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date: 18 February 2020

(p. 685) Index

(p. 685) Index

Page ranges in bold face indicate chapters; pages preceded by t or f indicate tables and figures, respectively.

Abiad, A., 385–386, 394, 397t
Abraham, A., 299, 301, 303, 318
accountability by states, 231–232, 418–420
accountability, mutual, 420–421
accountability, political, 69, 90, 163, 200, 204, 453, 506. See also ‘voice and accountability’ measures
in Africa, 311, 316, 549–550, 554
and democracy, 451
effect of oil resources on, 207
and foreign aid, 409–410, 412, 414, 419
and institutional gaps, 460
international influences on, 492
in MENA countries, 608
and public service delivery, 481, 484, 487, 490, 493
in rentier states, 202
and ‘resource curse’, 611
and state-building, 452
and tax revenues, 206, 233
vertical, 507
Acemoglu, D., 12–14, 45, 50–51, 57, 148, 156
on civil war, 189
on colonialism and development in Africa, 296, 319, 541
on democratization and development, 450–451
on inequality, 140, 144, 146
on political economy, 69
actors, taxation, 236t
adaptability in policy-making, 503–505
adjustment, economic, 73, 388
administration, public, 94, 261
adults, young, 470t
aeronautical industry, U.S., 257, 260
aerospace industry, Chinese, 372
Afghanistan, 52, 180, 183, 185
and civil war, 191, 287
and collective action, 451–452
military intervention in, 414
Africa, 44f, 46–47, 92, 98, 146
British, 311
Christian missions in, 128
and civil war, 67–68, 187
and colonialism, 295–327
Commission for, 278
and conditional foreign aid, 415–416
conflict in, 54
contemporary political economy of, 537–566
and cross-regional growth, 598f
demography of, 48, 52–53
and ethnicity, 164, 170, 174
and foreign aid, 94, 409, 413
governance indicators, 613f
and manufacturing, 599f
and modernization theory, 65
and NGOs, 482
and oil resources, 213
population ratios, 49f
and populism, 517, 520, 525
and public service delivery, 485–486
and Washington Consensus, 77
West, 237, 491
Africa, sub-Saharan, 28, 146, 163, 169, 413
Chinese investment in, 35
and collective action, 452
growth compared to MENA countries, 597, 599, 617
and natural resources, 206–207
and public service delivery, 485
and social relations, 609
and taxation, 227, 234, 236 (p. 686)
Afrobarometer, 444f
agency, human, 164, 277–278, 287–288
and connecting institutions, 474–475
and political parties, 500
and women, 368
agency, political, 110, 528, 539
agency, state, 543
agrarian movements, 518, 522
agrarian production, 27, 203
agrarian reform, 573–574
agrarian societies, 32, 50
agricultural marketing boards, 314, 385
agricultural sectors, 149, 653
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act, 654
agriculture, 76, 143, 177, 184
in Africa, 450–451, 537
in India, 664
in Kenya, 388
in MENA countries, 610
plantation, 46
Aguirre Cerda, P. (Chilean president), 582
aid-dependent countries, 94, 101–102
aid, development, 126, 227, 229, 231
aid, foreign, 93–94, 99, 200, 234
and democratization, 409–430
food to India, 654
and MENA countries, 615
Ake, C., 544
Akerlof, G., 365
Akita, T., 572t
Akkoyunlu-Wigley, A., 482
al-Assad, H. (Syrian president), 92
Aldrich, J.H., 436, 440
Alesina, A.F., 142, 168, 394
Alexeev, M., 207
Algeria, 65, 93, 130, 135, 183
and colonialism, 609–610
governance in, 613
investment and debt in, 337
and natural resources, 202
and oil resources, 598
and political economies, 601, 603t, 604
and ‘resource curse’, 612
Allende, S. (Chilean president), 582, 585, 587
Alliance of Civilizations, U.N. (UNAOC), 137
Almond, G., 64, 109
American Journal of Political Science, 494
American Political Science Review, 4, 78, 494
Amin, I. (Ugandan dictator), 298
Amin, S., 23, 28
Amsden, A., 670–671
Andersen, J.J., 205–206, 208
Anderson, B., 164–165
Andhra Pradesh, India, 661
Andrews, M., 256–275, 271t
Angell, A., 416
Angola, 50, 93, 102, 187
and colonization, 298, 305
and economic change, 555
investment and debt in, 329
and natural resources, 204, 210
war in, 551, 555
Anner, M.S., 401
Ansell, B., 145–146, 156
apartheid government, 260–261, 285, 318, 415
end of, 554
Appadurai, A., 112
Applied Systems Analysis, International Institute for (IIASA), 191
Apter, D., 278
Arab Human Development Report (UNDP), 600
Arab Spring, 114, 370, 413, 522
and development in MENA countries, 599–600, 604, 617–618
Arezki, R., 402–403
Argentina, 6, 8, 15, 27, 34, 65
and auto industry, 361
developmental success in, 567–595
import-substitution industrialization (ISI) policies, 378
infrastructure, 358
and oil resources, 206
and political economy, 67
and populism, 519, 525, 531
and provincial democracy, 233
trade-and-investment policies, 360
trade tariffs, 96
and Washington Consensus, 76
armed conflict, 178, 180–181, 192f. See also civil war
decline in, 194
Armenia, 337, 417
(p. 687) Arnson, C.J., 530
Asante, 301, 303, 317, 319
Asia, 46–47, 53f, 67, 191
Christian missions in, 128
economic performance in, 539
and ethnicity, 174
and FDI, 360
and India, 663
investment and debt in, 332
and labor conditions, 370
and populism, 520
and public service delivery, 485
role of the state in, 69
Asia, East. See East Asia
Asian values, 107, 110
Asia, South. See South Asia
Asia, Southeast. See Southeast Asia
Aslaksen, S., 205
assets and liabilities, foreign, 331f
assets, portfolio vs. FID, 337f
ASSOCHAM (Associated Chambers of Congress and Industry), 657
Aten, B., 569t570t
Audi, 373
austerity programs, 415, 538, 545–547
Austin, G., 306
Australia, 49, 296–297
authenticity, cultural, 521–522
authoritarian regimes, 6–7, 9, 228
in Africa, 314, 555, 558
in Chile, 89
in China, 90
collapse of, 67
and foreign aid, 409
and government capacity, 269
and institutional gaps, 460
and Islam, 606
in Latin America and East Asia, compared, 584
in MENA countries, 596, 600, 614–615
and oil resources, 200, 210
and political parties, 509
and populism, 525
religious support of, 134
in rentier states, 227
and ‘resource curse’, 611
in South Korea, 669–670, 673, 675, 681
autocracies, 46, 146, 156, 190
in Africa, 538
in China, 627
and government capacity, 259, 269
and oil resources, 204–205, 207, 209
and public service delivery, 481, 485
and state-building, 452
automotive industry, 342, 360, 373, 377
automotive sector, Indian, 360
autonomy, embedded, 33, 169
autonomy, judicial, 419
autonomy of governments, 328
Auty, R.M., 201–202
Ayres, R., 82
Azerbaijan, 101, 209, 417
Bahamas, 209
Bahrain, 601, 603t
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), 171
balance-of-payments, 390–392, 605
Baldwin, K., 489
Balesariya village, 463, 468–469
Banda, H. (Malawian president), 416
Banerjee, A.V., 69
Bangalore, India, 661
Bangladesh, 337, 368
banking, 178, 339, 386, 605
in China, 631, 640
in India, 656
in South Korea, 670–672, 675
banking network, global, 333
Bank of India, Reserve, 660
Bank of Korea, 676
Baqir, R., 168
Barbados, 296
Bardhan, P., 435
bargaining, political, 541, 557–558
bargaining power, relative, 229, 235, 342
Barre, S. (Somalian president), 543
Barro, R.J., 142
Barr, R., 523–524, 530
Baskaran, T., 234
Basque countries, 179
Basu, J. (Indian politician), 661
Baten, J., 306
Bates, R.H., 10, 64–69, 435, 450–451
Batista, C., 52
(p. 688) Bauer, P.T., 295
Baum, M.A., 447, 485–486
Bayer, R., 181
Beblawi, H., 202
Becker, D.G., 28
Beck, T., 209
behavior, political and socioeconomic, 285–286
Beijing, 630, 632
Belarus, 100
Belgian Congo, 302t
Belgium, 172
Belize, 337
Benabou, R., 141
Ben Ali, A. (Tunisian president), 445
Benavot, A., 305f
Benhabib, J., 14
Benin, 298, 311, 415, 452
democratic transition in, 550
economic growth in, 554
and political parties, 441
politics in, 543
protests in, 548–549
Berman, S., 529
Besley, T., 664
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), 165, 656, 660, 663
Bhattacharya, B. (Indian politician), 661
Bhattacharya, S., 209
Bhatt, E., 135
Bhavani, T.A., 657, 660
Bianco, W., 435
Biglaiser, G., 398t
Bigsten, A., 234, 309, 310f
Bihar, India, 662
bilateral investment treaties (BITs), 357, 376
Bird, G., 402
Birnberg, T.B., 295
BjØrnskov, C., 400t
BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party), 165, 656, 660, 663
‘black swans’, 54–55
Blaydes, L., 607–608
Block, S., 450
Blomberg, S.B., 181–182
Blonigan, B., 362–363
Bloom, D.E., 45
Bodin, J., 201
Boeing, 372
Boix, C., 11–12, 14, 156
on civil war, 180, 189
on democratization and development, 451
on inequality, 145–146
on political parties, 436
Bokassa, J.B. (Central African emperor), 298, 542
Bolivia, 76, 204, 259, 582
and populism, 522–523, 528–529, 531
Boockmann, B., 400t
Botswana, 43, 56, 92
bond issues, 345
and colonization, 296, 298–299, 304, 316
economic growth in, 554
GDP, 304f
and government capacity, 257, 261
institutions in, 542
investment and debt in, 337
and leadership, 277, 281
and life expectancy, 306f
and ‘resource curse’, 611
Boulding, C., 417
bourgeoisies, 25, 27, 29, 32
Bowden, S., 307, 308f, 309, 318
Brady, D., 257, 267–269, 279
Bratton, M., 416, 482
Brautigam, D., 230
Brazil, 6, 8, 15, 23, 27–28, 34, 65
and auto industry, 361, 377
‘blackness’ in, 114
developmental success in, 567–595
and economic performance, 540
and ethnicity, 170
and FDI, 361
and foreign aid, 421
import-substitution industrialization (ISI) policies, 378
investment and debt in, 332
and IPR regulations, 376
and oil resources, 206
and populism, 519, 525, 530–531
and public service delivery, 486–487
and taxation, 233
trade-and-investment policies, 360
trade tariffs, 96
trade with Africa, 554
and Washington Consensus, 76
(p. 689) breakdown, democratic, 415–417, 550
BRICS nations, 332–333, 342, 554
Britain, 93, 226, 228, 295, 610. See also United Kingdom
British East Africa, 298
British South Africa Company, 300
Brollo, F., 206
Brooks, S.M., 395, 397t398t
Brown, D., 367–368, 484–485, 488, 492
Brunei, 204
Brune, N.E., 399t400t
Brunnschweiler, C., 212
Buddhism, 124, 127, 134
budgetary revenues, local, 642f
budget oversight, parliamentary, 419–420
budget support, 411, 419–420
Bueno de Mesquita, B., 54
Buganda, 296, 300–301, 303, 311
Buhaug, H., 54, 69
Bulte, E., 212
Bunce, V., 417, 421
bureaucracies, 169–170
and collective action, 433
and colonialism, 579–580
Indian, 654, 660
and Japanese colonization, 581
and natural resources, 200, 208
and political parties, 447–448, 448t
restraint on rulers, 452
and taxation, 226, 611
bureaucratic initiative, 579
bureaucratic insulation, 584
Burgoon, B., 397t
Burke, M.B., 54, 57
Burkina Faso, 181, 182f, 317
and economic change, 555
state recovery in, 549
Burma, 97, 187, 329
Burnell, P., 421
Burundi, 50, 173, 181, 182f, 183, 191
and colonization, 298, 300, 305, 312
development in, 556
and IFI lending, 402
investment and debt in, 329
politics in, 542, 550
war in, 552, 555
Bush, G.W. (U.S. president), 126
Busia, K. (Ghanaian president), 443
business-government relations, 612–614, 671, 681
Busse, M., 210
cadre evaluations, 633–634, 636t, 637
Cambodia, 124, 130, 134, 180, 183
and leadership, 282
and natural resources, 210
and post-World War II geopolitics, 582
wages, 368
Cameron, D., 78–79
Cameroon, 100, 134
Cammett, M., 482, 596–625
Campello, D., 342
candidate commitments, 432, 441
candidate selection, 69, 438
Canovan, M., 517, 521
capability, state bureaucratic, 231, 256–275
in Africa, 539, 541, 548–549
capacity
agency, 468
bureaucratic, 505
and connecting institutions, 474–475
extractive, 242–243
governance, 420
government, 508
infrastructural, 539
manufacturing, 637, 643, 645
public sector, 420
regulatory, 603
Capacity Development, Institute for (IMF), 402
‘capacity to aspire’, 112
Cape Verde, 52, 209, 554
capital, 312
access to, 366
domestic, 328
financial, 174, 178, 185, 189
footloose, 334, 336
formation, in China, 643
mobile, 184, 228
physical, 556, 655
social, 165, 174
transnational, 25, 29
capital account openness, 330f, 386, 387f, 402
in South Korea, 674
capital accumulation, 672
(p. 690) capital controls, 329, 401
capital flight, 182, 184
capital flows, 331, 339, 346, 389
capital, human, 144, 149, 178, 185, 207, 305, 346
in Africa, 551, 556
and collective action, 432
and colonialism, 312–313
and education, 574
in India, 655, 664
investment in, 361
in MENA countries, 596
and public service delivery, 481, 485, 494
social, 461–469, 474
capitalism, 66, 92, 95, 101
in Africa, 295
agrarian, 664
crony, 596, 612–614
emergence of, 99
hothouse, 577
nonliberal, 670
spirit of, 110
and taxation, 226
Capital Market Consolidation Act (CMCA) (Korean), 676
capital openness, 156–157
capital shares, 148–151, 153t155
and empirical tests of inequality, 152, 156
Caraway, T., 401
Cárdenas, L. (Mexican president), 519, 525
Cardoso, F.H. (Brazilian president), 23–24, 26–27, 35, 585
career aspirations, 469, 470t
career choices, 471
career-counseling agencies, 472–473
Caribbean countries, 49f, 52, 339
Carkovic, M., 362–363
Carneiro, R.L., 47
Carothers, T., 418, 420
car plants, Indian, 658, 660
Caselli, F., 207
castes, governing, 521, 526–527
caste system, 89, 112, 114, 166, 171
and affirmative action, 658
and collective action, 434
and governmental reforms, 665
and institutional gaps, 464, 466
Other Backward, 656
and political parties, 661
and poverty, 664
and public service delivery, 491
Castro, F., 582
Catholic Church, 124, 130, 135, 436
Cederman, L.-E., 180
Central African Republic, 7–8, 298, 542
conflict in, 555
politics in, 542
Central America, 27, 131, 183, 242
Central Asia, 113–114, 227, 295
centralization, political, 299, 301, 303, 318–320
Chad, 134
chaebol (Korean private groups), 670–674
and economic liberalization, 675
influence, 681
and labor market flexibility, 680
restructuring of, 676–678
and unions, 679
Chambers of Congress and Industry, Associated (ASSOCHAM), 657
Chambers of Congress and Industry, Federation of Indian (FICCI), 657
Chandra, K., 171
Chaney, E., 607–608
Changchun Railways Vehicles, 372
change, 268–270, 281
change, politics of, 270
change, theories of, 262, 266–267, 270
charitable giving, Islamic (zakat), 608
charitable trusts, Islamic, 616
Chaudhry, K., 228, 230
Chávez, H., 8, 441–442, 447–448
and populism, 520–523, 526, 530
checks and balances, 530, 550–551
Cheeseman, N., 162–176
Cheibub, J.A., 3–21, 148
Chen, S., 182
Chen, Y., 634
Chidambaram, P. (Indian M.P.), 656
chiefs, 277, 301, 311, 316–317, 319
Chile, 6, 8, 27, 34, 65, 89
and civil war, 183
developmental success in, 567–595
and foreign aid, 417
and populism, 531
and public service delivery, 487
China, 22, 26, 33–36, 669
and access to domestic market, 370
(p. 691)
and Africa, 543
and colonization, 296
and Confucianism, 89
demography of, 47, 52, 54–55
direct investment, 347
and economic statism, 92
and Great Leap Forward, 55
hypergrowth in, 626–651
and imperialism, 295
and India, 655, 658–659, 661, 663
investment and debt in, 330, 332–333
and IPR regulations, 376
and lack of oil, 101
and leadership, 281
and Maoism, 94
and market-nurturing reforms, 95–99
and MENA countries, 599
and Myanmar, 192
and post-World War II geopolitics, 581
and public service delivery, 486, 491
and structural transformation, 364
and taxation, 227
and technology transfer, 357, 371–373
trade with Africa, 554
and Washington Consensus, 75
China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), 552
China Land and Resources Statistical Yearbook, 642f
China Statistical Yearbook, 642f
Chinese Academy of Science, 372
Chinese central government, 638, 645
Chinese Communist Party (CCP), 33, 626, 629, 631
Chinese GDP and total government budget, 639f
Chinese government budget revenue, 639f
Chinese National People’s Congress, 644
Chinn-Ito index, 329
Christian Democrats, 130
Christian evangelical groups, 131
Chrysler, 377
Chun Doo-hwan (South Korean president), 90, 673, 678
Churchill, W. (British prime minister), 264
church-state separation, 110, 131
Chwieroth, J.M., 394, 397t
CII (Confederation of Indian Industry), 657, 662
citizen organizations, 449–452
citizenship, norms of, 432
civil liberties, 412, 417, 602
civil rights reform, 257, 260, 268, 413
civil service, 257, 447, 452
civil society, 13, 32, 132, 134, 280
and foreign aid, 411, 418–419
organizations, 413, 459–460, 475
and populism, 528–529, 531
civil war, 52, 54, 56–57, 67–68
and colonization, 300
in Guatemala, 124
and institutional gaps, 460
and natural resources, 200, 203, 210–213
and security, 449
and state-building, 452
Clark, G., 45
Clash of Civilizations? (Huntington, S.P.), 68, 110
class dynamics, 23, 27, 317
classes, social, 146, 148, 174, 226. See also middle class; working class
dominant, 25
elite, 29
and ethnic diversity, 489
class structure, 567–568, 584–589
class, transnational capitalist, 32
cleavages, social, 268, 436–437
clientelism, political, 441–444, 452
in Africa, 542, 544, 550, 554
in Chile, 585
in China, 633
in Latin America and East Asia, compared, 584
in MENA countries, 604
and political parties, 499, 501, 505, 507
and public service delivery, 485
systematic, 280
climate change, 45, 54, 56
Cline, W., 360
coalitions, 282, 284–285, 287–288, 475
in Africa, 541–542, 549–550, 557
cross-class, 521
ISI, 30
political, South Korean, 678
and populism, 519
Cobb-Douglas production function, 307
Coercion, Capital and European States AD 990-1992 (Tilly), 228
(p. 692) coercion in foreign aid, 410, 412, 414–416
and democratic erosion, 417–418
coercion in lending, 393, 395–396, 401, 421
and richer countries, 402
coercion, political, 444
Cogneau, D., 306
Cold War, 6, 12, 54, 110, 193
and Africa, 543, 549
Coleman, J., 64
collective action, 166, 174, 186, 190
in Africa, 537, 544, 550
and political parties, 431–457
and populism, 522, 528
and public service delivery, 484, 488–489
and social capital, 468
and taxation, 233
collective action problems, 283–285, 288, 475, 539
collective bargaining, 343
collectivization, rural, 543
Collier, D., 272
Collier, P., 52, 203
on civil war, 181–182, 184, 186–187, 189, 191
on market liberalization, 388
on natural resources, 210–211
Collier, R., 272
Colombia, 27, 34, 76, 185
and civil war, 187, 191
and government capacity, 257, 265–266
Medellín drug wars, 261
and natural resources, 210–211
colonial heritage, 151, 567–568, 579–581, 589
in MENA countries, 597
colonialism, 47–48, 110, 287
and development in Africa, 295–327
and economic performance in Africa, 540
European, 12–13, 35, 45, 47, 49
Japanese, 30
in MENA countries, 608–610, 617
colonial mechanisms, 314–316
colonial states, European, 538
Comaroff, J., 518, 524
commitments, government, 541–542, 630
commodities, 50, 184, 187–188, 193
in Africa, 538–539
agricultural, 227
exports of, 359
in India, 653
investments in, 345
prices, 338, 342, 344
primary, 203, 210
commodities development model, 35
commodity export model, 543
commodity prices, 75, 553, 583, 589
commodity wars, 632
common pool problem, 433–435
commons, management of the, 432, 435
communication, chains of, 475
communism, 5, 67–68, 151, 581–582
in Latin America, 582
Communist Party of China (CCP), 633–634
Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPM), 660
Community of Sant’ Egidio, 127, 135
Comparative Political Studies, 494
comparative politics, 480–498
competition, financial, 334, 340
competition, geostrategic, 671
competition, political, 162, 484–488, 501
and political parties, 508
and populism, 525
competition, regional, 628, 637, 639–641, 645, 662
complexity theory, 264–265, 269
computer industry, 372
ConceiÇão, P., 336
conditionality, 332, 390–392, 396, 401
in Africa, 538, 546–547
compliance with, 401
and foreign aid, 411, 415–417, 419, 546
conflict, 134
civil, 93, 418, 431
and colonization, 315
ethnic, 117, 300, 314
international, 213
over reform, 81–82
and public service delivery, 488
rates, 212f
related to poverty, 129
resolution, 135, 138, 301, 459
sectarian, 129–130
social, 82, 548
traps, 191–194
Confucianism, 89, 277
Congo-Brazzaville, 298, 548
Congo-Kinshasa, 551, 555
(p. 693) Congo, Republic of, 7–8, 90, 135, 163
and civil war, 188
and colonial mechanisms, 314
and colonization, 305, 313
conflict in, 555
and foreign aid, 418
GDP, 304f
and natural resources, 202, 210
political breakdown in, 550
protests in, 549
Congress Party, 440, 657, 660–661, 663
Conrad, R., 207
consolidation, democratic, 412, 415–416, 418–419, 421
constituencies, mass, 507, 509, 522, 524–525, 528
constructivist school, 165, 171
consumption, domestic, 34, 389, 643, 646
of public services, 336, 482
contracting, 540–541
in China, 629–631, 638, 640
enforcement, 366
Conventional People’s Party (Ghana), 317
convergence, policy, 341–342, 344
Cooke, W.N., 343
Cooray, A., 399t
Corbridge, S., 652–668
corporations, European, 607
corporations, transnational. See multinational corporations (MNCs)
Correa, R. (Ecuadoran president), 525
Correlates of War project, 178
corruption, 90, 93–94, 98, 124, 135
and Africa, 540, 558
in Botswana, 257, 261
and ethnicity, 174
and FDI, 358, 364–365
and government capacity, 256, 269
in India, 654–655
and leadership, 280, 282
in MENA countries, 604–605, 612–614
and natural resources, 200, 203, 208–210
and oil resources, 206, 213
and political parties, 435, 447, 448t, 505
and populism, 526, 530
in South Korea, 675
and taxation, 233, 237–238
and World Bank, 393
Corruption Perceptions Index, 99
Corvalan, A., 14
Costa Rica, 358, 369, 378, 567–595
Côte d’Ivoire, 54, 135, 306, 392, 491
Cotet, A., 212
country classifications, 402
country fixed-effects, 12–14
Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (World Bank), 263
Country Risk Guide, International (prsgroup.com), 447, 448t
country-specific factors, 12–14
coups, military, 180, 317, 319, 417, 542
coalitions, 6
in South Korea, 670
Cox, G.W., 436
CPM (Community Party of India-Marxist), 660–661
credit
domestic, 390
market imperfections, 140, 143–144, 157
programs, 29
rationing, 344
subsidized, 577
crises, economic, 261, 266–267, 328–329
in Africa, 538, 545–546
banking and currency, 336
and China, 637
debt, 334, 345–346, 391
and democratization, 450–451
East Asian, 335, 670
and financial openness, 330, 333, 336
and foreign aid, 415
and IFIs, 388
and India, 657–658, 663
and policy consequences, 344
and populism, 526–527, 530
resolution and prevention, 393
in South Korea, 673–676, 679, 681
critical junctures, 54, 267–268, 281–283
and institutional chains, 474
in MENA countries, 618
crops, 54, 302t, 462
Cruz, C., 447–448, 452
Cuaresma, J.C., 205
Cuba, 52, 91, 486, 575, 582
cultivation, indigenous, 302t
cultural fractionalization index, 489
(p. 694) culture, 5, 88–89, 102
and development, 107–122
heritage loss, 644
Islamic, 606
and religion, 125
Culture Matters (L. Harrison & S.P. Huntington), 110
Cunningham, T., 207
currency
devaluation, 587–588
manipulation, 547
overvaluation, 576–577, 583, 585
revaluation, 390
speculation, 31
current accounts, 386
openness, 387f, 389
restrictions, 402
customs collection, 237
ÇzakÇa, M., 607
Czech Republic, 8
Daewoo Corp., 677
Dahl, R.A., 145, 530
Dahomey, 301, 311
Dal Bó, E., 211
Dal Bó, P., 211
Dalton, G.H., 301, 302t
Dandekar, V.M., 654
Danquah, J.B., 443
Danzman, B., 334
data, fiscal, 233–234
data sets, constructing, 150–152
Davies, V.A.B., 184–186
Deardoff, A., 368
deaths, battle, 179, 179f, 181, 183f, 191
Debs, A., 81
debt, 328–355, 615
in Africa, 538, 545, 551, 554
crises, 527, 546
at Daewoo Corp, 677
foreign, 610, 672
in India, 657
relief, 538
-to-income ratio, 144
decentralization, Chinese fiscal, 627
decentralization, democratic, 460, 475
and institutions, 490
and public service delivery, 481, 488, 491
decentralization, industrial, 653
defense spending, 55, 656
deficits, 390, 577, 598
current account, 332, 389
fiscal, 545
in India, 656–657, 659–660
de Gramont, D., 418, 420
deindustrialization, 546, 548
Deininger, K., 142, 146, 150
de Kadt, R.H.J., 309, 311f, 313f
de Klerk, F.W. (South African president), 261
de la Torre, C., 530
democracies at risk, 15, 16t
democracies, emerging, 442, 526
democracies, mass, 435
democracies/quasi democracies, 603t, 605
democracies, strong, 74, 442
democracy, 89, 140–161, 346
benefits of, 474
in Chile, 90
and civil war, 190
consociational model of, 172–173
and development, 431, 449–452
and education, 493
effect of income on, 12
emergence vs. survival, 6–10, 67
and ethnicity, 174
gradations of, 10
and informal institutions, 281
and institutional gaps, 458
liberal, 527
in local governments, 233
partial, 10
and populism, 525
and public service delivery, 481, 484–485, 487
and religion, 129, 134
and resource wealth, 204
social, 230
in South Korea, 678
and taxation, 226, 233
and urbanization, 51
Democracy and Electoral Assistance, International Institute for (IDEA), 411
democracy assistance, 409–411, 418
democracy-promotion, 15
democratic breakdown, 152, 156f, 157, 420–421
democratic institutions, 45
(p. 695) Democratic party (U.S.), 442, 444
democratization, 65, 68, 78
in Africa, 312, 550, 554
and civil war, 189–190
and collective action, 433
and demography, 48, 51–52, 56
and development, 449–452
and economic development, 3–21
effect of inequality on, 141, 145–146, 152, 156–157
and ethnicity, 164
and foreign aid, 94, 409–430
impeded by oil, 206
and institutional gaps, 459
and median age, 55
and populism, 525
and public service delivery, 487
resisted by landlord class, 50
in South Korea, 670, 672, 675, 678–679, 681
and taxation, 232–233
demographics, 46–54
of difference, 115
and economic growth, 571
and natural resources, 213
South Korean, 679
Deng Xiaoping (Chinese premier), 95–97, 640
and crises, 267
and political risk, 99
and pro-growth policies, 101
and statism, 98
Dennard, J., 494–495
dependency theory, 5, 22–42, 296, 539–540
Depression, Great (1929), 140, 144, 518, 527
deregulation, 100, 256, 391, 396
in China, 33
financial, 29
in U.K., 658
DeRouen, K., 398t
Dervis, K. (Turkish finance minister), 265–268
De Schewnitz, K., 6
de Tocqueville, A., 173
Deutsch, K., 64, 68, 488
developed countries, 52, 281
developing countries, 143, 237, 243, 258
ad borrowing, 342
dependence on FDI, 336
and developmental states, 375–376
and financial openness, 328–333, 335
foreign aid and democratization in, 409–430
and GDP per capita, 362
and institutional gaps, 458, 460
investment and debt in, 332
and leadership, 280
and market liberalization, 385–408
and market variations, 345
and MNC manufacturing operations, 365t
MNCs from, 347
and political parties, 499
politics in, 54
and populism, 518, 531
and public service delivery, 480–498
and sovereign debt, 341
trade-and-investment policies, 356, 359
and volatility of capital flows, 342
development, 75–78, 177–199. See also economic development
in Africa, 544
agrarian-based, 520
assistance, 192–193
capitalist, 25
definitions of, 177–179
ethics of, 123
and ethnicity, 170
historical determinants, 616
historical determinants of, 616
human, 298
industrial, 27, 376
institutional, 557
international, 541
interventionist-redistributive, 615
and leadership, 276–292
outcomes, 113, 509
political, 64–69, 299, 458
political economy of, 431–457
and political parties, 499–516
post-colonial, 304–313
processes, 108
programs, 391
social, 278
socioeconomic, 88, 517
state-led, 29, 31, 79, 82, 519
and taxation, 224–255
by World Bank, 393
(p. 696) development aid, 410. See also aid, foreign
developmentalism, local, 626–651
Development Economics Research, World Institute for (WIID), 146–147, 149
development, human, 313, 556, 596. See also Human Development Index (HDI)
in India, 652
and MENA countries, 599
development performance, index of, 463–464, 468
and political activity, 467t
Development Programme, United Nations (UNDP), 600
development, study of, 26–35, 108
and civil war, 177–199
and culture, 107–122
de Zwart, P., 307, 308f, 309
Diamond, J.M., 45
Diamond, L., 460
diamonds, 201, 203, 205, 210, 213
and colonization, 318
effect of location, 211
diaspora populations, 52–53, 131
dictatorships, 6, 9, 67, 152
in Africa, 295
benevolent, 74
in Chile, 90
and foreign aid, 416
military, 300, 525
diffusion of norms and knowledge, 410, 412–413, 415–416
and foreign aid, 418–419, 421
diffusion-via-learning, 395
Dionne, K.Y., 487
Dirks, N., 114
disasters, humanitarian, 130–131
discount rates, 229, 235
discourse, political, 521–522, 529–530
discrimination, racial, 318, 489
diseases
and colonialism, 581
infectious, 312
tropical, 314
Disinvestment Commission (Indian), 659
dissemination, 319
distribution, income, 571, 663
distribution of goods, 542, 553, 556
diversity, ethnic, 113, 115, 138, 162–176
doing-business indicators, 263, 357, 364–365
Dollar, D., 414
dollar, U.S., 333, 345, 390, 578
domestic content requirements, 362–363, 372
Dominican Republic, 204, 360, 369
Dornbusch, R., 520
dos Santos, T., 23–24
Doyle, D., 400t
DPI (Database of Political Institutions), 446–447
Drazen, A., 394
Dreher, A., 400t
Dube, O., 211
Dunning, T., 148, 206
Durkheim, E., 4, 65
‘Dutch disease’, 358, 583, 611
dynamic probit models, 152, 153t155
East Africa, 263
East Asia, 28–31, 75, 89, 107, 141, 551
and authoritarian regimes, 614
and cross-regional growth, 598f
economic ‘miracle’, 74, 76, 613
financial crisis, 527
governance indicators, 613f
growth compared to MENA countries, 597, 599
and human development, 600f
investment and debt in, 336
and manufacturing, 599f
and market liberalization, 392
and politics of development, 567–595
and public service delivery, 487
state-building in, 615
Easterly, W.R., 46, 113, 151, 162, 168, 269, 414
on public service delivery, 488
East Timor, 52
Ecevit, B. (Turkish prime minister), 259
Economic Commission for Latin America, United Nations’ (ECLA), 23
Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for (OECD), 144, 409
economic crisis, global. See Recession, Great (2007)
economic development, 57, 108, 140–161
and civil war, 190
and collective action, 431, 433, 435
and colonialism in Africa, 295–327
(p. 697)
and democracy, 449–452
and democratization, 3–21
and ethnicity, 169
and free-riding, 433
and government capacity, 256
and institutional chains, 461–469
and Islam, 606–607
in MENA countries, 602
and natural resources, 208
and political parties, 502
and populism, 527
Economic Freedom Index (India), 662
economic growth, 25, 36, 68, 88
in Africa, 317, 537, 551
and capital-account openness, 335
in China, 98–99
and civil war, 192
and colonization, 297
and democracy, 450
and ethnic diversity, 488
experimental approach to, 77
and failed policies, 99
and FDI, 379
vs. human development, 481
in India, 663–664
and inequality, 144
and institutional gaps, 469
and investment, 334, 336, 346
in Latin America and East Asia, compared, 568–572
and market liberalization, 388
and public service delivery, 494
in rentier states, 202, 227
in sub-Saharan Africa, 552t
sustainable, 393
and turnover of provincial leaders, 635t
without prosperity, 556
Economic Planning Board (Korean), 672
Economic Recovery Program (Ghana), 443
economics, 108
development, 69
early development, 653
experimental, 233
neoclassical, 29, 335
welfare, 76
economic teams, 80
economies
agrarian, 48, 228, 655
command, 91, 94, 100
coordinated, 669
diversified, 188–189
dual, 297
enclave, 27, 35
laissez-faire, 605
nationally controlled, 27
performance of, 75, 539–540
of scale, 373
unprosperous, 140
Economist Intelligence Unit, 443
Economist newspaper, 656
economy, global, 23, 66, 241
Ecuador, 202, 525–526, 531
Edgar, A.L., 114–115
education, 4, 51, 64, 93, 132, 447
access to, 447
in Africa, 312, 544, 548, 556
in Botswana, 316
in China, 646
and civil war, 184–185, 187, 193
and collective action, 431–432
and colonialism, 579–580
and democracy, 487
in developing countries, 480
and economic growth, 571
and ethnicity, 163–164, 168, 174, 489
of girls, 136
and government capacity, 262
in India, 464, 469, 660, 664–665
and inequality, 145, 157, 473
influence of parents’ on children’s career choices, 471–472
and institutional gaps, 459–460
in journal articles, 495
in Latin America and East Asia, compared, 567–568, 574–575, 578, 589
and maintaining peace, 190–191
in MENA countries, 601, 604
in Mexico, 488
and missionaries, 298, 317
primary, 450, 465
public investment in, 29, 493
and public service delivery, 482, 484
secondary, 192, 571
in South Korea, 670, 672
spending on, 492
in Uganda, 486
(p. 698)
university, 575
in urban vs. rural areas, 471
educational attainment, 296–297, 312
in host countries, 362
in India, 472
in MENA countries, 600
of parents of software engineers in India, 472t
and social capital, 466
by women, 368
Edwards, S., 396, 520
efficiency, microeconomic, 654
efficiency, technological, 488
Egypt, 92, 304f, 358, 529
and colonialism, 610
governance in, 613
growth rates in, 608
and political change, 618
and political economies, 601, 603t, 604–605
and underdevelopment, 617
EHII (Estimated Household Income Inequality), 150, 152, 157
Ehrlich, P.R., 56
Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (Marx), 286–287
elections, 7, 9, 67, 148, 345
accountability between, 460
in Africa, 538
alternative vote system, 173
in Benin, 416
and collective action, 449–451
competitive, 446–447, 450, 542, 546
electoral commissions, 419
and foreign aid, 411–413, 415, 421
in Myanmar, 416
and public service delivery, 484–488, 491
in South Africa, 261
in South Korea, 678
electoral assistance, 418–419
electricity services, 481–482, 488
electronics industry, 360–361, 377–378
elite/popular divide, 521
elites
African, 543
agricultural, 574
behaviors of, 277
bureaucratic, 486
business, 658
counter-, 524
economic, 157, 528, 606
governing, 101
indigenous, 319
industrializing, 169
political, 66–67, 234, 521, 524, 615
ruling, 460
rural, 30
South Korean, 671
tribal, 610
unity among, 97
wealthy, 206
Elkins, Z., 397t
El Salvador, 180, 259, 367
Emanuel, R. (U.S. politician), 267
emigration, 48–49, 52
Emmanuel, A., 23
empirical tests, 152–157
employment, formal-sector, 659
employment generation, 464–465, 654, 679
employment in Africa, 553, 556, 558
employment offices, 473
employment, public, 208, 577–578
EMU (European Monetary Union), 341
endogeneity, 141–142, 147–148
and empirical tests of inequality, 152, 157
and oil resources, 209–210
and political parties, 500
energy consumption per capita, 180–181, 193
energy imports, 545
energy prices, 538
Engels, F., 185
Engerman, S.L., 46
Engineering Industry, Confederation of, 657
England, 5, 35, 48, 150. See also Britain; United Kingdom
Englebert, P., 236
enterprises, public, 546
enterprises, township and village (TVEs). See TVEs (township and village enterprises)
entrepreneurs, 24
cultural, 164
ethnic, 113, 211
political, 170, 465
violence, 186–187
entrepreneurship, 95–96, 98, 364, 379
environmental protection, 35, 340, 633–634, 637
(p. 699) environmental regulation, 358, 376, 393, 445
in China, 637
Epstein, A.L., 165
Epstein, D.L., 10, 12
Equality and Inefficiency: The Big Tradeoff (Okun), 141
equality, gender, 136
Equatorial Guinea, 88, 211, 568
Eritrea, 187, 555
Escobar, P. (Colombian drug lord), 261
Estimated Household Income Inequality (EHII), 150, 152, 157
Ethiopia, 47, 178, 234, 295
and colonization, 298, 301
development in, 558
and economic change, 555
electoral violence, 417
and foreign aid, 418
institutions in, 542
and natural resources, 553
state recovery in, 549
ethnic diversity, 68, 481, 484, 488–490
ethnic groups, 213, 259, 287
ethnic homogenization, 56
ethnicity, 68–69, 107–108, 111–112
in culture, politics, and development, 113–116
and development, 162–176
ethnic politicization, 163
ethno-linguistic fractionalization measure, 168, 490
EU (European Union) trade agreements, 605
Eurasia, 56, 522
Europe, 55, 93, 128, 171, 410
debt problems, 346
development compared to MENA countries, 597, 607
immigration, 53f
population ratios, 49f
and populism, 517–518, 521–522, 525–526, 529
European Commission, 417
European debt crisis, 332
European Investment Bank, 345
European Monetary Union (EMU), 341
European Union, 54, 259, 345, 370, 413
and East Asian growth, compared, 669
and foreign aid, 411, 416
Europe, Eastern, 50, 67, 151, 228, 413
and auto industry, 361
and command economy, 91
and ethnicity, 113–114
fall of communist regimes in, 15
and political parties, 507
and populism, 525
and public service delivery, 487
and taxation, 227
Europe, Northwestern, 48
Europe, Southern, 527–528
Europe, Western, 13, 52, 226, 607
and cross-regional growth, 598f
Evans, P., 22, 26–27, 29, 36, 169
on China, 33
on globalization, 31
Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions, Annual Report on (IMF), 329
exchange rates, 227, 329, 358, 364
adjustments, 390
in Africa, 543, 545, 547
in China, 643
in Latin America and East Asia, compared, 577
and market liberalization, 385
and ‘resource curse’, 611
in South Korea, 670, 673
exclusion, political, 518, 526, 528
exclusion, social, 282, 531
exemptions, tax, 235, 242–243
export industries, labor-intensive, 578
export processing zones (EPZs), 369
Export Promotion Conference, Monthly (Korean), 671
export requirements, 377
exports
agricultural, 297, 577
agricultural, in Africa, 544
Chinese, 645
and colonization, 298
commodity, 189, 202, 229, 527
dependence on, 34
labor-intensive, 584, 588
from Latin America to China, 34
manufactured, 33, 598
natural resource, 202
non-oil, in Africa, 538
primary-product, 34
promotion, 567–568, 571, 573, 575–577
(p. 700) expropriation, 146, 206, 376
and collective action, 432
of land. See land expropriation
and market liberalization, 385
of minorities, 450
and political parties, 445
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, 200
extractive sectors, 358, 379
factor endowments, 46, 141, 150–151
Fajardo, S. (Medellín mayor), 261, 265–266
Faletto, E., 23, 26–27, 35
families, 126, 136, 487
famines, 55, 97, 654
farmers, rich, 654
farmers, small-scale, 46, 95, 287, 435, 589
in Africa, 450, 541, 544
in India, 440, 664
and market liberalization, 385
farming sector, 150
farms, family, 150, 180
fascism, 518–519
Faust, J., 420
FDI (foreign direct investment), 96, 329–330, 332, 334, 336, 356
in Africa, 544, 551, 553–554
attracting, 365
in China, 632, 646
effect on economic growth, 335, 337, 379
export oriented vs. ISI-oriented, 360
and host-country policies, 357
in infrastructure, 357
and investor variation, 346–347
and labor protests, 343
in manufacturing, 357
and market liberalization, 385
in natural resources, 338, 357
and policy consequences, 340, 342
and political parties, 508
promotion of, 378
in South Korea, 677, 681
Fearon, J.D., 186–187, 189, 489
Fedderke, J.W., 309, 311f, 313f, 315, 318
federalism, 44, 172, 627
Chinese-style, 632, 638
fiscal, 628–629, 631, 637, 644
in India, 662
market-preserving, 629
‘without a center’, 661
Fehr, E., 434
Ferejohn, J., 432, 451
Ferguson, N., 295, 314
Fernandez, R., 394
Ferraz, C., 206
fertility, 46, 51, 54, 57, 571
decline, 52, 571
and development, 178
FICCI (Federation of Indian Chambers of Congress and Industry), 657, 662
Figini, P., 142
Figueiredo, J., General (Brazilian dictator/president), 377–378
Figueres, J.M. (Costa Rican president), 378
Filmer, D., 493
finance
crisis, 2008. See Recession, Great (2007)
global, 347
government, 226
housing, 347
public, 234, 257, 261, 675
sectors, 51, 100
sovereign, 341
Financial Institutions, International (IFIs). See IMF (International Monetary Fund); World Bank
financial institutions, nonbank (NBFIs), 674
financial market–government relations, 345
financial programming model, 390
Financial Supervisory Commission (FSC) (Korean), 676
firms, foreign-invested (Chinese), 641
fiscal arrangements, central-local, 628, 637, 645
fiscal policy, 228
fiscal sociology, 226
fisheries, 434–435
Fish, M.S., 88–103, 207, 502
Five-Year Economic Development Plan (Korean), 671
Five-Year Plan (China, 2011-2015), 643
Five Year Plans (India), 653–655
Flores, T.E., 182
food, 34, 68, 419, 543, 653, 657
(p. 701) Forbes, C., 142
Ford Motor Co., 361, 377, 661
foreign direct investment. See FDI (foreign direct investment)
foreign exchange, 575–576, 583, 585
in China, 626, 643, 645
foreign reserves, Indian, 657
forest products, 203, 210
Foucault, M., 32
France, 8, 93, 228, 392, 529
and colonialism, 609–610
Frank, A.G., 23, 25, 27, 35
Frankema, E., 309, 310f, 317
Freedom House, 52, 412, 414
freedoms, political, 310–311, 311f, 614
and foreign aid, 411, 413
Freeland, C., 140
Freeman, J.R., 146–147, 149, 156
‘free-riding’, 166–167, 431–432, 434
and collective action, 435–438, 450
and South Korea, 673
free trade agreements (FTAs), 357, 370–371, 375–376
free-trade zones, 576
Frei, E. (Chilean president), 584–585
Freight Equalization Acts, 662
French Equatorial Africa, 302t
French West Africa, 302t
Frieden, J.A., 66
Friedman, M. (economist), 658
Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 411
Frye, T., 79, 399t
Fujian, 632
Fujimori, A., 521
Fujimori, A. (Peruvian president), 522
Furtado, C., 23, 28
G7 countries, 546, 549
G8 countries, 553
Gabon, 202, 204, 345, 543, 548
Gadenne, L., 233
Gallagher, J., 296
Galor, O., 45, 144
Gandhi, I. (Indian president), 654, 656, 664
Gandhi, R. (Indian prime minister), 656–657
Garang, J., 185
Garlick, J., 309, 311f, 313f
Gat, A., 187–188, 194
Gates, S., 181, 414
Gauri, V., 486–487
GDP, comparative African, 304f
GDP per capita, 149, 180–181
in Africa, 538
in Chile, 587
in China, 626, 646
and civil war, 193
and colonization, 296–297
and cross-regional growth, 598f
in East Asia, 669
effect of conflict on, 182f
and FDI, 362–363
and IFI lending, 402
in India, 654
in Latin America and East Asia, compared, 567–568, 569t570t, 578
in MENA countries, 596
and public service delivery, 481
in Zimbabwe, 314
Geddes, B., 64, 80
Gehlbach, S., 436, 439, 445, 452
Gelb, A., 202
Gellner, E., 50
gender issues, 109, 125
General Electric, 378
General Motors, 361, 377
genocides, 180, 315
geography, 45–46, 69, 540, 655
geopolitics, post-World War II, 567–568, 581–582, 588–589
Georgia (Eastern Europe), 101
Gereffi, G., 27, 31
German East Africa, 50
Germany, 12, 48, 93, 414, 670
and Malawi, 417
Ghana, 92, 115, 234, 277, 299
and Asante state, 319
bond issues, 345
and civil conflict, 315
and colonization, 296, 298, 301, 304
democratic transition in, 550
development in, 558
and economic growth, 553–554
GDP, 304f
and hybrid politics, 558
(p. 702)
institutions in, 541–542
oil resources, 358
and political parties, 443, 444f, 542–544
and postcolonial development, 317
and public service delivery, 491
and railways, 319
and school enrollment, 305f
and slavery, 315
state recovery in, 549
and stature, 306, 313
Ghana Center for Economic Development (CDD-Ghana), 443
Ghobarah, H.A., 184
Giddens, A., 286
Gini coefficients, 146–150, 153t155
and empirical tests of inequality, 152, 157
of income inequality, 572t
for Kenyan inequality, 310f
Gleditsch, K.S., 180, 183f
Gleditsch, N.P., 54
globalization, 22, 26, 31–32, 36
and Africa, 548
of automotive sector, 377
economic, 341–342
financial, 336, 340
and financial openness, 331, 335
industrial, 363, 370
and populism, 520, 527
and public service delivery, 491
and taxation, 235, 239
of trade-and-investment, 356
global warming, 54
Gluckman, M., 164
Gold Coast, 302t, 304, 310f
gold mining, 298, 307, 309, 318
Goldsheid, R., 226
Goldstein, J.S., 194
Goldstein, M., 301, 392
Goldstone, J., 10, 55–56
goods
and ethnicity, 162–163
nontargeted, 485
produced, 157
goods, public, 73–74, 76–77, 80, 82, 166–169, 174
and civil war, 186, 188,