- The Oxford Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice
- Race, Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration
- The Racialization of Latinos in the United States
- Race and Crime in American Politics: From Law and Order to Willie Horton and Beyond
- Race, Crime, and Public Opinion
- Racial and Ethnic Patterns in Criminality and Victimization
- Race, Crime, and Policing
- Racial Disparities in Prosecution, Sentencing, and Punishment
- Race and Drugs
- Case Study: Living the Drama—Community, Conflict, and Culture among Inner-City Boys
- Case Study: African-American Girls, Urban Inequality, and Gendered Violence
- Race, Crime, and Criminal Justice in Canada
- Ethnicities, Racism, and Crime in England and Wales
- Indigenous People and Sentencing Courts in Australia, New Zealand, and Canada
- Colonial Processes, Indigenous Peoples, and Criminal Justice Systems
- Case Study: Black Cannabis Dealers in a White Welfare State Race, Politics, and Street Capital in Norway
- Case Study: Black Homicide Victimization in Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- The Politics of Immigration and Crime
- Traffickers? Terrorists? Smugglers? Immigrants in the United States and International Crime Before World War II
- Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration in the United States Crimes By and Against Immigrants
- Immigration and Crime in U.S. Communities: Charting Some Promising New Directions in Research
- Immigrants and Their Children: Evidence on Generational Differences in Crime
- Latino/Hispanic Immigration and Crime
- Case Study: Criminalizing Settlement: The Politics of Immigration in the American South
- The Law of Immigration and Crime
- Searching (With Minimal Success) for Links Between Immigration and Imprisonment
- Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration in France
- The Convergence of Control: Immigration and Crime in Contemporary Japan
- Ethnicity, Migration, and Crime in the Netherlands
- Immigration, Crime, and Criminalization in Italy
- Case Study: Sentencing Violent Juvenile Offenders in Color Blind France: Does Ethnicity Matter?
- Case Study: Lost and Found Christianity, Conversion, and Gang Disaffiliation in Guatemala
- Case Study: Immigration, Social Exclusion, and Informal Economies: Muslim Immigrants in Frankfurt
Abstract and Keywords
Unwarranted disparities in criminal justice system treatment and discrimination affect members of disadvantaged minority groups in every country. For some groups, including aboriginal residents of English-speaking countries, African Americans, and Afro-Caribbeans in England, disparities and discrimination are chronic long-term problems. For other groups, disparities and discrimination may, consistent with a long-established multigenerational immigration and crime model, especially affect second- and third-generation members of economic immigrant groups. Asian immigrants typically tend not to have high crime rates or to experience justice system disparities.
Michael Tonry is Russell M. and Elizabeth M. Bennett Chair in Excellence and Director, Robina Institute of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, University of Minnesota Law School.
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