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date: 26 February 2020

(p. 615) Index

(p. 615) Index

Aboriginal Peoples Television Network, 582
acculturation, 20, 557–58
Ackerman, Lillian, 257
acorns, 279–80
Act for the Government and Protection of Indians (California), 286–87
Act for the Relief of Mission Indians, 289
activism. See politics and activism
Adams, Evan, 146
Adams, Hank, 134, 138
Adams, Richard, 519
Adoptive Couple v. Baby Girl, 166–67n21
African Americans, 4, 324
immigrants in New Mexico, 68–69
intellectual history, 523
political collaboration with Native Americans, 133–34
agency, 246–48
Age of the Marvelous, The, 477
Ahvakana, Larry (Inupiaq), 464
Akwesasne Cultural Center, 486
Akwesasne Notes, 517
Alaska. See also Pacific Northwest region
ancient history, 301–3
National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980, 311
Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971, 310–11
Natives today, 311–12
Russian era, 303–5
sale of, 305–8
statehood, 309–10
Statehood Act of 1958, 309–10
threats to subsistence hunting and fishing lifestyle in, 308–10
Alaska Federation of Natives (AFN), 310, 312
Alaska Native Brotherhood, 310
Albany Congress of 1754, 208, 209
Albers, Patricia, 248, 405–6, 609n5
Alcatraz Island occupation of 1969, 132–33, 135–36, 528
Alchon, Suzanne, 422
Aldred, Lisa, 441
Aleuts, 302–7
evacuation from Alaska, 306–7
Alexie, Sherman, 146, 253, 441, 571–72, 580, 581, 584, 585
Alfred, Taiaiake, 517
Algonquians, 70, 84
Allen, Paula Gunn, 137
All Tribes American Indian Center, 191
American Antiquarian Society Museum, 480
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 259
American Horse, Ben (Oglala), 453
American Indian Child Welfare Act, 142
American Indian College Fund, 161
American Indian Contemporary Arts (AICA), 461–62
American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 6
American Indian Higher Education Consortium, 156
American Indian Historical Society, 136
American Indian history
academic programs, 6
journals, 6
New Indian History and, 2–6, 8
new knowledge in, 6–10
new questions in, 10–13
scholarly debates and, 1–2
American Indian Intellectuals, 513–14
American Indian Intellectual Tradition, The, 514–15, 531
American Indian Magazine, 117
(p. 616) American Indian Movement (AIM), 134–35, 138, 139, 140, 248, 355
Great Lakes region and, 191–92
urbanization and, 557–58
American Indian Policy Review Commission, 142
American Indian Quarterly, 6
American Indian Religious Freedom Act, 142, 442
American Indians and Popular Culture, 585
American Indian Science and Engineering Society, 161
American Museum of Natural History, 34, 483
American Philosophical Society, 479
American Progress, 554, 558, 561
American Revolution, 83–84, 176, 210, 238, 349, 352
Amerindian Rebirth, 448
Anderson, David, 29
Anderson, Marge, 192
And Grandma Said: Iroquois Teachings, 517
Andros, Edmund, 344–45
Anglo-Powhatan Wars, 323
Anishinaabeg, 600–602, 606–7
Anthes, Bill, 458
anticommunism, 121–22
Antonio, Juan, 286
Apaches
Dzil Nchaa Si An mountain, 442–43
importance of horses to, 66, 67
traditional music, 577
Western, 224–27, 228
Apess, William (Pequot), 70, 514, 515, 518, 522, 527
Aquash, Annie Mae Pictou (Mi’kmaq), 162, 355
Arapaho, 81
Arapahoe Politics, 248
archaeology, 17–18. See also pre-Columbian Native societies
of the Atlantic Northeast, 335–39
cultural stability and cultural change issues in, 20–21
culture areas in, 23–24
ecological-functionalist paradigm, 19–20
European colonialism impact on, 20
of gender, 406–7
historic versus prehistoric, 18
postprocessual, 21–22
processual, 21–22
of the South, 317
Archaeology of the Cosmos, An, 33
Archaeology of the Soul, An, 27, 33
Archuleta, Elizabeth (Yaqui), 462
Archuleta, Margaret (Tewa), 458–59
Arizona Republic, 469
Army Corps of Engineers, US Army, 266
art, Native, 453–54
capitalism and, 507
changing Native culture and, 465
defining, 454–56, 465–68
early history, 456–57
education, 463–64
federal power and, 461–62
future of, 469–70
on global scale, 469
late 20th century, 465–68
modernism, 456–57, 458–59
performance, 466
photography in, 467–68
preservation economics, 459–61
Red Power movement and, 464
since the 1960s, 462–65
Articles of Agreement of 1701, 346
Artifact Piece, The, 466
Art Institute of Chicago, 457
artists and performers, Native American, 137, 585
Dick West, 458
film industry and, 145–46
James Luna, 466
Oscar Howe, 453–54, 458, 462
R. Gary Miller, 489–90
social media and, 157–58
stereotypes and, 575, 576
Art News, 469
Ashmolean Museum, 477
Asian Americans, 4
assimilation/Americanization of Native Americans, 112–13, 264, 402–3, 575–76
art and, 457
gender and, 408
Atanarjuat, 582
Athabaskan Fiddle Festival, 158
Athabaskans, 227–28, 302
athletes, Native American, 129–31, 146
(p. 617) Atlantic Northeast region
Covenant Chain treaty, 52, 71, 208, 344–47, 351
emergence of, 335–39
empires, immigrants, and Native peoples, 1670s–1750s, 344–49
immigration of Native Americans to, 354
peoples and empire in upheaval, 1750s–1780s, 349–52
resisting “disappearance,” 1780s–1880s, 352–53
seizing Native history, 1960s–present, 355–56
visible Indians, 1880s–1960s, 353–55
Atlantic World, 599–600, 611n22
Atlatl, Inc., 465, 468
Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), 308
Aupaumut, Hendrick (Mohican), 84, 519
Authentic Indians: Episodes of Encounter from the Late- Nineteenth- Century Northwest Coast, 407
“Avatars, The,” 584
Bacci, Massimo Livi, 422
Bacon, Francis, 478
Bacon’s Rebellion, 344
Bad Bear, Howard (Oglala), 453
Bad Heart Bull, Wesley, 139
Baird, Jessie Little Doe, 530
Baker, Eugene, 103
Bancroft, Hubert Howe, 277
band societies, 29
Banks, Dennis, 138, 191
Bannock of Idaho, The, 392
Banyaca, Thomas (Hopi), 163
Barber, Katrine, 266
Barbour, George, 287
Barr, Juliana, 247, 248, 600
Bartow, Rick (Wiyot), 465
Bartram, John, 204
Basin-Plateau Aboriginal Sociopolitical Groups, 379, 391
Basso, Keith, 33, 442
Battle of Fallen Timbers, 84
Battle of Greasy Grass, 103
Battle of Horseshoe Bend of 1814, 85, 95
Battle of Little Bighorn, 243, 248
Battle of the Thames of 1813, 85
Bauer, William J., 407–8
Beach, Adam, 146
Beale, Edward F., 287–88
Bear Hunter (Shoshone), 386
Bear River Massacre, 385
Beaulieu, David, 186
Beaver Wars, 204
Beck, David R. M., 262, 266
Beckham, Stephen Dow, 254
Bedard, Irene, 146
Begay, Api (Diné), 457
Being Comanche, 248
Bellcourt, Clyde, 191
Belmore, Rebecca (Anishinaabe), 466, 469
Benson, Robby, 130
Benton-Benai, Eddie, 191
Bering Strait, 279
Berkhofer, Robert, 5–6, 8, 574
Berlo, Janet, 456
Bernstein, Bruce, 457
Beyond the Frontier: Exploring the Indian Country, 362
Bigfeather, Joanna Osburn (Cherokee/Mescalero Apache), 463
bilateral kinship, 381
Bird, Elizabeth, 575, 578
Bird-David (Nurit), 435–36
Bisonette, Gladys, 140
Bitsui, Sherwin (Diné), 469
Bitter Waters of Medicine Creek, The, 262
Black, Hugo, 548
Blackbird, Andrew, 181
Black Elk (Lakota), 246, 249
Black Elk Speaks, 246, 249
Blackfeet, 118, 240–41, 243, 248
Black Hawk, 93
Blackhawk, Ned (Te-Moak), 392
Black Hawk War of 1832, 97, 178
Black Hoof (Shawnee), 95
Blackstone, Tsianina Redfeather (Creek/Cherokee), 577
Bleeding Kansas, battles of, 102
Blue Eagle, Acee (Creek/Pawnee), 458
Blue Jacket (Shawnee), 480
boarding schools, 186–87
(p. 618) Boas, Franz, 483
Bolton, Herbert E., 362
Bonaparte, Darren, 517
Boney, Roy (Cherokee), 585
Bonnin, Gertrude (Sioux), 117
Borrows, John, 399
Boudinot, Elias (Cherokee), 85, 365, 514, 545–46
Bowman, Arlene (Navajo), 146, 581
Boxberger, Daniel, 266
Boyce, George, 463
Boyd, Robert, 258, 259, 305
Bradford, William, 418
Brainerd, David, 348
Brandão, José António, 205
Brando, Marlon, 141
Brannum, Julianna (Comanche), 585
Brant, Elisabeth, 442
Brant, Joseph (Mohawk), 84, 211, 488, 519
Braque, Georges, 453
Bridges, Valerie, 267
Brightman, Lehman, 133
British Columbia Treaty Commission, 269
British North West Company, 258
Brody, J. J., 456
Brown, Dee, 5, 246–47
Brown, Ian, 32
Brown, James A., 360
Brown, John, 254, 265
Buchanan, James, 384–85
buffalo, 104–5, 240
Buffalo Bird Woman’s Garden, 249
Bull Lodge, 445–46
Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), 105, 138, 389, 401
Ada Deer and, 151
in California, 287
competency commissions, 118
migration of Native Americans to cities encouraged by, 158
museums and, 483
Native art school and, 463
in the Pacific Northwest, 263
Rancheria Termination Act and, 292
in the 1960s, 132
Bureau of Land Management (BLM), 389–90
Burton, Tim, 583
Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West, 5, 246
Bush, George W., 149–50
Byrd, Jodi, 583
Cabazons, 143, 173, 275, 292–93, 487
Cabrillo, Juan Rodriguez, 281–82
Cache Creek Casino and Resort, 293
Caddos, 62
Cadue, Vestana, 123
Cahokia, 318–19
Calac, Olegario, 289
California, 275–78, 407–8. See also Pacific Coast
gold rush, 94, 99–100, 286–89
Native reclamation of land and lives, 1870–present, 289–94
ranchos, 284–85
reservations, 288
Spanish missions, 281–85
termination and, 291–92
tribal gaming in, 173, 275, 278, 292–93
tribes of, 80, 99–100, 218, 278–81
California Indian Jurisdictional Act of 1928, 291
California Institute of the Arts, 467
California v. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians, 143, 173, 275, 292–93, 487
Calusas, 319–20
Canada
Aboriginal Peoples Television Network, 582
boundaries in the Pacific Northwest, 260
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 542
“First Nations” term and, 269n2
Hudson's Bay Company, 175, 244, 260
Indian Wars and, 264
INDIGENA Project, 468
indigenous art in, 468–69
Iroquoia in, 210–12
Native cultural centers in, 488–90
Native groups migrations to, 52–53
Native land claims in, 269
Northwest Indians of, 254
Plains Indians of, 244
Canadian Aboriginal Music Awards, 158
Canasatego (Onondaga), 542
Cannon, T. C., 455
Cardinal, Tantoo, 146
Carey, Mariah, 577
(p. 619) Carey Baptist Mission, 96
Carleton, James, 416
Carlisle Indian Industrial School, 105, 186, 354, 456–57, 525
Carson, Kit, 228–29
Carter, Jimmy, 356
Cartesian objectivism, 435
Cartier, Jacques, 44, 45, 202
casinos, American Indian. See gaming, tribal
Cass, Lewis, 605–7
Castillo, Adam (Cahuilla), 290, 292
Catawbas, 62, 65
Catlin, George, 240
Cavelier, René-Robert, 414
Cayugas, 210–11
Cayuse War, 259–60
Cebula, Larry, 259
Celluloid Indians, 575
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 425
Chaco Meridian, 33–34
Chaikin, Ira, 264
Chain of Friendship, 208
Cherokee Phoenix, 519
Cherokees, 65
banks and businesses, 118
Confederate States of America and, 102
disease and mortality of, 423–24
George Washington’s letter to, 104
land cessions by, 359–60
removal of, 96–97, 365–66
slavery and, 604–5
sovereignty, 324
treaties with the US, 545–46
US Civil War and, 368–71
War of 1812 and Indian removal and, 94–95
westward migration, 365
women, 26, 322–23, 407, 520
Cherokee Tobacco Case, 548
Cheyennes, 66, 67, 81
American expansion and, 241–44
horses, trade, and disease among, 238–41
land of the Great Plains and, 237
Chicago, 190–91
Chicago American Indian Community Organizations Conference, 191
Chickamauga Wars, 323
Chickasaws
Natchez attacks on, 64
removal of, 364–65
slave trade and, 62
Thomas Nairne and, 57
trade with the French, 59–60
treaties, 326
Chiefdoms and Other Archaeological Delusions, 30
Chief Joseph, 93
Child, Brenda J., 186–87, 188, 408
Chivington, John M., 102
Choctaws
banks and businesses, 118
civil war, 64
enslavement of, 62
origin story, 315
removal of, 105, 326, 363–67
treaties, 326–27
US Civil War and, 369–71
Christianity, 17, 65, 85, 212, 246, 449
advocacy of Indian removal and, 96
in the Atlantic Northeast, 342, 348, 351, 353
Holy Spirit and, 434–35, 448
missionaries, 17, 259, 444
Moravian, 348–49
Native adoption of, 65, 246, 259, 264–65
in the Pacific Northwest, 259, 264–65
revivalism, 348
Shakers, 264–65
Christian Union, The, 526
Chumash, 278, 279, 281
Citizens Equal Rights Alliance (CERA), 182
citizenship, US, 121, 525–28
Citizens Party, 249
Civilian Conservation Corps, 119–20
Civilization Fund Act of 1819, 104
civil rights movement, 3–4
Civil War, American, 101–4, 242, 244, 368–71
Clapp, Moses A., 185
Clark, William. See Lewis and Clark expedition
Clarke, Ron, 129–30
(p. 620) Clearwater, Frank, 141
Clemens, Samuel, 379, 384
Clemmer, Richard, 392
Clinton, Bill, 151, 421
Clinton, Hillary, 164
Cloud, Henry Rowe, 525
Cobb, Amanda, 581
Cobb, Daniel, 134
Cobb, Jennie Ross (Cherokee), 467
Cobell, Elouise (Blackfeet), 153
Cobell v. Salazar, 153
Cockburn, Aidan, 420
Cocom Pech, Jorge Miguel, 531
Codetalker, The, 164
Cody, Buffalo Bill, 575
Coffee, John M., 120–21
Cogewea, The Half-Blood, 521
Cohen, Felix, 152
Colbert, George (Chickasaw), 85
Colden, Cadwallader, 199, 201
Cold War, 121–23
Cole, Douglas, 264
Cole, Tom, 150
Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, 555
Collier, John, 2, 290, 459
colonialism
settler, 492n1, 602–4
urban, 558–60
colonial period, 1680–1763, 57–59, 593–96. See also European invasion and settlement period, 1500–1680; expansion, American, 1815–1890; imperial expansion era, 1763–1821
alliances created during, 64–65
Atlantic Northeast region, 344–52
global producers and consumers of, 59–61
Great Basin during, 382–83
indigenous expansion during, 62–64
Iroquois Confederacy establishment in, 207–10
large-scale European settlements, 70
Native economies and, 499–501
Native peoples of the Atlantic Northeast during, 344–49
Native revolts during, 66, 221
small-scale European settlements, 68–70
Southern Indians during, 323–24
treaty making, 540–42
warfare, 61–62, 71–72
colonization, internal, 441
Colonization Act of 1824, 284
Colop, Sam, 516
Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, 268
Columbus, Christopher, 77, 418, 425, 468, 591
Colville Confederated Tribes, 267
Colwell-Chanthophonh, Chip, 25
Comanche Empire, The, 247
Comanches, 66, 67, 237
American expansion and, 241–44
horses, trade, and disease among, 238–41
imperial expansion and, 81–82
Mexican-American War and, 99
Coming of the Spirit of Pestilence, The, 258
Commoner, Barry, 249
Community Action Programs, 4, 133
Comrade in Mourning, 458
Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community, 158
Confederate States of America, 102
Connecticut Indian Land Claims Settlement Act, 487
Conner, John (Delaware), 98
Connor, Patrick Edward, 385
Constitution of the Five Nations, 523–24
Contested Plains, The, 247
Cook, Noble David, 425
Cook, Sherburne, 420
Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth (Crow Creek Sioux), 573–74
Coolidge, Sherman, 527–28
Cooper, James Fenimore, 476, 513, 519
Cornell University, 6
Corntassel, Jeff (Cherokee), 543, 579–80
Coronado, Francisco Vásquez de, 42–44, 456
in Indian Territory and Oklahoma, 361
Zunis and, 221
Coronado, Knight of Pueblos and Plains, 362
“corporate socialism,” 310–11
Cortes, Hernán, 414
Costner, Kevin, 578, 582
Costo, Jeanette Henry, 136
Costo, Rupert, 136
(p. 621) court cases
Adoptive Couple v. Baby Girl, 166–67n21
California v. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians, 143, 173, 275, 292–93, 487
Cobell v. Salazar, 153
Duro v. Reina, 144
Federal Power Commission v. Tuscarora Indian Nation, 548
Johnson v. McIntosh, 545
Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, 112, 116, 548
Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Association, 144
Mille Lacs v. Minnesota, 182, 192–93
Oliphant v. Suquamish, 144
Oneida v. Wisconsin, 143
Seminole v. Butterworth, 143
Standing Bear v. Crook, 105
Tillie Hardwick v. the United States, 292
US v. Michigan, 181
US v. Washington, 268
Worcester v. Georgia, 96–97, 326
Covenant Chain, 52, 71, 208, 344–47, 351, 517
Cox, James, 572
Cramer, Renée Ann, 580
Crazy Horse (Lakota), 93, 243, 248, 571
Creativity Is Our Tradition: Three Decades of Contemporary Indian Art, 464
Creeks, 62, 322
civil war, 325, 545
Five Nations attacks on, 65
killed in battle with the United States, 84–85
Reconstruction and allotment period, 371–75
treaties, 326–27, 365, 545
Cronon, William, 554, 558, 561
Crosby, Alfred, 420, 421, 423, 424
Crow
importance of horses to, 66–68
population, 240
Crow Dog, Leonard, 140
Crow Dog, Mary, 249
Crum, Steven, 392
Cuevas-Cob, Briceida, 531
cultural centers, Native, 488–92, 556–58
Culture Element Distribution, 391
culture(s)
“Americanization” of Native Americans and, 111–12, 264–65
archaeological, 25
areas, 23–24
arts in Native American, 137, 145–46
change with collapse of indigenous economies, 501–3
Great Basin, 380–82
historians, 21
Native art and changing Native, 465
Native strategies on assimilation of European, 324
popular, 571–74
powwow, 248
wars in the West, 1850s–1880s, 104–6
Curse of Capistrano, The, 277
Curtis, Edward, 467, 584
Curtis Act, 326
Cushing, Frank Hamilton, 221
Cushman, Robert, 416
Cusick, Dennis (Tuscarora), 457, 519
Custer, George Armstrong, 139
Custer Died For Your Sins, 5, 137, 513, 528
Dakotas, 182–84
“Damn Series, The,” 467
Dances with Wolves, 146, 253, 578, 582
Dangberg, Grace, 391
D’Anghiera, Peter Martyr, 419
Daniels, Victor, 576
Dart, Anson, 260
Darwin, Charles, 482, 484
Dawes, Henry L., 374
Dawes Act of 1887, 105–6, 113, 265, 401–2, 526
Great Lakes region and, 184–86
Indian Territory and, 374–75
D’Azevedo, Warren, 391
Dead Man, 146
De Alcarón, Hernando, 281
Decade Show, The, 466
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 143
DeCora, Angel (Ho-Chunk), 525
Deer, Ada, 151, 189
Deer, Phillip (Muscogee Creek), 163
Deganawidah Epic, 202–3, 207
de la Harpe, Bernard, 362
de Las Casas, Bartolomé, 419, 436
Delaware Indian Legends, 519
(p. 622) Delawares, 346–47
Chain of Friendship and, 208
Seven Years’ War and, 349–50
War of 1812 and Indian removal and, 94–95
William Penn and, 539–40
Deloria, Ella (Standing Rock Sioux), 120, 250
Deloria, Philip J., 248, 572, 576
Deloria, Vine, Jr. (Standing Rock Sioux), 5, 131, 136–37, 158, 513–14, 515, 528
del Valle Escalante, Emilio, 516
DeMallie, Raymond J., 249, 250
Democratic Party, 149
demography
Atlantic Northeast, 353
causes of depopulation and, 419–23
competing narratives of, 413–15
conclusions about European effect on Native, 424–26
consequences of mortality, 423–24
dynamics of mortality and, 418–19
Pacific Coast, 80–81
population decreases of Native Americans after arrival of Europeans, 52, 77–78, 340, 413
precontact, 415–17
de Niza, Marcos, 221
depopulation. See demography
de Portolá, Gaspar, 282
Dermer, Thomas, 414
Derrida, Jacques, 436
Der Spiegel, 20
Descartes, René, 435, 436
de Soto, Hernando, 19, 29, 42–44, 51, 57, 320, 414
Determination of Rights and Unity for Menominee Shareholders (DRUMS), 189
D’Harnoncourt, René, 455–56, 459–60
Diamond, Jared, 420–21, 424, 555
digital sovereignty, 584–85
Diné, 227–28, 449. See also Navajos
diplomats, Native American, 84
direct historical approach, 19
disease, 45, 57–58, 340, 414–15
Age of Imperial Expansion and, 82
as cause of depopulation, 419–23
competing narratives of effects of, 413–15
consequences of mortality due to, 423–24
dynamics of mortality from, 418–19
in the Great Plains region, 238–41
High Counters and Low Counters on effects of, 417
on the Pacific Coast, 80
in the Pacific Northwest, 258
Dobyns, Henry, 417, 420
Do Campo, Andres, 361
Dockstader, Frederick, 463
Domestic Subjects: Gender, Citizenship, and Law in Native American Literature, 408
Douglas, Frederic H., 455–56, 464
Douglas, Stephen, 100
Douthit, Nathan, 262
Doxtator, Deborah, 489
Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman, 578
Drake, Francis, 282
Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture, 575
Drucker, Philip, 308
Drury, Clifford, 259
Du Bois, W. E. B., 523
Dugan, Joyce, 328
Dunn, Dorothy, 453, 454–55, 457, 463
Dunnell, Robert, 20
Dürer, Albrecht, 478
Durham, Jimmie (Cherokee), 461–62
Duro v. Reina, 144
Du Simitière, Eugène, 479, 480
du Tisne, Claude, 63, 362
Dzil Nchaa Si An mountain, 442–43
Eastman, Charles A. (Dakota), 249, 397, 404, 519, 522, 525
ecological-functionalist paradigm, 19–20
Ecological Indian: Myth and History, The, 32, 555
economics. See also trade and exchange
aboriginal, 497–99
American Indians’ New Deal, 1920–1940 and, 117–20
arts preservation, 459–61
California Indians and, 275, 277–85
colonial period and Native, 499–501
fishing rights and, 181–82, 265–66, 397–402
Indian poverty and, 118–19, 122–23, 186, 375
modern tribal life and, 156–58, 159–60
(p. 623) Native adaptation to capitalist, 506–8
Native dependency and culture change related to, 501–3
Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community and, 192–93
subordination to US law and Native, 503–6
tribal gaming and, 143–44, 153, 155, 173, 192, 275, 278, 292–93, 508
tribal sovereignty and, 229–30
Edgar Heap of Birds (Cheyenne), 469
education
Carlisle Indian Industrial School, 105, 186, 354, 456–57, 525
in Hawaii, 530–31
higher, 156
Mount Pleasant Indian Industrial Boarding School, 186–87
Native arts, 463–64
programs set up the by the US government, 117, 122, 245, 525, 576–77
Emendatio, 469
Emerson, Larry (Diné), 465
End of the Innocence, The, 468
England
approach to colonization of North America, 593–98, 609–10n9
early expeditions from, 44, 46, 49, 320, 593–96
perspective on North American “discovery,” 593–94
settlement of the Atlantic Northeast, 340–44
Seven Years’ War, 61, 71–72, 83, 176, 209, 349–51, 597, 609–10n9
environments, natural, 32–34
Erdrich, Louise (Turtle Mountain Chippewa), 11, 137, 408
Erlandson, Jon, 279
Escalante, Silvestre, 391
Esopus Wars, 342
ethnographic present, 19
Ethridge, Robbie, 24, 321
European invasion and settlement period, 1500–1680, 41, 414, 591–93. See also colonial period, 1680–1763
Atlantic Northeast, 339–44
European views of Native Americans during, 595
incorporation through violence, 46–51
shatter zones, 41–45, 48, 51, 52
transformation and reinvention, 51–53
Everlasting Sky, The, 173
Ewers, John C., 250
Exiled in the Land of the Free: Democracy, Indian Nations, and the US Constitution, 517
expansion, American, 1815–1890, 93
California and, 286–87
Civil War and western violence during, 101–4
culture wars and, 104–6
1815–1854, 94–100
1854–1890, 101–6
Great Basin and, 386–88
Great Plains region and, 241–43
Kansas-Nebraska Act and, 100
manifest destiny and, 241–43, 247
Mexican-American War and, 97–100
treaty making and, 546–47
War of 1812 and Indian removal during, 93, 94–97
Ex Parte Green, 121
Eyre, Chris (Arapaho), 146, 253, 579
Facebook, 157, 163, 165, 573
Fadden, Ray, 486
Fadden, Stephen (Mohawk), 461
Family Guy, The, 580
Farmer, Gary (Cayuga), 146
Farmer, Jared, 392
Fast Runner, 582
Favel, Floyd (Cree), 466
Favell, Rosalie (Métis), 468
Feather Pipe, 446
Federal Power Commission v. Tuscarora Indian Nation, 548
Fenton, William N., 202
Ferguson, T. J., 25
Ferniss, Elizabeth, 29
Field Museum of Natural History, 34, 483
Fields, Sherry, 424
Figueroa, José, 284
Fillmore, Millard, 287
film industry. See television and film industry
Finley, Judson, 25
First Convocation of American Indian Scholars, 136
First Organic Act of 1884, 310
(p. 624) First Sioux War, 100
First World War, 117, 120, 121
Great Lakes region and, 187–88
fishing rights, 181–82, 265–66
in Alaska, 308–10
in the Atlantic Northeast, 352–53
“fish-ins” and, 528
Ojibwe and, 397–402
Five Civilized Tribes, 102, 106, 316–17, 363, 604
Dawes Act and, 374–75
US Civil War and, 368–71
Five Nations
alliances with France, 64–65, 596–97
Covenant Chain treaty and, 345
Iroquoia and, 199, 202–6
Iroquois Grand Settlement of 1701, 59, 64–65
land cessions and, 85–86
warfare and, 203–4
“Flight Patterns,” 571
Florida Museum of Natural History, 34
Folsom, David (Choctaw), 324
Fools Crow (Lakota), 250
Fools Crow, Frank, 140
forced confinement, 52
Ford, John, 575, 578
Foster, Morris W., 248
Fowler, Catherine, 391
Fowler, Don, 391
Fowler, Loretta, 248
France
alliances with the Five Nations, 64–65, 596–97, 600–602
approach to colonization of North America, 594–98, 609–10n9
early expeditions from, 44, 46, 48, 53, 340, 594–96
governance of New, 596–97, 600–602, 610n14
Iroquoia and, 204–6, 208
Jesuits from, 204–6, 600–602
Natchez war against, 64
perspective on North American “discovery,” 594–96
Seven Years’ War, 61, 71–72, 83, 176, 209, 349–51, 597, 609–10n9
trade with the Quapaws, 59–60
Franchimastabé (Choctaw), 85
Frank, Billy, Jr. (Nisqually), 267
Frank, Gelya, 291
Franklin, Benjamin, 199–200, 201, 519
Freedom of Information Act, 155
Frémont, John C., 380, 391
From Sand Creek, 250
From the Deep Woods to Civilization, 249, 519
From the Heart of Crow Country: The Crow Indians’ Own Stories, 250
Fryberg, Stefanie (Tulalip), 578
fur trade, 175–76, 383
families, 176–77
Furtwangler, Robert, 259
Gachradodon (Cayuga), 208
Gadsden Purchase, 100
Galloway, Patricia, 360
gaming, tribal, 143–44, 153, 155, 278, 508
in California, 173, 275, 292–93
cultural centers and, 490–91
in the Great Lakes region, 192
museums and, 487–88
in the South, 328
Gammoudi, Mohammed, 129–30
García, Pablo, 516, 531
Gardner, W. J., 187
Garra, Antonio, 286
Garry, Joseph (Coeur d’Alene), 122
Garter Snake, 445–46
Gast, John, 554, 558, 561, 564
geist, 436–37
gender roles, 27–28, 403–9. See also women, Native
General Allotment Act of 1887. See Dawes Act of 1887
“Geographies of Power: Mapping Indian Borders in the ‘Borderlands’ of the Early Southwest,” 247
George, Dan (Coast Salish), 571
George III, King, 350, 542
George-Kanentiio, Doug (Mohawk), 518
Geronimo (Apache), 93, 103
Gesta Grayorum, 478
Ghost Dance, 246, 288–89, 354, 386–87
Gibson, Jeffrey, 469, 470
Gilroy, Paul, 583
Glacier National Park, 248
globalization, 17
indigenous art and, 469
(p. 625) Godfather, The, 141
Goeman, Mishauna (Tonawanda Seneca), 585
Goldberg, Carole, 291
gold rush, California, 94, 99–100, 277
Gone, Fred, 445–46
Good, Bert Orben, 188
Goodfox, Julia (Pawnee), 585
Gordon, Jessica, 163
Gore, Al, 149–50
Goshutes, 379
government, tribal. See also politics and activism
enduring problems for, 159–61
improving quality of, 155–58
modern day, 153–55
women in, 150–51
Grand Council Fire of American Indians, 190
Grant, Ulysses, 289
Grattan, John, 100
Great Awakening, 348
Great Basin, 377
contact and the changing Native, 382–83
defined as a region and a culture area, 380–82
Natives living in among white colonists, 386–88
Native sovereignty and land, 388–90
sources and scholarship, 391–92
US conquest of, 383–86
visions of human life in arid landscape of, 377–80
Great Basin Indian Archives, 391
Great Britain. See England
Great Chain of Being, 437, 447
Great Depression, 186, 229, 318, 403, 505
Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC), 182
Great Lakes region, 173–74, 192–93
American Indian Movement (AIM) in, 191–92
Dakota War, 182–84
Dawes Act and, 184–86
fur trade, 175–77
fur trade families, 176–77
Indian Removal Act and, 177–79
Menominee Nation termination and restoration, 188–90
Mount Pleasant Indian Industrial Boarding School, 186–87
physical geography, 174
Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community, 192–93
treaties and legal battles, 179–88
twentieth-century wars and, 187–88
urbanization and relocation in, 190–93
Great Law of Peace, 516–17, 518, 530
Great Peace of 1840, 240
Great Plains region
horses, trade, and disease in, 238–41
imperial expansion and, 81–83
Indians, 66–67
land, 235–37
primary and literary sources on, 249–50
reservations, 244–46
settler colonialism and, 241–44
treaty making in the West and, 546–47
turn to agency in historiography of, 246–48
women’s roles in, 405–6
Greene, Candace S., 249
Greenwald, Emily, 265
Gruening, Ernest, 309
Guedel, Greg, 443
Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth-Century America, 574
Gunnison, John W., 384
guns, 61, 239
Guns, Germs, and Steel, 420
Hackel, Steven, 283
Haggard, Merle, 577
Halbert, Henry, 315
Haldane, Benjamin, 467
Hall, Robert, 27, 33
Hallowell, A. Irving, 439, 446–47
Hämäläinen, Pekka, 247
Hamm, Mia, 571
Hammond, Harmony, 466
Hampton School, 525
Handbook of North American Indians, 82, 250
Handsome Lake (Seneca), 212
Hardwick, Tillie, 292
Harjo, Joy (Mvskoke), 137
Harjo, Sterlin (Seminole/Creek), 585
Harkin, Michael, 448
Harmar, Josiah, 84
Harmon, Alexandra, 261, 263
(p. 626) Harper, Stephen, 163, 164
Harris, Cole, 260, 269
Harris, Douglas, 266
Harris, Fred, 249
Harris, LaDonna (Comanche), 249
Harrison, William Henry, 95, 544–45
Harvard University, 34
Haskell School, 186
Haudenosaunee. See Iroquoia
Hawaii, 530–31
Hayes, Ira Hamilton (Pima), 130
health, Native. See disease
Heap of Birds, Edgar (Cheyenne/Arapaho), 137
Hearne, Joanna, 572, 578
Heart is a Lonely Hunter, The, 571
Heaton, John, 392
Heidegger, Martin, 436
Hemingway, Ernest, 571
Henley, Thomas J., 288
Hernandez, Sarah, 160
Hernándezx Xocoyotzin, Natalio (Nahuatl), 531
Hewett, Edgar Lee, 457
Hicks, Bob (Creek/Seminole), 581
Hicks, Charles (Cherokee), 84
Hidatsas, 66, 82
Hidden Half: Studies of Plains Indian Women, The, 248, 405–6
Highwater, James, 456
Hill, Jerry (Oneida), 164
Hill, Richard, Sr. (Tuscarora), 469, 488
Hill, Rick (Tuscarora), 465
Hill, Sarah H., 407
historical particularism, 21
historical processualism, 22
historic archaeology, 18
“History of Ethnological and Ethnohistorical Research,” 250
History of Oregon, A, 253–54
History of the Five Indian Nations Depending on the Province of New-York in America, The, 199
Hitchcock, Ethan Allen, 112
Hittman, Michael, 391
Ho-Chunks, 178
Hoffman, Elizabeth, 585
Hohokams, 224–27
Hoig, Stan, 362
Holder, A B., 419
Hollywood’s Indian, 575
Holm, Tom (Creek/Cherokee), 441
Holt, Ronald, 392
Homestead Act of 1862, 102–3, 372–73
Hopiit, 145, 466, 581
Hopis, 223–24
Horn-Miller, Kahente, 517
Horse, Michael (Yaqui), 577–78
Horse Capture, George P. (Gros Ventre), 445–46
horses, 66–68
in the Great Plains region, 238–41
House, Conrad (Diné), 465
House Made of Dawn, 136
Houser, Alan (Chiricahua Apache), 137, 457
Howard, John R., 185
Howard, Oliver Otis, 264
Howe, Oscar (Dakota), 453–54, 458, 462
Hoxie, Frederick E., 248, 522, 525
Huayna Capac, 414
Hudson, Charles, 319
Hudson, Henry, 340
Hudson’s Bay Company, 175, 244, 258, 260, 383, 500
Hull, Kathleen, 25
Hurtado, Albert, 277
Hutchinson, Thomas, 416
Idle No More movement, 163
I’d Love My Mother Even If She Was Black, Brown, or White, 464
Igloolik Isuma, Inc., 582
Illinois peoples, 62, 64
imperial expansion era, 1763–1821, 77–79, 594
Atlantic Northeast during, 349–53
coexistence in the East during, 83–86
European empires encircling North America during, 86–87
Great Plains and, 81–83
Pacific Coast and, 79–81
Pacific Northwest region and, 258–61
treaty making in, 543–46
imperialist nostalgia, 441
Incas, 414
Independent Green Party, 150
Indian Art of the United States, 455–56, 460
Indian Arts and Crafts Act (IACA), 461
(p. 627) Indian Arts and Crafts Board (IACB), 459–60, 462
Indian Blues: American Indians and the Politics of Music, 1879–1934, 576
Indian Boyhood, 519
Indian Child Welfare Act, 160
Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, 121, 528
Indian Claims Commission (ICC), 122, 291–92, 307, 308, 389–90, 549
Indian Council of New England, The, 354–55
IndianCountryTV.com, 158
Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988, 143, 275, 328, 356, 487
Indian Health Service (IHS), 425
Indian Humor, 466
Indian New Deal, 117–20
Indian Peace Commission, 547
Indian Removal Act of 1830, 97, 363, 539, 605
corruption and, 325–26
Miami Nation and, 177–79
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 (IRA), 119–20, 154, 248, 290–91, 375, 388
Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, 142
Indian Shaker Church, 264–65
Indians in Unexpected Places, 248, 576
Indians of All Tribes, 135
Indian Subjects: Hemispheric Perspectives on the History of Indigenous Education, 408
“Indians Watching Indians on TV,” 578–79
Indian Territory and Oklahoma, 359–60
Five Tribes removal from, 363–66
pre-Columbian and early historical period, 360–63
reconstruction and allotment, 371–75
removal of other tribes from, 366–68
US Civil War in, 368–71
in the 21st century, 375–76
Indian Trade and Intercourse Act of 1790, 352, 355–56, 544, 549
Indigenous Arts Action Alliance (IA3), 469
Indigenous Intellectuals, 524
industrial training schools, 105, 186–87, 354, 456–57, 525, 576–77
Infinity of Nations, An, 175
influenza. See disease
Inouye, Daniel, 164
In Re: Blackbird, 181
Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA), 463–64
intellectual history, Native, 513–15
activism, advocacy, and engagement in, 518–22
intellectual trade routes in, 515–18, 529–32
Native networks of challenge and exchange in, 522–25
sovereignty and self-determination in, 528–29
US citizenship and Indian intellectuals in, 525–28
intellectual property rights, 162
intermarriage between Natives and Europeans, 68, 176–77, 186, 258, 305, 321, 323, 485
internal colonization, 441
Internet, the, 157–58, 163, 165
digital sovereignty and, 584–85
interpreters, 541
“ ‘In the City of Blinding Lights’: Indigeneity, Cultural Studies and the Errants of Colonial Nostalgia,” 583
Inupiat, 301–2
Iroquoia
Covenant Chain and, 351
diplomacy in, 207–10
in the era of reservations, 210–12
geography, 199–201
Great Law of Peace, 516–17
groups, 199
intellectual history, 517–18
study of, 200, 202, 207–8, 481–82
today, 212–13
warfare in, 203–7
William Penn and, 346–47
Iroquois Confederacy, 48–49, 50, 199–201, 207
Atlantic Northeast and, 337–39
conscription protests, 121
establishment, 207–10
land lost by, 85
trade, 52
Iroquois League, 200–201, 211
origins of, 201–3
Irwin, Lee, 446
(p. 628) Jackson, Andrew, 85, 96, 178, 325–26, 369, 539, 545, 606–7
Jackson, Zig (Mandan/Hidatsa/Arikara), 467
Jacobson, Oscar, 453, 458
Jahner, Elaine A., 250
James, Frank (Wampanoag), 355
Jay Treaty of 1794, 528
Jefferson, Thomas, 84, 85–86, 479–80, 544, 603–4, 608
Jeffrey, Julie Roy, 259
Jemison, Peter (Seneca), 518
Jennings, Francis, 209, 420
Jennings, Jesse D., 391
Jerome Commission, 548
Jesuits, French, 204–6, 600–602. See also Catholic Church
John, Alan, 309
Johnson, Edward, 392
Johnson, Lyndon, 4, 133
Johnson, Pauline (Mohawk), 521
Johnson, William, 83, 209–10, 541, 542
Johnson, Yvonne, 249
Johnson v. McIntosh, 545
Johnston, John, 177
Johnston, Susan, 177
Jojola, Ted (Isleta Pueblo), 577–78
Jones, Anna (Ojibwe). See Naynaabeak (Ojibwe)
Jones, David S., 321
Jones, Dennis, 160
Jones, Dorothy, 306, 540
Jones, George, 577
Jones, Max (Ojibwe), 397–402
Jones, W. A., 416, 420
Jorgensen, Joseph, 256
Josephy, Alvin, Jr., 254
Journal of American History, 247
Judd, Steven Paul (Kiowa/Choctaw), 585
Justice, Daniel Heath (Cherokee), 523
Kahlo, Frida, 468
Kalifornsky, Peter (Dena’ina), 530
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, 100
Karp, Ivan, 478
Kasulis, Thomas, 434, 438, 439
Kauffman, Claudia (Nez Perce), 151
Kaw, 367
Kay, Jeanne, 609n5
Kearny, Stephen Watts, 228
Keeler, W. W. (Cherokee), 375
Kellogg, Laura (Oneida), 524–25
Kelly, Isabel, 391
Kelm, Mary-Ellen, 265
Kelsey, C. E., 289
Kelton, Paul, 321, 423–24
Ke-ma-ha: The Omaha Stories of Francis La Flesche, 250
Kennebec Abenakis, 341, 344
Kennedy, John F., 111, 464
Kennewick Man, 255
Kenseth, Joy, 477
Kerber, Jordan, 25
Kickapoos, 123
Kicking Bear, Frank (Miniconjou), 453
Kieft, William, 342
Kieft’s War, 342
Killing the Indian Maiden, 575
Killoren, John, 259
Kilpatrick, Jacquelyn, 575
Kimball, Yeffe, 462
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 133–34
King, Stephen, 571
King George’s War, 345
King Philip’s War, 343–44, 345
kin networks, 176–77, 240, 381–82
Kino, Eusibio Francisco, 225
kinship systems, 26–27
Kiowa-Apaches, 81–82
Kiowa Humanity and the Invasion of the State, 248
Kiowas, 67, 81, 235, 237, 248, 368
American expansion and, 241–44
Dawes Act and, 112
Kirkland, Samuel, 210
Klamath, 158
Klopotek, Brian, 408
Kloss, Karlie, 573
Kluger, Richard, 262
Knack, Martha C., 388, 391
Knox, Gus (Brule), 453
Knox, Henry, 543
Krech, Shepard, III, 32, 555
Kroeber, Alfred, 23, 275, 277, 290, 416–17
Krouse, Susan, 187
Ku Klux Klan, 327
Kunuk, Zacharias, 582
(p. 629) labor and gender. See women, Native
LaCourse, Richard, 155
LaDonna Harris: A Comanche Life, 249
LaDuke, Winona, 150, 515
La Flesche, Francis (Omaha), 250, 519, 526
La Flesche, Susette (Omaha), 514, 526, 527
LaFrance, Ron (Mohawk), 518
LaGrand, James, 190–91, 561
Lakota Myth, 250
Lakotas, 82, 248
American expansion and, 241–44
First Sioux War, 100
horses, trade, and disease among, 238–41
violence against, 139–41
Lakota Winter Counts at the Smithsonian, 249
Lakota Woman, 249
Lalemant, Jérôme, 595, 600
Lamont, Lawrence, 141
Lancaster Treaty of 1744, 208
Land Ordinance of 1795, 603
Landrum, Cynthia, 574
Langdon, Steven J., 301
Lankford, George, 34
LaRoche, Paul, 160
La Salle, Robert de, 362
Last of the Mohicans, The, 519
Lasuén, Fermín, 282
Latinos, 4
political collaboration with Native Americans, 133–34
Latrobe, Charles, 539
Lawrence, Bonita, 564
League of the Ho-dé-no-sau-nee or Iroquois, 200, 481–82
Leavitt, Mike, 390
Leclerc, Georges-Louis, 479
Lee, John D., 385
Lego, Raymond (Pit River), 292
Lekson, Steve, 33–34
Le Mercier, François, 203
Leschi (Nisqually), 262–63
Lewis, Meriwether. See Lewis and Clark expedition
Lewis and Clark expedition, 98, 239, 257, 391, 480, 546, 603
Liberty, Margot, 513–14
Life among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims, 521
Life and Traditions of the Red Man, The, 354
life expectancy, 425
Lightfoot, Kent, 18
Liljeblad, Sven, 391
Lincoln, Abraham, 184
Linderman, Frank, 249
LinkedIn, 157
Lippard, Lucy, 465
Lipsitz, George, 573
Little Crow (Dakota), 183–84
Little Feather, Sasheen, 141
Locke, John, 593
Loloma, Charles (Hopi), 463
Loloma, Otellie (Hopi), 463
Lomatewama, Ramson, 223
Lone Wolf (Kiowa), 112
Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, 112, 116, 548
Longfish, George (Seneca/Tuscarora), 461, 468
Long Walk, 229
Lookaround, Angus (Menominee), 577
Lord, Erica (Inupiaq/Athabaskan), 466
Loren, Diana DiPaolo, 18
Louisiana Purchase of 1803, 79, 359, 544
Lowery, Malinda Maynor (Lumbee), 328
Lowie, Robert H., 391
Lucas, Phil (Choctaw), 581
Lugo, Leonicio (Cahuilla), 290
Lummis, Charles Fletcher, 485
Luna, James (Luiseño), 466, 469
Lydia, or Filial Piety, 209
Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Association, 144
Lyons, Oren (Onondaga), 163, 517–18, 572
Mabel McKay: Weaving the Dream, 445
Mack, Corbett (Paiute), 387
Madison, James, 359
Madonna Swan: A Lakota Woman’s Story, 249
Madsen, Brigham D., 392
Maine Indian Land Claims case, 443
malaria. See disease
Mandans, 66, 82
Manifestations: New Native Arts Criticism, 461, 469
manifest destiny, 241–43, 247
(p. 630) Mankiller, Wilma (Cherokee), 328, 580
Mapping the Mississippian Shatter Zone, 24
Marmon, Lee (Laguna), 467
marriage, 240, 258
intermarriage between Natives and Europeans, 68, 176–77, 186, 258, 305, 321, 323, 485
Mars Attacks!, 583
Marshall, John, 527
Martin, Calvin, 438–40
Martin, Lee-Ann, 468
Martínez, David (Gila River Pima), 514–15, 518, 531
Martinez, Maria (San Ildefonso), 457
Marubbio, M. Elise, 575
Marx, Karl, 436
Masayesva, Victor (Hopi), 145–46, 466, 581
Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center, 487
Mashpees, 86
Massachusetts Bay Colony, 594, 602
Massasoit (Wampanoag), 341
Material Christianity, 444
Mathews, John Joseph (Osage), 63–64, 250, 513–14
matrilineal family structure, 26, 322–23, 325
Mattaponis, 86
Maulson, Tom, 161
Maximilian, Alexander Philip, 416
Mayans, 516, 531
Mayflower, 341, 355
McAdam, Sylvia, 163
McCoy, Isaac, 96
McCullers, Carson, 571
McCulley, Johnston, 277
McCulloch, Ben, 369
McDaniel, Santiago, 288–89
McDannell, Colleen, 444
McGarry, Edward, 385
McGillivray, Alexander (Creek), 84, 85, 323
McKee, Redick, 287
McKinney, Whitney, 392
McLean, John, 326
McLean, Sheelah, 163
McMaster, Gerald (Cree), 468
McPherson, Robert S., 392
Means, Russell (Lakota), 138, 140
Means, Walter (Lakota), 133
Medicine, Beatrice (Standing Rock Sioux), 248, 405–6
Medicine Crow, Joseph (Crow), 250
Medicine Mounds, 237
Menchú, Rigoberta, 530
Menominee (Potawatomi), 96
Menominees, 118, 152, 158
removal from the Great Lakes region, 178–79
termination and restoration, 188–90
Meriam Report, 118–19
Merkur, Daniel, 448
Merrell, James, 541, 598, 599
Merriam Report, 375
Metacom (Wampanoag), 70, 71
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 459
Mexican-American War, 94, 97–100, 227
Mexico, 414
Franciscan priests in, 282
Mexican-American War, 94, 97–100
Native intellectuals of, 531
settlement in New Mexico, 68–69
silver mines, 383
Meyer, Melissa, 185
Meyerhoff, Barbara, 440
Miamis, 64
removal from the Great Lakes region, 177–79
Miantonomi (Pequot), 342
Michaels, Patricia (Taos Pueblo), 585
Michigan Territory, 605–7
Middle Five, The, 519
Middle Ground, The, 176
Mi’kmaqs, 340
military, US
Army Corps of Engineers, 266
bombings of Tlingit villages, 307–8
Native Americans in, 117, 120–21, 124n11, 164, 187–88, 229, 355
US Civil War in Indian Territory and, 368–71
Mille Lacs v. Minnesota, 182, 192–93
Miller, Bill, 157
Miller, Christopher, 259
Miller, R. Gary (Mohawk), 489–90
Miller, Wick, 391
Mills, Antonia, 448
Mills, Billy (Lakota), 129–31, 146
mining
silver, 383, 385
missionaries, Christian. See Christianity
Mission Indian Federation (MIF), 290, 292, 294
missions, California, 281–85
Mississippi shatter zone, 42
Missourias, 367
Mithlo, Nancy Marie (Chiricahua Apache), 455, 469
Mixed Blessings, 582–83
Modern by Tradition, 457
modern day Native America. See also twentieth century America, 1890–1960
in Alaska, 311–12
art in, 465–68
in the Atlantic Northeast, 355–56
election of George W. Bush and, 149–50
enduring problems and conundrums for, 160–65
government policy making and, 151–53
improving quality of tribal life, 155–58
Indian Territory and Oklahoma, 375–76
Iroquoia, 212–13
legacy of termination and relocation programs for, 158–60
in the Pacific Northwest, 268–69
in the Southwest, 229–30
treaties and, 548–49
tribal government, 153–55
urbanization and, 556–58
women of, 150–51
modernism, American Indian, 456–57, 458–59
Modocs, 368
Mohawk, John (Seneca), 517–18
Mohawk Institute, 488
Mohawks, 70
Covenant Chain treaty, 52, 71, 208, 344–45
Iroquoia and, 205–6
Mohicans, 48–49
Christianity and American agricultural practices adopted by, 85
Covenant Chain treaty, 344–45, 351
revivalism among, 348
Molina, Felipe, 443
Momaday, N. Scott (Kiowa), 67, 136–37, 235, 237, 250
Monkman, Ken (Cree), 466, 470
Montejo, Victor, 531
Montezuma, Carlos (Yavapai), 482, 523, 524, 525, 527
Montoya, Gerónima Cruz (San Juan), 457
Moor’s School, 351
Morales, Eddie (Comanche), 584
Moravians, 348–49
Morgan, Lewis Henry, 200, 202, 207–8, 481–82, 483
Mormon Church, 379, 383, 384–86, 387, 391, 449
Morongo Casino and Resort, 173, 275, 293
Morrison, George (Chippewa), 458
Morrison, Kenneth, 435–36, 438–40, 443
Mosay, Midewin Archy (Ojibwe), 163
Most Serene Republics, 469
motion pictures. See television and film industry
Mourning Dove (Salish), 521
Murphy, Tim, 436–38
Murrin, John, 413
Museum of American Indian, 485
Museum of Modern Art (MOMA), 455–56, 460
Museum of the American Indian, 463
museums. See also specific museums
American Indians and the problem of, 475–77
beginnings of anthropological, 481–82
contemporary Native cultural centers, 488–92
in the early United States, 479–81
golden age of, 482–85
history of ethnographic collecting by, 477–78
Indian gaming and, 487–88
shift from “tribal museums” to cultural centers, 485–87
music, traditional Native, 576–77
Mustache, Pipe (Ojibwe), 163
Nader, Ralph, 150
Nairne, Thomas, 57
Nakai, R. Carlos (Navajo), 157
Nanook of the North, 582
Nanyehi (Nancy Ward), 520
Napoleon, 359, 363
Naranjo, Lewis (Pueblo), 120
Naranjo, Tessie (Santa Clara), 218, 229
Narragansetts, 340–44
Natchez, 64
(p. 632) National Congress of American Indians (NCAI), 4, 122–23, 131, 150, 155
National Indian Gaming Association (NIGA), 155, 487
National Indian Youth Council (NIYC), 131–32, 267, 529, 557
nationalism, 120–23, 529
National Labor Relations Board, 160–61
National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI), 34, 458, 469, 490–91
Native Alaskan Olympics, 157
Native American and Indigenous Studies Association (NAISA), 531
Native American Church, 248
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, 144, 162, 484
Native American Languages Act, 145
Native American Legal Services Group, 443
Native American Music Awards, 158
Native Americans. See also government, tribal
“Americanization” of, 112–13, 264, 402–3, 457
art (See art, Native)
artists and performers (See artists and performers, Native American)
athletes, 129–31, 146
civil rights movement and, 4
coexistence with colonists in the East, 1760–1790, 83–86
diplomats, 84
diseases brought by Europeans to, 45, 57–58
education programs for, 105, 117, 122, 186–87, 245
end of the American frontier and, 111
expansion through North America, 62–64
fishing rights, 181–82, 265–66
as global producers and consumers in the colonial period, 59–61
importance of horses to, 66–68, 238–41
intellectual history (See intellectual history, Native)
intermarriage with Europeans, 68, 176–77, 186, 258, 305, 321, 323, 485
legacy in world history, 591–608
lost land, 1784–1809, 84–86
migration due to European invasion, 52–53, 263, 344, 352, 558–60
as one of the lost tribes of Israel, 609n3
politics (See politics and activism)
population (See demography)
poverty among, 118–19, 122–23, 133, 186, 375
precontact, 17–35
removal by the American government, 94–97, 105–6, 177–79
renaissance, 1960–2000, 129–46
reservations (See reservations)
rights organizations, 117
self-determination (See self-determination, Indian)
sovereignty (See sovereignty)
terms used for, 470n1
in the US military, 117, 120–21, 124n11, 164, 187–88, 229, 355
warfare (See warfare and violence)
women (See women, Native)
Native American Transracial Adoptees Tell Their Stories, 160
Native Get Out the Vote (GOTV), 150
Native Moderns, 458
Native North American Art, 456
Native People of Alaska, The, 301
Native Seattle, 260
Nature’s Metropolis, 554, 558
Navajos, 66, 118, 227–29
economic viability in the 20th century, 118
San Francisco Peaks, 443
Navajo Talking Picture, 581
Nayea, Star, 160
Naynaabeak (Ojibwe), 409
fishing and lifestyle of, 397–403
Neihardt, John, 246–47, 249
Nelson, Richard K., 440
Nelson Act of 1889, 185
Netherlands, the
early expeditions from, 46, 48–49, 593
Iroquoia and, 204–6
perspective on North American “discovery,” 593
settlement of the Atlantic Northeast, 340–44
New, Lloyd Kiva (Cherokee), 137, 463, 464
New Deal, 2
Newell, Dianne, 266
New France, 596–97, 600–602, 610n14
Newhouse, Seth, 523–24
(p. 633) New Indian History, 2–6, 8
new knowledge and, 6–10
New Mexico, 217–19, 227. See also Southwest region
Newson, Linda, 422
New World, North America as the, 591–608
capitalism and, 611n22
colonialism guiding settlers in, 492n1, 602–4
concept of Atlantic World and, 599–600, 611n22
English versus French approach to colonization of, 593–98
European “discovery” of, 592–95
French-Native alliances and, 596–97, 600–602
removal policies (See removal of Native Americans)
New York Times, 141, 421
Nez, Chester (Navajo), 164
Nez Perce Indians and the Opening of the Northwest, The, 254
Nez Perces, 253, 254, 367–68
reservation, 261, 263–64
Nichols, John, 399
Nicolar, Joseph, 354, 519, 522
Nine Years’ War, 345
Niro, Shelley, 468, 469
Nisqually, 262–63, 267
Nixon, Richard, 136, 375, 464
Nordmark, Olle, 458
North American Archaeology, 18
North American Indians in the Great War, 187
North American Review, 605
“Northern Shoshoni, The,” 391
Northrup, Jim (Anishinaabe), 188
North West Company, 175
Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission, 268
Northwest Ordinance of 1787, 543–44, 603
Northwest region. See Pacific Northwest region
Norton, John (Cherokee), 324, 519
nostalgia, imperialist, 441
Notes on the State of Virginia, 479
Oakes, Richard (Mohawk), 135
Obama, Barack, 130, 154, 163, 530, 583
Obomsawn, Alanis (Abenaki), 581
O’Brien, Jean (Ojibwe), 527
Occum, Samson (Mohegan), 351, 514, 515, 516, 518
O’Connor, John, 575
Office of Economic Opportunity, 4, 133
Ogden, Peter Skene, 383, 391
Oglala Sioux Civil Rights Organization (OSCRO), 140
“Ojibwa Ontology,” 439
Ojibwes, 64
boarding schools and, 186–87
Feast of the Dead ceremony, 175
fishing rights, 181–82, 397–402
gender roles among, 403–4
military veterans, 187–88
self-determination by, 152–53
spirituality, 439
treaties with other tribes, 180–81
writers, 188
O’Keeffe, Georgia, 217
Oklahoma’s Poor Rich Indians: An Orgy of Graft and Exploitation of the Five Civilized Tribes, Legalized Robbery, 521
Old Indian Legends, 250, 520
Old World diseases, 45
Oliphant v. Suquamish, 144
Oliver, Lloyd (Navajo), 164
Olympic Games, 1964, 129–30
Omaha reservation, 526–27
Oñate, Juan de, 361
Oneidas, 210–11
museum, 486
Oneida v. Wisconsin, 143
One Nation, 580
Onondagas, 210–11
Oo’dhams, 224–27
Opothleyahola (Creek), 370
Oregon Donation Land Act of 1850, 260
Oregon Trail, 94, 98, 99, 259. See also Pacific Northwest region
Organic Act of 1884, 309
Ornelas, Sierra (Diné), 585
Ortiz, Simon (Acoma), 137, 250, 531
Osage: An Ethnohistorical Study of Hegemony on the Prairie-Plains, The, 361
(p. 634) Osages, 59, 248, 361–63, 367
expansion into homelands of neighboring Indians, 63–64
museum, 485–86
trade with the French, 59–60
women’s work among, 67
Osawa, Sandra Sunrising (Makah), 145, 581
Oshkosh, Chief (Monominee), 179
Otoes, 367
Ottawas, 64
Owasco people, 201–2
Oxford Handbook of North American Archaeology, The, 18
Ozhaquscodaywayquay (Ojibwe), 177
Pablo Tac, (Luiseño), 282–83, 469
Pacific Coast, 79–81, 86, 99–100. See also California
treaty making in the West and, 546–47
Pacific Historical Review, 5
Pacific Northwest region, 253–54. See also Alaska
Native innovation and insistence in, 264–69
Native resistance and persistence in, 261–64
Northwest Ordinance of 1787, 543–44
pre-Columbian history, 255–57
setting boundaries and negotiating identities in, 258–61
treaty making, 546–47
Pacific Railroad Act, 102–3
Padilla, Juan de, 361–62
Paiutes
culture, 382–85
life in colonized world, 386–88
sovereignty, 388–90
women, 521–22
Palmer, Joel, 260–61, 262, 546–47
Pamunkeys, 86
Parading Through History, 248
Parilla, Diego Ortiz, 362
Park, Willard, 391
Parker, Arthur C. (Seneca), 117, 517, 523–24, 528
Parker, Ely S. (Seneca), 547
Parker, Robert Dale, 177
Parks, Douglas R., 250
Parmenter, Jon, 206
particularism, historical, 21
patrilineal family structure, 26–27
Pauketat, Timothy, 18, 22, 30
on religious beliefs of precontact societies, 33
Payamataha (Chickasaw), 71
Peabody Museum of Anthropology, 34, 483
Peace, Power and Righteousness, 517
Peace Came in the Form of a Woman, 248
Peach War, 342
Peale, Charles Willson, 480–81, 483
Pearce, Roy Harvey, 574
Pelly, Wilma (Salteaux Ojibwe), 582
Pena, Nicolas (Cupeño), 290
Penn, William, 346–47, 539–40
Pequots, 341–42
modern day, 356, 487–88
Perdue, Theda, 325
performance art, 466
Peru, 414
Petalesharo (Pawnee), 468
Peters, Evelyn J., 564
Peters, Scott Henry (Ojibwe), 190
Peters, Virginia Bergman, 248
Peterson, Helen (Sioux), 123
Peterson, Jacqueline, 259
Philadelphia Museum, 480–81, 483
Philippines, the, 116–17
Phillips, George Harwood, 277
Phillips, Ruth, 456
photography, 467–68
Piatote, Beth H. (Nez Perce), 408, 520, 521
Picasso, Pablo, 453
Pierce, Franklin, 288
Piestewa, Lori (Hopi), 164
Pike, Albert, 102, 369–70
Pine Ridge reservation, 121, 129, 139, 140
Pine Ridge Village, 140–41
Pistonatubbee, Isaac (Choctaw), 315, 316–17, 322, 328
Pitchlynn, Peter (Choctaw), 326
Pizarro, Francisco, 414, 424
Plains, the. See Great Plains region
playoff strategy, 64
Plenty Coups: Chief of the Crows, 249
Plutarch of Athens, 434
Plymouth colony, 341, 414
(p. 635) Pocahontas, 320
poets, Native, 531
Point Four program, 122–23
Poitras, Edward (Métis), 469
politics and activism. See also government, tribal
Alcatraz Island occupation, 132–33, 135–36, 528
American Indian Movement (AIM), 134–35
American Indian sixties and, 131–33
in the Atlantic Northeast region, 353, 354–55
Cold War-era, 122–23
election of George W. Bush and, 149–50
with intellectual advocacy and engagement, 518–22
intellectual property and, 162
Iroquoia, 207–10
Native women in, 150–51, 520–22
organization in precontact era, 28–30
in the Pacific Northwest, 261–64, 267–68
protests and, 132–36
radicalism in, 134–35
Red Power movement, 123, 267, 464, 486, 514, 557
Trail of Broken Treaties Caravan, 137–39
Trail of Broken Treaties march of 1972, 137–39, 191, 529, 548
Twenty Points proposal, 138, 514
US elections and, 149–50
US government reaction to, 136–37
Wounded Knee occupation of 1973, 140–41, 248
Politics of Spirit: Phenomenology, Genealogy, Religion, The, 436
Pomos, 280, 445, 449
Poncas, 367
Poor People’s Campaign, 133–34
Popol Vuh, 516, 518, 529, 530, 531
popular culture, 571–74
future of Native Americans and, 583–85
Native distortions and disavowels in, 574–75
Native filmmakers and, 581–83
Native negotiations and resistance, 575–79
sovereignties and subversions of Native Americans, 579–83
stereotypes of Native Americans, 572, 574–75
television and film industry, 145–46, 575–79, 580
population, Native. See demography
Porter, Tom (Mohawk), 163, 517
Posey, Alexander (Muskogee), 514
postprocessual archaeologies, 21–22
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 188
Potawatomies, 178, 539
Potawatomi Trail of Death, 178
potlatch, 29
poverty, 118–19, 122–23, 133, 375
boarding schools and, 186
Powell, John Wesley, 391
Powell, Randsom Judd, 185–86
Powers Which We Do Not Know, 448
Powhatan, Chief, 320
Powless, Irving, Jr. (Onandaga), 518
powwow culture, 248
Pratt, Richard Henry, 105, 354, 456–57
pre-Columbian Native societies
in Alaska, 301–3
archaeological records and, 17–22
Atlantic Northeast, 337–39
complexity and diversity in precontact North America and, 22–24
demography, 415–17
economies, 497–99
environments and religion, 32–34
Indian Territory and Oklahoma, 360–63
indigenous urbanites in, 555–56
materials and collections on, 34–35
Native American identities in, 24–25
Pacific Northwest, 255–57
political organization in, 28–30
social organization in, 26–28
in the South, 317–19
trade and exchange among, 30–32
prehistoric archaeology, 18
Presidential Citizens Medal, 130
Pretty Shield (Crow), 67–68, 104
Pretty Shield: Medicine Woman of the Crows, 249
Preucel, Robert, 22
Price, Vincent, 453
Processual and Postprocessual Archaeologies: Multiple Ways of Knowing the Past, 22
processualism, historical, 22
processual paradigm, 21
Proclamation of 1763, 72
(p. 636) Project Chariot, 308–9
Proper Economic Resource Management (PERM), 182
Protect Americans’ Rights and Resources (PARR), 182
protests, Native Americans. See politics and activism
puberty rites, 226
Pueblos, 217–19. See also Southwest region
Revolt of 1680, 66, 221
small-scale colonial settlements in New Mexico and, 68–70
Pumshire, John, 519
Purser, Heather (Suquamish), 154
Putnam, Frederic Ward, 483
Putting a Song on Top of It: Expression and Identity on the San Carlos Apache Reservation, 577
Quantrill, William, 102
Quapaws, 58–59, 59–60, 361
enslaved by the Chickasaws, 62
Quarterly Journal, 527
Queen Anne’s War, 345
Quick-to-See Smith, Jaune (Flathead), 137, 465, 466, 468
Rader, Dean, 580
radicalism, 134–35
Raheja, Michelle, 576, 582
Raibmon, Paige, 263, 407
railroads, 102–3
Raleigh, Walter, 44, 45
Rampart Dam, Alaska, 309
Ramsey, Alexander, 180–81
Rancheria Termination Act, 292
ranchos, California, 284–85
Rand, Jacki Thompson (Choctaw), 248
Ray, Verne, 257
Reagan, Ronald, 487
Rebirth of the Blackfeet Nation, 1912–1954, 248
Red Cloud (Lakota), 103–4, 547
Redford, Robert, 146
Red Jacket (Seneca), 84, 85
Red Lake reservation, 397–98, 403
Red Pole (Shawnee), 480
Red Power movement, 123, 267, 464, 486, 514, 557
Reece, Skeen (Métis/Cree/Tsimshian/Gitksan), 466
Rehnquist, William, 144
Reilly, F. Kent, 34
reincarnation, 448
[Re]Inventing the Wheel: Advancing the Dialogue on Contemporary American Indian Art, 455
relatedness and spirituality, 444–49
religion. See Christianity; spirituality
removal of Native Americans, 94–97, 105–6, 605–8
from the Great Lakes region, 177–79
from Indian Territory and Oklahoma, 363–66
from the South, 325–27
Renaissance, Indian (1960–2000), 129–31
activism growth and, 133–36
American Indian sixties and, 131–33
concrete change during, 142–43
escalation of dramatic actions during the 1970s, 137–41
gaming legalization and, 143–44
innovation in the arts and popular culture during, 145–46
Supreme Court decisions during, 144
Trail of Broken Treaties Caravan, 137–39
US government reaction to Native activism, 136–37
“Representing Indians: American Indian Performance and Activism in Urban America,” 576
Republican Party, 101, 102–3, 149
Requiem for a People, 254
Reservation Reelism, 576
reservations, 113, 114–15
banks and businesses on, 118
California, 288
Great Basin, 387–88, 390
Great Plains region, 244–46
Iroquoia and, 210–12
legacy of termination and relocation programs, 158–60
Native intellectual debate over, 524
Pacific Northwest region, 260–61, 263
poverty on, 122–23
quality of life and modern, 156–58
(p. 637) tribal economies and, 507–8
US Army and, 121
White Earth, 184–86
restoration, Menominee Nation, 189–90
Revolving Credit Fund (RCF), 119
Rice, John (San Carlos Apache), 119
Richardville, Jean Baptiste de, 179
Richter, Daniel K., 201, 205
Rickard, Jolen (Tuscarora), 580
Ridge, John (Cherokee), 365, 545–46
Ridge, Major (Cherokee), 365
Riel, Louis, 244
Rifkin, Mark, 408
Robertson, Robbie, 137
Robinson, Joyce Henri, 478
Rockefeller Foundation, 463
Rollings, Willard H., 361
Rollins, Peter, 575
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 460
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 375, 459
Roosevelt, Theodore, 105, 116–17, 574
Rose, Wendy (Hopi/Miwok), 137
Rosenthal, Nicolas, 576
Rosier, Paul C., 248
Ross, Alexander, 391
Ross, John (Cherokee), 102, 366, 369–70, 514
Roughing It, 379
Round House, The, 11–12, 408
Ruby, Robert, 254, 265
Running Brave, 130
Rushing, Jackson, 457, 459
Russell, Osborne, 391
Russian-American Company, 305
Russian era in Alaska, 303–5
Rzeczkowski, Frank, 248
Sagwitch (Shoshone), 386
Sainte-Marie, Buffy (Cree), 137
same-sex marriage, 154
Samuels, David, 577
Sanchez, Joseph (Taos), 460–61
San Diego Museum of Man, 466
San Francisco Golden Gate International Exposition, 460
San Francisco Peaks, 443
Sanpitch (Shoshone), 386
Santa Fe, New Mexico, 217
Santa Fe Indian School, 457, 463
Sarris, Greg, 445
Saturday Night Live, 580
Saul, John (Yanktonai), 453
Savagism and Civilization: A Study of the Indian and the American Mind, 574
Savannah River Chiefdoms, 29
Scheiber, Laura, 25
Schein, Anna, 518
Schermerhorn, John F., 539, 545–46
Scholder, Fritz (Luiseño), 137, 463
Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, 177, 606–7
Schoolcraft, Jane Johnston, 177
Schwartz, E. A., 262
Scott, Ron E. (Métis Nation of Alberta), 582
Searchers, The, 578
Second World War, 120–21, 229, 248, 355
evacuations in Alaska during, 306
Great Lakes region and, 188
segregation, 327
self-determination, Indian, 4, 85, 122, 136–37, 152–53, 275, 327–28
adoption and, 166–67n21
intellectual activism, advocacy, and engagement in, 518–19, 522–23
intellectuals and, 528–29
Native art and, 461–62
Native intellectual history and, 514–15
popular culture and, 579–80
Seminoles, 143
removal of, 366
Seminole v. Butterworth, 143
Seneca-Cayugas, 367–68
Seneca-Iroquois National Museum, 486
Senecas, 210–12
September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, 164
Sermon Preached at the Execution of Moses Paul, an Indian, A, 514
Serra, Junípero, 282
settlements, European. See also urbanization
large-scale, 1680–1763, 70
settler colonialism and, 492n1, 602–4
small-scale, 1680-1763, 68–70
Seven Cities of Cíbola, 221, 361
Seven Visions of Bull Lodge, The, 445–46
(p. 638) Seven Years’ War, 61, 71–72, 83, 176, 209, 349–51, 597, 609–10n9
Shadows of the Indian: Stereotypes in American Culture, 574
Shakers, 264–65
Shakes, Chief of Wrangell, 305
Shannon, Timothy, 542
Shared Visions, 458–59
“Sharing the Land: A Study in American Indian Territoriality,” 609n5
shatter zones, 24, 41–45, 321
European trade and, 48, 51, 52, 53
Shavano (Ute), 467–68
Shaw, Jim (Delaware), 98
Shawnees, 84–85, 367–68
removal of, 94, 95–96
Shebbeare, John, 209
Sherman, Cindy, 467
Sherman, William T., 368
Shimkin, Demitri, 391
Shiveley, JoEllen, 578
Shoshone-Bannock, 118, 122, 386
sovereignty, 388–90
Shoshones, 379, 382–86
sovereignty, 388
Shoshoni Frontier and the Bear River Massacre, The, 392
Shuck-Hall, Sheri M., 321
Sibley, Henry, 183–84
Silko, Leslie Marmon (Laguna), 137
Silliman, Stephen, 25
silver mining, 383, 385
Simon, Rita J., 160
Simpson, Rose (Santa Clara), 469–70
Simpsons, The, 580
Singer, Beverly (Santa Clara/Diné), 146, 580–81
Sioux, 82, 103–4, 129
First Sioux War, 100
Ghost Dance religion, 112
Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community, 192–93
Wounded Knee massacre, 93, 106, 112, 140, 191
Wounded Knee occupation of 1973, 140–41
sitcom sovereignty, 582–83
Sitting Bull (Lakota), 93, 243
Six Nations, 199–200, 208, 209–10. See also Iroquoia
American Revolution and, 210
cultural centers, 488–89
Six Nations Indian Museum, 486
Sixth Grandfather, The, 249
Sketches of the History of the Six Nations, 519
Skins, 578–79
Skull Valley Goshute reservation, 390
Skye, Harriet (Standing Rock Sioux), 581
slave trade
by Europeans, 49–50, 51–52
by Native Americans, 61–62, 604
Slaviero, Michela Elisa Craveri, 516
Sleeper-Smith, Susan, 176–77
slippage, 435–40
Sloan, Thomas, 523, 527
Slobodin, Richard, 448
Slocum, John (Squaxin), 264–65
Slotkin, Richard, 574
smallpox. See disease
“Smiling Indians,” 584
Smith, Anne M., 391
Smith, Don Morse (Cherokee), 462
Smith, F. Todd, 361
Smith, John, 320, 414
Smith, Paul Chaat (Comanche), 466
Smith, Robert, 490
Smithsonian Institution, 34, 391, 458, 469, 483
Smoak, Gregory, 392
Smoke Signals, 146, 253, 269, 579, 581, 584
Snodgrass, Jeanne, 454
“socialism, corporate,” 310–11
social media, 157–58, 163, 165, 573
social organization in precontact societies, 26–28
Society of American Indians (SAI), 117, 522–25, 527–28
Sohappy, David, Sr. (Yakama), 267
Song from the Earth, 456
Sousea, Jeff, 467
South, the
geography of, 315–17
matrilineal kinship in, 322–23
Native self-determination in, 327–28
precontact societies of, 317–19
segregation in, 327
Southeastern Ceremonial Complex: Artifacts and Analysis, The, 360
(p. 639) Southwestern Indian Art Project (SWIAP), 463
Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, 485
Southwest region, 217–20
geography of, 217–20
Hohokam, Oo’dham, and Western Apaches, 224–27
major museums and collections, 230
Native art and, 463
Navajos, 66, 118, 227–29
Utes, 81, 228
Zunis and Hopis of, 220–24
21st century, 229–30
Sovereign: Independent Voices, 470
sovereignty
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971 and, 311
Cherokees and, 324
digital, 584–85
economic vulnerability and, 229–30, 501–3
gaming and, 275
Great Basin Natives, 388–90
intellectual, 528–29
pop cultural, 579–83
Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community and, 192–93
sitcom, 582–83
“Sovereignty: A Line in the Sand,” 580
Spain
California missions, 281–85
colonization of Mexico and Peru, 414
colonization of the Great Basin, 382–83
colonization of the Pacific Coast, 79–81
early expeditions from, 42–45, 46
Hopis and, 224
Pueblos and New Mexico settlement of, 68–70
silver mines, 82
Western Apaches and, 225–26
Zunis and, 221
Speaking of Indians, 120
Spector, Janet, 406–7
Spence, Theresa, 163, 164
Spilde, Katherine, 580
spirituality, 433
among precontact societies, 32–34 (See also Christianity)
case studies of relatedness and, 444–49
categorical and conceptual slippage in, 435–40
defining “spirit” and, 434–35
dichotomy between spirit and nature in, 435–37
late-capitalist consumption of Indian, 440–44
reincarnation and, 448
Spiro, Oklahoma, 360–61
Spiro Ceremonial Center, The, 360
St. Clair, Arthur, 84
St. Cyr, Lillian, 576
St. Pierre, Mark, 249
Standing Bear (Ponca), 526
Standing Bear, Luther (Lakota), 525, 576
Standing Bear v. Crook, 105
Stand Watie (Cherokee), 102
Stanwix Treaty, 210
Starna, William A., 202
Starr, Arigon (Kickapoo), 577, 585
Stedman, Raymond, 574
Stefani, Gwen, 573
Steinbeck, John, 571
Stephenson, Matilda Cox, 221
stereotypes of Native Americans, 572, 574–76, 603–4
Stevens, Isaac, 260–61, 262, 547
Steward, Julian H., 379, 381, 391, 392
Stewart, Michelle, 580
Stewart, Omer C., 391
Stolen Life: The Journey of a Cree Woman, 249
Stop Treaty Abuse (STA), 182
Strickland, Rennard (Osage/Cherokee), 458–59
Stuart, John, 542
Submuloc Show/Columbus Wohs, 468
suicide, 425
Sully, Alfred, 242
Summers, Lawrence, 425
Sundance Film Festival, 146
Sundown, 250
Sutter, John, 284, 286
Swanton, John R., 19
Taensas, 62
Tamástslikt Cultural Institute, 490–91
(p. 640) Tantaquidgeon, Gladys, 354
Tapahonso, Lucy (Navajo), 531
Tax, Sol, 132
Taylor, Drew Hayden (Curve Lake Ojibwe), 582
Taylor, Joseph, 266
Taylor, Zachary, 180
Tecumseh (Shawnee), 84–85
Tekakwitha, Catherine (Mohawk), 206
television and film industry, 145–46, 575–79, 580
Native filmmakers and writers in, 146, 253, 269, 579, 581–83, 584
Teller, Edward, 309
Te-moaks, 389
Tenskwatawa (Shawnee), 84
termination, 121–22, 123, 158–59, 389, 470n3, 528. See also warfare and violence
California Indians and, 291–92
Chicago and, 190–91
Menominee Nation and, 188–90
Pacific Northwest tribes and, 266–67
terrorism, 164
Tester, John, 150
Tewanima, Louis (Hopi), 129
This Is Your Life, 453
Thompson, Mary, 264
Thornton, Russell (Cherokee), 249
Thorpe, Jim (Sac and Fox), 130–31, 162
Thrush, Coll, 260, 263
Thünen, Johann Heinrich von, 554
Tibbet, Johnathan, 290
Tiger Jumper, Betty Mae (Seminole), 328
Tillie Hardwick v. the United States, 292
Tiro, Karim, 211
Titla, Mary Kim (San Carlos Apache), 572
Tlingits, 303–4, 305, 306
villages destroyed by US military, 307–8
Tongvas, 278–80
Tonkovich, Nicole, 265
trade and exchange. See also economics
Age of Imperial Expansion and, 81–83
among precontact societies, 30–32
California Indians and, 275, 277–78
European colonization in pursuit of, 46–51
Great Basin fur, 383
Great Lakes fur, 175–77
Great Plains region, 238–41
intellectual, 515–18
Iroquoia, 203–5
Mexican-American War and, 98
Native producers and consumers in the colonial period, 59–61
north-south routes, 221
Traditional Narratives of the Arikara Indians, 250
Trahant, Mark (Shoshone Bannock), 149
Trail of Broken Treaties march of 1972, 137–39, 191, 529, 548
Trail of Tears, 97, 546
treaties and treaty making, 539–40
colonial era, 540–42
end of, 547–48
interpreters used in, 541
in modern America, 548–49
by the new American nation, 543–46
in the West, 546–47
Treaty of Canandaigua 1794: 200 Years of Treaty Relations between, 518
Treaty of Canandaigua of 1794, 518, 544
Treaty of Cession of 1867, 305–6
Treaty of Cusseta of 1832, 325
Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek of 1830, 325, 545
Treaty of Fort Atkinson of 1853, 546–47
Treaty of Fort Harmar of 1789, 544
Treaty of Fort Jackson, 95
Treaty of Fort Laramie of 1851, 546, 547, 549
Treaty of Fort Stanwix of 1768, 83, 542
Treaty of Fort Wayne of 1809, 545
Treaty of Ghent, 95
Treaty of Greenville, 84, 180
Treaty of Greenville of 1795, 544
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 98
Treaty of Hopewell of 1785-86, 543
Treaty of Lancaster of 1744, 542
Treaty of La Pointe, 181
Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek, 112, 547–48
Treaty of New Echota of 1835, 97, 326
Treaty of Paris of 1763, 83, 352, 542
Treaty of Payne's Landing of 1832, 326
Treaty of Pontotoc Creek of 1832, 325–26
Treaty of Prairie du Chien of 1825, 546
Treaty of San Lorenzo, 323
Treaty of St. Louis of 1804, 544
(p. 641) Treaty of Utrecht, 346
Treaty of Wolf River, 179
Tribal Nations Summit, 154
Tribal Secrets: Recovering American Indian Intellectual Traditions, 514
Tribble, Fred, 181
Tribble, Mike, 181
Tribe Called Red, A, 585
Trigger, Bruce, 20, 420
Troutman, John, 576
Truman, Harry S., 122
Tsinhnahjinnie, Hulleah (Seminole/Muscogee/Diné), 467
Tunicas, 62
Turner, Frederick Jackson, 1–2, 8, 10, 554
Tuscaroras, 207–8, 323
Twain, Mark, 379
twentieth century America, 1890–1960, 111–12. See also modern day Native America
American Indians’ New Deal, 1920–1940, 117–20
incorporation of Indian people and land, 1890–1920, 112–17
nationalism urbanization, and Cold War civil rights, 1940–1960, 120–23
Twenty Points proposal, 138, 514
Twitter, 165, 573
Two Moons, 243
Two-Spirit persons, 28
UCLA, 6
Umatilla, 490–91
Umine Wacipe: War and Peace Dance, 454
United Indians of All Tribes, 557
United Nations, 143
Declaration on the Rights of the Indigenous Peoples, 530, 549
International Year of the World's Indigenous People, 529–30
United Native Americans, 133
United States, the. See also First World War; Second World War; Vietnam War
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971, 310–11
American Revolution, 83–84, 176, 210, 238, 349, 352
Army Corps of Engineers, 266
Bureau of Indian Affairs, 105, 118, 132, 138, 151, 158, 263, 287
Census Bureau, 111
citizenship and Native intellectuals, 121, 525–28
Civil War, 101–4, 242, 244, 368–71
conflicts with Mormons, 384–85
Dakota War, 182–84
early museums, 479–81
economic laws effects on Indian economies, 503–6
expansion and its consequences, 1815–1890, 93–106
fishing rights regulations, 181–82, 256–66, 265–66, 308–10, 352–53, 397–402
Gadsden Purchase, 100
golden age of museums and, 483
Indian New Deal, 117–20
Indian Removal Act, 97, 177–79
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 100
Louisiana Purchase, 79, 359, 544
manifest destiny, 241–43, 247
Mexican-American War, 94, 97–100, 227
nationalism, urbanization, and Cold War civil rights, 1940–1960, 120–23
Native Americans involvement in policy making by, 151–53
Native arts and, 461–62
Ohio country land cessions by Native Americans to, 84, 94–95
plantations, 82, 96
reaction to Native activism of the 1960s, 136–37
Reconstruction period, 371–75
September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on, 164
twentieth century, 1890–1960, 111–23
urbanization of, 120–23, 160, 190–93, 553–55
War on Poverty, 4, 133
Uniting the Tribes, 248
UNITY Conference, 149
University of Arizona, 6, 463
University of California, Berkeley, 6
(p. 642) University of Illinois, 5
University of Minnesota, 6, 142
University of New Mexico, 34
University of Oklahoma, 34
University of Pennsylvania Museum, 483
University of Utah, 391
University of Washington, 6
University of Wisconsin, 5
urbanization, 120–23, 160, 553–55
colonialism and, 558–60
Great Lakes region, 190–93
Indian communities and 20th century, 556–58
new urban indigenous histories and, 561–65
pre-Columbian indigenous, 555–56
US v. Michigan, 181
US v. Washington, 268
Utah American Indian Digital Archive, 391
Utah War of 1857–58, 385
Utes, 81, 228, 384–86, 391
Vallejo, Mariano Guadalupe, 284, 285
Velarde, Pablita (Santa Clara), 457
Vibert, Elizabeth, 258
Vietnam War, 141, 188
Vigil, Kiara, 515
Vines, Richard, 419
Violence Against Women Act, 151, 162
Violence over the Land, 392
Vizcaíno, Sebastián, 282
Vizenor, Gerald (White Earth Anishinaabe), 137, 173, 579
Voigt, Lester, 181–82
Voluntary Relocation Program (VRP), 121
Wabanakis, 345–46, 349–50, 352
Wadewitz, Lissa, 266
Wagner, Sally Roesch, 520–21
Waker River reservation, 387–88
Walker, James R., 250
Walker, Scott, 150
Walker, Tillie, 134
Walker River Paiutes: A Tribal History, The, 392
Walker War, 384
Walking the Rez Road, 188
Wall, Stephen (Chippewa), 461
Walter of Mortagne, 434
Wampanoags, 70, 71, 341–44
modern day, 355–56
wampum, 338, 541
Wampum Chronicles, 517
Wapp, Josephine Myers (Comanche), 463
warfare and violence, 46–51. See also termination
American Civil War, 101–6
Atlantic Northeast region, 344–46
Cayuse War, 259–60
colonial period, 58, 61–62
Dakota War, 182–84
in the Great Plains region, 242–43
in Iroquoia, 203–7
King Philip’s War, 343–44, 345
Metacom’s War of 1675–1676, 70
Nez Perce War, 264
Pueblo Revolt of 1680, 66, 221
Seven Years’ War and, 61, 71–72, 83, 176, 209, 349–50
in the 1970s, 139–41
in the South, 62, 323
in the Southwest, 228–29
Wounded Knee massacre of 1890, 93, 106, 112, 140, 246
Yakima War of 1855–56, 262
Warner, J. J., 286
War on Poverty, 4, 133
Warpath, The, 133
Warren, William, 515, 609n3
Warrior, Clyde (Ponca), 132, 134, 515, 529, 531
Warrior, Robert (Osage), 514, 523
Wasase, 517
Washington, Booker T., 523
Washington, George, 104, 544
Waterlily, 250
Watie, Stand (Cherokee), 366
Watkins, Arthur, 189, 389
Watkins, Joe, 25
Waubojeeg (Ojibwe), 177
Waver, Jace (Cherokee), 575
Wayne, Anthony, 180
Wayne, John, 575, 578
Way to Rainy Mountains, The, 235, 237, 250
Weasel, Henry (Oglala), 453
(p. 643) Weaving New Worlds: Southeastern Cherokee Women and Their Basketry, 407
Wedel, Waldo, 19
Weesterman, Gwen, 184
Weiser, Conrad, 203, 541
Welch, James (Blackfeet), 137, 250
Wesley, Clarence (San Carlos Apache), 123
West, Benjamin, 539–40
West, Dick (Cheyenne), 458
West, Elliottt, 67, 247, 264
Western Apaches, 224–27, 228
Westos, 62
We the People, 466
We Were All Like Migrant Workers Here: Work, Community, and Memory on California’s Round Valley Reservation, 1850–1941, 407–8
Wewyoot (Tongva), 278
What This Awl Means: Feminist Archaeology at a Wahpeton Dakota Village, 406–7
Wheelock, Dennison (Oneida), 525
Wheelock, Eleazar (Oneida), 351, 519
When Did Indians Become Straight? Kinship, the History of Sexuality, and Native Sovereignty, 408
Whipple, Henry, 547
White, Bruce, 184
White, John, 416
White, Karissa, 188
White, Richard, 176, 247
White Clay People (Atsina), 445–46
White Earth reservation, 184–86
Whitehorse, Emmi (Diné), 465
White Man's Indian: Images of the American Indian from Columbus to the Present, The, 574
“White Man’s Moccasins,” 467
Whitman, Marcus, 259
Whitman, Narcissa, 259
Whitman, Richard Ray (Yuchi), 467
Whitman Massacre, 259–60
whooping cough. See disease
Who stole the tee pee?, 469
Wichita Indians and the Caddoes, The, 361
Wichitas, 361–63, 367
Wichitas and the United States, The, 361
Wickersham, James, 265
Wiebe, Rudy, 249
Wildcat, Daniel (Yuchi/Creek), 468
Wild West COW-Boys of Moo Mesa, 577
Wilkinson, Charles, 262, 266, 267, 549
Wilkinson, Ernest K., 389
Willeto, Paul (Diné), 465
William and Mary Quarterly, 247
William of Champeaux, 434
Williams, Robert (Lumbee), 579
Wilson, Gilbert L., 249
Wilson, Jack (Paiute), 387
Wilson, Nina, 163
Wilson, Pamela, 580
Wilson, Richard (Lakota), 140–41
Wilson, Woodrow, 524
Windy Boy, Jonathan (Rocky Boy), 150
Winnemucca Hopkins, Sarah (Paiute), 514, 521
“Winning of the West: The Expansion of the Western Sioux in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, The,” 247
Winthrop, John, 594
Wisdom Sits in Places, 33
Wisler, Clark, 23
Witgen, Michael, 175
Wittick, Benjamin, 467
Wolfe, Patrick, 409, 492n1
Wolfe, William Leon, 188
“Wolf Pack Auditions,” 584
women, Native, 403–9
in Apache society, 226
in the Atlantic Northeast, 347–48
in California, 279
Cherokee, 26, 322–23, 407
matrilineal family structure, 26, 322–23, 325
political power of, 150–51, 520–22
scholarly works on, 248, 249
Women of Sweetgrass, Cedar and Sage, 466
Women of the Earth Lodges, 248
Wood, Charles Erskine Scott, 264
Woodland Cultural Centre, 486, 488–89
Worcester v. Georgia, 96–97, 326
Work, John, 391
Works Progress Administration, 119–20, 445
Worl, Rosita, 307
(p. 644) Wounded Knee massacre of 1890, 93, 106, 112, 140, 246
Wounded Knee syndrome and, 464
Wounded Knee occupation of 1973, 140–41, 248
Wounded Knee Syndrome, The, 464
Wozencraft, Oliver, 287
writers, Native American. See also intellectual history, Native
Beverly Daniels Singer, 146, 580–81
Dee Brown, 5, 246–47
Ella Deloria, 120, 250
Jane Johnston Schoolcraft, 177
Jim Northrup, 188
John Joseph Mathews, 63–64, 250, 513–14
John Neihardt, 246–47, 249
N. Scott Momaday, 67, 136–37, 235, 237, 250
poetry, 531
Returning the Gift Native Writers Festival, 530
Simon Ortiz, 137, 250
Susette La Flesche, 514, 526
Vine Deloria, Jr., 5, 131, 136–37, 158, 513–14, 528
Wyeth, Nathaniel, 391
Yakima War of 1855–56, 262
Yamasees, 62
Yamasee War of 1715–18, 62, 323
Yaqui, 449
yellow fever. See disease
Yellowtail, Robert (Crow), 123, 523, 524, 527
Yellow Thunder, Raymond (Lakota), 139
Yocha Dehe band of Wintu Indians, 293
Yoemem, 443–44, 447
Yorba, Bernardo, 285
Young Bear, Ray A. (Meskwaki), 137
Young Man, Alfred (Cree), 464
YouTube, 157, 584
Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 390
Yup’ik, 302
Zepeda, Ofelia (Tohono O’odham), 531
Ziibiwing Center of Anishinabe Culture and Lifeways, 491–92
Zitkala-Ša (Yankton), 250, 515, 520, 521, 522–23
Zunis, 220–24