- The Oxford Handbook of American Indian History
- America in 1492
- European Invasions and Early Settlement, 1500–1680
- Living in a Reordered World, 1680–1763
- The Age of Imperial Expansion, 1763–1821
- US Expansion and Its Consequences, 1815–1890
- Surviving in the Twentieth Century, 1890–1960
- The Indian Renaissance, 1960–2000: Stumbling to Victory, or Anecdotes of Persistence?
- Contemporary History: Native America in the Twenty-First Century
- The Great Lakes
- The Southwest
- The Plains
- The Pacific Northwest
- The South
- The Atlantic Northeast
- Indian Territory and Oklahoma
- The Great Basin
- Gender, Sexuality, and Family History: Naynaabeak’s Fishing Net
- Population, Health, and Public Welfare
- Native American Expressive Arts
- Collectors and Museums: From Cabinets of Curiosities to Indigenous Cultural Centers
- Indians in the Marketplace
- Intellectual History
- Treaties and Treaty Making
- Urban Native Histories
- American Indians in Popular Culture
- American Indians in World History
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter explores the major historical themes embedded within the familiar narrative of American expansion framed by the end of the War of 1812 and the 1890 massacre at Wounded Knee. The chapter tracks Native responses to and the impacts of the US effort to clear the trans-Mississippi West of its Native population. It also addresses the realities of the violence that engulfed the American West during and after the Civil War, even as it describes the inter-Indian diplomatic networks, fur trade frameworks, and legislation that enabled Native people to survive the onslaught. The chapter goes beyond warriors and warfare to examine the manner in which American Indians struggled to endure legal, political, and cultural assaults conducted via missionary activity, boarding schools, and allotment.
John P. Bowes is an Associate Professor of History at Eastern Kentucky University. He is the author of Exiles and Pioneers: Eastern Indians in the Trans-Mississippi West and has written extensively about the history of American Indian removal. His current book manuscript, This Land is Too Good for Indians: Histories of Northern Indian Removal, is forthcoming from the University of Oklahoma Press.
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