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date: 20 January 2020

(p. 751) Index

(p. 751) Index

ACTFL
Oral Proficiency Interview, 565
Performance Guidelines, 565
Proficiency Guidelines, 565, 567, 570
adverbs, Chinese
of degree, 418–19
of negation, 419
predicate-oriented vs. clause-oriented, 414
quasi-affixation of, 416
reduplication of, 416
relative positioning of, 415
of scope, 420–21
of stance, 421–22
syllable restriction of, 417
temporal, 418
Afro-Asiatic, 138
Albanian, 141
allophony, 14, 474, 477, 486
Altaic languages, 6, 9, 11, 91, 92, 135, 206, 250, 495, 551
agglutinative morphology of, 20, 216
areal diffusion from, in Chinese, 389
modern descendants of, 20
verb-final syntax of, 20
vowel harmony of, 20
ambiguity, lexical, 666
experiments on the resolution of, 670–71
and Interactive Activation Framework, 670
and Modularity Hypothesis, 670
Angami-Pochuri languages, 140f, 141
Anxi, 236
Ao languages, 141
Armenian, 141
aspect marker, Chinese, 178, 267
experiential marker guo, 157, 271, 276, 280–83, 289n3
perfective verb suffix le, 208, 271, 276–78, 281, 283, 288nn1–2
progressive marker zai, 157, 283–85, 287, 320n3
sentence-final discourse marker LE, 278–80, 288n2
stative marker zhe, 271, 285–88
and temporal specificity, 281–83
two perfective markers, 276
Austric, 6, 10, 39, 119, 250
endangerment of the languages of, 107
hypothesis, 21, 107, 117, 124
Austroasiatic, 36, 41, 107, 124, 135, 137, 169, 509, 552
complex initial and initial clusters in, 113–14 (see also Wa language)
distribution of, 111
four major subfamilies of, 111–12
large inventory of finals in, 112–13
large sets of consonantal codas in, 113 (see also Blang language)
as mostly toneless, 112
syllable structures of, 114
typological features of, 116–17
widespread affixation in, 114–15
Austronesian languages, 10, 21, 36, 39, 41, 107, 111, 117–18, 129, 130, 250, 380, 381t, 551, 553
as agglutinating languages, 117
as a branch of the Austric languages, 117
correspondences in basic vocabulary with Kam-Tai, 117
distribution of, 121
the most diverse and archaic in Taiwan, 20, 122–23 (see also Formosan languages)
rich morphophonology in, 350
southeastern coastal areas of Asia as pre-Austronesian, 124
typological differences from Kam-Tai resulting from contact with Chinese, 117
(p. 752) western vs. eastern (Oceanic), 123
with Taiwan as homeland and reservations, 124
BA construction, 14, 209, 212, 429–41, 582
decline of the purposive usage in, 435–36
as grammaticalized object marker, 429–30
from light verb to preposition in, 434, 436–38
with predicate focus on the effect, 430
with RVCs as its main predicate, 430–31
and temporal boundness, 430
Bagua, 556
Bai language, 27, 45, 142, 248, 249f2, 250, 255–57, 445
age difference in the word order of, 51
controversy about its genetic affinity, 12
different from most Tibeto-Burman languages in NP position, 51
different from most Tibeto-Burman languages in prepositions, 51
heavy contact with Chinese, 256
VO but RelN language for word order, 380
as Yi-Chinese Creole, 255
Bai people, 255, 554
ancestors of, 251
Minjia vs. Junjia, 252
Bai Yu Jing, 239
Baijiaxing, 560
Bailang Ge (White Wolf Song)
as earlier specimen of a Tibeto-Burman language, 26
transcription with Chinese characters in, 542
Baiman, 251–52
Banpo, 23, 554
Barlow, George, 135
Beames, John, 136
Benedict, Paul, 111, 137
Black Mountain Mönpa languages, 140f, 142
Blang language, 116
consonantal codas in, 113
four tones resulting from spontaneous tonogenesis in, 112
initial consonant clusters of, 114
Bobai, 175, 177, 186, 187n8
Bodish languages, 38f, 140f, 142, 144, 248, 249
Boller, Anton, 137
borrowing, 11, 20, 37, 38, 77, 81, 203, 210, 217, 252–53, 255–56, 257
bidirectional vs. unidirectional, 252, 718
and codeswitching, 617–18
contact-induced, 40
and interference, 207
irregular morphological paradigms extremely resistant to, 40
of Middle Chinese into Japanese, 223t
of Middle Chinese into Korean, 226 See also language contact
Brahmaputran languages, 140f, 142, 144, 249f2
bronze inscriptions (Jinwen), 30, 556
Buddhist Hybrid Chinese
copulative use of shi in, 239–40
definition of, 206
grammaticalized conjunction in, 240–41
meaning change of certain expressions in, 241–43
negation word followed by a vocative in, 243
Bugeng language, 389, 551
Bunun language, 10, 121, 123, 127, 128, 131, 551
distribution of, 125
major dialects of, 125–26
phonological innovations of, 126 (see also Isbukun)
recurrence of lexical prefixes in, 132
Burmo-Qiāngic hypothesis, 144
Buyei language, 542, 553
Cai, Lun, 561
Cai, Yong, 557
Cantonese, 14, 16, 34, 46, 112, 143, 158n6, 174–76, 186, 189, 224, 251, 380, 382, 460, 475, 478, 495, 498, 503, 508–09, 516–21, 578, 582, 592, 616, 622–24, 699–702, 710, 717–19.
children’s early vocabulary comprehension of, 646–47
children’s early vocabulary production of, 642–46
crystallized colloquial phrases reflecting archaic syntax in, 184
as lingua franca in Hong Kong SAR, 597–98
as lingua franca in Macao SAR, 597, 598–99
(p. 753) mean formant frequencies of isolated-syllable vowels in, 461–63, 468, 469t
mean formant frequencies of vowels in continuous speech in, 463–68, 469t
as most prestigious southern dialect, 594, 595
processing of ambiguity in, 669–71
rich repertoire of sentence-final particles in, 496
vowel distribution of, 469–70
vowel duration distinction in, 461 See also Yue dialect/language
Cao Zijian Ji, 239
categorical perception (CP), 518, 520–21
Central Plains (Zhongyuan), 20, 155, 173–74, 184–85, 250
Chang’an, 89n1, 220–21, 229, 230
Changjiang. See Yangtze River
Chao, Yuenren, 191, 480, 491, 506, 517, 542
as accomplished musician, 8
as pioneer of the major surveys of Chinese dialects, 8
Chaozhou, 167, 168, 170n10, 228, 481
Chen, Di, 7, 71. See also Maoshi Guyin Kao
Chen, Pengnian, 82
Chepangic languages, 140f, 142, 249f2
Chiang, Kai Shek, 596
CHILDES, 655
Chinese characters/sinograms, 12–13, 16, 17n2, 71, 76, 83, 155–56, 168, 215–17, 219, 222, 224, 226–30, 232, 234n1, 243–45, 290–91, 293, 351, 353–56, 368, 534, 537–38, 542, 552, 580, 592, 603–04, 609t5, 730, 745
and Chinese literacy, 554–61, 690, 692
cognitive basis of, 15
computational studies on children’s acquisition of, 684
and dyslexia, 688–90, 693, 703
historical development of, 250, 554, 556–58
major scripts of, 556, 557f
neurocognitive studies on the reading of, 677
processing of, 562, 666, 689
simplification of, 539, 558, 599n2
six categories of, 4–5
standardization of, 15, 558, 599n2
variation of, 15, 558
Chinese dialects/languages.
aspect markers in, 157, 178, 208, 267, 276–88, 584, 702
as a branch within Tibeto-Burman, 37–38, 135–36, 248–49
common ancestor of, 34–35, 460
comparative construction in, 157, 328, 383–84, 389
consonant clusters by morphology in Pingding, 476
diminutive suffixes in, 157, 169, 177, 187n12
evolution rate of, 154–55
formation of, from the perspective of demographic dynamics, 151–52
genetic affiliation of, 27, 36–42
as a heritage language, 578–86
language-specific properties of, 676, 681–84
little work done on the grammar of, 46
lexical differences of, 156–57
major varieties of, 10, 26f, 35, 149–50, 189, 251, 558, 582, 590–91
mutual intelligibility of, 10, 11, 35, 474, 591, 594, 597
neural representation of nouns and verbs in, 680–82
prevalence of nouns and verbs in early vocabularies of, 650
phonological characteristics chosen in the classification of, 92–93, 152–54
shared writing system of, 10, 558, 561, 592
vs. Sinitic languages, 10, 34, 251, 591
sociopolitical unity of their speakers, 10
syllable structure of, 14, 162–63, 475–76
wrongly thought as representing an inferior developmental stage, 138
Chinese Sign Language, 16, 711, 718, 730, 744
chongniu, 86, 231
sandeng ‘doublet on the third division’, 86
sideng ‘doublet on the four division’, 86
Chuci, 21, 186n3
classics, Confucian, 217, 220, 221, 557
codeswitching
and Conversation Analysis, 621
as creative performance, 621
interclausal vs. intraclausal, 616
(p. 754) interturn vs. intraspeaker, 616
markedness theory of, 619–20
morphological, 616–17
motivation of, 618–20
and translanguaging, 621–24
typology of, by Muysken, 617
typology of, by Poplack, 617–18
cognates, 40–41, 48, 59, 62–63, 107, 111, 125, 184, 228, 248, 253, 255, 257, 437, 597, 711
Conceptual Mapping Model, 672
Conceptual Metaphor Theory, 671–672
Confucius, 3, 7, 534, 535, 563n5, 599
contact languages, 251
with Mandarin Chinese as basic words, 254
with Tibeto-Burman morphosyntactic features, 254
creole, 206, 212, 254, 255, 256, 719
creolization, 254, 257, 617
Cultural Revolution, 137, 546, 547
Cunhua, 108, 157
Dadu, 98, 101n1
Dai language, 108, 109, 110, 117, 542, 545, 551–52
Daic, 135, 137, 143. See also Kradai
Dali, 26, 142, 251–52
Dawenkou, 23, 24, 554
definiteness
and identifiability, 14, 408–12
lexical and morphological, 409
not fully developed as a grammatical category in Chinese, 14, 680
positional, 410–12
Dengyun diagram (dengyuntu)
listing all Chinese syllables from rhyme dictionaries, 244
as milestone of the systematic study of Chinese phonetics, 245
development, lexical
by bilingual children, 658
by children and extralinguistic knowledge, 648, 660–61
and noun bias in English, 646, 678–79
of physical action verbs by children, 654
of polysemous word senses, 616, 659
Dhimalish languages, 142, 249f2
differing literary and colloquial readings (Wen Bai Yi Du), 155–56, 162, 176, 196
definition of, 155
reasons of, 155
Digarish languages, 140f, 142, 249f2
Ding, Du, 559
disposal construction, 167, 205, 207, 209, 212. See also BA construction
divination, 45, 47, 250, 556
Dong language, 108, 110, 509, 545, 551, 552, 553
downstep, 14, 490, 498
Duan, Yucai, 71, 80, 512
Dulong language, 59–60, 542, 551, 553
Dura language, 140f, 141, 142, 249f2
dynamics, demographic
invasion model, 152
refugee model, 151
resettlement model, 151
dyslexia, developmental
and copying skill, 688, 690, 692–93, 703
and morphological awareness, 585, 688, 690, 691
neuroimaging studies of Chinese, 689
and phonological coding system, 688
and rapid automatized naming (RAN), 688, 690
societal differences of Chinese, 693
and visuo-orthographic processing, 688
dyspraxia, 697, 705
electroencephalogram/electroencephalography (EEG), 518, 667, 683
electroglottography (EGG), 445–47
open quotient (OQ), 446–47
speed quotient (SQ), 446–47
entropy, 562, 609, 613
event-related potential (ERP), 667, 676
and grammatical processing, 683–84
and interaction between syntax and semantics, 673
Ersu Shaba, 542, 553
Ersuish languages, 140, 142, 144
Fallen Leaves model, 140, 144
Fangyan, 558, 559
full name of, 4, 541, 562n4
(p. 755) as perhaps the first study in linguistic geography, 4
fanqie, 6, 12, 82, 87, 231
contribution of Buddhist Sanskrit to, 5
as illustrated by a character, 5, 83, 244
as notation method to decompose a syllable, 5, 83, 244
Faxian, 236
Five-point scale (FPS), 503, 506–07
Formosan languages, 124–32
of Amis with VO & RelN word order, 380
archaism of, 122
definition of, 121
important position of, 122–23
members of, 121
the most diverse diachronically and synchronically, 122–23
three major subgroups of, 123–24
frequency following response (FFR), 519, 525
Fu, Maoji, 108, 542
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 518, 562, 667, 672, 676, 677, 679–80, 683, 684, 689, 690
fundamental frequency (F0), 446–47, 448–51, 455, 460, 471, 490–96, 497–98, 506–07, 513, 516–17, 559
Gan dialect/language, 35f, 143, 150, 153t, 154, 156–57, 168, 170nn8–9, 189, 190, 192, 251, 509, 514, 582, 591, 595
gender differences
and female identity of nvguoyin, 633–34, 635
in the Kundulun community, 628–31
in sociolinguistic research, 626–28
in the Toa-gu-tiau community, 631–32
Generative Lexicon Theory, 293–94, 299
de Gobineau, Arthur, 136
Gongduk language, 140f, 141, 142, 249f2
grammatical marker de
and collocation, 368–71
and nominal continuum, 371–74
three functions of, 362
and three types of nouns, 368
use vs. non-use of, 363–65, 367–68
grammaticalization, 46, 167, 203, 240, 300, 385, 388, 409, 412, 513
Gu, Yanwu, 512
Guanhua, 149, 254, 535–36. See also Mandarin
Guoyin Zidian, 536
Guoyu, 9, 15, 535–36, 538, 583, 592, 596–97, 600n4, 698. See also Putonghua and Taiwan Mandarin
Gwoyeu romatzyh, 536, 538
rGyalrongic languages, 140–41, 142, 144
Hakka dialect/language, 35f, 143, 149, 154, 156–57, 174, 176, 187n8, 189, 251, 380, 382, 484, 508–09, 514, 582, 596, 632
dialect islands of, 150
distribution of, 591
early distribution of, 155
phonological feature characterizing, 153
Hamito-Semitic, 138
Han languages. See Chinese dialects
Hangûl, 226, 552, 554
Hani language, 27, 253, 447, 509, 545, 551, 552, 553
Hanzilization, 562
Haudricourt, André-Georges, 8, 63, 66, 74, 76, 123, 513
heritage language (HL), 15
definition of, 578–79
discourse of Chinese as a, 583–85
grammaticality of Chinese as a, 581–82
morphology of Chinese as a, 580
phonology of Chinese as a, 582–83
sociocultural traits of, 585–86
Hiragana, 215, 222, 555
historical linguistics, 37, 144, 245, 448
regular sound change as a basic tenet in, 72
three basic techniques of reconstruction in, 69–70
Hittite, 141
Hmong-Mien. See Miao-Yao
Hodgson, Brian Houghton, 136, 145n1
Hong Kong School for the Deaf (HKSD), 711
Hong Kong Sign Language (HKSL)
as a grammatical system independent of Cantonese, 710
historical development of, 710–12
morphology of, 717–24
phonology of, 712–17
word order and nonmanuals of, 725–26
Honglou Meng, 533
household registration, 151–52
(p. 756) Hrurish languages, 140f, 142, 249f2
Hu, Shi, 533, 536
Hu, Wujing, 557
Hua Yi Yiyu, 96, 542
Huang, Zunxian, 532
Huanghe. See Yellow River
Huangji Jingshi Shu, 95
Huayu, 583, 599n1
Hui dialect/language, 150, 153t, 154, 156, 157, 189, 190, 197–98
Huihui language, 107, 121, 551
as Austronesian language spoken outside Taiwan, 117–18
loss of consonantal endings due to contact with Chinese, 118
as non-agglutinating language, 118
tonal system of, 118
von Humboldt, Wilhelm, 136
ICTCLAS, 337
imperial examination (keju), 6, 100, 152, 155, 560
Indo-Chinese model, 135–36, 137
Indo-European, 7, 25, 27, 36, 40, 41, 45, 54n1, 84, 124, 138, 141, 401, 495, 552, 676, 680, 683, 684
initial China, 24–25
intonation, 393, 490–94, 499–500
and boundary marking, 497
declination of, 498–99 (see also downstep)
and prosodic or narrow focus, 494–95
and topic shift, 496–97
Isbukun
affixation of, 127–28
aspect system of, 131
as Bunun dialect, 125–26
case-marking and pronouns of, 129
consonant inventory of, 126
focus system of, 130–31
morphophonemic alternations in, 126–27
reduplication of, 128
two main syntactic categories of, 128
word order of, 128
isochrony, 499
Japanese language, 6, 11–12, 17n2, 40, 81, 124, 135, 208, 226, 233, 234n1, 352, 380, 381, 383, 395, 400, 401, 505, 514, 531, 533, 534, 535, 555, 590, 600n4, 648, 650, 730
abundant loanwords from Chinese and English, 216
Chinese loanwords of Cantonese origin in, 224
Chinese loanwords increasing at Meiji era, 223
influence of, on Chinese, 215–18
mixed reading style of monzenyomi, 222
mixed writing style of Chinese characters with Katakana, 215
rendered with irregular style classical Chinese, 218–19 (see also Kojiki)
two accents of Wu (Waon) and Han (Seion), 221 (see also Go-on and Kan-on)
written with orthodox classical Chinese, 219–20 (see also Nihonshoki)
Jin dialect/language, 153t, 189
disputed status of, 150
division words in, 154
Jin, Peng, 543
Jing language, 108, 111–12, 116–17
Jingdian Shiwen, 62, 81, 82
Jingpo language (Jingpho), 37f, 141, 142, 449, 542, 545, 551, 553
Junhua, 118t, 157
Jurchen (Nüzhen), 91, 101, 102n8, 206, 542, 552
devoicing of voiced initials as shown by characters of, 97
diphthongization of –k syllables shown by characters of, 96–97
Greater Script vs. Lesser Script, 96
labiodentalization shown by characters of, 97
loss of stop codas shown by characters of, 98
as a Tungusic people, 96
Kachinic languages, 26f, 140f, 142, 249f2, 551
Kaifeng, 535
Kam-Tai language, 10, 36, 112, 114, 116–19, 189, 190, 248, 250, 551
classifiers of, 109
constituent orders of, 110
correspondence sets between Austroasiatic languages and, 111
correspondence sets between Chinese and, 110t
distribution of, 107–08
(p. 757) as genetically related to the Austronesian family, 111
the most important phonological feature characterizing, 108
phonemic tones and vowel length contrasts in, 108
pre-glottalized initials of, 109
symmetrical syllable ending system of, 108
two branches as discussed by Li Fang-Kuei, 108
typological features of, 110
Kan-on, 11, 215, 219, 220–21
and Shin ‘new’ Kan-on, 221
used in reading Confucian classics, 221
Kangju, 236
Karbí languages, 142
Karen languages (Karenic), 37f, 38f, 138, 140f, 142, 249
different from most Tibeto-Burman languages in NP position, 51–53
different from most Tibeto-Burman languages in prepositions, 51
word order change related to language contact in, 45, 50–51
Karlgren, Bernhard, 31n6, 217, 227
his analysis of Shijing rhyming patterns, 71
as father of historical Chinese linguistics, 70
his reconstruction of OC, 68, 72–73, 138
his study of Chinese phonology, 74–76, 87
translation of his monumental work by three scholars, 8
voicing alternation and qusheng derivation as discussed by, 66
Katakana, 215, 222–23, 555
Kazak language, 27, 139f, 545, 551, 552
Khitan, 101, 102n6, 206, 542
Greater Script, 96, 552
Lesser Script, 91, 93–95, 552
Khitan yuanzi (‘basic graphs’, YZ), 93. See also Khitan and Middle Chinese
devoicing of MC voiced obstruents shown by, 94–95
diphthongization of MC –k coda shown by, 92–93, 94
labiodentalization of labial stops or vowels shown by, 95
loss of stop codas shown by, 95
Kho-Bwa languages, 140, 142, 249f2
Kiranti languages, 138, 140, 142, 248, 249f1
von Klaproth, Julius, 135, 136f, 137, 138, 140, 145
Kobon language, 385, 386
Koguryô, 218, 227, 228–29, 230
koineization, 630, 631
Kojiki
as Japan’s oldest historical record, 217
mixed-nature writing systems in, 218–19
phonological system of Go-on in, 219
Kokanon, 218
Koro, 140–41, 143
Koryô, 231
Kradai, 135, 137
Kroeber, Alfred, 137
Kuhn, Ernst, 137
Kukish languages, 140f, 142, 249f2
kun-yomi, 215, 222
kundoku, 223
kakuhitsu, 222
kunten, 222
kunkana, 219
Lahu language, 143, 545, 551, 553
causative/noncausative contrast with difference in tone and/or initial consonant, 61
of the Tibeto-Burman family, 184
language contact
between Chinese and Buddhist Sanskrit, 6, 12, 203–04, 208–10, 236–39, 242–45
and development of Chinese, 11, 203–12
distinctive syntactic features induced by, 207–11
examined through synchronic and diachronic lenses, 211
expansion resulting from, 207–08
between Hani and Chinese, 253
induced by demographic mobility, 151, 632
between Japanese and Chinese, 215–24
between Korean and Chinese, 226–34
with the Manchus in Qing dynasty, 11, 204–05
under Mongol’s control, 11, 204
restructuring resulting from, 208–10
substitution resulting from, 210–11
(p. 758) three extensive periods in Chinese history, 203–05
between Tibeto-Burman and Chinese, 248–57
two different sources in Chinese history, 11
and typological change in Chinese history, 77
between Vietnamese and Chinese, 6, 12, 38, 74, 81, 555
and word order change, 50
See also borrowing
language shift
of Daohua, 253–54
of Wutun language, 253–54
left frontal middle gyrus (LFMG), 689
Lepcha language, 140f, 143, 249f2
Leyden, John Casper, 135
Lhokpu language, 143, 248, 249f2
Li, Fangkuei/Fang-Kuei, 9, 61, 63, 73t, 108, 111
fieldworks of, 542
as pioneer of the study of non-Sinitic languages in China, 8
his proposal of a four-vowel system for OC, 75
Li Jing Ji or Li Zhi Ji, 168
Li language, 108, 185
Li, Si, 557
lingua franca, 15, 149, 156, 174, 252, 535, 590–92, 594–97, 599, 623
Linguistic Variation in Chinese Speech Communities (LIVAC), 602–03, 607, 610, 613n1
Lisu language, 143, 542–43, 545, 551, 553
Liu, Fu, 506
Liu, Xiang, 173
Lolo-Burmese languages, 38f, 140f, 141, 143, 144, 248, 249
Longshan, 23
Lu, Deming, 62, 81
Lu, Fayan, 87, 89
as compiler of Qieyun, 81–82
Luce, Gordon, 137
Luo, Changpei, 8, 108, 245, 542
Luoyang, 20, 81, 89n1, 237, 534–35
Luoyang Qielan Ji (Record of Buddhist Temples in Luoyang), 237, 239
MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, 642t, 643, 646, 649
Magaric languages, 140f, 143, 249f2
Manchu, 11, 20, 26, 96, 204–05, 542, 543, 551, 552
Mandarin
children’s early vocabulary comprehension of, 645–47
children’s early vocabulary production of, 643–45
diphthongization of MC –k syllables as diagnostic characteristic of Northern, 95
disyllabification of, 156
focus-sensitive operator in, 399
as the largest dialect group of modern Chinese, 92
lexical representation and access of, 667–69
mean formant frequencies of isolated-syllable vowels in, 461–63
mean formant frequencies of vowels in continuous speech in, 463–68
as more innovative dialects, 92, 95, 154
multiple topics of, 395
as national standard, 15, 92, 98 (see also Putonghua)
nominal system of, 371–74
as Northern dialect vs. southern dialects of Chinese, 591
novel word learning by infants of, 647–50
polar questions of, 384–86
potential complement construction of, 386–89
as pragmatic, not syntactic language, 401
reasons of the vast distribution of, 149
semantic processing of, 666–73
three formal categories of noun phrases (NPs) in, 405, 408–12
topic prominence of, 14, 393–402, 440
topicalization vs. left dislocation of, 394
two subdialects preserving the diphthongization of MC –k syllables, 93
VO but PP-V for adpositional phrases, 382
VO but RelN language for relative clauses, 380–81
VO but St-Adj for comparative constructions, 383–84
vowel distribution of, 460–71
of Zhongyuan, 252, 510
(p. 759) Man’yōgana, 219, 222
Man’yōshū, 219, 223t
Maonan language, 108, 109, 551, 552
Maoshi Guyin Kao
discrepancies of OC and MC rhyming patterns as discussed in, 71
as first traces of scientific investigation of language, 7
Mashi Wentong, 8
Mayrinax
as Atayal dialect, 124
male and female forms of speech in, 125
Mei, Yingzuo, 558
Meiji Restoration, 531
Meithei language, 140f, 143, 249f2
Menggu Ziyun (MGZY), 98
different diphthong reflexes determined by the nuclear vowel in, 99
flip-flop of voiceless unaspirated and voiced obstruents in, 99
labiodentalization in, 100
monophthongization of MC –k due to surface from restriction in, 99
transcriptions of Chinese in alphabet in, 99
Mengxi Bitan, 6, 445
Mian language, 389
Miao language, 27, 449–50, 545, 551, 552, 553, 554
Miao-Yao (Hmong-Mien), 36, 38, 41, 248, 250, 551
Middle Chinese (MC)
controversies over periodization of, 80
derivation by tone change in, 62–63
entering tone words rhyming with open-syllable words in, 74
four tones of, 84, 161, 169–70n6
kaikou ‘unrounded’ vs. hekou ‘rounded’ initials of, 84
as turning point in the development of Chinese phonology, 80–81
voicing alternations of intransitive/transitive opposition in, 58–59
YI construction of, 207, 208, 212, 431–34, 435, 437, 440
Midźuish languages, 140f, 143, 249f2
Milang, 140–41, 143
Min dialect/language, 81, 143, 157, 174, 176, 184, 190, 192, 193, 197–98, 216, 228, 479–80, 481–82, 495, 509, 512, 592, 595
archaic meaning of words in, 156
Austroasiatic borrowing in, 169
chronological strata of, 169
consonantal system of, 160
demonstratives in, 163
dialect islands of, 150
distribution of, 149, 591
early distribution farther north for, 155
grammatical markers in, 167–68
modals in, 164–66
as the most preservative dialect, 154
negation in, 166–67
phonological features characterizing, 152–54
pronouns in, 164
syllabic structure of, 162–63
tonal system of, 161–62
vocalic system of, 160–61
minority languages, 10, 15, 27, 125, 157, 253, 386, 389, 445, 541–53, 718
mismatch negativity (MMN), 519, 522
Modern Standard Chinese. See Mandarin
Module-Attribute Representation of Verbal Semantics (MARVS), 299, 300–01, 302, 303n7
Mongolian, 20, 204, 206–07, 216, 230, 254, 542, 545, 551, 552
Mongolian Pidgin Chinese, 206
morphemes, Chinese, 263–64
and affixes, 267
and affixed words, 270
and bound roots, 267
and bound root words, 269–70
content vs. function, 265
and content words, 266
and compound words, 268–70
and derived words, 270
and function words, 266–67
free vs. bound, 264–65
and noun inflection, 273
and verb inflection, 271–73
motion morphemes, 322–24, 329–34
diagnostics of four-way classification of, 325–29
four-way classification of, 325
two-way classification of, 324–25
(p. 760) Motion Morpheme Hierarchy, 330, 332–33
Mru language, 140f, 143, 249f2
Mulao language, 108, 109, 389, 551
Müller, Friedrich Max, 136
Multi-Register and Four-Level Model (RLM), 506, 508f
Nà-Qiāngic hypothesis, 144
Naic/Naish languages, 140, 143, 144
Nanzhao, 251
Naxi language, 37f, 140, 143, 255, 542, 545, 551, 553, 555
Newaric languages, 52, 140f, 143, 144, 249f2
Nihonshoki, 217–19
grammatical and pragmatic markers highlighted in, 222
replacement of Go-on with Kan-on in, 219–20
tendency to select rare characters intentionally in, 220
from various source materials and by many authors, 220
Nu language, 542
Nungish languages, 37f, 140f, 143, 248, 249f2
Nüzhen Yiyu (NZYY), 96–97
Old Chinese (OC), 6–7, 35–36, 39f, 54nn5–6, 68, 70–73, 77–78, 87, 110t, 138, 158nn1–2, 158n5, 176, 182, 256, 431–32, 434, 487n1, 512–13, 561
archaic features of, 154
causative *s- prefix and its devoicing effect of, 38, 58–59, 62
characteristics of, reflected in Paekche materials, 229–30
characteristics of, reflected in Suiko materials, 217–18
classical literary language based on, 532
as common ancestor of the Sinitic languages, 34
consonant clusters of, 74
development associated with spread of Chinese civilization, 250
as a discourse-based language, 46
four types of obstruents as reconstructed by Kalgren, 75
medial *-r- hypothesis of, 75
nominalizing and perfective *-s suffix of, 62–66
phrase-internal modifier-modified order of, 49–50
pragmatic account of alternate word order in, 46
preverbal adverbial quantifier of, 49
qusheng (departing-tone) derivation of, 64–66, 76
tonegenesis of, 63, 74, 76
topic-comment structure of, 46, 50
value of reconstruction of, 36, 41, 69
voicing alternations of intransitive/transitive opposition in, 58–59
word order change related to focus position change in, 48
word order change related to language contact in, 50
word order in nominal quantifier phrase of, 50
Old Chosôn, 227
onkana, 219
Opium War, 531
Optimality Theory (OT), 632
oracle bone inscriptions (Jiaguwen), 30, 46–47, 68, 70, 184, 250, 554, 556, 557f, 558
orthography, Chinese, 290–92, 293–94, 302, 558
adaptation of alphabetic writing in code-switching context, 352
challenges in word identification and segmentation, 13, 349, 351, 353–55, 359
and Word Boundary Decision (WBD), 357–59
orthographically relevant level (ORL), 291, 293, 294, 351–53
Paekche, 217–18, 220, 227, 228–29, 234n1
hP’ags-pa Script, 91, 99.
based on the Tibetan script, 98
loss of stop coda distinction in, 100See also Menggu Ziyun
Pali language, 203, 204, 210, 212
parts of speech (POS), 264–66, 268
Peking Man, 22–23
Pekingese, 155, 158n7, 185, 503, 504, 506–09, 512, 514n1. See also Mandarin and Putonghua
(p. 761) phonation types, 13, 445, 506, 509, 510, 513
and harmonic analysis, 446, 449
and inverse filtering analysis, 446, 449
and lax and tense vowels, 447–48
linguistic significance of, 451–56
study by high-speed images, 452
phonograms, 4
components of, 5
as the most numerous type of characters, 5
phonetic information of, 5
Pinghua, 150, 153t, 154, 156–57, 189
Pinyin, Hanyu, 17n3, 31n9, 46, 352, 538, 559–60, 562, 593, 688, 693, 703, 707n1, 745
post-focus compression (PFC), 494–95
Pott, August Friedrich, 136
Proto-East Asian, 39
Przyluski, Jean, 137
Puroik, 140–41, 142
Putonghua, 9, 12, 14, 149, 487n3, 538, 543, 559–60, 583, 597–99, 619, 698, 699–701
basic characteristics traceable to Liao Dynasty, 91, 100
complementary distribution of mid-vowels in, 477
complex complementarity of, 478–79
constituent order governed by information structure, 440, 441
as domestic lingua franca in Greater China, 535, 590
er-affixation of, 476 (see also rhotacization)
four tones of, 153t, 158n7, 503–04
as international lingua franca, 599
learning of, by dialect speakers, 594
as national standard, 15, 536–37, 559, 590, 592–95, 597
neutral tones in, 460, 485–86, 559
regional variants of, 595
See also Mandarin and Pekingese
Pyu language, 140f, 141, 143, 249f2
Qiang language, 250, 542, 546, 551, 553
Qiangic (Qiāngic) languages, 37f, 38f, 140f, 143, 144, 248, 249
Qianziwen, 217, 560
Qieyun, 6, 9, 80–82, 92, 100–01, 193, 218, 227, 229, 231, 244, 559
fifteen allophones of six vocalic phonemes in, 87–88
phonological system reconstructed from, 83
purpose of the compilation of, 81
sihu ‘four types of finals’ of, 86
as standard correct speech in the 6th century, 191
thirty-six initials of, 84–85
two best revised editions preserved to this day of, 82
Qinshihuang, 556
Qixinlang, 205
Qiyin Lue, 82, 99
qualia structure, 291, 293, 301, 302
radical (bushou), 291–94, 295f2, 539, 555, 580, 689, 692, 745
definition of, 4
and event structure of verbal semantics, 13
as miniature representation of the world in semantic categories, 4
Raji-Raute languages, 140f, 143, 249f2
rectification of names (zhengming)
definition of, 3
as discussed by Confucius, 3
as discussed by Xunzi, 4
referentiality, 14
discourse thematic, 407–08
logic-philosophical, 404
pragmatic, 405–06
semantic, 405, 406t
relations, lexical-semantic (LSR), 298, 299
and Chinese WordNet, 296
and English WordNet, 296
EVENT vs. ROLE modules, 300
of paranymy and contrary paranymy, 296–97
Renan, Ernest, 136
representation, lexical, 16, 667–68
in early bilinguals, 681
in late bilinguals, 681–82
in monolinguals, 680–81
resultative verb complement/compound (RVC), 277–78, 306–07, 311–12, 315–17, 319, 430–31, 438, 441
and argument realization, 307
and causativity, 308–09
(p. 762) as covert achievements, 312–14
multimorpheme motion constructions (MMMC) as, 322–23, 329–32, 334, 334n4
and transitivity alternations, 309–10
rhotacization, 157
rhyme dictionaries
of Guangyun, 6, 82, 100, 231, 559
of Hongwu Zhengyun, 559
of Libu Yunlüe, 559
of Peiwen Shiyun, 559
of Zhongyuan Yinyun (ZYYY), 6, 91, 98, 101
rhyme groups
classification based on tones, 83
four deng ‘divisions’ based on degrees of frontness, 84
or yunbu, 87
rhyme table
of Yunjing, 6, 82
of Yuntu, 83
Ricci, Matteo, 21, 538
Roosevelt, Franklin, 137
Rui, Yifu, 542
Śabdavidyā, 244
Sanskrit, 5, 6, 12, 19, 40, 45, 203, 208–10, 220, 236, 239, 242, 243–45, 552
becoming active morphemes in Chinese lexicon, 238
in Buddhist literature and daily life, 238
translated semantically in Chinese, 237
transliterated in Chinese, 237
Samguk sagi, 229
Sanxingdui, 554
Sanzijing, 555
Scalar Specificity Constraint, 332–33
Schott, Wilhelm, 136
senmyōgaki, 219, 222
sentence-final particles (SFP), 279–80, 288n2, 495–96
serial verb construction, 209, 212, 363, 388–89, 390n3, 431–35, 439–40, 657, 659
Shangshu, 250, 556
Shao, Yong, 95
Shaowu language, 169
She language, 389
Shen, Kuo, 6, 445. See also Mengxi Bitan
Shen, Yue, 5, 62, 513
Shengyin Changhe Tu, 95
Shi Shuo Xin Yu, 190, 191
Shijing, 7, 9, 74–75, 80, 558, 560, 561
phonological system reconstructed from, 6
as spoken source for studying Ancient China, 30
as textual evidence for the reconstruction of Old Chinese, 70–71
shōmyō, 221
Shuihu Zhuan, 533
Shuo Yuan, 173
Shuowen Jiezi, 4, 5, 71, 291, 293, 557
Siangic languages, 140, 143
Siddham
contribution of, in Chinese phonology, 244
definition of, 220
von Siebold, Philipp, 137
Sikuquanshu, 560
Silla, 226, 227–29, 230
Sinitic languages. See Chinese dialects
Sino-Bodic hypothesis, 12, 38f, 145, 248, 249f1
Sino-Japanese, 6, 11–12, 220–22, 234n1
multiplicity of reading as a striking phenomenon, 216
reflecting old meanings of Middle Chinese, 220
See also Go-on, Kan-on, Tō-on
Sino-Kiranti, 138, 248
Sino-Korean (SK), 6, 11–12, 216, 226, 234n2, 234n4
closer to Southern dialects phonologically, 228
closer to Mandarin lexically, 228
influence from Early Mandarin in, 231–32
Old Chinese loanwords vs. native Korean, 226
preserving more characteristics of Middle Chinese, 230–31
Sino-Silla Korean as the basis of Modern SK, 227
Southern Min vs. Old Wu as source of Sino-Paekche Korean, 228
time of transmission vs. time of formation for, 227–28
traces of Old Chinese in Old SK, 226, 229–30, 231, 232
Sino-Himalayan, 138
(p. 763) Sino-Tibetan hypothesis, 9, 10, 12, 24, 25–26, 250, 256, 551, 591
based on typological similarities, 38
complexity in establishing genetic relationships, 38
as illustrated by a common morphological affix, 38
as illustrated by three cognates, 38, 39f
lack of ancient textual evidence, 45
narrow vs. broad, 37–38
the split into two major branches being challenged, 248
and Sino-Austronesian hypothesis, 39
variants of, 37
Sino-Xenic
definition of, 12
as valuable sources on the linguistic and cultural history of East Asia, 6
sinogram. See Chinese characters
speech and language disorders, in the Chinese context
articulation disorder, 699–700
and autism, 703–05
and bilingualism, 706
causal and risk factors of, 697–99
and language therapy service, 705–06
phonological disorders, 700–02
and specific language impairment (SLI), 702–03
Standard Chinese. See Mandarin and Putonghua
Steinthal, Heymann, 136, 138
Sui language, 108, 542, 551
Suiko period, 11, 217–18, 220
Tai-Kadai, 36, 38, 41, 509.
influence in Min, 169
substrate in Chinese dialects, 156
See also Kam-Tai
Tai language, 108, 178, 181, 182, 184, 185, 187nn8–9
four major tonal categories of, 174–75
stratum in Yue, 174, 175
Taiwan Mandarin, 224, 495, 520, 597. See also Guoyu
Taiwan Sign Language (TSL), 16, 746–49
adaptation of, 744–45
auxiliaries of, 741–42
morphology of, 732–38
phonology of, 730–32
in relation to Japanese Sign Language, 729
in relation to other Chinese Sign Languages, 730
vs. signed Chinese, 730
verbs of, 739–41
word order and nonmanuals of, 743–44
Taiwanese Min (Southern Min), 81, 143, 160–64, 166–70, 184, 352, 479–81, 495, 592, 596, 744
featural representation of tones in, 480
tone circle in, 482
Tale of Genji, 222, 223t
Tamang language, 143
examples of word order change related to focal constituents in, 52–53
unmarked preverbal focus position of, 53
Tamangic languages, 140f, 143, 249f2
Tangkhul languages, 140f, 143, 249f2
Tangut, 26, 52, 143, 144, 250, 542, 552, 554. See also Xixia
Tani languages, 140f, 143, 249f2
Target Approximation (TA) model, 491, 493
Tea-Horse Trail, 251–52
Tengxian, 175, 177, 182, 183, 186
tense (grammaticalized), 580, 583, 683, 702
definition of, 274
no explicit marking in Chinese, 13, 275–76, 288, 680
Tianzhu, 236
Tibeto-Burman languages, 12, 25–27, 37–38, 39, 41, 45, 54n1, 77, 137, 184, 250–52, 254–57, 542
broad vs. narrow definition, 138
causative s- prefix and its devoicing effect in, 59–62, 66
as closest relatives of Chinese, 9, 10
endangered with imminent extinction, 141
as a large family spoken as far as India and peninsular southeast Asia, 36
multiple historical strata of Chinese borrowing in, 253
scripts created by ethnic groups of, 552
and Sinitic with a common ancestor, 37, 248
subgrouping of, 135–36, 140–44, 249, 551
word order of, 50–53
Tomba, 250, 555, 562n1
tone (lexical), 5, 21, 62, 65–66, 83–84, 108, 161–62, 169–70n6, 175–76, 186, 187n7, 187n9, 195, 481, 485–86, 490–93, 496, 498–99, 503–11, 516–17, 559, 676
birth of, 63–64, 74, 76, 112, 138, 512–14
four parameters of, 505
hemispheric lateralization of, 522–23
level vs. contour, 449, 523–24
and music, 523
perception of, 519–21
pitch-length systems of, 509
pitch-only systems of, 508–09
representation of, by features, 480, 507t, 508t, 518t
three components of, 505
tone sandhi, 15, 157, 480, 512
in New Chongming, 484–85
in Pingyao, 482
of Standard Chinese, 481
in Taiwanese Min, 481–82
in the Tianjin dialect of Mandarin, 482–84
Tongshan, 510, 511f, 514
Tongyu, 535, 559
topic structure, Chinese
big subject vs. small subject in, 400
Chinese-style vs. English-style, 14, 394, 395–402
instance topic vs. range topic in, 400
no syntactic movement in, 396–98
topic licensing condition in, 14
topic semantically related to comment in, 394, 398
topic semantically related to object or subject in, 398–99
Trans-Himalayan, 10, 135, 138–139, 141
transmission, horizontal, 11. See also borrowing and language contact
Tshangla languages, 27, 140f, 143, 248, 249f2, 250, 551, 553
Tu language (Tuhua), 157
Tujia (Tǔjiā) language, 143, 248, 249f2
units, lexical, 357
collocations vs. chunks, 340, 342–45
skewed distribution patterns of, 337–38, 345
Uyghur, 20, 27, 206, 542, 545, 551, 552, 555, 590
vernacular literary language (baihua), 532, 536, 593
Wa language, 449
abundant prefixes in, 114–15
as Austroasiatic language, 111–12, 117, 509
eighteen vocalic phonemes of, 113
four-way contrast of stops in, 113
initial consonant clusters of, 114
productive inflection in, 115–16
Wang, Renxu, 82
Wang, San, 82
Waxiang Hua, 157
Weijialing, 190
Wen, You, 542
West Himalayish languages, 144, 249f2
Wiman Chosôn, 11, 227
Written Tibetan, 38, 39f, 63–64, 250, 555
nominalizing and perfective –s suffix of, 64–66
two ways of forming the causative in, 60–61
Wu dialect/language, 35f, 155, 169, 174, 175, 182, 184, 437, 445, 509, 512, 514, 534, 595
diachronic phonological traits of, 153t, 154, 193–95
distribution of, 149, 150f, 189, 591
lexical traits of, 156–57, 195
of Lishui, 510
relationship between Non-Wu dialects and, 196–98
separation from Min in Tang dynasty, 190
six subgroups of, 189
as spoken by the lower class in Eastern Jin, 81
synchronic phonological traits of, 11, 191–93
syntactic features of, 195–96
of Wenzhou, 511
word-level tone of, 485
Wuti Qingwenjian, 542
Xiandai Hanyu Cidian, 336, 537
Xiang dialect/language, 35f, 143, 149, 150f, 153t, 154, 156, 157, 187n8, 189, 192, 251, 509, 510f, 514, 582, 591, 595
Xiao, Gai, 81
(p. 765) Xin Hua Zidian, 4, 31n3, 263, 537
Xiongnu, 151
Xixia, 143, 144, 554
as Tibeto-Burman kingdom, 26
Xu, Shen, 4, 291, 293, 557
Xuan, Ying, 82
Xuanzang, 12, 236, 237
Yakhontov, S. E., 75
Yan, Fodiao, 236
Yan, Zhitui, 81, 239, 245n3
Yang, Xiong, 4, 541, 558, 559
Yang, Xuanzhi, 237, 239
Yangshao.
its discovery as beginning of archeology in China, 23–24
example of colored pottery culture, 23
See also Longshan
Yangtze River (Changjiang), 5, 19, 21, 27, 28, 29, 30n2, 149–50, 155, 173, 174, 591, 594
Yanshi Jiaxun, 239
Yayan (elegant speech), 534–35, 559, 563n5
Yellow River (Huanghe), 5, 19–21, 27, 28, 150f, 151, 173, 250, 256, 534, 535, 559
Yi language, 12, 27, 37f, 140f, 143, 186, 255–56, 555
of Axi, 448, 542
of Liangshan, 61, 447–48, 553
Yijing, 236
Yijing (Book of Changes), 557, 560
Yu, Daoquan, 543
Yuan baihua, 204, 205, 206–07, 210–11, 212
Yue dialect/language, 10, 11, 35f, 153t, 154, 156–57, 168, 170nn8–9, 187, 228, 503, 595
aspects and aspectual complements derived from verbs, 179–81
aspectual marking by tonal features in, 176–77
bare classifier plus noun indicating definiteness in, 182
correlation of tones and aspiration in, 174–75
diminutives formed by suffixing and/or tonal modification, 177
distribution of, 149, 150f, 174, 591
eight-tone system with four pairs in, 176
loanwords in, 185
rich aspectual system in, 178
six lexical strata in, 184–85
southern syntactic features in, 182–83
subgroups of, 185–86
word order in, 181–82
Yue peoples, 21
Bai Yue (Hundred Yues), 107, 173, 189
Nan Yue (Southern Yue), 173, 189
Zhuang minority as its descendants, 21
Yuejueshu, 190
Yueren Ge (Yue People’s Song; Song of a Yue Man), 21–22, 26, 173, 190, 542
Yuezhi, 151, 236
Zaiwa language, 141, 143, 448, 545, 551, 553
Zeme languages, 140f, 144, 249f2
Zhang, Kun, 542
Zhang, Yisun, 543
Zhangzhou, 160, 168, 170n6
Zhao, Gao, 557
Zhou, Yong, 513
Zhu, Xi, 560
Zhu, Zongwen, 98
Zhuang language, 108–09, 111t, 542, 545, 551–53, 554
Zhuyin Zimu/Fuhao, 352, 536, 538, 559, 562, 688, 693
Zipf’s Law, 338, 345