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date: 28 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

In the nineteenth century, the United States relocated thousands of indigenous peoples from their homelands east of the Mississippi River to Indian Territory, an area that would later be known as Oklahoma. The region was not uninhabited, however; it already had a rich history of Native groups stretching back for millennia, and it had long been a nexus for trade and empire. New and original inhabitants alike would endeavor to maintain homes and tribal sovereignty up to the formation of the state of Oklahoma and the dissolution of Indian Territory, and they continue to do so into the twenty-first century, when Oklahoma is home to thirty-eight federally recognized American Indian tribes and has the second-highest Native American population in the country

Keywords: Spiro, Caddo, Wichita, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Cherokee, Seminole, Civil War, Oklahoma Territory

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