- The Oxford Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice
- Race, Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration
- The Racialization of Latinos in the United States
- Race and Crime in American Politics: From Law and Order to Willie Horton and Beyond
- Race, Crime, and Public Opinion
- Racial and Ethnic Patterns in Criminality and Victimization
- Race, Crime, and Policing
- Racial Disparities in Prosecution, Sentencing, and Punishment
- Race and Drugs
- Case Study: Living the Drama—Community, Conflict, and Culture among Inner-City Boys
- Case Study: African-American Girls, Urban Inequality, and Gendered Violence
- Race, Crime, and Criminal Justice in Canada
- Ethnicities, Racism, and Crime in England and Wales
- Indigenous People and Sentencing Courts in Australia, New Zealand, and Canada
- Colonial Processes, Indigenous Peoples, and Criminal Justice Systems
- Case Study: Black Cannabis Dealers in a White Welfare State Race, Politics, and Street Capital in Norway
- Case Study: Black Homicide Victimization in Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- The Politics of Immigration and Crime
- Traffickers? Terrorists? Smugglers? Immigrants in the United States and International Crime Before World War II
- Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration in the United States Crimes By and Against Immigrants
- Immigration and Crime in U.S. Communities: Charting Some Promising New Directions in Research
- Immigrants and Their Children: Evidence on Generational Differences in Crime
- Latino/Hispanic Immigration and Crime
- Case Study: Criminalizing Settlement: The Politics of Immigration in the American South
- The Law of Immigration and Crime
- Searching (With Minimal Success) for Links Between Immigration and Imprisonment
- Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration in France
- The Convergence of Control: Immigration and Crime in Contemporary Japan
- Ethnicity, Migration, and Crime in the Netherlands
- Immigration, Crime, and Criminalization in Italy
- Case Study: Sentencing Violent Juvenile Offenders in Color Blind France: Does Ethnicity Matter?
- Case Study: Lost and Found Christianity, Conversion, and Gang Disaffiliation in Guatemala
- Case Study: Immigration, Social Exclusion, and Informal Economies: Muslim Immigrants in Frankfurt
Abstract and Keywords
The development of research on relations among ethnicity, migration, and crime in the Netherlands reflects the ways migration flows and immigration control policies evolved after World War II. In the 1980s and 1990s, research primarily focused on four immigrant groups that are today established minorities: Surinamese, Turks, Moroccans, and Antilleans. Research later expanded to include criminality among asylum seekers, irregular migrants, and labor migrants from Central and Eastern Europe. The effects of migration management on immigrant crime are also the subject of research; focal topics include the effects of open borders as a result of the European Union enlargements (resulting in mobile banditry), of external border control (the growth of human trafficking organizations), and of internal border control (forms of subsistence crime as a consequence of barring irregular migrants from access to conventional means of acquiring income). Dutch research can be categorized into five themes: differential involvement of ethnic groups in criminality, subcultural explanations for criminality, victimization and fear of crime, social organization of human trafficking, and functioning of the criminal justice system.
Godfried Engbersen, Erasmus University Roterdam
Arjen Leerkes is assistant professor of sociology at Erasmus University of Rotterdam.
Erik Snel is assistant professor in the Sociology Department of the Erasmus University of Rotterdam.
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