
migratory trends, 769–772
MIPIX score, 687t
Moroccan immigrants in, 5, 9, 552, 567, 568, 570, 577, 766–774, 777–778, 781–783
multigenerational data, 567, 771
pillarization tradition, 785n1
post-WW II emigration from, 769
second-generation immigrants crime rates, 552, 567
(p. 932) smuggling operations, 500
street culture vs. school culture, 777t
Surinamese immigrants in, 677, 766, 770–772, 783, 767699n16
Turkish immigrants in, 552, 577, 766–767, 769–773, 778, 782–783
victimization/fear of crime, 730t, 778
Nevanen, Sophie, 724
New Deal (U.S.), 44, 62
The New Jim Crow (Alexander), 57
The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (Alexander), 57, 217
New York City (NYC; U.S.)
Bureau of Social Hygiene, 490–491
Italian criminality, pre-World War II, 486, 489
Latinos and police cooperation, 595
pre-WW I immigrant criminality, 489–490
pre-WW I vice study, 491
pre-WW II prostitution data, 492–493
violent crime reductions of Latinos, 586
Wall Street terrorist “car bomb” (1920), 495–496
New York City Police Department, 85
New York Youth Survey (NY Times), 85
New Zealand
British colonization of, 364
Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act, 371
early precipitants of crime, 4
Sentencing Act (2002), 373
New Zealand, indigenous population
blame of for crimes, 1
Closing the Gaps report, 367
colonial context for crime, 390–392
community-police relational context, 368
comparative disadvantages of, 364–365
criminalization of, 387–390
disproportionate poverty of, 6
dominant group blame of crimes on, 1
Elder participation in sentencing process, 361, 378–379
empowerment efforts, 9
equalization of Maöri-Pakeha relations, 371
Family Group Conference, 378
incarceration overrepresentation, 388, 389
increasing court support for, 379
Indigenous justice practices, 371, 378–379
Jackson, Moana, on considerations of law, 396
juveniles and crime, 378
legacy of colonization for, 362–366
life expectancy gap, 364, 365
Marae Youth Courts, 378–379
mistrust of the justice system of, 366–369
“Native Schooling System,” 365
negative attitude towards police, 368
policy recommendations, 379–380
prison population data, 366
race/ethnicity data availability, 8
racial bias perceptions against, 369
underreporting of crimes by, 368–369
victimization of, 1, 4, 6, 8–9, 387–390
Waitangi, Treaty of, 362, 378
New Zealand Department of Corrections, 369
New Zealand Law Commission, 395–396
Nibbs, Faith G., 531–532, 542
Nielsen, Amie, 92, 560, 588, 592, 593
Nixon, Richard, 43, 45, 53, 62
No Child Left Behind Act (U.S.), 544
Noncapital cases, sentencing and punishment race-based disparities, 167, 168, 172–173, 179–181
Norris v. Alabama (1935), 166
North Carolina, capital sentencing discrimination, 184
Northern Territory Emergency Response (NTER; Australia), 394
Norway, black cannabis dealers in a white welfare state, 408–427. See also Cultural capital
gangster discourse, 423–425, 426–427
gangster vs. oppression discourse, 425–426
oppression discourse, 421–423
street capital, conversion to economic capital, 415–418, 426
street capital, described, 409–410, 421, 426
street capital, development of, 419–420
street capital, as distinction, 410–413
street capital, as status and power, 413–415, 418, 420, 426–427
street capital, types of, 410–418, 422, 426
street habitus, conversion to street capital, 420
street habitus, criticisms of, 427
(p. 933) street habitus, development of, 415, 418, 419
trajectories to the street, 419–421
violence/socialization in the street, 418–419
Notes on the State of Virginia (Jefferson), 79
Nurse-Family Partnership, 542
Nyrop, Kris, 201, 209
Obama, Barack
election of, and race relations, 94–95
and justice for African Americans, 71
“Obama effect,” 94–95
political ad against, 41
O’Connor, Christopher D., 300
Offending Crime and Justice Survey (OCJS), 333–334, 346, 353n8
Office for National Statistics (England), 326–327
Office for National Statistics (ONS), 326–327
Office of Management and Budget (OMB; U.S.), 23–24, 109
Ohio, capital sentencing discrimination, 184
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, bombing, 649
Ontario Human Rights Commission, 311
Operation Swamp ‘81 (1981; England and Wales), 321
Operation Trident (England and Wales), 332
Operation Wetback, 28
Opium Advisory Committee (OAC; League of Nations), 498–499
Opportunity theory, 511–512, 541
Organized Crime Control Act (1970), 56
“the Other,” demonization of, 714, 721
Ousey, Graham, 94, 97, 513, 591
Owusu-Bempah, Akwasi, 300
Pacific Islanders, 109, 109t–110t, 111, 113t, 114, 176, 285
Padavan v. United States (1996), 639
Padilla v. Kentucky (2010), 651–652
Page Act (1875; U.S.), 459
Pager, Devon, 711, 724, 839
Palloni, Alberto, 471–472, 562
Park, Robert Ezra, 460, 794
Parrado, Emilio, 594
Pasha, Russell, 499
PATRIOT Act. See USA PATRIOT Act
Patterson, Orlando, 347
Peffley, Mark, 77–78, 92
Peguero, Anthony, 569
Pentecostal Christianity, and gangs, in Guatemala, 861, 862–865, 867
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1966; U.S.), 465
Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, 863
Pew Hispanic Center, 33
Pew surveys, 71
Pfeiffer, Christian, 568
Pfingst, Lori, 201, 209
Phillips, Coretta, 330, 338–339, 342–343, 837
A Piece of the Pie: Blacks and White Immigrants (Lieberson), 3
Piehl, Anne Morrison, 461, 470, 562, 563–564
Pierce, Glenn L., 184
Pinkerton, Robert, 493
Pinkerton National Detective Agency, 493
Plea bargaining decisions, 171–175
Police and Criminal Evidence Act, Section 60 (PACE; England; 1984), 340, 341–342
Police Complaints Authority (CNDS; France), 714
Police White Papers (Japan), 744, 745, 748, 752, 756t
Police/policing, racial and ethnic disparities
against African Canadians, 300, 304–305
American Sociological Association, 139
antiracism training, in Canada, 311
arrests, 108, 111–112, 111t, 138–140
Chicago, Illinois, Haymarket Square riots, 493–494
citizens’ perceptions of police, 152–153
differential offending hypothesis, 146–147
differential processing hypothesis, 148–151
drug cases, 139
in England and Wales, 339–341, 350–351
killing of African Americans data, 141
race, crime and, 135–155
(p. 934) racial profiling of blacks, 7, 89, 90, 107, 114
research summary, 144–145
search and seizures, 143–144
studies, types of, 137
traffic/pedestrian stops, 142–143
in U.S. communities, 533–539
use of force, 140–142
use of force disparities, 304–305
Politics (and politicians), 41–64. See also Democratic Party; Liberals/liberalism; Republican Party; United States (U.S.), politics of immigration and crime
anti-Obama “racial overtones” ad, 41
black-crime beliefs, 48–49, 53
and the carceral state, 54
Clinton’s crime control package, 47
demonization of Latinos, 31, 34
law and order strategy of, 43–44, 49, 55
1980s/1990s, race, crime and, 45–47
punitive attitudes, 59, 73, 75
race-based framing of crimes, 32, 48, 50, 54, 73
rise of law and order/decline of liberalism, 43–45
tough on crime position, 46, 47, 49, 73, 197, 515
Willie Horton, race, public perceptions, 46, 52–53, 73
The Politics of Law and Order: Street Crime and Public Policy (Scheingold), 54
Portes, Alejandro, 510, 541, 542
Powell v. Alabama (1932), 166
Pren, Karen A., 31
Prentiss, Mark O., 487
Presidential campaigns (U.S.)
Clinton, Bill, 47
Dukakis, Michael, 45–46, 47
Gore vs. Bush, 53
2008 anti-Obama advertisement, 41
President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, 138
Pretrial detention/detention decision-making
bail decision and, 169–171, 306–307
in Canada, 306–307
charging/plea bargaining decisions, 171–175
in France, 713
immigrant overrepresentation, 471, 513–514, 562, 713, 839
juvenile immigrant overrepresentation, 839, 841
racial disparities, 169–175, 181
spillover effects of, 169, 187
Pre-World War I, immigration and crime
New York City vice study, 490–491
white slavers, 489–493
Pre-World War II, immigration and crime, 484–502
anarchist criminality, 493–497
anti-immigration legislation, 486
Chicago, delinquency areas, 488
Dillingham Commission and, 486–490, 502
drug smuggling, 497–501
Hoover, Herbert, and, 487–488
Italian criminality, 486
prostitution/white slave trade, 489–493
statistical conclusions, 488–489
summary of immigration, crime issues, 485
Wickersham Commission and, 487–488
The Prison and the Gallows (Gottschalk), 59
Progressive era, black-crime statistics, 50
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), 511
Prostitution. See also Human trafficking; White slave trafficking
Eastern European migrants and, 484
European regulation of, 492
international data, 500
in Italy, 792, 808, 810, 812t, 814, 815t, 817t
in Japan, 747–748, 747t, 754
in NYC, pre-WW I, 489–491
political action against, 60
UCR inclusion of, 111
U.S.-Mexican border towns, 493
Protection Judicaire de la Jeunesse (PJJ; French national probation service), 839
Provine, Doris Marie, 537
Public Law 83–280, 115
Public opinion, 70–98
about reception of immigrants, 683, 684t–685t, 686
about the death penalty, 52, 71, 73, 81
concerns about crime polls, 43
core concepts, measurement of, 78–86
(p. 935) data collection methods, 76–78
empathetic identification, punitiveness, 74–75
group-based threats, 72–74
Latinos and, 34
liberalism and, 61
mass incarceration, research review, 95–96
Mexican migration and, 31
partisan shifts in, 54
racialization/core hypotheses, 75–76
Transatlantic Trends survey, 683, 685t, 686, 699n8
Public opinion, research designs
core concepts, measurement of, 78–86
data collection methods, 76–78
survey data sources, 76
Public opinion, research review
criminal justice system, perceptions of, 88–90
death penalty, 86–87
election of Barack Obama, 94–95
getting tough on corporate crime, 91
racial resentments, crime control, 93–94
racial stereotypes, crime control, 91–93
racialized mass incarceration, 95–96
root causes of crime, 90–91
war on drugs, 87–88
Public policies, for incorporating immigrants, 686–688. See also Migrant Integration Policy Index
Public policies, for social justice, 689. See also Social Justice in the OECD
Public Use Microdata Samples, 562
Puerto Ricans (in the U.S.). See also Disadvantaged neighborhoods, Boston inner-city boys (case study)
alcohol abuse rates, 565
homicide victimization rates, 522, 522f
marijuana use data, 119
Punishing Race: A Continuing American Dilemma (Tonry), 57, 59
Punishment (punitive actions)
for crack cocaine users, 76
against Latinos, 32
politicians’ pursuit of, 59, 73
public opinion and, 74–75
religion’s influence on attitudes about, 75
three-strikes legislation, 33, 47, 84, 168, 173, 186
white attitudes about, 52–53, 70
Punishment theory (Durkheim), 794
R v. Gladue court-based initiative (Canada), 375–376
Race, Crime and Public Opinion Survey (RCPOS), 76, 88
“Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting” (OMB), 23–24
The Race Card (Mendelberg), 53
Race in the Making of American Liberalism (Horton), 44
Race-oriented advertising, 41, 46, 50
Racial animosity hypothesis, 76
Racial caste system, 57–58, 217
Racial divide hypothesis, 75–76
Racial profiling
of African Americans, 7, 21, 89, 90, 107, 114
of African Canadians, 301–304
of Canadian Aboriginals, 301–304, 310
“driving while black” example, 114
in France, 714–715
search and seizure inclusion, 143–144
Racial threat hypothesis, 72, 142, 149–150
Racial/ethnic disparities. See also Police/policing, racial and ethnic disparities
citizens’ perceptions of police, 152–153
in crime reporting, 115–116
debate about reasons for, 135, 151–152
differential offending hypothesis, 146–147
differential processing hypothesis, 148–151
in discretionary searches, 143
in drug arrests, 178, 195–196, 198–199, 200t, 201, 201f, 202t, 205, 209–215
future research directions, 153–155
Human Rights Watch on, 199
in incarceration, 5, 7, 107, 111, 176–179
noncapital cases, sentencing and punishment, 167, 168, 172–173, 179–181
in policing, 137–145
in pretrial decision making, 169–175
in prosecution, sentencing, punishment, 11n1, 166–187, 175–185
research on African Americans, 4
(p. 936) in searches ad seizures, 136, 140, 143–144
theories of, 145–152
tolerance of, in criminal procedures, 630
Uniform Crime Report, 115–116
in use of deadly force, 141, 304–305
in vehicle stops, 142
violent crime self-reporting, 115
war on drugs and, 11n1
Racialization
Bracero Program, 27–29
dual goals of, 72–73
immigrant visa limits, 29
of Latinos, in the U.S., 10, 21–37
of mass incarceration, 95–96
mechanics of, 22–23
of Mexicans, 24–30
new era of, 28–35
of opinions about crime control, 93–94
of people with African origins, in the U.S., 22–23
of public opinion, 75–76
research support for, 70–71
Racialization thesis
African Americans and, 91–92, 96
core assumption, 78, 96
described, 96
Hispanic category, 79
research data support for, 70–71
tests of, 78–86
whites and, 96
Racism. See also Jim Crow laws (Jim Crow racism)
African Americans beliefs about, 73–74
aversive racism theory, 80
color-blind racism, 80
democratic racism, in Canada, 283, 309–312
empirical measures of, 80
European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia, 332
group position-group threat racism, 80
Jim Crow racism, 79–80
laissez-faire racism, 80
modern racism, 80
“post-racial racism” era, U.S., 217
by Prison System, in England and Wales, 322
racialization thesis and, 78
structural racism, 49
symbolic racism, 49, 80
under-investment in prevention, 45–46
war on drugs and, 49
white racism, 63–64
Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organizations (RICO) statute, 33–34
Radelet, Michael, 184
Rainichi foreigners. See under Japan
Ramirez, Roberto R., 128n2
Rape
of American Indian women, by whites, 399
blacks as perpetrators, 146
colorblindness and, 49–50
Dukakis, Michael, and, 46
France, juvenile offending case study, 848t
gang rape, 254–255
gender equity and, 60
incarceration-arrest imbalance, 179
“rape prone” vs. “rape free” study, 255
Scottsboro Boys Case, 166–167
as a “social thing among hanging partners,” 252
UCR data, 110–112, 113t, 115, 116t
victimization data, 122–123, 124t
Raudenbush, Stephen, 509, 551
Reagan, Ronald, 45
expressed stance against crime, 46
illegal immigration stance, 31
mandatory detention policies, 649
war on drugs of, 196
Reception of immigrants, contexts of, 683–689
public opinion, 683, 684t–685t, 686
public policies, for immigrant incorporation, 686, 687t, 688
public policies, for social justice, 689
Reckless, Walter, 488
Red Dust Healing (Australia), 403n5
Red Scare (U.S.; 1918–1921), 26
Redburn, Steve, 466, 467
Reeve, Arthur, 499
Rehavi, M. Marit, 214
Reid, Lesley, 530, 589
Reinarman, Craig, 197
(p. 937) Reiner, Robert, 339–340
Reinforced Educational Centers (CER; France), 839
Reisig, Michael D., 141
Religion/religious beliefs
American South and, 619
anarchist criminals and, 493
Canada and, 284, 286, 295
England/Wales and, 327, 333, 339, 344
France and, 709, 710, 722
Germany and, 886
Italy and, 803
Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, 863
punitive attitudes influenced by, 75
security studies and, 867
Supreme Court decisions and, 171
Rennison, Callie, 115
Report of the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry of Manitoba (Canada), 368
Report of the Special Body of Experts into the Traffic in Women report (ASHA), 492, 500
Report on Crime and the Foreign Born (Wickersham Commission), 460, 487–488
Report on the Causes of Crime (Wickersham Commission), 488
Republican Party (U.S.)
crime, race, law and order concerns of, 43–44
periodic dominance of, 44
race-specific framing of crime, 56, 59
tough-on-crime policies, 197
vs. Democrats, on crime-fighting issue, 45
“Willie Horton” imagery creation by, 46, 52–53, 73
Residence Contract Proposal (Italy), 800
“Rethinking Crime and Immigration” (Sampson), 529
Reuter, Peter, 466, 467
Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity (OMB), 109
Rhodes, Henry T. F., 500
Roberts, Julian, 447–448n5
Rockefeller, John D., 490–491
Rodriguez, Cristina, 475
Roots of Youth Violence Review (Canada), 311
Rosenfeld, Richard, 517, 587
Ross, Luana, 399
Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (RCIADIC; Australia), 366–367, 370
Royal Commission on Equality in Employment (Canada), 285
Rudin, Jonathan, 448n6
Ruedin, Didier, 688
Rumbaut, Rubén G., 510, 523, 541, 542, 559, 562, 563, 572, 575–576, 593
Safe Streets Act (1999), 56, 62
Samaniego, Roxana Y., 510
Sampson, Robert J., 509, 511, 512, 529, 551, 586, 587, 588–589
San Diego, California, Latino crime and immigration data, 587–593, 596
Sanctuary cities, 538
Sanday, Peggy Reeves, 255
Sangerman, Joseph, 497
Sarkozy, Nicholas, 284, 663, 734n8, 849
Sayad, Abdelmalek, 801
Scandinavian countries. See Denmark; Finland; Sweden
Scarman Inquiry (England and Wales), 321
Scheingold, Stuart, 54
Schengen Agreement (Italy), 802
Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva, 568
Schuck, Peter, 470
Schudson, Michael, 240
Scottsboro Boys Case, 166–167
Searches and seizures
1929-30, drug seizures, 210–211
race-based policing disparities, 136, 140, 143–144
Stuntz’s observations about, 210
Supreme Court ruling, 647
(p. 938) Second-generation immigrants (in the U.S.)
achievement motivations of, 509
“second generation decline” phenomenon, 507
vs. first-generation, crime rates, 6, 551–552, 554, 556, 596
vs. native-born population, crime rates, 554
vs. third-generation, for violence perpetration, 509
The Secret Policeman (BBC documentary), 343
Secure-Communities initiative (Alabama), 601
Seemungal, Florence, 336
Self-report data, 117–122
by black Americans, 7, 79, 146–147
black vs. white differences, 108, 194
of drug use, 108
of ethnicity, 351
of gang membership, 296
Integrated Correctional Services Survey, 289
Monitoring the Future survey, 108, 117, 118–122
offending studies, 333, 349
police data matching with, 5
reporting of crime and, 115
of sexual assault, 274n8
sources of, 108
2000, 2010 censuses, 109
UCR vs. self-report measures, 118, 122
variation within an ethnicity, 79
of violent offending, 146, 448–449n8, 599
Sellin, Thorsten, 459, 461, 488, 489
Senate Bill (SB) 1070 (Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act; Arizona), 476–477, 585, 594–595, 600–603, 607, 609, 611, 619, 620n8
Sentencing Act (2002; New Zealand), 373
Sentencing and punishment practices, 175–185. See also France, sentencing violent juvenile offending (case study); Punishment (punitive actions)
Aboriginal Canadians, 375–378
African Americans vs. whites, 108, 111–112, 111t, 179
Australia, indigenous population, 373–375
capital cases, racial/ethnic disparities, 182–185
direct race effect, 181
in France, 723–724
future research directions, 187
in incarceration, 176–179, 176t, 178t
Indigenous justice practices, 373–375
in Japan, 756–758, 756t, 758f
life without parole sentences, 176–177
New Zealand Maöri, 378–379
noncapital cases, 167, 168, 172–173, 179–181
noncapital cases, race-based disparities, 167, 168, 172–173, 179–181
policy recommendations, 186
pretrial decision making, 169–175
rates of imprisonment, 167
Scottsboro Boys Case, 166–167
Sentencing Commission (U.S.)
crack use, racial data, 207
on exaggeration of crack’s putative effects, 197
study/deal favoritism, white vs. blacks, 173, 214
Sentencing Project, 167, 176, 198, 199–200
Sentencing Research Panel (National Research Council), 180
September 11, 2001, terrorist attack (U.S.), 34, 462, 467, 537, 606, 650
Sewell, Tony, 349
Sexual harassment
against foreign suspects, 720t
against women, in disadvantaged neighborhoods, 254, 261, 263–266, 273n7
Sexual violence. See also Getting Played: African American Girls, Urban Inequality, and Gendered Violence (Miller)
male-dominated organizational settings and, 256
pervasive nature of, 254–255
Sandy, Peggy, study of, 255
social contexts for risks of, 255–256
Sharp, Clare, 334, 353n7
Shaughnessy v. United States ex rel. Mezei (1953), 649
Shaw, Clifford R., 461, 488, 590
(p. 939) Shen, Haikang, 518, 570–571
Shute, Stephen, 336
Silbereisen, Rainer K., 568
Simmel, Georg, 794
Simon, Jonathan, 45–46, 62
Simon, Rita, 773
Singh, Gopal K., 570
Single Act on Foreigners (Testo Unico sulla condizione dello Straniero; TUS) (Italy), 799–800, 805, 819, 826n42
Skogan, Wesley G., 538
Smith, Barbara Ellen, 614
Smith, David J., 334, 346, 347–348
Smith, Mapheus, 488
Sniderman, Paul M., 92
Snow, William, 492–493
Social conditioning model, 149
Social construction
of images of typical offenders, 74
of race, 22–24, 284
Social control, race-based, 58
Social control theory (Hirschi), 767
Social disorganization theory, 253, 460–461, 511, 515
Social justice
hypocrisies related to, 395
immigrant incorporation and, 668, 697
measurement of, 699n11
public policies for, 689
varying policies promoting, 668
Social Justice in the OECD, 689, 696–697, 700n11
Song, John Huey-Long, 299
Sorenson, Susan B., 518, 560–561, 570–571, 578n5
Soskice, David, 674
Southern (U.S.) style immigration, in the American South, 605–607
Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), 608
Southern United States, politics of immigration. See American South, politics of immigration
Spain, population percentage with immigration background, 671f
Spanish Caribbean, immigrant population, 23
Special Committee on the Participation of Visible Minorities in Canadian Society, 285
“Special Report on General Statistics of Immigration and the Foreign-Born” (U.S. Industrial Commission), 556
Spohn, Cassia, 171, 180–181
Stacey, Michele, 517
Staring, Richard, 779
Starr, Sonja B., 214
State Legislators for Legal Immigration (SSLI), 537
Statham, Paul, 672
Steffensmeier, Darrell, 170, 178–179
Stereotyping
of African Americans, 82, 92
and blacks-crime connection, 52–53
of criminals, in the U.S., past and present, 458–465
exacerbation of difference by, 1
of Italian Americans, 459
of Latinos, 92, 97
Lee and Fiske studies, 34–35
Nixon and, 44
pejorative racial stereotypes, 82
Stofflet, E. H., 558
Stowell, Jacob I., 513, 588, 589–591, 596
Strain theories, on immigration-crime nexus, 461, 767
Street capital. See also Norway, black cannabis dealers in a white welfare state
benefits of having, 409, 410–413
of cannabis dealers, in Norway, 408
conversion to economic capital, 415–418, 426
cultural capital comparison, 409–410
described, 409–410, 421, 426
development of, 419–420
as distinction, 410–413
gangster discourse and, 426–427
as status and power, 413–415, 418, 420, 426–427
street habitus conversion to, 420
types of, 410–418, 422, 426
Subcultural explanations of criminality, in the Netherlands, 777–778
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) drug use surveys, 203–204, 205f–208f
(p. 940) Sundquist, James, 43
Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act (Arizona; SB 1070), 476–477, 585, 594–595, 600–603, 607, 609, 611, 619, 620n8
Supreme Court decisions
Arizona immigration law struck down by, 476
Arizona v. United States (2012), 477, 642
Brown v. Board of Education (1954), 167
Chy Lung v. Freeman (1875), 639, 640
Flores-Figuero v. United States (2009), 652–653
Fong Yue Ting v. United States (1893), 466
Georgia Latino Alliance for Human Rights v. Deal, 641
Gregg v. Georgia (1976), 182–184, 183
Henderson v. Mayor of New York (1875), 639, 640
jus soli citizenship, 690, 695–697
McCleskey v. Kemp (1987), 182
Miranda v. Arizona (1966), 647–648
Norris v. Alabama (1935), 166
Padavan v. United States (1996), 639
Padilla v. Kentucky (2010), 651–652
Powell v. Alabama (1932), 166
searches and seizures, 647
Shaughnessy v. United States ex rel. Mezei, 649
Tennessee v. Garner (1985), 140–141
Texas v. United States, (1997), 639
United States v. Alabama (2011), 641
United States v. Arizona (2010), 601
United States v. Brignoni-Ponce (1975), 641
United States v. Clary (1994), 198
Wong Wing v. United States (1896), 634
Zadvydas v. Davis (2001), 651
Surinamese immigrants, in the Netherlands, 677, 766, 770–772, 783, 767699n16
Sutherland, Edwin, 554, 556–558
Sweden
citizenship laws, 553
minority group arrest rates, 6
Switzerland
foreign inmates data, 578n1
immigrant generational crime data, 566–567
restrictive naturalization laws, 8
Symbolic racism, 80
Systematic social observation (SSÖ), 144
Taft, Donald, 529, 557–558, 578n3
Tanner, Julian, 297
Tator, Carol, 310–311
Temporary aid for needy families (TANF), 465
Tennessee v. Garner (1985), 140–141
Terrill, William, 141
Terrorism Act (England; 2000), 322, 340, 343–344
Texas v. United States, (1997), 639
Thompson, Debra, 284–285, 294
Thongniramol, O., 509, 561
Thornton, Sarah, 413
Three Hundred Thousand International Student Plan (Japan), 759–760
Three-strikes legislation (U.S.), 33, 47, 84, 168, 173, 186
Tonry, Michael, 57, 60, 178, 345, 573–574, 638–639, 855
Toronto Region Statistics Canada Research Data Centre (RDC), 448n8
Toronto Youth Crime Victimization Survey (TYCVS), 296–297, 296t
Tough on crime policies
growth of, 197
of politicians, 46, 47, 49, 73, 197, 515
Traffic and pedestrian stops, race-based policing disparities, 142–143
Trafficking
of drugs, 171, 174, 195, 197, 210, 297, 424, 497–501, 644–645, 719, 783, 785
of women/humans, 337, 484–485, 489–493, 500–502, 718, 766–767, 779, 780t, 781
Trafficking in Persons Report (U.S. Department of State), 750
Transatlantic Trends survey, 683, 685t, 686, 699n8
Tribalat, Michèle, 838
Tribe, Laurence, 218
Trujillo, Rafael, 23
The Truly Disadvantaged (Wilson), 224
Tuch, Steven A., 74, 86
Turkish immigrants
in Germany, 4, 5, 9, 567, 879–897
in the Netherlands, 552, 577, 766–767, 769–773, 778, 782–783
287(g) program (U.S.), 466, 472–474, 532, 535–536, 538, 585, 594, 601, 612, 646
(p. 941) UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, 218, 286
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 729
UN Declaration of Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 402
UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, 393
Undocumented immigrants
in Alabama and Georgia, 600–601, 603–619, 620n1
analysis of deportees, 475
California Proposition 187 crack down, 459
in Central America, 32
Criminal Alien Program, 473
as criminals, 457, 458, 459, 472–476
detention vs. punishment, 475–476
EBSVERA legislation enactment, 468
enforcement policies, 32
in Georgia (U.S.), 603
lack of protections for, 37
Latino migrants, 32, 33, 35
Mexicans, 32, 33, 35, 466, 469, 541
from Mexico, in the U.S., 32, 33, 35, 466, 469, 541
1980s, 1990s, 639
NSEERS legislation enactment, 468
population diversity data, 22
post-1965 period, 21, 29–30, 465–468
voluntary departure vs. deportation, 466–467
Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
arrest data (post-WW II-2010), 110–112, 114–117
criticisms of measurement methods, 114
drug use arrest collection system, 219n3
ethnic categories, 114–115
immigrant homicide/theft, negative association, 512
limited police bias influences, 114
misleading arrest rate data, 178–179
NCVS comparison, 123, 125
police data compilation, 108
racial/ethnicity disparities in, 115–116
self-report data vs., 118, 122
victimization data, 116–117
United Kingdom (UK). See also England and Wales
availability of data in, 287
black offending rates, 345
blacks/ethnic minority overrepresentation, 837
Eastern European immigrants in, 325–326
education-immigrant connection, 673
emigration to the Netherlands, 771
ethnic minority distribution, 326
female arrests, 337
foreign-born composition in prisons,