- The Oxford Handbook of American Indian History
- America in 1492
- European Invasions and Early Settlement, 1500–1680
- Living in a Reordered World, 1680–1763
- The Age of Imperial Expansion, 1763–1821
- US Expansion and Its Consequences, 1815–1890
- Surviving in the Twentieth Century, 1890–1960
- The Indian Renaissance, 1960–2000: Stumbling to Victory, or Anecdotes of Persistence?
- Contemporary History: Native America in the Twenty-First Century
- The Great Lakes
- The Southwest
- The Plains
- The Pacific Northwest
- The South
- The Atlantic Northeast
- Indian Territory and Oklahoma
- The Great Basin
- Gender, Sexuality, and Family History: Naynaabeak’s Fishing Net
- Population, Health, and Public Welfare
- Native American Expressive Arts
- Collectors and Museums: From Cabinets of Curiosities to Indigenous Cultural Centers
- Indians in the Marketplace
- Intellectual History
- Treaties and Treaty Making
- Urban Native Histories
- American Indians in Popular Culture
- American Indians in World History
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter narrates the meeting of the American and European worlds, a meeting that propelled Native people into a time of profound cultural, social, and political transformations. The forces that caused these transformations include military losses and cultural exchanges with early colonizers, the introduction of Old World diseases, and the consequences of political and economic incorporation into the modern world economy through a trade in Indian slaves. The impact of the European invasions played out differently in different regions and for different Indian polities and social groups. The full transformation of the Native world, then, must be viewed against a larger interpretive framework so that each instance of transformation can be understood as a distinctive phenomenon. This chapter offers such a framework through the concept of the “shatter zone,” which offers a regional frame for integrating events and people into a single interactive world.
Robbie Ethridge is Professor of Anthropology at the University of Mississippi. She is the author of Creek Country: The Creek Indians and Their World, 1796-1816 (2003) and From Chicaza to Chickasaw: The European Invasion and the Transformation of the Mississippian World, 1540-1715 (2010) and co-editor of three anthologies on the Native history of the Southeast. Her current research is on the rise of the world of the pre-Columbian Mississippian chiefdoms of the American South, its collapse with European contact, and the restructuring of the Native South into the colonial South.
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