- The Oxford Handbook of American Indian History
- America in 1492
- European Invasions and Early Settlement, 1500–1680
- Living in a Reordered World, 1680–1763
- The Age of Imperial Expansion, 1763–1821
- US Expansion and Its Consequences, 1815–1890
- Surviving in the Twentieth Century, 1890–1960
- The Indian Renaissance, 1960–2000: Stumbling to Victory, or Anecdotes of Persistence?
- Contemporary History: Native America in the Twenty-First Century
- The Great Lakes
- The Southwest
- The Plains
- The Pacific Northwest
- The South
- The Atlantic Northeast
- Indian Territory and Oklahoma
- The Great Basin
- Gender, Sexuality, and Family History: Naynaabeak’s Fishing Net
- Population, Health, and Public Welfare
- Native American Expressive Arts
- Collectors and Museums: From Cabinets of Curiosities to Indigenous Cultural Centers
- Indians in the Marketplace
- Intellectual History
- Treaties and Treaty Making
- Urban Native Histories
- American Indians in Popular Culture
- American Indians in World History
Abstract and Keywords
Surveying the history of Native Americans of the South from ancient times through the early twenty-first century, this chapter draws on oral tradition, material culture, climatology, and historical documents. Like all Native North Americans, Southern Indians have a dynamic past. They repeatedly adapted their societies to meet challenges arising from climate change 10,000 years ago, population growth during the Mississippian era, population collapse due to the introduction of new diseases following contact, warfare, and slaving in the colonial era, Indian removal, and ongoing US racial discrimination and imperialism. While pointing out diversity within the region, as well as the ties that linked Southern Indians to other people and places over time, this chapter also marks the cultural characteristics that make Native peoples of the South a distinctive group, namely their traditions of matrilineal kinship, dense populations, their long history of agriculture, and distinctive art forms and architecture.
Christina Snyder is the Thomas and Kathryn Miller Professor of History at Indiana University. She is the author of Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America (2010), and is currently completing a book called Great Crossing, which explores the development of the first national Indian boarding school in the Jacksonian era. She is also at work on "Ancient America," which will combine history, archaeology, and oral tradition to offer a more seamless narrative of the North American past and dissolve the Eurocentric divide between "prehistory" and "history."
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