- The Oxford Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice
- Race, Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration
- The Racialization of Latinos in the United States
- Race and Crime in American Politics: From Law and Order to Willie Horton and Beyond
- Race, Crime, and Public Opinion
- Racial and Ethnic Patterns in Criminality and Victimization
- Race, Crime, and Policing
- Racial Disparities in Prosecution, Sentencing, and Punishment
- Race and Drugs
- Case Study: Living the Drama—Community, Conflict, and Culture among Inner-City Boys
- Case Study: African-American Girls, Urban Inequality, and Gendered Violence
- Race, Crime, and Criminal Justice in Canada
- Ethnicities, Racism, and Crime in England and Wales
- Indigenous People and Sentencing Courts in Australia, New Zealand, and Canada
- Colonial Processes, Indigenous Peoples, and Criminal Justice Systems
- Case Study: Black Cannabis Dealers in a White Welfare State Race, Politics, and Street Capital in Norway
- Case Study: Black Homicide Victimization in Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- The Politics of Immigration and Crime
- Traffickers? Terrorists? Smugglers? Immigrants in the United States and International Crime Before World War II
- Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration in the United States Crimes By and Against Immigrants
- Immigration and Crime in U.S. Communities: Charting Some Promising New Directions in Research
- Immigrants and Their Children: Evidence on Generational Differences in Crime
- Latino/Hispanic Immigration and Crime
- Case Study: Criminalizing Settlement: The Politics of Immigration in the American South
- The Law of Immigration and Crime
- Searching (With Minimal Success) for Links Between Immigration and Imprisonment
- Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration in France
- The Convergence of Control: Immigration and Crime in Contemporary Japan
- Ethnicity, Migration, and Crime in the Netherlands
- Immigration, Crime, and Criminalization in Italy
- Case Study: Sentencing Violent Juvenile Offenders in Color Blind France: Does Ethnicity Matter?
- Case Study: Lost and Found Christianity, Conversion, and Gang Disaffiliation in Guatemala
- Case Study: Immigration, Social Exclusion, and Informal Economies: Muslim Immigrants in Frankfurt
Abstract and Keywords
Involvement in the criminal justice system is an illuminating vantage point from which to analyze the incorporation (or lack thereof) of immigrants into a host country. There are huge disparities across countries in the proportion of a state’s incarcerated population who are foreign. That proportion ranges from over 60 percent in Switzerland and Greece to one percent in Mexico and China. A number of plausible hypotheses can be developed about associations between particular factors and differences in proportions of immigrant imprisonment.Some expected connectionsdo not appear, including overall incarceration levels and stocks or flows of migrants. Other plausible relationships receive some support, such as the prominence of a market-based economic system, the proportion of Europeans among newcomers to a European country, and jus soli laws of citizenship. Finally, some plausible relationships yield surprises: policies to incorporate immigrants or promote social justice are often associated with high levels of foreign incarceration. Patterns of foreigner incarceration can discomfit both liberals and conservatives. Much more investigation needs to be done into relationships found and relationships expected but not visible.
Jennifer Hochschild is the Henry LaBarre Jayne Professor of Government and Professor of African and African American Studies at Harvard University; she holds Lectureships in the Harvard Kennedy School and Harvard Graduate School of Education. In 2013-14, she was a Fellow at the Straus Institute for Advanced Study of Law and Justice at New York University Law School, and in 2014-15, she is President Elect of the American Political Science Association. Most recently, Hochschild was a co-editor of Outsiders No More? Models of Immigrant Political Participation (Oxford University Press, 2013) and co-author of Creating a New Racial Order: How Immigration, Multiracialism, Genomics, and the Young Can Remake Race in America (Princeton University Press, 2012). She teaches courses on racial and ethnic politics, social welfare policy, American political thought, and power in American society.
Colin Brown is a PhD candidate in the Department of Government at Harvard University and the Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies.
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