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date: 01 April 2020

(p. 533) Subject Index

(p. 533) Subject Index

2012 (film), 485, 500
Aaronide priests, 32–33
Abelson, R. B., 128
Acts of Philip, otherworldly journey in, 347
Acts of the Apostles: conversion of Gentiles and, 304;
eschatology and, 300, 304;
Jerusalem and, 304–305
Adler, William, 154, 158
Afghanistan, 248, 436
After London (Jefferies), 476
Agudat Israel, 403
Akira (manga & anime work), 477–478
Alexander, Jeffrey, 462–463, 469–470
Alexander, Philip, 89, 267
Alexander of Lycopolis, criticism of Manichaeans by, 367–368
Alexander VI (pope), 411
Aliyat neshama (the rise of the soul to higher worlds), 399
Alkalai, Yehuda, 396
allegory: ancient Greek forms of, 238–239;
in Book of Revelation, 236, 239–240, 243–247;
Christian exegesis and, 239;
desire and, 247;
Gnosticism and, 366;
hierarchized structure of, 236;
literalist form of, 236, 238–241, 243;
metalepsis and, 241–242;
metonymy and, 242–243;
transcendence and, 239, 241–243
Allison Jr., Dale, 335–336
Al Qaeda, 435–437
Altizer, Thomas, 417–418
The American Jeremiad (Bercovitch), 444
Anabaptists, 429–430
ancient Greek tragedy, 44
“Annotations to Watson’s Apology” (Blake), 417
Antiochus III, 379
Antiochus IV (Antiochus Epiphanes), 9, 20, 76, 82, 128–129, 132, 135, 137, 150, 378–380, 423, 463
Anu (Babylonian God), 376
Anzu (Babylonian God), 191–192, 377
Apocalypse Code (Lindsey), 448–449
Apocalypse Now (film), 478
Apocalypse of Abraham: angels in, 208–209;
dreams and visions in, 206–207, 210, 350–351;
Ezekiel and, 351;
heaven in, 382;
monsters in, 188, 374;
otherworldly journey in, 350–351, 353
Apocalypse of Elijah, otherworldly journey in, 346–347
Apocalypse of James (1): ex eventu prophecy in, 362; Jesus in, 361–362; revelation dialogue in, 360–362
Apocalypse of John. See Revelation, Book of
Apocalypse of Paul: enumeration of sinners in, 342, 347;
otherworldly journey in, 347, 351–352, 482;
Valentinian ideas and, 365
Apocalypse of Peter: appeals to authority in, 227–228;
enumeration of sinners in, 342, 346;
judgment and punishment in, 228, 345–346;
Matthew and, 219, 225;
otherworldly journeys and, 345–346, 482;
pseudepigraphical nature of, 222;
revelation and, 219;
textuality and textual reference in, 225
Apocalypse of Zephaniah: dreams and visions in, 210, 350;
eschatology and judgment in, 297;
monsters and, 187;
otherworldly journeys in, 206, 347
Apocalypse: The Morphology of a Genre (Collins), 123–124
The Apocalyptic Imagination (Collins), 125
apocalypticism: biblical forms of, 479–481;
criticisms of, 11, 358;
culture of conspiracy and, 502;
decline of civilization theme and, 476;
deep versus shallow forms of, 481;
definition of, 53, 474;
eschatology and, 473;
historical versus otherworldly speculation in, 481–482;
Internet and, 501, 503;
nuclear holocaust themes and, 477;
popular culture and, 473–504;
prophecy and, 473–474;
as revenge fantasy, 467;
secular forms of, 479–481;
as social ideology, 2, 204, 359, 457;
“superflat” version of, 501, 503;
thick versus thin forms of, 481;
trauma and, 458–471;
violence and, 485;
as worldview, 474
apocalyptic literature. See also specific works: the Absolute and, 20, 23;
allegory in, 235–249;
allusive anthologizing of scripture in, 74–77, 79, 82;
angels and, 7, 20, 32, 37, 40–41, 53, 93, 207–208, 214, 461;
apocalyptic radicalism and, 407–419;
archetypes and, 22–23;
calculation of (p. 534) the end days and, 9–10;
catalogues of scriptural examples in, 80–81;
central characters in, 207–208;
cosmology and, 9, 21, 25;
decoding of texts and, 10–11;
definitions of apocalypse and, 2–3, 5–7, 20, 53, 124;
demons and, 7, 214, 275, 277;
determinism and, 255, 258–268, 462;
dreams and visions in, 37, 40–41, 45, 53, 94, 104–117, 160, 206–210, 221, 408, 461;
dualism in, 11, 26, 213–214, 221, 274–291, 358;
early Christian church and, 326–338;
emphasis on learning in, 58–60;
empire and, 163–177;
end of history themes and, 6–7, 9–10, 19, 23, 25, 145–146;
epistemology and, 21;
eschatology and, 5, 7, 11, 13, 20–21, 26–27, 53, 58, 124, 126, 209, 223, 229, 258, 296;
ethics and, 295–309;
exodus to the desert and, 305–306;
explicit exegesis in, 81–82;
figuring of space in, 208–209;
Gnostics and, 358–366;
God’s worldly enemies and, 23–24, 53;
heaven and heavens in, 381–384;
heavenly ascents and, 90–93;
Hekhalot literature and, 86–88, 90–94, 96, 98, 100;
historical context approach to, 148;
imagination of chaos in, 373–375;
imminence of the end and, 12–13, 20, 23, 32, 296–297, 300;
Jerusalem and, 10, 304–305;
knowledge themes in, 210–215;
literalism and, 13, 240;
Manichaeism and, 367–368;
Mediterranean anthropology and, 131–132;
millenarian groups and, 25–26, 124;
millenarian perspective and, 129–131;
modern versions of, 9–13;
monsters and, 183, 186–195;
mysticism and, 85–100;
mythical paradigms and, 8–9;
mythopoeic nature of, 22–23;
nostalgia and, 464–466;
origins of Christian theology and, 334, 338;
otherworldly journeys and, 2, 8, 26, 37, 40, 45, 48, 53, 65, 145–146, 206, 208–209, 221, 340–353;
pathos in, 228–229;
postcolonial readings of, 180–183;
primary and secondary discourse in, 222–224;
prophecy and, 7, 19–24, 27, 30–31, 36–48, 57–60, 145, 221;
pseudepigraphy in, 70–74, 92, 222;
reproduction of scriptural history in, 77–80, 82, 139, 154;
as resistance literature, 145–160, 224;
resurrection and judgment of individual dead in, 7, 26–27, 29, 37, 53;
revelation and, 2, 5, 7, 37, 41, 46, 53, 70–71, 74, 124, 218, 222, 312–313, 336, 360, 367, 461;
reversals of fortune and, 5, 12, 20, 23–24, 33, 53, 299–300;
rhetoric and, 201, 205–215, 219–232;
salvation and, 13, 25;
scribes and, 59, 95, 211–212;
scriptural imagery and, 70–71;
scriptural interpretation issues within, 69–83;
social distinctions and, 12–13;
social-scientific approaches to, 25, 123–140;
sociology of knowledge and, 125–129;
subversive and revolutionary aspects of, 6–7, 11–12;
supernatural force controlling history and, 9;
symbolism and imagery in, 7, 11, 13, 25, 78–79, 221, 224, 230;
textuality and textual practice in, 94–96, 99;
themes of empire and resistance in, 132–139;
as a theological concept, 6, 13;
topoi of, 209–215;
Torah and, 312–324;
transcendence and, 5, 20–22, 25, 37, 42, 53, 124, 218;
Uppsala conference resolution on, 3;
violence and, 11–13, 422–438;
wisdom and, 42;
wisdom literature and, 7, 52, 56–67, 316;
Zoroastrianism and, 26–27
“apocalyptic mirroring” (Rosenfeld), 436–437
apocalyptic myth complex (Schwartz), 8
apocalyptic radicalism, 407–419
Apollonius, 352
Appleby, Scott, 12
Applewhite, Marshall Herff, 480, 498–499
Armageddon (film), 481
Asad, Talal, 87
Ascent of Isaiah: angels in, 209;
apocalypse and, 218–219, 231;
ascent of the mind in, 349;
assertions in, 230;
audience in, 225;
dreams and visions in, 350;
heavens in, 381;
martyrdom and, 231;
otherworldly journey in, 219, 230–231, 345;
textuality and textual practice in, 225
Asimov, Isaac, 476
al-Assad, Bashar, 437
Assyriology, 181
Atchalta degeula (the beginning of redemption), 391
Augustine, 239
Augustus, 352
Aum Shinrikyo, 469, 475, 498
Aune, David, 461
Azag, 191–192
Aztecs, 457
Baal (Canaanite god) 8–9, 377–379
The Babylonian Captivity of the Church (Luther), 239
Balfour Declaration (1917), 395
Barbalet, J.M., 147
Bar Kochba revolt, 215
Barr, David, 170, 175–176, 460
Barth, Fredrik, 133, 136
Baruch (2): Adam and, 321;
angels in, 79;
apocalyptic and eschatological concerns in, 20, 40, 53, 59, 79–80, 124, 218, 289, 295, 297–298, 320–323, 375;
audience in, 207;
covenant and, (p. 535) 321;
determinism and, 259;
dreams and visions in, 79, 206–207, 210, 373, 460;
dualism and, 288–289;
eschatology and, 289, 295, 297–298, 322–323, 375;
ethics in, 295, 297;
heaven in, 382;
honor in, 131;
Jerusalem and, 131, 322–323;
judgment and, 322;
monsters in, 374–375;
Moses in, 321;
pseudepigraphical nature of, 71, 222;
reproduction of scriptural history in, 79–81, 213;
resistance to empire themes in, 132;
revelation and, 321;
symbolism in, 79;
the Torah and, 320–324;
wisdom and, 322
Baruch (3): apocalypse and, 20, 53, 218;
dreams and visions in, 187, 206, 350, 460;
heaven in, 382;
heavens in, 381;
monsters and, 187;
otherworldly journeys in, 206;
wisdom and, 62
Battlestar Galactica (television series), 478
Bauckham, Richard, 169, 246
Baur, F.C., 327
Behemoth, 374–375
Beker, J. Christiaan, 336
Benjamin, Walter, 418
Ben Sira (Sirach): apocalypse and, 61;
Daniel and, 60;
determinism and, 65, 282;
dualism in, 282;
emphasis on learning in, 60–61;
monsters and, 190;
natural world in, 61;
prophecy and, 42, 48;
wisdom and, 7, 42, 54, 56, 58–60, 62, 282
Bercovitch, Sacvan, 444
Betz, H.D., 116
Bhabha, Homi, 153, 172
bin Laden, Osama, 235–238, 243, 248, 435–436
Bitzer, Lloyd, 202
Black, Edwin, 203
Blade Runner (film), 478
Blake, William, 408, 416–418
Bloch, Ernst, 418
Block, Daniel, 191
Boccaccini, Gabriele, 315–316
Bockelson, Jan (John of Leiden), 430
Bockmuehl, Markus, 264
Bogaert, Pierre, 323
Booke, Paula, 443
Borg, Marcus, 335
Botticelli, Sandro, 411–412
Boulle, Pierre, 477
Boyer, Paul, 10, 446, 453
Branch Davidians, 430–433, 437, 475, 480, 498
Bromley, David G., 438
Brothers, Richard, 416
Brown, Dan, 484
Brummett, Barry, 201, 452
Buell, Frederick, 478
Bultmann, Rudolf, 330–332
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), 431–432
Burk, Denny, 237
Burke, Kenneth, 203, 207, 213
Burkert, Walter, 341
Burridge, Kenelm, 125
Bush, George W., 133, 428, 436, 452
Camping, Harold, 10, 441–443, 445, 448–450, 452–454, 497, 503
A Canticle for Leibowitz (Walter M. Miller, Jr.), 478–479, 483, 495–496
Carey, Greg, 152, 205
Cary, Mary, 414
Cavell, Stanley, 206
Cercops the Pythagorean, 342
Chilam Balam (Mayan books), 501
Christian Film Distributors, 450
Christians United For Israel (CUFI), 451
Chronicles (2), Jeremiah and, 258
chronological thesis of prophecy and apocalypse, 37–39
Clavis Apocalyptica (Mede), 409
Cleopatra II, 378
Clifford, Richard J., 191–192
Coblentz-Bautch, Kelley, 381
Cohen, Jeffrey Jerome, 185–186, 194–195
Cohn, Norman, 425
Collins, John J., 21, 27, 37, 40, 44, 56, 59, 66, 70, 78, 82, 123–125, 128, 146, 155–156, 189, 191, 220, 259, 267, 312, 318, 423, 463, 465
Commentary on the Revelation of Saint John (Nerses of Lambron), 239
Compendium of Revelations (Savonarola), 410–411
Conrad, Joseph, 478
contemporary Christianity, apocalypticism in, 441–454. See also premillennial dispensationalism
contemporary Judaism: apocalyptic and eschatological concerns in, 391–393, 399–401, 404–405;
Diaspora and exile in, 395, 402, 404;
Hassidic traditions and, 398–400;
heavenly Temple tradition and, 399–400;
messianism in, 391–405, 419;
Orthodox Judaism and, 391–393, 395, 398–405;
redemption and, 396–397, 400–401, 404;
repentance and, 396, 401
Cook, David, 427, 437
Cook, Robin, 248
Cook, Stephen L., 7, 130–131
Copeland, Rita, 238–239
Cornell, Stephen, 139
(p. 536) Cortés, Hernando, 457
Crenshaw, James, 55–57
Crossan, John Dominic, 335
The Cry of a Stone (Trapnel), 414
“cult essentialism” (Hall), 430, 437
Dallas Theological Seminary, 452–453
Danforth, John C., 433
Daniel: allusive anthologizing of scripture in, 75–77, 82;
angels in, 81, 208–209, 211, 214, 258, 260, 285;
Antiochus IV and, 76–77, 82, 128–129, 378–380, 382, 463;
apocalyptic and eschatological concerns in, 2, 7, 19–20, 40–42, 53, 58, 77, 124, 159, 192, 260, 275, 285, 289, 312, 460, 473, 482;
apocalyptic radicals’ interpretation of, 407, 412–413, 415, 446;
audience in, 225;
Babylonian and Assyrian influences on, 191–193, 376–377;
calculation of the end days and, 9–11, 260;
Canaanite influence and, 377–378;
Christian versus Jewish treatments of, 41;
Dead Sea Scrolls and, 41;
decoding of texts and, 11;
determinism and, 65, 258–260;
ethnic identity in, 139;
exegesis in, 81–82;
Ezekiel and, 75–76;
Habakkuk and, 77;
Hellenistic-Egyptian influence and, 378–379;
Hosea and, 192–193;
Isaiah and, 76–77, 82, 193;
Jeremiah and, 40, 81–82, 223, 258–259;
Josephus on, 41, 156–158, 160, 308;
knowledge and learning themes in, 211–212;
millennial perspective in, 128–130;
on mixing and separation, 194;
monsters and beasts in, 186, 188, 190–193, 195, 374–375, 378–379, 407, 415;
myth and history in, 375–380, 384, 460;
mythical paradigms in, 8–9;
Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream in, 56;
otherworldly journeys in, 373, 384;
political oppression themes and, 127;
prophecy and, 40–41, 75–76, 81–82, 213, 258, 414;
reproduction of scriptural history in, 213;
resistance to empire themes in, 6, 132, 138–139, 146, 148, 151, 153, 157–159, 380, 475;
resurrection in, 7, 28, 373, 380, 470;
reuse of earlier texts in, 41–42;
revelation in, 41, 56;
social science research approach to, 127;
Susana and Bel the Dragon tales and, 159;
symbolism of imagery in, 139, 146, 210, 375–376, 378–380, 383, 407, 412–413, 415, 446;
textuality and textual practice in, 225, 260–261;
transcendent reality and, 42
Danieli, Yael, 462
Darby, John Nelson, 10, 240, 442–443
Darius (Persian Emperor), 31, 41
Daston, Lorraine, 184–185
Davies, Philip, 130
The Da Vinci Code (Brown), 484
The Dawn of Apocalyptic (Hanson), 32
The Day of the Triffids (Wyndham), 476, 478
Dead Sea Scrolls: angels in, 208, 262, 278, 281, 284–285, 287–288;
apocalyptic and eschatological concerns in, 52, 57, 61–62, 154–155, 219, 260, 262, 277, 280, 282–284, 287, 299, 306, 308;
astrology and, 265;
calendrical texts in, 212;
challenge to canonical fixity from, 38–39;
decoding and, 11;
the desert and, 305;
determinism and, 65, 257, 260–266, 268, 278, 280–281, 283–284, 286;
dreams and visions in, 109, 207, 209, 265–266;
dualism in, 8, 61–62, 214, 266, 272, 276–288;
Essenes and, 299, 308;
ideology of history and, 213;
knowledge and knowledge vocabulary in, 210–211;
monsters in, 374;
mysticism and, 89;
otherworldly journeys in, 209, 350;
raz nihyeh and, 61;
revelation and, 61;
rhetoric of, 201;
violence in, 308;
wisdom literature and, 55–56, 60–62, 280, 282–283, 285–286
“Declaration of War against Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places” (bin Laden), 436
Dee, John, 482, 494
Deep Impact (film), 485
De Man, Paul, 241, 245
Demos, Raphael, 206
Derrida, Jacques, 2–3
determinism: ancient Judaism and, 257;
ancient Persian culture and, 267–268;
apocalyptic form of, 444–445;
astrology and, 265;
Babylonian culture and, 267;
definition of, 65, 255;
fatalism and, 444;
free will and, 256–257, 263–266, 268;
physical, 265;
Stoicism and, 255–257, 263, 265;
Zoroastrianism and, 266–268
Deuteronomy: Josiah’s reforms in, 181;
Levites in, 32;
messenger of the covenant in, 32;
Moses in, 43, 72;
postcolonial readings of, 181
Dick, Philip K., 478
Dieleman, Adrian, 236–237
Dieterich, Albrecht, 343
The Diggers, 12
DiLella, Alexander, 192
dispensationalism. See premillennial dispensationalism
DiTommaso, Lorenzo, 11, 155
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (Dick), 478
Doctor Strangelove (film), 473, 478
Dodd, C.H., 331
Domitian, 163, 165–167, 176
Dongfang Shandian, 500
(p. 537) Doomsday Preppers (television series), 503
Doughten, Russell, 450
Douglas, Mary, 131
Doyle, Clive, 432
dreams and visions: angels and, 112–113;
divine contact and sanction through, 105–107, 110–111, 113;
dream cults and, 108, 114;
in early Jewish and Christian apocalyptic literature, 107–116;
functions of, 104;
healing in, 110–111;
incubation and, 108–109, 111, 114–115;
messages and, 106–111, 113;
in Near Eastern and Mediterranean cultures, 105–108, 116;
necromancy and, 107–108;
oracular forms of, 107;
physical impact of, 112;
scientific research on, 115;
suspension of spatial and psychological constraints in, 111–112, 117;
suspension of temporal constraints in, 111, 117;
symbolic forms of, 106–107, 109, 111;
trends in scholarship on, 114–116;
“waking” forms of, 107, 109–111, 113
dualism: apocalyptic forms of, 272–273, 358;
cosmic forms of, 274, 276–285, 288;
in Dead Sea Scrolls, 8, 61–62, 214, 266, 272, 276–288;
definition of, 271;
early Christian authors and, 290–291;
eschatological forms of, 274–275, 277, 282, 284–285;
ethical forms of, 276, 278, 280–283, 285, 358;
Gnosticism and, 272, 358;
Jewish tradition and, 273, 283;
Manicheanism and, 272;
psychological forms of, 280–281;
taxonomies of, 272;
temporal forms of, 288–289;
wisdom literature and, 61–62, 214, 282–283, 285–286;
Zoroastrianism and, 271, 273, 282–283, 285
Duff, Paul, 170–171
Duhaime, Jean, 257, 264
Ecclesiastes, wisdom literature worldview and, 55, 58, 60
Eda Hacharedit (Haredi community) of Jerusalem, 398
Eddy, Samuel, 132, 147
Ehrman, Bart, 335–336
El (Canaanite God), 377, 379
Elgvin, Torlief, 61
Eliade, Mircea, 22
Elijah, 352
Elliott, John, 127, 131–132
Ellwood, Robert, 425
Emdan, Jacob, 401
Enoch (1): angels in, 71, 94, 112, 194, 208–209, 313–314, 344, 384;
apocalyptic and eschatological concerns in, 1, 19–20, 53, 60, 62–63, 71–72, 73–75, 124, 151–152, 209, 258, 274–275, 289, 300, 304–305, 312, 314–315, 375;
on apostasy and ritual, 382–383;
audience in, 207, 225;
Balaam’s oracles and, 73–74, 314;
determinism and, 258–259;
Deuteronomy and, 72;
dreams and visions in, 73, 109, 111–112, 152, 206–207, 210, 350–351, 373–374, 383;
dualism in, 274–275;
Enoch in, 60, 63, 72, 314;
ethics and, 296, 300;
evil and, 213–214, 274–275;
Ezekiel and, 351;
fasting and, 303;
the flood and, 314–315;
heaven in, 381–385;
Homeric and Hellenistic influences on, 343–344;
Judean ethnic identity in, 136–138;
judgment and, 74–75, 213, 274–275, 313–314, 373, 384;
knowledge and learning themes in, 60–61, 211–212;
law and covenant in, 315;
on mixing and separation, 194, 209, 274, 382;
monsters in, 374–375;
Moses and, 72–74, 321;
natural world in, 59–61;
otherworldly journeys in, 111–112, 146, 206, 208–209, 274, 343–345, 350–351, 353, 373;
prophecy and, 72, 213, 260;
pseudepigraphic nature of, 71, 222;
reproduction of scriptural history in, 78–79, 81, 213, 465;
resistance to empire themes and, 146, 151–152, 160;
revelation and, 72, 316, 322;
social science research approach to, 127;
symbolism in, 78, 138, 152;
textualization of revelation in, 94, 225, 260;
theophany in, 74–75;
the Torah and, 313–317, 323–324;
wisdom and, 54, 62–63, 316, 322
Enoch (2): angels in, 91–92, 208–209;
apocalypse in, 2, 7, 20, 53, 63;
ascents of the prophets and, 7;
beatitudes in, 63;
dreams and visions in, 91–92, 112, 206, 350;
heavenly ascent in, 91–93;
heavens in, 381–382;
otherworldly journeys in, 206, 208–209, 350;
pseudepigraphical nature of, 71;
textuality and textual practice in, 95;
wisdom and, 63
Enoch (3): apocalypse and, 96–97;
Hekhalot literature and, 96–97;
textuality and textual practice in, 97
enthymemes, 231–232
Ephesus, 232
Epistula Titi discipuli Pauli de dispositione sanctimonii, otherworldly journey in, 346–347
Erikson, Kai, 458, 462, 464, 466–467, 470
eschatology: definition of, 504n2;
early Christian notions of, 289–290;
egalitarianism and, 307;
ethics and, 296–303, 306–309;
evangelization and, 303–304;
existential categories and, 331;
exodus to the desert and, 305–306;
fasting and, 302–303;
fate of the dead and, 5, 24;
gender and, 307;
Jerusalem and, 305;
judgment and, 297;
sex and, 301–302;
violence and, 307–308
An Ethic for Christians and Other Aliens in a Strange Land (Stringfellow), 418
Exodus: Levites in, 32;
monsters and, 189;
wisdom in, 54
Ezekiel: angels in, 75–76, 113;
apocalyptic and eschatological concerns in, 24, 31–33, 305;
Book of Revelation and, 224, 408;
on cleansing with water, 337;
Daniel and, 75–76;
displacement and, 465;
dreams and visions in, 37, 75–76, 85, 90–92, 109, 113, 116, 186–187;
Gog chronicles and, 31–32, 468;
historical context of, 465;
on mixing and separation, 194;
monsters and, 187, 189–190;
passivity in, 462;
prophecy in, 19, 24, 37, 47, 305, 336;
Pseudo-Ezekiel fragments and, 38;
resurrection in, 28;
Zadokite theology and, 31–33
Ezra (4): Adam and, 317;
angels in, 46–47, 80, 111, 209, 317–320, 467;
apocalyptic and eschatological concerns in, 1, 20, 37, 40, 44–48, 53, 80, 218, 289, 298, 317–318, 375, 480;
audience in, 225;
the Babylonians and, 318–320;
catalogues of scriptural examples in, 80;
covenant and, 318–320;
Daniel and, 46;
determinism and, 259–260;
dialogues in, 37, 45, 80, 317–318;
dreams and visions in, 44–47, 111–112, 187, 206, 210, 288–289, 317–319, 373, 460;
dualism and, 288–289;
ethics and, 298;
Ezekiel and, 45;
heaven in, 382;
historical context and, 128, 317;
intercessionary prayer and, 80;
Jerusalem and, 319;
judgment and, 80, 317–318;
law and, 128;
monsters and, 184, 187, 374–375;
Moses and, 45, 47;
otherworldly journey in, 45;
political oppression themes in, 127–128;
prophecy and, 45–47;
pseudepigraphical nature of, 71;
resistance to empire themes in, 132;
revelation and, 46–47, 319, 461;
social science research approach to, 128;
strategies of inheritance in, 45;
textuality and textual practice in, 96, 317, 319, 461;
the Torah and, 317–320, 323–324
Falwell, Jerry, 428
Family Radio (Camping), 441, 450, 453–454
Fanon, Franz, 181–182
Farrell, Thomas, 205
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 432–433
Feldman, Louis, 158
Festinger, Leon, 128
Fifth Monarchists, 414
Fifth Syrian War, 150
Fineman, Joel, 247
Fiorenza, Elisabeth Schüssler, 12, 165–170, 172, 175
Fire in the Bush (Winstanley), 415
Fishbane, Michael, 74, 77
Flannery, Frances, 115
Fletcher, Angus, 238
Florence, 411–412
Flusser, David, 148
“The Form-Critical Problem of the Hexateuch” (Von Rad), 57
Foucault, Michel, 136
“Four Zoas” (Blake), 416
Fowler, Alastair, 4
Fraade, Steven, 299
frame analysis, 204
Frankfurter, David, 11
Frei, Hans, 240
Friesen, Stephen J., 169
Frilingos, Christopher, 168, 183, 246
From Apocalypse to Way of Life (Buell), 478
Frow, John, 4, 149, 159
Gabler, Johann Philipp, 326
Gager, John, 129, 164–165, 167, 172, 177
Gaines, Charles, 242–243
Gandolf, 23
Genesis: cultic syncretism and, 32;
the flood and, 314;
monsters in, 374–375
Genette, Gérard, 242
genre: definitions of, 2–6;
family resemblance theory and, 3–4;
functions of, 6, 148–150, 159;
Gestalt structure and, 3;
prototype theory and, 4–5
genre thesis regarding prophecy and apocalypse, 36–39, 42, 44, 47–48
Ghost Dance tradition, 29, 126, 129, 466
Gibson, William, 481–482, 488–493
Glancy, Jennifer, 244
The Glorious Appearing: The End of Days (Left Behind series), 429
Gnosticism: Alexandria and, 362;
allegory and, 366;
dreams and visions in, 109–110, 114, 352;
dualism and, 272, 358;
Hellenic oracle and, 366;
Hellenistic philosophy and, 366;
Nag Hammadi codex and, 360–361, 363–365;
otherworldly journeys and, 352, 363;
revelation and, 360–362, 368–369, 409;
salvation and, 364, 368;
Sethian versus Valentinian ideas in, 364–365
Gog, 24, 31–32
Goodman, Nelson, 202
Grabbe, Lester, 7, 25–26, 124, 129
Guide to Apocalyptic Cinema, 478
Gunkel, Hermann, 8, 373–374, 376
Gush Emunim (“Block of the Faithful”) movement, 391, 394, 397
Haeda Hacharedit, 400–401
Hagane no renkinjutsushi (Fullmetal Alchemist, manga), 483
Hagee, John, 451
Haggai: apocalypse in, 30–31;
historical context behind, 30
Halberstam, Chaim (Sanz Rebbe), 398–399
Hall, John R., 430, 437
Halo (video game series), 478
Han, Jin Hee, 146
Handsome Lake (Seneca Indian), 26, 128–129
Hanson, Paul, 2, 32, 126–127, 204
Haraway, Donna, 180
Harlow, Barbara, 146–147
Hartman, Lars, 192
Hasan-Rokem, G., 107–108
Hassidism, 398–400
Heart of Darkness (Conrad), 478
Heaven is for Real, 226–227
Heaven’s Gate group, 469, 480, 491, 498–500
hegemony, 147, 153
Hekhalot literature: angelic gatekeepers in, 93;
heavenly ascents in, 93–94, 96;
literary context and, 91;
merkavah vision and, 90, 96;
textuality and textual practice in, 97–99
Hellholm, David, 5, 129
Hengel, Martin, 65
Herman, Judith, 459
Hermas. See Shepherd of Hermas
Herodotus, 27
Herzl, Benjamin Zeev, 396
Hibbard, James Todd, 29–30
Hideaki, Anno, 483
Hiers, Richard, 328
Higden, Ranulph, 184
Himmelfarb, Martha, 93, 99, 343–346, 383
Hitler, Adolf, 434–435
Hogan, Karina, 320
Holiness School, 32–33
Holland, D. Larrimore, 328
Holloway, Steven, 181
The Holocaust, 395, 401–402, 404, 503
Homer, otherworldly journeys in, 341–343
Horsfall, Nicholas, 345
Horsley, Richard, 7, 124, 135–136, 148, 150
Hosea: apocalyptic elements in, 40;
monsters and, 192–193
Hultgren, Stephen, 277–278
Hussein, Saddam, 241, 436
Hutchinson, Anne, 407
Hutchinson, John, 133–134, 136
hybridity, 153, 182, 195–196
Hyde, Michael, 202
Hyde, Thomas, 271
Idel, Moshe, 89
Ikvata demeshiha (the footsteps of the Messiah), 392
imperial apocalypticism, 6, 475
Iraq, 436–437
Iroquois Indians. See Seneca Indians
Isaiah: angels in, 76, 109, 113;
animals in, 193–194;
apocalyptic and eschatological concerns in, 12–13, 29, 32–33, 42, 76, 304–305, 373;
Assyrian rule and, 76, 82;
Book of Revelation and, 224, 408;
cultic syncretism and, 32;
Daniel and, 76–77, 82, 193;
Daughter Zion in, 29;
dreams and visions and, 45, 76, 109, 113;
monsters and, 189, 374–375;
priestly traditions of the Pentateuch and, 32;
prophecy and, 7, 12–13, 19, 32, 58, 76, 82, 305;
resurrection in, 28–29;
reuse of earlier texts in, 30;
salvation and, 29
Isenberg, Sheldon, 129
Islam: early followers of, 427;
international jihadist movement and, 435–437;
sharia and, 435
Israel. See also contemporary Judaism: apocalyptic imagination in, 30–31;
democracy and, 403–404;
Knesset (parliament) in, 403;
modern state of, 10, 395–397, 399–405, 428, 469;
Persia and, 30–31;
premillennial dispensationalism and, 451
Ithamar, line of, 33
Jacob, François, 503
James, William, 87
Janhoff-Bulman, Ronnie, 458
Japan, 469
Jefferies, Richard, 476
Jehovah’s Witnesses, 445
Jenkins, Jerry, 428, 497–498
Jeremiah: Daniel and, 40, 81–82, 223, 258–259;
Deuteronomy and, 32;
eschatology and, 305;
on exile, 31;
Levites and, 32;
monsters in, 189;
prophecy and, 7, 31, 37, 41, 47, 81, 258–259, 305;
visions in, 37, 41
Jerusalem: allegory of, 419;
as early center of Christianity, 304–305;
Persia and, 31;
predicted destruction of, 10, 23–24;
Second Temple in, 31
Jesus: in 1 Apocalypse of James, 361–362;
apocalyptic and eschatological issues regarding, 6, 21, 63, 228, 289–290, 296–298, 306, 308, 327–328, 330–331, 333–336, 338;
ascent of, 352;
beatitudes and, 333;
descent into Hell and, 345;
dispensationalists’ notion of the return of, 442;
Israel’s failure to acknowledge, 231;
John the Baptist and, 334;
Kingdom of God teachings of, 327–330;
messianic consciousness and, 329, 331, 334;
resurrection and, 231, 330, 334;
in Revelation, 247;
Satan and, 290, 328;
sex and, 302
Jewett, Robert, 129
jihad, 427
“Jihad against Jews and Crusaders” (bin Laden), 436
jihadist movement, international, 435–437
Jindo, Job, 19
Joachim of Fiore, 409–411
Job: monsters in, 189, 374;
wisdom literature worldview and, 55, 56, 62
Joel: apocalyptic imagination in, 25;
prophecy in, 19, 25
John, Gospel of: dualism in, 290;
on Jesus and the Father’s commandment, 408;
Kingdom of God teaching and, 328
John of Patmos, 423–424
John the Baptist: apocalyptic perspective of, 21, 219, 298, 333, 336–337;
asceticism of, 298, 302;
the desert and, 305;
Elijah and, 337;
Jesus and, 334;
as prophet, 337;
ritual methods of, 336–337
Jonah, monsters and, 189–190
Jones, James W., 422, 429
Jones, Jim, 468–469
Jong, Albert de, 268
Josephus, Flavius: apocalyptic literature and, 156;
Daniel and, 41, 156–158, 160, 308;
determinism and, 257;
dreams and visions of, 157;
eschatology and, 296;
on Essenes, 299, 302;
imperial patronage and, 157;
on Jewish revolt against Rome, 156–157;
on Judaic identity, 134;
oracles and, 156–157;
on sign prophets, 308
Jost, Walter, 202
Jubilees: apocalypse and, 20, 42–44;
calendrical concerns in, 212, 465;
demons in, 275, 277;
determinism and, 264–265;
eschatology in, 304;
heavenly books in, 261;
Mastema in, 275;
Moses and, 43, 47, 69, 73, 316;
prophecy in, 43;
revelation in, 43;
strategies of inheritance in, 42–43, 69
Judas, 330, 336
Jude, apocalyptic discourse in, 223–224
“Judge Dredd” (comic book series), 477
Jung, Carl, 22
Kalischer, Zvi Hirsh, 396
Kaplan, Zvi Jonathan, 398
Käsemann, Ernst, 331–334, 338
Kastner, Israel (Rudolf), 398
Kelts, Roland, 478
Kennedy, George A., 202–203
Kenney, Jeffrey, 437
khilafa (single Islamic state), 435
Kim, Seyoon, 132–133
Kim, Uriah, 181
King, Steven, 494–495
Kingdom Come: The Final Victory (Left Behind series), 428
Kissinger, Henry, 394, 397
Klawans, Jonathan, 264
Kloppenborg, John, 52, 63–64
Knesset (Israeli parliament), 403
Koch, Klaus, 2, 41, 326
Koester, Craig, 244, 246
Kook, Abraham Isaac Hacohen, 394
Kook, Yitzhak Hacohen, 393
Kook, Zvi Yehuda, 391–392, 394–397, 401–402, 404–405
Koresh, David, 431–432
Kothar wa-Hasis (figure in Canaanite myth), 377
Kourlas, Gia, 478
Kratz, Reinhard, 193
kyriarchy, 170
Lacocque, André, 191, 460
Ladder of Jacob, dreams and visions in, 112
LaHaye, Beverly, 444
LaHaye, Timothy, 241, 428, 443, 453–454, 497–498
La Jetée (film), 477
Lakoff, George, 3
Lambert, David, 264
Lamm, Norman, 402
Landes, Richard, 434
Laodicea, 171, 232, 246
La Planète des singes (Boulle), 477
Late Great Planet Earth (Lindsey), 10, 428, 445, 477
League against Religious Coercion, 396
Left Behind novels (LaHaye and Jenkins), 10–11, 241, 428–429, 443, 445, 450, 477, 483, 497–498
Levenson, Jon, 28–29
Leviathan, 374–375
Lied, Liv, 323
Lifton, Robert Jay, 469
Lincoln, Bruce, 436
Lindsey, Hal, 10–11, 428, 443, 445–446, 448–449, 454, 477
Loew, Rabbi Judah (Maharal of Prague), 402
Long, C.E., 91
Longenecker, Bruce, 318
Lord of the Rings trilogy (Tolkien), 498
(p. 541) Lucian, 6
Lücke, Gottfried Christian Friedrich, 1
Luckmann, Thomas, 125
Lugbara Indians, 132
Luke, Gospel of: anti-imperial themes in, 132–133;
eschatology and, 298, 300–301, 303;
ethics and, 300–301
Luther, Martin, 239, 303
Maccabees (1): Judean ethnic identity in, 137–138;
Syrian conquest of Judea and, 150
Maccabees (2): Judean ethnic identity in, 137;
Syrian conquest of Judea and, 150
Mack, Burton, 63
Madigan, Kevin, 29
Maier, Harry, 169, 246
Maimonides, 391–392, 402
Malachi: angel in, 32;
apocalypse and apocalyptic imagination and, 31–32;
Deuteronomy and, 32;
Exodus and, 32;
messenger of the covenant in, 32
Malina, Bruce, 131
Malkireša, 278–279, 287
Mani, 360, 367
Manichaeism, 360, 367–368
Maoris, 128
Marduk, 8, 23, 376
Margaliot, Rabbi Yeshaya Asher Zelig, 400–401
Mark, Gospel of: compared to Matthew, 329;
on divorce, 306;
eschatology and, 296–298, 300–301, 303, 332;
on Jesus’s suffering, 408
Marriage of Heaven and Hell (Blake), 408
Marshall, John W., 176
Martyn, J. Louis, 21, 336
Marwick, Max, 131
Mary Magdalene, 411
Mason, Steve, 158
Matlock, Barry, 336
The Matrix (film), 479, 485–488, 490, 500
Matthew, Gospel of: compared to Mark, 329;
conflicts in, 331–332;
eschatology and, 296–298, 300, 303, 306, 332;
ethics and, 300–301;
eunuchs and, 302;
judgment and, 297, 333, 419;
Kingdom of God teaching and, 328;
Mayan apocalypse, 10, 461, 483, 500–501
McCarthy, Cormac, 13
McGinn, Bernard, 6
McKerrow, Raymie, 203
mebin (“understanding one”), 56
“mecha” (science fiction genre), 484
Mede, Joseph, 409
Meeks, Wayne, 126, 129, 220, 307
Melchizedek, 208, 214, 278, 287
Memmi, Albert, 182, 195
merkavah (Ezekiel’s chariot-throne vision), 85, 88, 90–92, 98–99
Merkaz Harav Yeshiva, 394, 397
Merkur, Dan, 115
metalepsis, 241–242
Metatron, 91, 97
metonymy, 242–243
Michael (angel), 208, 214, 278, 284–285
Midrash, 395
Milik, Józef, 60, 315
millennial movements. See also premillennial dispensationalism: apocalyptic thinking and, 25–26, 30–31, 431;
avertive millennialism and, 426;
catastrophic millennialism and, 425;
categories of, 430–437;
Christian dispensationalism and, 427–429;
core values of, 425;
definition of millennialism and, 504n2;
deprivation and, 130, 164–165;
early Islam and, 427;
imperial millennialism and, 434;
martyrdom and, 431, 433;
messiahs and, 426, 431;
nativist forms of, 425–426;
nostalgia and, 464;
peaceful waiting and, 426;
“pragmatics of failure” and, 438;
progressive millennialism and, 425;
rhetoric of, 201;
separatism and, 426, 430;
social science research on, 124, 126–127, 129–131, 164;
trauma and, 463;
typology of, 130;
violence and, 422, 425–437
Miller, William, 10, 445, 497
Miller Jr., Walter M., 495–496
“Milton, a Poem” (Blake), 416–417
Moltmann, Jürgen, 30
monster theory: definitional elements of, 184–186;
difference and boundaries in, 184–186, 195;
lexicography and, 188–193;
natural wonders and, 184–185;
Near Eastern literature and, 191–192;
signifiers and, 194
Montanism, 305, 409
Moody Bible Institute, 452
Moore, Alan, 477, 493–494
Moore, Stephen, 152, 244–245, 247
Moral Majority, 428
Morray-Jones, Christopher, 88
Moses: in 1 Enoch, 72–74, 321;
in 2 Baruch, 321;
in 4 Ezra, 45, 47;
Jubilees and, 43, 47, 69, 73, 316
Mot (Canaanite god) 23
Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God, 498
Muhammad, 424–425, 427
Müller, Hans-Peter, 58
Münster (Germany), Anabaptists in, 429–430
Müntzer, Thomas, 412–413
Murdock, George, 131
mutually assured destruction doctrine, 477
(p. 542) Mystic Crucifixion, 411
mysticism: apocalyptic literature and, 85–100;
continuity in, 85, 89–93, 97, 100;
critiques of the concept of, 87–88;
defining elements of, 87–88;
heavenly ascent and, 90–93;
hermeneutics of imagination and, 89;
“mystical union” and, 88–89;
religious studies discipline and, 86–90;
textuality and textual practice in, 94, 99–100
Mystic Nativity (Botticelli), 411
mythologems, 21
Nachmanides, 402
National Socialism (Nazism), 434–435
Native Americans, 26, 126, 132, 149
Navaho Indians, 132
Neal, Arthur, 459–460
Nelavala, Surekha, 245
Neon Genesis Evangelion (Hideaki), 477, 483–485, 494
Neoplatonism, 363, 366
Nero, 163, 176, 468, 474
Nerses of Lambron, 239
Netherlands, 134
Nettles, Bonnie Lu, 498–499
Neuromancer (Gibson), 481–482, 488–493, 500, 502
Newsom, Carol, 2–3, 5
Nickelsburg, George, 66, 129, 315–316, 381–382
“Nightfall” (Asimov), 476
Noack, Ludwig, 52
Norden, Eduard, 344–345
Northern Ireland, 134
Numbers: cultic syncretism and, 32;
on dreams and visions, 408
Obama, Barack, 237–238, 436, 447
Odysseus, 341
Old Testament Theology (Von Rad), 52, 57–58
O’Leary, Stephen D., 201, 209, 220–221, 226, 240
Olivi, Peter, 410
Oppenheim, Leo, 106–107
Orientalism (Said), 182
Orlov, Andrei, 91
Orpheus, 341–342, 353
Orthodox Judaism. See under contemporary Judaism
otherworldly journeys: apocalyptic literature and, 2, 8, 26, 37, 40, 45, 48, 53, 65, 145–146, 206, 208–209, 221, 340–353;
in the classical literary tradition, 341–342;
in dreams and visions, 350–352;
early Christian literature and, 345–347;
guides and questions in, 343–344, 347, 352–353;
into immortal heavenly life, 352;
Near Eastern literary tradition of, 340;
soul’s journey to heaven and, 348–350;
Virgil and, 344–345
Papua, 126
Paraclete, 409
parenesis, 333
Park, Katharine, 184–185
Patrick of Ireland, 303
Paul: anti-imperial themes in, 132–133;
apocalypse and apocalyptic discourse in, 6, 13, 219, 223, 227, 231–232, 301, 336–338;
egalitarianism and, 307;
eschatology and, 296, 301–302, 306, 327;
Jerusalem and, 304–305;
Jesus and, 335, 337;
the parousia and, 327;
prophecy and, 13;
resurrection and, 338;
revelation and, 227, 231;
on rulers, 413;
sex and, 301–302;
women and, 307
Peoples Temple (cult of Jim Jones), 468–469, 498
Pergamum, 171, 232
Peter (2), apocalyptic discourse in, 222–223
Philadelphia, 171, 232
Pippin, Tina, 11, 168, 183
Planet of the Apes (film), 477
Plate, Brent, 249n3
Plato: apocalypses of, 366;
otherworldly journeys and, 344, 347, 349;
soul and, 349
Plotinus, 363
pluriformity thesis regarding ancient Jewish texts, 38–40
Plymouth Brethren, 10
Pontius Pilate, 337
Popović, Mladen, 38
popular culture, apocalypticism and, 473–504
Portier-Young, Anathea, 135–138, 148, 183, 192, 224
postcolonial analysis: biblical literature and, 181;
hybridity and, 182, 195;
monster theory and, 183–184, 195;
as resistance discourse, 172, 180–181
premillennial dispensationalism, 10–11, 240, 427–429, 442–445;
Bible as code in, 448;
environmental issues and, 453;
extra-institutional framework of, 449–450;
flexibility in, 445–447;
identifying the Antichrist and, 447;
Israel and, 451;
media and, 441, 450, 453–454;
missionary work and, 452;
prophetic framework of, 447–448;
separatism and, 451–452;
United Nations and, 446–447
Preparedness 101: Zombie Apocalypse, 495
Promethea (Moore), 481–483, 493–494, 505n9
prophecy: apocalyptic literature and, 7, 19–24, 27, 30–31, 36–48, 57–60, 145, 221;
Daniel and, 40–41, 75–76, 81–82, 213, 258, 414;
defining elements of, 36–37;
divine judgment and, 37;
eschatology and, 60;
Ezekiel and, 19, 24, (p. 543) 37, 47, 305, 336;
Isaiah and, 7, 12–13, 19, 32, 58, 76, 82, 305;
Jeremiah and, 7, 31, 37, 41, 47, 81, 258–259, 305;
questions of authorial identity regarding, 39–40;
revisions of texts regarding, 39;
salvation history and, 58;
strategies of inheritance regarding, 40;
visions and, 37, 60;
Zechariah and, 19–20, 23–25, 27, 41, 305
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, 434
prototype theory, 4–5
Proudfoot, Wayne, 87
Proverbs: Dame Folly in, 62;
natural world in, 61;
wisdom literature worldview and, 55–56, 58, 62, 64, 282;
Woman Wisdom in, 54, 62–63
Psalms, monsters and, 189, 374
pshat and drash (literal meaning as distinct from exegetical meaning), 393
Ptolemy VI, 378
Ptolemy VIII, 378
Puritanism, 444
Pythagoras, 341–342
Q (New Testament Source): apocalypse in, 63–64;
beatitudes and instruction in, 64;
compared to Dead Sea Scrolls, 64;
compared to Proverbs, 64;
eschatology in, 63–64;
wisdom literature worldview in, 52, 63–64
Qoheleth, 13. See also Ecclesiastes
Qumran. See Dead Sea Scrolls
Qur’an: millennial and eschatological concerns in, 424–425;
violence and, 435
Rabban Simeon ben Gamaliel, 98
Rabbi Ishmael, 98
Rabbi Nathan of Gaza, 25
Rabbi Nehunya ha-Qanah, 98
Rader, Dean, 149, 158–159
Radermacher, Ludwig, 344
radical Christianity (Rowland), 12
radical dualism, 422–423, 436, 438
Rahner, Karl, 22
Raphael, Rebecca, 184
Rashba, 392
raz nihyeh (mystery that is to be), 56, 61, 211, 283
Reader, Ian, 438
Reagan, Ronald, 428, 453
Redles, David, 434
Reeves, John, 154
Reid, Stephen, 127
Reimarus, Hermann Samuel, 328
rephaim, 28–29
resistance: in 1 Enoch, 146, 151–152, 160;
ancient Near Eastern traditions of, 148;
conceptualization of, 146–147, 160;
contextual versus compositional, 149–150;
in Daniel, 6, 132, 138–139, 146, 148, 151, 153, 157–159, 380, 475
resurrection in apocalyptic literature, 7, 26–27, 29, 37, 53
Revelation, Book of: allegory and, 236, 239–240, 243–247;
angels in, 113, 462;
Antichrist in, 239, 241, 290;
anti-mercantile emphasis in, 246;
apocalypse and, 1, 6, 20, 53, 96, 129, 152, 218, 223–224, 227, 409, 473;
apocalyptic radicals’ interpretation of, 409, 411–412, 414–417, 431–432, 434–435, 446, 480;
appeals to authority in, 228;
audience in, 225;
Augustine’s reading of, 239;
Babylon and, 229;
Beast figure in, 229–230, 424;
blessings and curses in, 230;
concept of divine power in, 166;
courtroom drama in, 238;
Daniel and, 223–224, 409;
date of writing of, 163;
desire and sexualiziation in, 244, 247–248;
dreams and visions in, 113, 228, 408;
dualism in, 290–291;
early Christian church and, 164–167, 170–171, 173, 218, 225, 228–229, 232, 423–424;
Ezekiel and, 224, 408;
Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse and, 474;
fundamentalist interpretations of, 428, 437;
gender ideology and, 168, 172–173, 235–236, 244–247;
historical context behind, 163–167;
imperial and anti-imperial themes in, 6, 132, 152, 163–177, 232, 235–236, 245–246, 409, 424, 468;
imperial cults and, 169;
Isaiah and, 224, 408;
Jesus in, 247;
Jewish tradition and, 176, 219, 224;
Jezebel and, 173, 229;
judgment and vengeance in, 229;
justice and hope themes in, 12;
kyriarchy and, 170;
Lamb in, 229–230;
martyrdom and, 424, 431;
millenarian perspective and themes in, 129, 164–165, 170, 218, 425;
modern contexts of interpretation and, 174–175;
monster theory and, 183;
mythical paradigms and, 8–9;
narrativity and, 176–177;
Nicolaitans and, 173;
otherworldly journey in, 218;
parody and, 169;
political oppression themes in, 127;
radicalism and, 408–409;
as response to persecution, 164;
scribal identity and, 224–225;
sex and sexualization in, 244, 301;
social science approaches to, 164–166, 172;
sorcery and witchcraft themes in, 132;
symbolism and imagery in, 164, 166, 170, 229–230, 409, 412, 414–416, 423–424, 431, 434–435, 446, 448–449, 468, 474, 481;
textuality and textual practice in, 96, 99;
transcendence and, 169;
violence in, 11, 237, 244, 423, 468;
Whore of Babylon and, 235–239, 243–248, 423–424, 474
revelation and revelation themes in apocalyptic literature, 2, 5, 7, 37, 41, 46, 53, 70–71, 74, 124, 218, 222, 312–313, 336, 360, 367, 461
(p. 544) rhetoric: appeals to authority in, 221;
content analysis method and, 204;
defining elements of, 202–203, 220;
early Christian forms of, 219–232;
elite versus popular forms of, 224–226;
enthymemes and, 231–232;
epideictic forms of, 206;
epiphanic forms of, 206;
eschatological distress and, 223;
exhortation and, 223;
frame analysis and, 204;
identification and, 229;
logos (appeal to reason) and, 221, 230–232;
millennial forms of, 220–221;
pathos (ability to move an audience) and, 221, 228–229;
persuasion and, 202–203, 220;
primary versus secondary forms of, 222–224, 227;
references to persecution and, 228–229;
symbolic convergence theory and, 203–204
Ribeiro, Rene, 129
Ringatu church (New Zealand), 128
The Road (McCarthy), 13
Robbins, Vernon, 203
Roma (Roman goddess), 245, 247
Roman Empire: apocalyptic literature and, 6, 11, 131–132, 135–136, 164–169, 171–172, 176, 244–247;
early Christian church and, 167;
Josephus on, 156–157
Romulus, 352
Roquetaillade, Jean de, 482, 494
Rosenfeld, Jean, 436
Rowland, Christopher, 5, 12, 88, 92, 336, 460
Royalty, Robert, 168
Sabbatai Zvi, 25, 396, 401, 419
Sabbatean Movement, 396, 401, 404
Said, Edward, 172, 181–183
Samuel (1), dreams and visions in, 107–108
Sanders, E.P., 5, 318, 334–335
sapiental literature. See wisdom literature
Sardis, 232
Sauron, 23
Savonarola, Girolamo, 410–411
Schäfer, Peter, 89–91
Schivelbusch, Wolfgang, 466
Schleiermacher, Friedrich, 87
Scholem, Gershom, 85–86, 88–90
Schoolgirl Apocalypse (film), 478
Schramm, Brooks, 32
Schuller, Eileen, 257, 264
Schwartz, Dov, 392
Schwartz, Seth, 7–8
Schweitzer, Albert, 327–331, 333, 335–336
Scofield, Cyrus, 240
The Scofield Reference Bible, 443
Scott, James C., 132, 135–136, 147
Second Temple Period: apocalyptic literature and, 70;
scriptural issues during, 38–40, 48, 52, 69–71, 80
Seleucid Empire, 6, 127, 135–136, 138, 150, 160. See also Antiochus IV
Semeia 14 (1979), discussion of apocalypse genre in, 2–3, 5, 8, 39, 47–48, 53, 204
Semeia 36 (1986) discussion of apocalypse genre, 5–6
Seneca Indians, 26, 128
September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, 469, 474, 477, 503
Serial Experiments Lain (anime), 482
Seth-Typhon, 379
Seventh Day Adventist movement, 10, 430, 437, 445
The Shape of Things to Come (Wells), 476
Shapira, Zvi Elimelch (Monkacz Rebbe), 398–400
sharia law, 435
Sharon, Ariel, 428
Sheol, 20, 24
Shepherd of Hermas: apocalypse and, 218;
audience in, 225–226;
dialogues in, 218;
dreams and visions in, 218, 230;
monster in, 230;
moral instruction in, 218;
narrative conventions in, 227, 230
Shlezinger, Akiva Yosef, 398
Sibylline Oracles: animals in, 193;
assertions in, 230;
on cleansing with water, 337;
wisdom and, 63
Sirach. See Ben Sira
Six Day War (1967), 10, 392, 393–394, 397
Sixth Syrian War (170-168 BCE), 378
Smith, Anthony, 133–134, 136
Smith, Jonathan Z., 59
Smith, Margaret, 87
Smith, Mark, 377
Smyrna, 171, 232
social science approach to apocalyptic literature: anthropology and, 128, 131–132;
ethnography of indigenous populations and, 125–126;
identity and ethnicity research and, 133–137, 139;
imperialism and colonialism studies and, 132–133, 135–139;
magic and witchcraft research and, 131;
millennial groups and, 124, 126–127, 129–131, 164;
social identity theory and, 137;
sociology of knowledge research and, 125–127, 133
Solar Temple (apocalyptic group), 498
Sopher, Hatam (Moshe), 398
Sorotzkin, David, 398–399
souls: Greek notion of, 348–349;
Iranian notion of, 349;
journey to heaven by, 348–350;
purification of, 349
(p. 545) Southcott, Joanna, 415–416
Soviet Union, 174–175, 477
Spivak, Gayatri, 241–242
The Stand (King), 483, 494–495, 502
Stauber, Chad, 264
Stoicism, 65, 255–257, 263, 265, 307, 366
Stone, Michael, 7, 59, 80, 344
Storey, John, 475
Stringfellow, William, 418
Strozier, Charles, 459, 463
Struck, Peter, 238–239
Sturm, Richard, 6
Sugirtharjah, R.S., 180–181
Suter, David W., 383
Swain, Joseph Ward, 148
Swales, John, 4–6
symbolic convergence theory, 203–204
Syria, 437
Tajfel, Henri, 137
Takashi, Murakami, 505n10
Taubes, Jacob, 417–418
Taxo, 308
Teeter, Andrew, 76
Teitelbaum, Rabbi Yoel (Satmar Rebbe), 391–392, 398–405
Temple Scroll, rewriting of sacred texts in, 69
Teskey, Gordon, 242
Testament of Abraham: determinism and, 259;
heavenly tribunal in, 95;
heavens in, 350, 381;
monsters and, 187–188
Testament of Levi: dreams and visions in, 111–112, 350;
heavens in, 350, 381
Testament of Moses: martyrdom and, 468;
resistance to empire themes in, 148
Theopompus, 26
Theses on the Philosophy of History (Benjamin), 418
Thessalonika, Pauline church in, 129
A Thief in the Night (film), 445, 450
Thomas, Trudy, 29
Thompson, Don, 450
Thompson, Leonard, 166–168, 170, 177n2
Thrupp, Sylvia, 125
Thyatira, 171, 232
Tiamat, 23, 191, 376–377
The Time Machine (Wells), 476, 478
Titus Andronichus, 128, 131
Tolkien, J.R.R., 498
Tompkins, Jane, 148–149
Torah: 1 Enoch and, 313–317, 323–324;
2 Baruch and, 320–324;
4 Ezra and, 317–320, 323–324;
canonical status of, 312–313;
lamp metaphor and, 321;
Moses and, 321;
revelation and, 313;
wisdom and, 322;
Zadokite traditions and, 24, 27, 31–33
Trophonius, Oracle of, 116
tragedy, generic conventions of, 44
Trapnel, Anna, 414
trauma: apocalypse and, 458–471;
apocalyptic violence and, 467–469;
Christian fundamentalists’ sense of, 463–464;
collective forms of, 458–459, 463–464, 466, 470;
disruption and, 458–461, 463–464;
group suicides and, 468–469;
individual forms of, 458–459, 464, 466;
national disaster and, 466;
rebirth of identity and, 466–467;
revelation and, 460–461;
search for meaning and, 462–463;
transformative moment in, 459–460
Trible, Phyllis, 203
Trinity United Reformed Church (Visalia, California), 236–237
Triumph of the Cross (Savonarola), 411
True Levellers Standard (Winstanley), 415
Tupi-Gurani tribes (Brazil), 129–130
Turner, John, 137, 364
Twelve Monkeys (film), 477–478
Tyconius, 418
Typhon myth, 378–379
Ugaritic mythology, 8–9, 24, 191–192, 378
Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Stowe), 149
United Nations, 446–447
Urban II (pope), 438n1
Uriel, 47, 318, 320
Vailala madness movement, 126, 129
Valentinus, 365
Valley of Hinnom, 24
Van Impe, Jack, 443, 446, 454
vaticinia ex eventu (prophecy after the event), 78, 213, 260–261
Vespasian, 156–157
V for Vendetta (Moore), 477
Vielhauer, Philipp, 3
Vines, Michael, 3
violence: in apocalyptic literature, 11–12, 422–438;
in the Book of Revelation, 11, 237, 244, 423, 468;
millennial movements and, 422, 425–437;
radical dualism and, 422–423, 436, 438;
trauma and, 467–469
Virgil, otherworldly journeys and, 344–345
Vision of Ezra: dreams and visions in, 350;
otherworldly journey in, 346
Vision of Thurkill, 482
Vision of Tnugdalus, 482
Von Rad, Gerhard, 42, 52–53, 57–60, 65
(p. 546) Wachowski, Larry and Andy, 485
Waco (Texas), 431–433
Walliss, John, 423
Walton, John, 192
War of the Worlds (film), 476, 478
Watchmen (Moore), 493
Weber, Timothy, 450–452
Weiss, Johannes, 327–331, 335
Wells, H.G., 476, 478
When Time Shall Be No More (Boyer), 453
Wilder, Amos, 11, 13, 480–481, 501
Wills, Lawrence, 159
Wilson, Bryan, 126–128
Winstanley, Gerrard, 12, 407, 414–415
Winthrop, John, 407
Wisdom in Israel (Von Rad), 57–58
wisdom literature: apocalyptic literature and, 7, 52, 56–67, 316;
categories of, 54;
contemplation and, 57;
contemporary scholarly trends regarding, 66–67;
Dead Sea Scrolls and, 55–56, 60–62, 280, 282–283, 285–286;
defining elements of, 53–55;
determinism and, 282–283, 286;
dualism and, 61–62, 214, 282–283, 285–286;
emphasis on learning in, 60;
genre classification and, 66;
Hellenistic influences on, 53, 65;
historical theology and, 57;
instructions and, 54–58, 64;
mantic wisdom and, 54, 58;
Q New Testament source and, 63–64;
scribes and, 59;
Torah and, 62;
Von Rad’s scholarship on, 52–53, 57–60, 65
Wisdom of Solomon: apocalypse and, 61;
monsters and, 190;
wisdom literature worldview and, 56, 59, 61–62, 65
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 3–4
Wojcik, Daniel, 452
Wolff, Christian, 271
Wolfson, Elliot, 89, 92
Worsley, Peter, 125
Wright, Ben, 42
Wyndham, John, 476
X (manga work), 477
Yamm (Canaanite god), 377
Yarbro Collins, Adela, 158, 165, 167, 172, 424, 448
Yom Kippur War (1973), 394, 397
Zadokite traditions of the Torah, 24, 27, 31–33
Zalmoxis, 342
Zechariah: angels in, 20, 41, 109, 113;
apocalyptic and eschatological concerns in, 23–25, 30–31, 304–305;
dreams and visions in, 45, 109, 113, 116;
Persian influences and, 27, 30–31;
prophecy in, 19–20, 23–25, 27, 41, 305;
purification through smelting imagery in, 27
Zeus-Typhon Myth, 379
Zimmerli, Walter, 189–191
Zionism, 391–405
Zoroastrianism: apocalypticism and, 8, 26–27;
determinism and, 266–268;
dualism and, 271, 273, 282–283, 285
Zostrianos, apocalyptic and eschatological concerns in, 363
Zurvanism, 267