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date: 25 August 2019

(p. 619) Index

(p. 619) Index

abolitionist model, prostitution, 550–551, 570n.2
abortion, violence, 26
abortion clinic attacks, 444–445
abuse, sex offenders' behavior, 62
academic cheats, cybercrime, 484, 485
accidents, guns and violence, 73–75
accounting manipulation, frauds, 231–232
accounts, organizational crime, 283
adaptive crimes, cybercrime, 478
adolescents, delinquency, 12
Adoption and Safe Families Act (1997), 140, 154
Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act (1980), 140
adult male, prostitution, 560–561
Africa
illicit antiquities, 461
terrorism attacks and fatalities, 434
age
aggravated assaults and homicide victims, 35, 36, 37
auto theft victimization, 206
car thieves, 210
drug use, 508–509
hate crime victims, 536
prostitution arrests, 555
simple assault, 47n.5
victims of sexual assault, 57–58
age-crime curves, young men, 8
aggravated assaults
characteristics of victims, 35
definition, 29
firearms, 35–38
rates in United States, 31
recent trends in United States, 30–32
aggregate level, organizational crime, 281–283
air pollution, environmental crime, 331
alcohol
abuse and domestic violence, 122
past-month users, 509
prohibition, 26
Al Qaeda, money laundering, 377
amateur joyriders, auto theft, 201, 204
American Mafia, money laundering, 356
antiabortion activists
Freedom of Access to Abortion Clinic Entrances (FACE) Act, 444–445
terrorism in United States, 438–440
Anti-Bias Task Force (ABTF), hate crimes, 532
Anti-Car Theft Act of 1992, 191
anti-money laundering (AML)
corruption cases, 369, 370
effectiveness, 373–375
improving performance, 375–376
measures, 369, 371–373
punishing corruption, 368
antisocial behavior
antisocial behavior orders (ASBOs), 579, 580–581
biggest problems, 585
British Crime Survey (BCS), 583, 584, 585
broken windows hypothesis, 579, 588–591
broken windows theory, 594, 595
campaigns, 585–586
categories, 579–580
children, 583, 585
community policing, 589
culture of complaint, 583
emotional responses to “young people hanging around,” 585, 586
England and Wales, 580, 581–586
English law, 4
fundamental norms, 592–593
future of ASBOs, 595
Home Office Survey on Young People and Crime, 585
influence of order-maintenance, 587–588
intolerance, 591–592
maintaining order, 578–579
New York City quality-of-life initiative, 587–588, 590
numbers through December 2006, 582
(p. 620) order maintenance, 586–591
Police Reform Act 2002, 582
problems with policies, 591–595
social cohesion, 594–595
term, 581
zero tolerance, 587
antitheft devices, auto theft, 214
anti-trafficking programs, international, 423
Aquapol, environmental crime, 343
Armed Revolutionary Independence Movement, terrorism in United States, 439, 440
arrest and conviction, auto theft, 211–212
arrest and imprisonment, drugs, 512–514
art crimes. See also cultural artifacts trafficking
fakes and forgeries, 459–460
theft, 458–459
types, 455, 458–464
Art Crime Team, FBI, 469
articles, money laundering, 359
Art Loss Register (ALR), database, 456
Asia, terrorism attacks and fatalities, 434
assault
boxing, 29
cross-national comparisons, 32–34
patterns of criminal, 29–34
theories of homicide and, 41–44
United States, 26–27
victim-offender relationship for serious, 38–41
assessments, child abuse, 142–144
asylum systems, human smuggling, 420–421
audits, taxation, 397n.1
Australia
motor vehicle theft, 201, 203
regulatory practice, 396–397
tax system changes, 387
vehicle registration, 216n.4
auto theft
amateur joyriders, 201, 204
arrest and conviction, 212
Australia, Canada, England & Wales, and U.S., 201, 203
car thieves, 209–211
city size, 199–200
costs, 194–195
criminal justice response, 211–216
current knowledge, 192–193
definitions, 193–194
distribution within U.S., 196, 199–200
future research, 215–216
industrialized countries, 201, 202
international patterns of, 200–201
juveniles, 216n.5, 217n.6
motivational categories, 205
prevalence, 193–194
prevention and policy, 213–215
professionals, 204
profit motivation, 204
research in U.S., 191–192
timing and theft locations, 207–208
transportation, 204
trends in U.S., 196
types of, 201, 204–205
types of stolen vehicles, 208
United States, 197, 198, 200
vehicle recovery rates, 194–195
victimization risk, 205–208
victims, 205–208
volume and rate across states, 199
bad trick sheets, prostitution, 569, 572n.26
bank fraud, percentage of prosecuted crimes, 539
bankruptcy, frauds, 233–234
banks, money laundering, 361, 362
Basel Convention, environmental crime, 341, 348n.10
batterer, domestic violence, 129–130
behavior. See also antisocial behavior
causes of sex offenders', 62–63
criminal vs. harmful, 3
socially acceptable, 28–29
benefits, perception of, from taxation, 392–393
Benthamism, harm reduction, 10
betting pools, gambling, 604–605
bias-motivated violence. See also hate crimes
criminalizing, 540
hate crimes, 524
law enforcement agency response, 531
biological factors, sex offenders, 62–63
Black Liberation Army, terrorism in United States, 439, 440
body switching, auto theft, 214
boiler room scams, economic crime, 225, 239
books, money laundering, 359
border control, human smuggling and trafficking, 419–420
(p. 621) borderline-dysphoric batterers, domestic violence, 122–123
Boston
hate crime and police department, 530
Operation Ceasefire, 85–87, 91
Ten Points Coalition, 94n.12
bot networks, cybercrime, 476, 481
boxing, regulated assault, 29
Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act
homicide rates, 82–83
public safety, 81–82
brigate rossi, money laundering, 356
Brinks' Mat robbery, United Kingdom, 372
British Columbia, auto theft, 207
British Crime Survey (BCS)
antisocial behavior, 583, 584, 585
auto theft, 208
burglary, 168, 169
burglary prevention, 183
British model, gambling, 604
broken windows hypothesis, antisocial behavior, 579, 588–591
broken windows theory, antisocial behavior, 594, 595
bullying, cybercrime, 489
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF), crime-gun trace, 80
burglary
areas, 175–176
concentration, 170
CRAVED model, 166, 177
description, 167–169
detection as priority, 185–186
drop around world, 171–172, 184
incidence, 170
items, 177
offenders, 178–179
offender-victim nexus, 166, 185
premises, 176–177
prevalence, 170, 171
prevention, 182–184
rate trends, 172
repeat victimization, 181–182, 185
reporting by country, 174
reporting by offense and household character, 173
reporting to police, 172–175
risk communication, 181–182
seasonality, 180
sources of knowledge on, 169–170
targets, 175–177
temporal distribution, 179–180
victims, 177
business
environmental conduct, 327–333
frauds against, 231–234
California
commitment to enforce hate crimes, 530
gambling, 609
hate crime data collection, 540
hate crime laws, 528–529
hate crime prosecutions, 541
California Public Interest Research Group, identity theft, 251, 253
campaigns, antisocial behavior orders, 585–586
Canada
“flipping,” 236–237
homicides, 33
motor vehicle theft, 201, 203, 216n.4
card games, gambling, 602, 606–607
careers, organizational crime, 286–287, 295
carjacking, armed vehicle theft, 191
carousel frauds, 236, 361, 377n.4
carrying firearms, 87–91
car thieves. See also auto theft
age and motives, 210
demographic profile, 209
social and economic background, 209–210
social context of auto theft, 210–211
casinos, gambling, 604
cellular phone texting, 488–489
chain migration, human smuggling, 413–414
Challenger shuttle, negligence, 277
chemical castration, sex offender policy, 64
Chicago
antisocial behavior, 589
handgun ban, 78, 79
identity theft, 252
prostitution venues, 559
child abuse
assessments, 142–144
child protection and criminal justice system, 154–155
criminal justice system, 153–156
current knowledge, 141–142
definitions, 149–150
early laws, 140
from child maltreatment to child welfare, 156
gender, 141, 146–147
(p. 622) high-risk neighborhoods, 152–153
incidence rates, 142
percentage of prosecuted crimes, 539
prevalence rates, 142
prostitution, 563
public policy, 157–158
rate and ethnicity, 148–149
reported rates, 144–146
reporting laws, 154
risk factors, 141, 153
social learning theory, 151–152
stress theories, 152
theories, 150–153
trends, 145, 146, 147
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act of 1974 (CAPTA)
amendment, 150, 154
child abuse law, 140–141
child molestation, sexual reoffending, 59–60
child pornography, 60, 476, 485–486
child protection, criminal justice, 154–155
children
antisocial behavior, 583, 585
identity theft victims, 254
Children's Bureau, child abuse, 140
child welfare, child maltreatment to, 156
China
environmental crime, 340–341
smuggling organizations, 415
smuggling ship Golden Venture!, 413
Chinese Triads, organized crime, 306
chop shops, auto theft, 191, 214
chronicity rates
child abuse, 146
environmental crime, 331–332
cigarettes, past-month users, 509
city size, auto theft rates, 199–200
Civil Rights Division of U.S. Department of Justice, hate crimes, 538
Clark County, Nevada, child abuse, 155
class-action lawsuits, organizational crime, 291
Clean Water Act, 331, 333, 339, 344
clearance rates, identity theft, 252
clients, prostitution, 566–567
cocaine
minimum sentences, 513–514
past-month users, 509
treatment, 515
coercion, tax evasion, 393
cognitive performance enhancers, drugs, 517–518
Columbia, terrorism, 435, 436
Columbian drug trade, money laundering, 359, 377
command-and-control regulation
environmental crime, 342, 348n.7
organizational crime, 294
commodities and securities fraud, costs, 227
commoditization, cybercrime, 480–481
community-based approach, hate crimes, 532
community notification, sex offenders, 52, 63–65
community prevention, programs, 9
competition
globalization, 293
organizational crime, 282, 293
compliance
environmental crime, 346–347
organizational crime, 294
compliance model, Australian Taxation Office, 396–397
computer abuse
cybercrime, 493
percentage of prosecuted crimes, 539
computer addiction, research, 488–489
computerization, cybercrime, 481
confidential informants, organized crime, 313–314
conflicts, art and antiquities crimes, 466–468
Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS), child abuse, 142–144, 146–147
Congressional Research Service (CRS), organized crime, 308
Connecticut, gambling, 599
consequences, sex offending, 66
consequentialism, drugs, 503–504
consumer fraud, costs, 227
consumer scams, frauds against individuals, 234–235
consumption, drugs, 506–507
contraband tobacco, organized crime, 308
contra trading, overlapping carousels, 236
control theory, environmental crime, 336
Cook County, Illinois, handgun ban, 78, 79, 94n.9
cooperative regulatory approaches, environmental crime, 343–344
corporate crime
organizational, 276–278
term, 242n.6
corporate governance, accounting firms, 239
corporate taxes, tax evasion, 384
(p. 623) corruption, money laundering, 368–369
costs
auto theft, 194–195
crime control, 6
drug treatment, 514–515
European terrorist attacks, 372
financial crimes, 226–228
gun misuse, 93n.6
gun violence, 74–75
imprisonment, 45
money laundering, 372, 376, 378n.10
organized crime, 307–309
prisoner reentry, 45–46
violent and property crimes, 15–17
countries, reported burglaries, 174
courts, organizational crime, 289–290
CRAVED model, burglary, 166, 177
credit crunch, financial crimes, 224, 233
credit frauds, against business, 233–234
Crime and Justice, burglary, 165
crime clock, organizational crime, 279
crime control
anti-money laundering (AML) measures, 373–374
costs, 6
efficacy of organized crime policy, 317–320
needs of released prisoners, 46
crime prevention, identity theft, 263–265
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED), prostitution, 567
crimes
auto theft involving other, 205
cybercrime policing and, evolving, 479–480
gun use in, 84–87
incidence of, with cultural artifacts, 464–465
legal concept, 6
right-to-carry laws, 94n.16, 94–95n.18
wars on, 17
criminal behavior, harmful vs., 3
criminal careers, organizational crime, 286–287
criminalization
drugs, 18n.2
forbidden behavior, 7
criminalization process, violence, 26
criminal justice systems
auto theft, 211–216
barriers for men seeking help, 132
child abuse, 153–156
child maltreatment to child welfare and into, 156
costs of auto theft, 195
differences by country, 6
domestic violence, 132–133
drugs, 505, 506
hate crime and, 542
law enforcement, 7–8
criminology, study, 273
cross-national agreement, criminal behavior, 3–4
cross-national comparisons
homicide and assault, 32–34
sex crimes, 55, 56
cryptoviruses, cybercrime, 481
cultural artifacts trafficking
antiquities looting and smuggling, 460–462
art crimes, 455, 456
Art Loss Register (ALR), 456
art theft, 458–459
case study, 461–462
categories of artworks recovered, 457
causal mechanisms, 465–466
fakes and forgeries, 459–460
incidence, 464–465
international treaties, 456–457
law enforcement agencies, 468–469
legal instruments for lawyers, 455–456
organized crime and, 462–464
police register, 456
policy implications, 470–471
private registers of stolen art, 469–470
research priorities, 471
thefts by location, 464
value, 466, 472n.3
wars and conflicts, 466–468
cultural learning theories, criminology, 42
culture of complaint, antisocial behavior, 583
cultures, organizational crime, 285
customers, prostitution, 561–562
cyber-assisted fraud, accounting records, 232
cyber bullying, 489
cybercrime
adaptive crimes, 478
bot networks, 481
categories of offenders, 484, 485
child pornography, 476, 485–486
commoditization, 480–481
computerization, 481
countermeasures, 487
crime and policing coevolving, 479–480
(p. 624) cryptoviruses, 481
cyber bullying, 489
cyber criminals, 483–486
cyber terrorists, 484–485
electronic information technology (IT) devices, 475–476
evolving crime construct, 477–480
generalizations, 476–477
hackers, 483–484
identity theft, 487
information systems, 476, 480, 494n.3
information systems security, 488
international perspectives, 487–488
Internet or computer addiction, 488–489
IT devices lacking adequate safeguards, 481–482
IT-enabled abuse and crime, 480–483
malware, 476, 481
networks, 480, 494n.3
new crimes, 478
ordinary crime, 478
organized crime, 308
policy and research, 492–494
prevalence, 486–490
prevention and control capabilities, 490–491
qualitative differences from traditional crimes, 482–483
“ratcheting-up” effect, 479
“salami slicing,” 480, 494n.2
technology-enabled crime, policing, and security theory, 478–479
term, 475, 477
Youth Internet Safety Surveys, 488
youth IT offending and victimization, 489–490
cyber revolution, gambling, 613
cyber terrorists, cybercrime, 484–485
Czech Republic, environmental crime, 339
data snoops, cybercrime, 484, 485
deceased victims, identity theft, 253–254
decriminalization
prostitution, 550, 551–552
public policy, 11–12
defensible space, community prevention, 9
delinquency, nonintervention, 12
demographic profile, car thieves, 209
demographics, robbers, 107–108
Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), child abuse, 141
Department of Justice, prosecuted hate crimes, 538–539
deterrence
capital punishment, 18n.3
environmental crime, 335
evidence, 7–8
gun violence, 76
identity theft, 265
organized crime, 319
prostitution, 566, 572n.24
developed countries
assault victimization, 34
auto theft, 200–201, 202
homicides, 33
reported burglaries, 174
robbery rates, 104
developmental prevention, programs, 9
differential association theory, environmental crime, 334–335
discretion, organizational crime, 280
disguise of ownership, money laundering, 363, 364–365
DNA databanks
burglary detection, 166, 186
sex offender policy, 51, 64
domain, tax evasion, 382, 383–384
domestic terrorism, term, 448n.2
domestic violence
alcohol abuse, 122
batterer intervention programs, 129–130
Duluth Model, 124, 129–130, 131, 133
ecological models, 123
empirical knowledge, 116
female perpetrators, 131–132
feminine advocacy, 115–116
homicide reductions, 40–41
law enforcement agency response, 531
law enforcement policies, 124–130
mandatory arrest, 124–126
no-drop policies, 126–127
patriarchy theory, 120–121
personality dysfunction, 122–123
policy implications, 132–133
prevalence, 118–120
problems and issues, 116
protective orders, 127–129
research, 117–118
scholarly journals, 117
systems theory, 121
trends, 119
(p. 625) Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE), drug prevention, 516
drug distribution, tolerance and intolerance, 4
drug policies, Dutch, 4–5
drug-prostitution nexus, 563–564
drugs
analytical framework, 503–507
arrest and imprisonment, 512–514
causes and bearers of drug-related harm, 505–506
cognitive performance enhancers, 517–518
consequentialist vs. deontological positions, 503–504
consumption and consequences, 506–507
contribution of illicit, to harm indicators, 510
criminalization, 18n.2
cultural artifacts and organized crimes, 463
drug-related harms, 510–511
ecstasy, 517
epidemiology, 507–511
federal prison population by offense, 513
framings, 501–502
incarcerations, 44–45
interdiction and source-country controls, 511–512
issues, 502–503
money laundering and, in Europe, 363–366
near future, 516–519
past-month users, 509
policy goals, 504–505
prevalence of use by age, 509
prevention, 515–516
psychoactive, 501
research priorities, 518–519
thizzle scene, 517
treatment, 514–515
trends among 12th graders, 508
wars on, 17
worldwide laundering, 366–367
Duluth Model, domestic violence, 124, 129–130, 131, 133
Dutch drug dealers, money laundering, 366
Dutch organized crime, money laundering, 374, 378n.8
Dutch tolerance
drug policies, 4–5
prostitution, 422
Dyer Act in 1919, 191
ecological models, domestic violence, 123
economic background, car thieves, 209–210
economic conditions, organizational crime, 284
economic conservatives, choosing policies, 17–18
economic crime. See also financial crimes
types, 225
economic globalization, organizational crime, 292–295
economic instrumental category, auto theft, 205
economics, prostitution, 549–550
ecstasy, thizzle scene, 517
education
hate crime victims, 536
moral, 8
Egypt, antiquities smuggling, 460
elder abuse, percentage of prosecuted crimes, 539
electronic immobilizer, auto theft, 214
electronic surveillance, organized crime, 312
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, 328
England & Wales
antisocial behavior, 578, 581–586
antisocial behavior orders (ASBOs), 580–581
burglary reduction, 183–184
motor vehicle theft, 201, 203
sentencing financial crimes, 240–241
steering column lock, 211
Enron Corporation
accounting firms, 241
money laundering, 359, 377
organizational crime, 279
tax evasion, 384
entrapment
prostitution, 572n.23
undercover operations, 313
environmental crime
Basel Convention, 341, 348n.10
China, 340–341
Clean Water Act, 331, 333, 339, 344
command-and-control state regulation, 342
cooperative approaches, 343–344
corporate financial and environmental performance, 332–333
corporate “greenwashing,” 330
differential association theory, 334–335
(p. 626) environmental conduct in business, 327–333
environmental law and public policy, 338–346
environmental law expansion, 338
environmental laws around world, 339–342
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) records, 327, 348n.1
environmental regulation, 342–346
European Union, 341
fines for business violations, 344
Green Lights Programs, 330
hazardous waste handling, 343, 349n.12
integrity of law enforcement, 346, 349n.15
international policing agencies, 343
Kyoto Protocol, 341, 349n.10
legislation-enforcement-compliance nexus, 347
micro level explanations, 334–336
noncompliance, 330–333
official statistics, 327
organizational and macro-level explanations, 337–338
overcompliance, 329–330
patterns and trends, 333
pollution control, 344–345
prescriptive regulations, 338, 348n.7
proposed definitions, 325–326
rational choice theory, 335
recidivism, 33i-332
research on compliance and enforcement, 346–347
Russia, 340
sanctions and offending, 335–336
sensationalized cases, 327–328
size of polluting facilities, 331
social control theory, 336
term, 325
Toxic Release Inventory, 328
tradable permit policies, 342
types and patterns of environmental behavior, 328–329
unequal enforcement, 344, 345–346, 349n.14
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, 341
United States and laws, 339–340
violations by industry, 332
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
environmental laws, 339–340
official records, 327, 348n.1
epidemiology
drug-related harms, 510–511
drug use, 507–509
equity, tax evasion, 393–394
ethnicity
aggravated assaults and homicide victims, 35, 36
child abuse, 148–149
Europe
drugs and money laundering, 363–366
markets for illicit antiquities, 461
terrorism attacks and fatalities, 434
European Union, environmental crimes, 341
Europol, environmental crime, 343
evasion. See tax evasion
exhibitionists, sex offenders, 60
exosystem
child abuse, 152
domestic violence, 123
exploitation, human trafficking, 409–410, 417–418
export of crime money, money laundering, 363, 364
Exxon Valdez, sensationalized tragedy, 327–328
Fair and Accurate Credit Transaction Act (FACTA), identity theft, 262
fakes, art crimes, 459–460
Falls Curfew, Northern Ireland, 443
false justification, money laundering, 363, 365
family-only batterers, domestic violence, 122
family treatment drug courts (FTDC), child abuse, 158
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), identity theft, 250
federal laws
hate crimes, 527–528
prosecuted hate crimes, 538–539
Federal Trade Commission (FTC), identity theft, 247, 250, 251
Federal Witness Security Program, organized crime, 315
felicity, harm reduction, 9
female perpetrators, domestic violence, 131–132
(p. 627) feminist advocacy, domestic violence, 115–116
feminist philosophy, prostitution, 548
FIA International Research, Ltd., organized crime, 307
Financial Action Task Force (FATF), money laundering, 357
financial crimes
accounting firms, 241–242
accounting manipulation, 231–232
bankruptcy and credit frauds, 233–234
“boiler room” scams, 225
commodities and securities fraud, 227
consumer fraud, 227
consumer scams, 234–235
conviction and sentencing, 241–242
corporate governance, 239
credit crunch, 224
crime for gain, 229
economic crime, 225
extent and costs of, 226–228
frauds against business, 231–234
frauds against individuals, 234–235
frauds against public sector, 236–237
fraudulent investment schemes, 235
insider abuse of trust, 232–233
insurance frauds, 227, 234
key observations, 225–226
money laundering, 228
mortgage frauds, 227
multilateral information exchange, 237–238
policing difficulties, 239
policy responses, 237–242
price fixing, 224
public concern, 237–238
regulation, 242
rogue trading, 228
sentencing, 240–241
serious organized crime threats, 238
simple “419” frauds, 235
stimulating fear and risk of detection, 239
term, 223
types of fraud, 224, 230–237
understanding organization of, 228–230
financial institution failures (FIF), FBI, 223–224
Finnish criminal justice system, harm reduction, 10
firearms
aggravated assaults and homicides, 35–38
estimations, 92–93n.2
“more guns, less crime” hypothesis, 38
percentage of prosecuted crimes, 539
firearm violence. See also guns
access to guns, 76–84
costs, 74–75
gun ownership and murder, 71
instrumentality, 75
problem, 72–76
self-defense and deterrence, 76
statistics, 73–75
threat of extra punishment, 71–72
flipping, Canadian fraud, 236–237
forced prostitution, human trafficking, 416–419
forcible rape, trends, 55
foreign terrorist organizations (FTOs), 429
forfeiture, organized crime, 315–316
forgeries, art crimes, 459–460
frauds. See financial crimes
Freedom of Access to Abortion Clinic Entrances (FACE) Act, United States, 444–445
Fuerzas Armadas de Liberacion Nacional (FALN), terrorism in United States, 438–440
fundamental norms, antisocial behavior, 592–593
gambling
ambivalence, 611
America's third wave of legal, 601–604
betting pools, 604–605
British model, 604
current scope and forms, 604–609
generalizations, 600–601
impediments to normalization and expansion, 610–612
Las Vegas, 605–606
moralistic opposition, 600
National Gambling Impact Study Commission, 611–612
normalization, 613–615
opposition, 610–611
organized crime groups, 602–603
poker boom, 606–607
politics, law and Indian gaming, 608–609
problem, 611–612
racinos, 606
regulation, 11
slot machines, 607–608
state-owned lotteries, 603
(p. 628) states expanding, 599–600
ubiquity, 605
Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act (UIGEA), 613
unresolved questions, 612–613
varieties, 605–608
gangs
deterrence with Operation Ceasefire, 85–87
law enforcement agency response, 531
gender
child abuse, 146–147
hate crime victims, 536
prostitution arrests, 555
Germany, money laundering, 366
Getty Museum, buying looted objects, 461–462
Gibraltar incident, Northern Ireland, 443
globalization, organizational crime, 292–295
global positioning, auto theft prevention, 213
global terrorism. See also terrorism
distribution, 433, 435, 437
Global Terrorism Database (GTD). See also terrorism
data source, 431–433
formation, 429–430
global trafficking, sexual exploitation, 412–413
Golden Venture, Chinese smuggling ship, 413
Green Lights Programs, participation, 330
greenwashing, environmental crime, 330
guns. See also firearm violence
Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, 81–83
carrying, 87–91
enhanced punishment for carrying and possession, 88–89
fraction of suicides involving firearm (FSS), 77
homicide rates for Brady treatment vs. control, 82
homicide trends, 82–83, 85–86
markets, 80–81
Operation Ceasefire in Boston, 85–87, 91
ownership, 77–78
policing against illegal, 87–88
policy and future research, 91–92
possession by violent misdemeanants, 83–84
Project Exile in Richmond, 88–89
regulations for control, 84
relaxing restrictive carrying laws, 89–91
right-to-carry laws, 90, 94–95n.18
robbery threats, 111
safety of homeowners, 76–77
Second Amendment to U.S. Constitution, 4, 11–12
state regulations of gun acquisition, 83
statistics, 73–75
suicides with, 78, 79
targeting gun use in crime, 84–87
transactions and possession, 78–84
underground market, 80–81
hackers, cybercrime, 483–484, 485
Halliburton, corruption, 236
hallucinogens, past-month users, 509
handguns. See also guns
bans, 78, 79
Second Amendment to U.S. Constitution, 4, 11–12
harassers, cybercrime, 484, 485
harm
categories for drugs, 505–506
drug policy programs, 518–519
drug-related, 510–511
harm capacity, organized crime, 305
harmful behavior, criminal vs., 3
harm reduction
prostitution, 568–569
public policy, 9–10
harassment, sex offenders, 64
hate crimes
Anti-Bias Task Force (ABTF), 532
California, 528–529, 530, 540
California prosecutions, 541
characteristics of victims, 536
community-oriented approach, 532
data collection and patterns: police, 533–535
data collection and patterns: prosecution, 537–540
enforcement of policies, 524–525
federal law, 527–528
future policies and practices, 540, 542
Hate Crimes Sentencing Enhancement Act (HCSEA), 527–528
Hate Crimes Statistics Act (HCSA), 527, 533–535
law enforcement agency response, 531
Law Enforcement Management Administrative Statistics survey, 531
(p. 629) law enforcement participation in data collection, 533
merely symbolic politics, 524
National Crime Victim Survey (NCVS), 534–535
National Prosecutors Survey, 539
policing, 529–533
prosecuted cases, 538–539
prosecution, 533, 537
social movements, 526
state laws, 528–529
symbolic politics, 525–526
term, 525, 527
Violence Against Women Act (VAWA), 528
Hate Crimes Sentencing Enhancement Act (HCSEA), 527–528
Hate Crimes Statistics Act (HCSA), 527, 533–535
hazardous waste handling, environmental crime, 343, 349n.12
health, social and economic functioning, drugs, 505
hebophilia, sexual assault, 60
Hells Angels, organized crime, 306
Holocaust denial, crime, 4
Home Office Survey on Young People and Crime, antisocial behavior, 585
homicides
Boston, 85–87
Brady Act, 82–83
characteristics of victims, 35
cross-national comparisons, 32–34
definition, 29
developed countries, 33, 92n.1
domestic violence and, reduction, 40–41
firearms, 35–38
intimate partner, by sex of victim, 39
patterns of criminal, 29–34
recent trends in United States, 30–32
and robbery rates, 105
sex offenders, 58, 61
statistics on guns and violence, 73–75
theories of, and assault, 41–44
United States, 5–6, 26–27, 31, 33
victim-offender relationship, 38–41
horse racing, gambling, 602
household characteristics
auto theft victimization, 206, 207
hate crime victims, 536
household victimization rates, United States, 14, 15
Huddersfield project, burglary prevention, 184
human smuggling
chain migration, 413–414
China, 415
Chinese ship Golden Venture!, 413
facts, figures and patterns, 411–413
human trafficking vs., 410–411, 423–424
immigration violations, 409
international migration, 414
mutual consent, 410
organized crime, 415
policy measures and interventions, 419–423
prime suspects, 414
processes of, 413–416
research, 424
human trafficking
exploitation, 409–410, 417–418
facts, figures and patterns, 411–413
forced prostitution, 416–419
human smuggling vs., 410–411, 423–424
organized crime, 308, 418–419
policy measures and interventions, 419–423
processes of, 416–419
research, 424
sexual exploitation, 412
Hurricane Katrina, corruption, 236
identity theft
acquiring identities, 258–260
changing perceptions, 265
clearance rates, 252
converting information, 260
cybercrime, 487
defining, 249–250
explaining, 256–258
extent of, 251–252
Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 247, 250
forms, 247–248
legislation, 261–262
lifestyle and criminal choice, 256–257
motivation, 256–257, 266
neutralizing, 257–258
offenders, 255–256
patterns, 250–252
policy, 261–265
procedures increasing effort and risk, 263–264
removing excuses, 264–265
(p. 630) research, 248
situational crime prevention, 263–265
subtypes, 266n.1
techniques, 258–260
victim-offender relationship, 254–255
Identity Theft Assumption and Deterrence Act, 247, 249
Identity Theft Data Clearinghouse, 250
illegal drugs, organized crime, 308
illegal guns. See firearm violence; guns
illegal immigration. See human smuggling
illegalities, organizational crime, 278
illegal parking, antisocial behavior, 591–592
Illinois, gambling, 599–600
immigration, human smuggling, 409
immunity, organized crime, 314–315
imprisonment
costs of mass, 45, 47n.8
drugs, 512–514
homicide and serious assault, 27
incarceration, policy choice, 44–45
income tax fraud, costs, 227
Independent Armed Revolutionary Commandos, terrorism in United States, 439, 440
India, terrorism, 435, 436
Indian gaming, gambling, 608–609
industrialized nations, auto theft, 200–201, 202
industry variations, environmental crime, 332
informants
organizational crime, 290–292
organized crime, 313–314
information systems, cybercrime, 476, 480
information technology (IT). See also cybercrime
electronic IT devices, 475–476
lacking adequate safeguards, 481–482
insider trading, abuse of trust, 232–233
insurance frauds, 227, 234
insurance premiums, crimes, 16
intangible costs, crimes, 16–17
integration, money laundering, 358–359
intellectual property crime, costs, 227
Intellimine, cognitive performance enhancer, 517
interactionist theory, criminology, 43
interdiction, drugs, 511–512
Internal Revenue Service (IRS). See also tax evasion
tax gap, 385, 386
International Council of Museums (ICOM), Red List, 470
International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS)
burglary, 168, 170
burglary prevention, 182–183
developed nations, 34
international migration, human smuggling, 414
international policing agencies, environmental crime, 343
International Terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events (ITERATE), 432, 445, 449n.7
international treaties, stolen art and antiquities, 456–457
Internet. See also cybercrime
addiction, 488–489
financial crimes, 238
gambling, 610
organized crime, 308
Internet Crime Complaint Center, identity theft, 250
Interpol
environmental crime, 343
stolen art database, 456, 468–469
interventions
domestic violence, 129–130
human smuggling and human trafficking, 419–423
reducing drug-related harm, 519
robbery threats, 110–112
violence-reduction policies and, 44–46
intimate partner violence
homicides by sex of victim, 39
victims of nonfatal, 39
women vs. men, 27, 38–41
intolerance, antisocial behavior, 587, 591–592
investigation
cybercrime, 491
hate crimes approach, 532
organizational crime, 288–289
investment schemes, frauds against individuals, 235
Iraq reconstruction, corruption, 236
Ireland, terrorism in Northern, 437, 442–444
Irish Republican Army (IRA), 442–444
Italian mafia, organized crime, 306
(p. 631) Jacob Wetterling Crimes against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Act, sex offender registry, 51–52
Japan
environmental crime, 339
homicides, 33
Jewish Defense League (JDL), terrorism in United States, 438–440
john schools, prostitution, 561–562, 566
joyriders, auto theft, 201, 204
juvenile justice system, intervention, 12
juvenile offenders
auto theft, 216n.5, 217n.6
burglary, 178
prostitution, 560
Kansas City Gun Experiment, policing program, 87
Kazakhgate, corruption case, 369
Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 2003, 150, 154
Kentucky, gambling, 600
Kevorkian, Jack, murder trial, 26
Kirkholt project, burglary prevention, 184
knowingly assisting, money laundering, 359
Know Your Customer regulation, money laundering, 359
Kyoto Protocol, environmental crime, 341, 349n.10
La Cosa Nostra, 306, 307
Las Vegas, gambling, 605–606
Latin America, terrorism attacks and fatalities, 434
law enforcement
cultural artifacts trafficking, 468–469
domestic violence, 124–130
drugs, 505, 506
environmental crime, 346–347
hate crime data collection, 533
integrity of, for environmental crime, 346, 349n.15
organized crime, 309, 318–320
politics, law, and Indian gaming, 608–609
tax evasion, 387
unequal, for environmental crime, 345–346
Law Enforcement Management
Administrative Statistics, hate crimes, 531
layering, money laundering, 358
legalization
gambling, 11, 601–604
prostitution, 550, 552, 571n.20
legal moralism, drugs, 504
legislation
future, of sex offenders, 65–66
identity theft, 261–262
legislation-enforcement-compliance nexus, environmental crime, 347
Leonardo, police register, 456
lethality ratio, aggravated assaults and homicide, 35, 36–37
libertarian, drugs, 504
life course theories, criminology, 42
loan-back construction, money laundering, 363, 365
loitering, antisocial behavior, 585, 586, 591–592
LoJack, auto theft prevention, 213
long-term transportation, auto theft, 204
looting, antiquities, 460–462
lost earnings, crimes, 16–17
lotteries, gambling, 603
Loughall incident, Northern Ireland, 443
lure
globalization, 293
organizational crime, 281, 293
macrosystem
child abuse, 152
domestic violence, 123
mafia, organized crime, 306
male prostitution, 560–561
malware, cybercrime, 476, 481
mandatory arrest, domestic violence, 124–126
marginal deterrence, 8
marijuana. See also drugs
harshness of U.S. enforcement, 513
past-month users, 509
markets, guns, 80–81, 92
Massachusetts
gambling, 599
gun ownership, 77–78, 79
media portrayal, organized crime, 304
Megan's law, sex offenders, 52
mesosystem, domestic violence, 123
(p. 632) metamorphic worms, cybercrime, 481
microsystem
child abuse, 152
domestic violence, 123
Middle East, terrorism attacks and fatalities, 434
Milwaukee
domestic violence recidivism, 125–126
no-drop policies, 126–127
Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment, 124
Minnesota Domestic Violence Experiment, 125
missing trader fraud, carousel fraud, 236
Mississippi, gun ownership, 77–78, 79
money laundering
anti-money laundering (AML) measures, 368, 369, 371–376
brigate rossi, 356
consequences of control system, 357–358
corruption and, 368–369
costs, 228, 372, 376, 378n.10
cultural artifacts and organized crimes, 463
defining, in law and practice, 358–360
disguise of ownership, 364–365
disguise or concealment of funds, 356
drugs and, in Europe, 363–366
Enron Corporation, 359
export of crime money, 364
false justification, 365
Financial Action Task Force (FATF), 357
focus, 357
integration, 358–359
justification, 365
Kazakhgate, 369
Know Your Customer regulations, 359
layering, 358
methods and markets, 360–367
methods of disguising proceeds, 363
Montesinos Case, 369, 370
organized crime, 308
phony bookkeeping, 365
placement, 358
predicate crime, 358
quantity, 361–363
resources for combating, 359–360
Serious Crime Act 2007, 375
Serious Organised Crime Agency, 375
Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005, 375
Suspicious Activity Reports (SARs), 371, 376
United Kingdom, 372, 374
untraceability of crime profits, 366
Value-Added Tax (VAT) frauds, 360, 377n.4
worldwide, 366–367
money service business (MSB), money laundering, 362
Montesinos Case, corruption, 369, 370
moral education, evidence, 8
moralistic opposition, gambling, 600
moral justification, redeeming role, 28
moral obligation, tax evasion, 393
mortgage frauds, costs, 227
motor vehicle theft. See auto theft
Motor Vehicle Theft Law Enforcement Law of 1984, 213
Muslim countries, criminal behavior, 3–4
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), 29–30
National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS)
establishment, 141
race and ethnicity, 148–149
statistics, 143, 144, 146
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
auto theft, 194
Bureau of Justice Statistics', 29–30, 31
burglary, 168–169
domestic violence, 116, 118–120
hate crimes, 534–535
identity theft, 249
prostitution, 554
rape and sexual assault, 55
robbery, 104, 105
sexual victimization, 57
National Family Violence Surveys (NFVS)
child abuse, 141, 142, 147
domestic violence, 116, 117, 118–120
National Gambling Impact Study Commission, 611–612
National Incidence Studies (NIS), child abuse, 141, 143, 144, 145
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
child abuse, 154–155
hate crimes, 534–535
prostitution, 553, 570–571n.8
victims of sex crimes, 57
National Prosecutors Survey, hate crimes, 537, 539
national registry, sex offenders, 52
National Stolen Art File, database, 469
(p. 633) National Survey of the Personal Ownership of Firearms (NSPOF), 93n.2
National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS), domestic violence, 116, 117, 120
National White Collar Crime Center, identity theft, 250
neglect, sex offenders' behavior, 62
neighborhoods
antisocial behavior, 589
burglary, 175–176
child abuse, 152–153
neighborhood watch, 9, 184
Netherlands, prostitution, 421–422
neutralization, organizational crime, 283
Nevada
child abuse in Clark County, 155
gambling, 603
Las Vegas casinos, 605–606
sex workers, 570n.5
new crimes, cybercrime, 478
New Hampshire, gambling, 599
New Jersey, gambling, 612
New World Liberation Front (NWLF), terrorism in United States, 438, 439
New York City, quality-of-life initiative, 587–588, 590
Nigerian Penal Code, “419” frauds, 235
Nigerians, fraudsters, 230, 243n.9
no-drop policies, domestic violence, 126–127
noncompliance
environmental crime, 330–333
organizational crime, 282–283
noneconomic utilitarian category, auto theft, 205
nonintervention, public policy, 12–13
normalization, gambling, 613–615
North Africa, terrorism, 434
North America, terrorism, 434
Northern Ireland, terrorism, 437, 442–444
notification, sex offender laws, 63–64
obligation, taxes, 381–382, 393
occupational crime, organizational vs., 275
offenders
burglary, 178–179
cybercrime, 483–486
environmental crime, 334–336
identity theft, 255–256
juvenile, in auto theft, 216n.5, 217n.6
offender-victim nexus
burglary, 166, 185
Omega-7, terrorism in United States, 439, 440
online gaming, cybercrime, 488–489
OnStar, auto theft prevention, 213
Operation Ceasefire, guns in crime, 85–87, 91
Operation Motorman, Northern Ireland, 443, 444
order maintenance, antisocial behavior, 586–591
organization, financial crimes, 228–230
organizational crime
aggregate level, 281–283
careers, 286–287, 295
class-action lawsuits, 291
competition, lure and oversight, 293
corporate and state-corporate crime, 276–278
courts and sentencing, 289–290
cultures, 285
data sources, 278–280
definitions, 274–278
distinction from organized crime, 275–276
economic globalization, 292–295
efforts to control, 273–274
Enron Corporation, 279, 280
explaining variation in, 280–286
illegalities and unethical conduct, 278
investigation and prosecution, 288–289
lure, 281, 293
neutralization, 283
noncompliance culture, 282–283
occupational vs., 275
organizational level, 283–286
performance pressure, 284
private actions, 290–292
Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization statute (RICO), 289
rational choice theory, 280, 286
regulation as compliance assistance, 294
regulatory agencies, 287–288
research agenda, 295–296
signaling behavior, 285–286
trends in, 294–295
victims and informants, 290–292
violations within legitimate work groups, 273–274
whistle-blowers, 291–292
organizational influence, environmental crime, 337–338
organized crime
challenge for policy, 309
cultural artifacts and, 462–464
description, 305–307
(p. 634) efficacy of control policy, 317–320
electronic surveillance, 312
financial, 228–229
forced prostitution, 418–419
forfeiture, 315–316
front lines, 311–317
gambling, 602–603
harm capacity, 306
high-end organizations, 306–307
human smuggling, 415
immunity, 314–315
informants, 313–314
Internet, 308
law enforcement, 309, 318–320
media portrayal, 304
organizational vs., 275–276
perspectives on U.S. policy, 310–311
politics and ideology, 320
prevalence, trends and costs, 307–309
Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act (RICO), 316–317
research agenda, 321–322
undercover operations, 313
witness protection programs, 315
outcomes, robberies, 108–109
overcompliance, environmental crime, 329–330
oversight
globalization, 293
globalization constraining, 296
organizational crime, 273–274, 281, 283, 293
ownership disguise, money laundering, 363, 364–365
pain and suffering costs, crimes, 16
Pam Lychner Sexual Offender Tracking and Identification Act, 52
parking illegally, antisocial behavior, 591–592
parsimony principle, harm reduction, 9
patriarchy theory, domestic violence, 120–121
Patriot Act of 2001, 238, 491
patterns
auto theft, 208
criminal homicide and assault, 29–34
environmental behavior, 328–329
environmental crime, 333
hate crimes and police, 533–535
hate crimes and prosecution, 537–540
human smuggling and human trafficking, 411–413
prostitution, 552–562
prostitution arrests, 555–558
pedophilia, sexual assault, 60
performance pressure, organizational crime, 284
perpetrators, female, in domestic violence, 131–132
personal information, identity theft, 258–260
personality dysfunction, domestic violence, 122–123
phony bookkeeping, money laundering, 363, 365
Pinkerton Global Intelligence Services (PGIS)
attack formula, 449–450n.11
global risk, 429, 431, 432
pirates, cybercrime, 484, 485
Pittsburgh, gun-oriented patrol, 88
placement, money laundering, 358
poker boom, gambling, 606–607
police
criminal law enforcement, 7–8
database Leonardo, 456
hate crime data collection and patterns, 533–535
hate crime detection and reporting, 529–533
illegal guns, 87–88
international policing agencies for environmental crimes, 343
misconduct in treating sex workers, 565
recording of crimes, 30–32
reporting burglary to, 172–175
sex crime statistics, 56
Stillwater slap, 27–29
policies
antisocial behavior, 592–593
auto theft prevention and, 213–215
child abuse, 157–158
choosing, 17–18
critical perspectives of U.S. organized crime, 310–311
cultural artifacts trafficking, 470–471
cybercrime, 492–494
domestic violence, 132–133
goals for drug, 504–505
gun in criminal assault, 71–72
human smuggling and human trafficking, 419–423
identity theft, 261–265
organized crime, 309
(p. 635) sex offenders, 51–53, 64–65
terrorism implications, 446–448
violence-reduction, 44–46
political ideology
hate crimes, 525–526
law enforcement vs. regulation, 11
organized crime, 320
politics, law, and Indian gaming, 608–609
pollution control
company size and environmental crime, 331
environmental crime, 326, 344–345
pollution programs, overcompliance, 330
Ponzi scheme, 235, 243n.15
pornography, 60, 476, 485–486
power, robber, 109
precautionary costs, auto theft, 195
prescriptive regulations, environmental crime, 338, 348n.7
presidential commission, cybercrime, 493–494
prevention
auto theft, 213–215
burglary, 166, 182–184, 185
cybercrime, 490–491
drugs, 515–516
identity theft, 263–265
public policy, 8–9
robbery, 102–103
sex offenders, 65
price fixing, financial crimes, 224
prisoner reentry, economic costs, 45–46
prisoners, needs of released, 46
problematic childhood, sex offenders' behavior, 62
procedural justice, tax evasion, 395–397
professionals
auto theft, 204
money laundering, 374, 378n.8
profit, auto theft, 204
prohibition
alcohol, 26
drug or alcohol use, 5
money laundering, 356
nineteenth century, 18n.2
prostitution, 550, 565–566, 569
Project Exile, Richmond, Virginia, 88–89, 94n.15
propensity to kill, sex offender, 61
property crimes
costs and cost-effectiveness, 15–17
rates and trends, 13–15
United States, 5–6
property selection, burglary, 176–177
prosecution
California hate crimes, 541
criminal law enforcement, 7–8
hate crimes, 535, 537, 538–539
organizational crime, 288–289, 294
prostitution
abolitionist model, 550–551
adult males, 550–561
arrests by area, 571n.11
arrests by race, 556–558, 571n.13, 571n.14
arrest trends by gender and age, 555
causes, correlates and consequences, 562–565
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED), 567
criminalization and regularization, 421–422
customers, 561–562
debate in United States, 547
decriminalization paradigm, 550, 551–552
definitions of, 549–552
deterrence, 566, 572n.24
drug-prostitution nexus, 563–564
female career criminals, 556
feminist philosophy, 548
harm reduction, 568–569
human trafficking, 412, 416–419
ideological debates, 548
involuntary, 422–423
juveniles, 560
legalization, 4
legalization or regulation, 550, 552
National Crime Victimization Survey!, 554
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), 553, 570–571n.8
national patterns and trends in arrest data, 555–558
Nevada, 570n.5
patterns and trends in, 552–562
police misconduct, 565
prohibitionist paradigm, 550
prohibitionist strategy, 565–566, 569
public policy, 565–569
targeting clients, 566–567
terms, 547
themes, 548–549
Ugly Mugs and bad trick sheets, 569, 572n.26
Uniform Crime Reports, 553, 554, 571n.11
venues, 558–560, 571n.20
victimization, 563
(p. 636) violence against women, 564–565
voluntary, 422
Western Europe, 57on.2
zoning out, 567–568
PROTECT Act of 2003, sex offender, 51
protective orders, domestic violence, 127–129
psychoactive drugs. See also drugs
topic, 501
psychological factors, sex offenders' behavior, 62
public education, sex offenders, 65
public policies
choosing, 17–18
criminal law enforcement, 7–8
decriminalization, 11–12
harm reduction, 9–10
nonintervention, 12–13
prevention, 8–9
prostitution, 565–569
regulation, 10–11
public safety, gun availability, 78
pulp and paper industry, environmental crime, 331, 332
punishment
auto theft, 211–212
gun carrying and possession, 88–89
quality-of-life initiative, New York City, 587–588, 590
Quikaine, cognitive performance enhancer, 517, 518
race. See also hate crimes
aggravated assaults and homicide victims, 35
auto theft victimization, 206
child abuse, 148–149
hate crime victims, 536
prosecuted hate crimes, 538–539
prostitution arrests, 556–558, 571n.13, 571n.14
racial hatred, 540
robbers vs. victims, 107
racinos, gambling, 606
Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act (RICO), 289, 316–317
RAND (Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism 2007), 428, 432, 449n.10
rape, trends in forcible, 55
rates
child abuse, 144–146
crimes, 6
violent and property crimes, 13–15
rational choice theory
environmental crime, 335
organizational crime, 280, 286
rearrests, sex offender, 58–60
recidivism
domestic violence, 125–126
environmental crime, 331–332
sex offender, 58–60
reciprocity, taxpaying, 381–382
recreational category, auto theft, 205
Red Brigades, money laundering, 356
redeeming role, moral justification, 28
Red List, International Council of Museums (ICOM), 470
Reducing Burglary Initiative, 184
registration, sex offender laws, 63–64
regularization
human smuggling, 421
human trafficking activity, 421–422
regulation
cybercrime, 490–491
environmental crimes, 342–346
financial crimes, 242
gun acquisition, 83
organizational crime, 294
prostitution, 550, 552
public policy, 10–11
state legislatures and guns, 93n.8
regulatory agencies, organizational crime, 287–288
rehabilitation, evidence, 8
reoffending patterns, sex offender, 59–60
repeat victimization, burglary, 181–182, 185
reporting laws, child abuse, 154
reporting to police, burglary, 172–175
residency restrictions, sex offenders, 64
responsive regulation, organizational crime, 294
restraining orders, domestic violence, 127–129
retribution,
auto theft, 205
organized crime, 319
Richmond, Virginia, Project Exile, 88–89, 94n.15
right-to-carry laws, 89–91, 94–95n.18
risk communication, burglary, 181–182
(p. 637) risk factors
burglary, 175–177
child abuse, 141, 153
robbery
average rate by city size, 106
data and trends, 103–106
demographics, 107–108
guns, 111
homicide and, rates in United States, 105
interventions, 110–112
outcomes, 108–109
prevention efforts, 102–103
race of robbers vs. race of victims, 107
rates, record and survey data, 104
right-to-carry laws, 94n.17
solo, 112n.1
strategic choices, 109–110
rogue trading, fraud, 228
routine activity theory, criminology, 42
rubbish, antisocial behavior, 591–592
Russia
environmental crime, 340
fraudsters, 230
money laundering, 361
Safer Cities project, burglary, 183–184
safety
drugs, 505–506
undercover operations, 313
salami slicing, cybercrime, 480, 494n.2
Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002, corporate governance, 239, 490
scofflaw dealers, gun market, 92, 95n.21
seasonality, burglary, 179–180
Second Amendment, handguns, 4, 11–12
self-control theory, criminology, 42
self-defense, gun violence, 76
sentencing, organizational crime, 289–290
Serious Crime Act 2007, 375
Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005, 375
sex crimes
aggravated assaults and homicide victims, 35
cross-national comparisons, 55–56
police statistics, 56
sex industry. See prostitution
sex offenders
assumptions, 53–54
causes of behavior, 62–63
consequences, 66
effectiveness of laws, 63–65
future policy directions, 65–66
offenses and victims, 52–53
policies, 51–52
propensity to kill, 58, 61
recidivism, 58–60
trends in offending and victimization, 54–58
sexual abuse
prostitution, 563
risk to girls vs. boys, 141
sexual assault
age of victims, 57–58
trends, 55
sexual exploitation
global trafficking, 412–413
human trafficking, 410–411
sexual violence. See sex offenders
short-term transportation, auto theft, 204
signaling behavior, organizational crime, 285–286
simple assault, 28, 47n.5
situational prevention, methods, 8
slot machines, gambling, 607–608
smuggling. See also human smuggling
antiquities, 460–462
social alignments, tax evasion, 383, 388–390, 397
social background, car thieves, 209–210
social cohesion, antisocial behavior, 594–595
social context, auto theft, 210–211
social control theory
criminology, 41, 42, 43
environmental crime, 336
social environmental, environmental crime, 334–336
social learning theory
child abuse, 151–152
criminology, 41
socially acceptable behavior, 28–29
social movements, hate crimes, 526
social networking, research, 488–489
social skills, sex offenders' behavior, 62
society, threat of tax evasion, 382
source-country controls, drugs, 511–512
South Africa, terrorism, 435, 436
Soviet Union, environmental crime, 340
speeding, antisocial behavior, 591–592
spyware, cybercrime, 481
START (Study of Terrorism and Response to Terrorism), 429, 448–449n.3
state-corporate crime, organizational, 277–278
(p. 638) state laws, hate crimes, 528–529
state-owned lotteries, gambling, 603
state regulations, gun acquisition, 83
steel industry, environmental crime, 332
Stillwater slap, simple assault, 27–29, 43
sting operations, prostitution, 572n.23
stolen items, burglary, 177
stolen vehicles, types, 208
strain
criminology, 41, 42, 43
environmental crime, 337
strategic choices, robbers, 109–110
stress theories, child abuse, 152
Study of Terrorism and Response to Terrorism (START), 429, 448–449n.3
suicides
gun ownership, 77–78
statistics on guns and violence, 73–75
with guns, 79
surveillance
auto theft, 213
organized crime, 312
suspicion, money laundering, 363
Suspicious Activity Reports (SARs), money laundering, 371, 376
Sweden, prostitution, 421–422
Swiss Federal Banking Commission (SFBC), Montesinos Case, 370
symbolic politics, hate crimes, 525–526
systems theory, domestic violence, 121
target hardening, auto theft, 214
targets
burglary, 175–177
terrorism in United States, 440, 441
tax evasion
affecting nation's economy, 381
audits, 397n.1
changes in, 386
compliance with tax laws, 395–397
domain, 383–384
enforcement intervention, 387
from coercion to moral obligation, 393
influence of other, 394
justice, 393–394
magnitude, 384–386
meaning of change in tax context, 386–388
perception of benefits from taxation, 392–393
perspectives, 397–398
primary drivers, 390–394
procedural justice, 395–397
reciprocity and obligation, 381–382
scientific literature, 382–383
special features, 388
tax gap of United States, 385
tax system design and administration, 391–392
threat to society, 382
wheel of social alignments, 383, 388–390, 397
tax gap, 385, 386
tax systems, design and administration, 391–392
techniques of neutralization, organizational crime, 283
techniques of restraint, organizational crime, 283
telemarketing frauds, financial crimes, 238
temporal distribution, burglary, 179–180
Ten Points Coalition, Boston, 94n.12
terrorism
abortion clinic attacks in United States, 444–445
active groups in United States, 438
assessments on controlling, 445–446
attack frequency, 435, 450n.13
attacks by country, 436–437
Columbia, 436
control strategies, 442–446
data sources, 431–433
defining, 430–431
distribution of global, 433, 435, 437
domestic, 448n.2
global attacks and fatalities, 434
Global Terrorism Database (GTD), 429–430, 431–433
global trends in, 434
India, 436
ITERATE (International Terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events), 432, 445
limitations, 428–429
Northern Ireland, 437, 442–444
policy implications, 446–448
primary target types in U.S., 440, 441
primary weapon types in U.S., 440, 441
RAND (Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism 2007), 428, 432
South Africa, 436
Study of Terrorism and Response to Terrorism (START), 429, 448–449n.3
ten most active perpetrators in U.S., 439
United States, 437, 438, 438–440
theft. See auto theft
theories
child abuse, 150–153
cybercrime, 478–479
homicide and assault, 41–44
thizzle scene, ecstasy, 517
time cycles, burglary, 166, 179–180
timing, auto theft, 207–208
tolerance, drugs and prostitution, 4
Toxic Release Inventory, mandatory reporting, 328
trade, cultural artifacts trafficking, 462–463, 465–468, 471
Trafficking Victims Protection Act, prostitution, 572n.22
transactional immunity, organized crime, 314
transportation, auto theft, 204
treatment, drug use, 514–515
treatment heterogeneity, right-to-carry laws, 95n.18
Treima, database by French art police, 456
trends
auto theft in United States, 196
burglary rate in U.S., England and Wales, and Netherlands, 172
child abuse, 146, 147
child maltreatment, 145
crimes, 6
drug use by 12th graders, 508
environmental crime, 333
global terrorism, 434
homicide and aggravated assault, in United States, 30–32
homicides and Brady Act, 82–83
organizational crime, 294–295
organized crime, 307–309
prostitution, 552–562
robbery, 103–106
sex offending and victimization, 54–58, 65
violent and property crimes, 13–15
Trojans, cybercrime, 481
Turkey
criminal behavior, 3
terrorism, 435, 437
Ugly Mugs, prostitution, 569, 572n.26
undercover operations, organized crime, 313
underground market, guns, 80–81, 92
unethical conduct, organizational crime, 278
Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
burglary, 167, 169
FBI's, 29, 31
organizational crime, 279
organized crime, 307
prostitution, 553, 554
robbery, 104, 105, 106
United Kingdom
Brinks' Mat robbery, 372
cash-hiding self-laundering potential, 374
drugs and money laundering, 367
Suspicious Activity Reports (SARs), 371
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 341
United States
abortion clinic attacks, 444–445
aggravated assault rates, 31
anti-trafficking programs, 423
auto theft trends, 196, 197, 198, 203
crime rates and trends, 13–15
criminal behavior, 3–4
distribution of auto theft, 196, 199–200
financial crime sentencing, 240–241
gun ownership and murder, 71
homicide, 26–27, 31, 33
markets for illicit antiquities, 461
motor vehicle theft by state, 200
organized crime policy perspectives, 310–311
primary terrorist target types, 440, 441
primary terrorist weapon types, 440, 441
prostitution, 547, 553, 554
robbery rates, 104
tax gap, 385
terrorism in, 438–440
terrorist attacks, 437
terrorist groups, 438
Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act (UIGEA), 613
untraceability of crime profits, money laundering, 363, 366
urban areas, burglary, 175–176
U.S.A. Patriot Act of 2001, 238, 491
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), child abuse, 141
U.S. Department of Justice, organized crime, 311
use immunity, organized crime, 314
utilitarian calculation, harm reduction, 9
(p. 640) value, art and antiquities crimes, 466, 472n.3
value-added tax (VAT)
carousel fraud, 236
money laundering, 360, 361, 377n.4
variation
hate crime enforcement, 542
organizational crime, 280–286
vehicle identification number (VIN), auto theft, 213
vehicle recovery, auto theft, 194–195
vehicles, types of stolen, 208
vehicle theft. See auto theft
vehicle tracking, auto theft prevention, 213
venues, prostitution, 558–560, 571n.20
victimization
assault, in developed countries, 34
prostitution, 563
repeat, of burglary, 181–182, 185
youth offending and, in cybercrime, 489–490
victimization rates
international criminal, 14, 15
sex crimes in various countries, 55, 56
United States household, 14, 15, 19n.4
victimization risk, auto theft, 205–208
victim-offender relationship, identity theft, 254–255
victims
actions of, in organizational crime, 290–292
auto theft, 205–208
burglary, 177
hate crimes, 536
identity theft, 252–255
law enforcement agency response, 531
violence
definition, 25–26
explanations, 27
gun statistics, 73–75
prostitution and, against women, 564–565
socially disapproved, 29
Violence Against Women Act (VAWA), federal law, 528
violence reduction, policies, 44–46
violent-antisocial batterers, domestic violence, 123
violent crimes
costs and cost-effectiveness, 15–17
guns, 73–75
homicide and aggravated assault, 25
rates and trends, 13–15
Virginia, Project Exile, 88–89, 94n.15
viruses, cybercrime, 481
Wall Street, organized crime infiltration, 308
wars
art and antiquities crimes, 466–468
drugs and crimes, 17
Washington, DC
handgun ban, 78, 79
no-drop policies, 127
Washington's Community Protection Act, sex offender, 54
weapons
aggravated assaults and homicide victims, 35
terrorism in United States, 440, 441
Weather Underground, terrorism in United States, 439–440
Western countries, criminal behavior, 3–4
wheel of social alignment, tax evasion, 383, 388–390, 397
whistle-blowers, organizational crime, 291–292
white-collar crimes. See also organizational crime
FBI, 239
investigation and prosecution, 288–289
lawmakers, 238
regulation, 11
research, 295
witness protection, organized crime, 315
women. See also domestic violence
domestic violence, 115–116
forced prostitution, 418–419
intimate partner violence, 27, 38–41
prostitution and violence against, 564–565
World War II, art and antiquities crimes, 467
worldwide money laundering, 366–367
worms, cybercrime, 481
Youth Internet Safety Surveys, cybercrime, 488
youth offending
antisocial behavior, 583, 585, 586, 592
cybercrime, 489–490
prostitution, 560
zero tolerance, antisocial behavior, 587
zoning out, prostitution, 567–568