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date: 08 March 2021

(p. 651) Index

(p. 651) Index

Page numbers followed by b, t, and f indicate boxes, tables, and figures. Numbers followed by “n” indicate notes.

Academic journals, 52, 236–237. see also specific journals by title
choosing your venue for publication, 595–602
mixed methods studies in, 220
Academic research. see Research
Accompanying strategic “action groups” (ASPAs), 197
Accuracy, 100
Achilles, Elayne, 46, 47, 48
Acoustemology, 34
Action research, 44, 186, 189–190
band studies, 393–394, 401t
definition of, 491–492
naturalistic, 370
participatory, 189
pedagogical, 198
preservice music teacher education studies, 450, 451t
as professional development, 491–494
spiral of steps, 491–492
Active participation, 230
Activity theory, 87
ACT UP, 68
Adolescents with special needs, 527
Adrian College Choir, 441
Adult and Community Music Education Special Research Interest Group (ACME SRIG) (NAfME), 519t
Adult learners, 398
Adult music makers, 155
Advocacy/participatory worldview, 79
Aesthetics, 101, 611, 613
Afro-Cuban music, 564, 565
Afro-Puerto Rican music, 565
Age-appropriate pedagogy, culturally responsive, 381
Age of Enlightenment, 62
Alternative styles programs and curriculum, 419–424
Altiplano musicians, 558–559
Amateur string instrument performers, 418–419
American Boychoir School (ABS) (Princeton, NJ), 142, 253–254, 439
American Educational Research Association (AERA), 3, 51–52, 191, 450, 601
Arts-Based Educational Research SIG, 308
Code of Ethics, 575
Complementary Methods for Research in Education, 638
Educational Researcher, 637
Music Education Studies Research Group, 540
Special Interest Groups (SIGs), 308
American Educational Research Journal (AERJ), 108, 602
American Folklife Center, 254
(p. 652) American music education. see Music education
American Psychological Association (APA), 605
APA Style, 600, 605
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (2010 Amendments), 575
American School Board Journal, 602
American String Teachers Association, 509
Analog artifacts and data, 294–295
Analysis
narrative, 178–179
phenomenological, 150–151
Analytical thinking, 456f, 465
Analytic generalization, 120–121
Andean music, 558–559
Andragogy, 504
Anger, Darol, 418–419
Annual Ethnography and Education Forum (University of Pennsylvania), 191
Anthropology, 26–27, 612–613
Antiracism pedagogy, 565–566
APA (American Psychological Association) Style, 600, 605
Appalachia, 29
Apple, Michael, 47
Applying Research to Teaching and Playing Stringed Instruments (Barnes, ed.), 409
Arizona State University, 332
Art-based inquiry, 264
Art education, 100
Artifacts, 236
analog, 294–295
cultural, 134
visual, 296
Artistic criteria, 103–104
A/r/tography, 264
The arts, 610–611
Arts-based educational research (ABER), 264, 307, 308–312
Arts-Based Educational Research SIG (AERA), 308
Arts-based research (ABR), 308
Arts Education Policy Review (AEPR), 13, 602
Arts-in-Corrections (AIC), 515, 516t
Arts-informed or artistic scholarship, 44
ArtsPROPEL, 490
Art works, 296–297
Ashokan Fiddle and Dance Camp, 423–424, 509–510
Ashton-Warner, Sylvia, 190
Asia-Pacific Journal of Arts Education, 34n1
Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 152
Asking questions, 258–261
Asmus, Ed, 46–47, 50, 51
ASPAs (accompanying strategic “action groups”), 197
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 602
ATLAS.ti, 329–331, 330t, 333
Attachment, 613
Attention hyperactivity development disorder, 529
Atwell, Nancie, 190
Auburn University, 400
Audacity, 334
Audience behavior, 620–624
Audio data
generating through recording, 290
participant-generated, 295–297
Audit trails, 98
Australia, 152, 189
Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 152
Authentic context learning (ACL) experiences, 127–128
Authenticity, 97
Authors, 47
Autoethnography, 79, 144–145
Bakhtin, Mikhail, 67, 173
Bamberg, Michael, 168
Band
action research studies, 393–394, 401t
adult learners in, 398
composition in, 393
concert band, 390
documentation of teaching practices in, 388–390
gender discrimination in, 397–398
high school band, 70–71, 395, 527–528
high school jazz band programs, 390–391
jazz band, 390–392
Journal of Band Research, 387
(p. 653) middle school band, 394–395
middle school jazz band, 391
qualitative research studies, 400–402, 401t
questions for future research, 402–403
school jazz band, 390–392
school programs, 387
social aspects of, 396–397
student motivation for participating in, 395
student perspectives, 394–396
students with special needs in, 392
suggestions for fostering inclusive social atmosphere, 392
teaching, 387–396
Band directors, 397, 398–400
Bare identification, 227
Barone, Tom, 105, 173–176
Barrett, Janet, 626n2
Barrett, Margarett, 169, 180, 263–264
Barthes, Roland, 173
Beginning music teachers
challenges faced by, 481–483, 484t
induction of, 483–486, 487t
mentoring for, 483–486, 487t
phenomenological studies with, 156–157
professional development of, 481–488
support for, 483–486, 487t
Behavior, cultural, 134
Behavioral research, 44, 45t
Behaviorism, 62–64
Belmont Report, 574
Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra, 504–505
Berthoff, Ann, 187
The Best of All Possible Worlds (Bernstein, arr. Page), 440
Between-methods triangulation, 214
Bias, 380–381
Bias dump, 105
Bilkin, Douglas, 2
Biography, interpretive, 41
Black feminism, 550
Black gospel music, 563
Blair, Deborah, 172–173
Blended studies, 158–160
Boardman, Eunice, 50, 73
Borton, Deb, 431–432
Boyer, Ernst, 609
Brass music
instrumental music (winds, brass, percussion), 387–408
Japanese brass bands, 26–27
Breadloaf Project, 190
Bresler, Liora, 46–47, 50, 52, 53
Bricolage, 301
Brigham Young University New Horizons Orchestra, 504
British Journal of Music Education, 34n1
Britten, Benjamin, 440
Bruner, Jerome, 61, 62–71, 163–164, 166–169, 177–178
Buddhism, 626n4
Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education (BCRME or CRME), 43–48, 52, 77–78, 124, 142, 193, 387, 543, 563
“Instructions to Contributors,” 592
mixed methods research, 211
qualitative band research studies, 400–402, 401t
sample article titles, 596
Burke, Kenneth, 167
Bush, George W., 63
Butler, Judith, 542
Calexico, 618–619
Campbell, Donald, 120
Campbell, Mark Robin, 480
Camtasia, 293
Canada, 152
Career cycle, 494–496
Caregiving theory, 352
Carey, Tanya, 411
Carini, Patricia, 190
Carnegie Foundation, 188–189
Carnegie Hall (New York), 441
Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate project, 648
(p. 654) Case-specific understanding, 28–30
Case studies, 29, 43, 44, 113–132, 614
blended studies, 159
conceptions of, 115–119
definitions of, 115–119
dimensions of, 118–119, 119f
elements of, 117
as empirical inquiry, 116
epistemological, 62–71
examination of select case studies, 124–129
frameworks for analysis of, 123–124
methodological problems, 122–123
misunderstandings about, 119–123, 120t
presentation of, 128
preservice music teacher education studies, 450, 451t
prevalence of, 113–115
promising avenues for, 130
purpose of, 128
qualitative band research studies, 401t, 402
Casing, 114, 124–125
Castle Conference (Castle, England), 191
Catalytic validity, 380
Cavani String Quartet, 414
Celtic music, 422–423
Center for Music Learning, 412
Certainty, 60–61
Chamber music performance, 489
Chamber music programs, 414, 420–421
Chaos theory, 79
Chelsea House Orchestra (CHO), 422–423, 559–560
Children. see also Early childhood
adults as co-researchers with, 349
definition of, 347–348
musical lives and understandings of, 82–83
preschool, 345
primary age, 345
target, 99
Chinese choral music, 441
Chinese music, 556
Choi, Irina, 124–125, 437–438
Choir(s)
church choirs, 505–506
college choirs, 157
community choir, 128–129, 157, 583–584
Concert Choir, 435
high school choir, 435–438
inclusion in, 527
middle school choir, 438–440
participation in, 434–444
as safe place, 430–434
teacher participation in, 442–444
Chomsky, Noam, 64
Choralier Men, 439, 440
Choral music, 429, 440–441, 442–444, 505, 527
Choral music education
future directions, 444–445
instructional strategies, 442, 443
multicultural, 564, 565–566
qualitative research in, 429–447
Choral teachers, 442, 443
Christensen, Stephanie, 482–483
Church choirs, 505–506
Church music, 505–506
Clandinin, Jean, 170–173
Clarity, 86–87
Classical music, Western, 66
Classroom culture, 100
Classroom music, 364
Classroom research
academic research, 583, 585–586
combined qualitative and quantitative studies, 586–587
student teachers, 582
Classrooms, 100
as interpretive zone, 625
learner-centered, 413–414
Clusters, meaningful, 151
Cochran-Smith, Marilyn, 202
Code books, 263
Code dictionaries, 263
Code of Ethics (American Educational Research Association), 575
Codes
data codes, 239–240, 263, 283
for music-making data, 321
Code Table (Norgaard), 240
Cognitive focus, 44
Collaborations, 199, 203, 233
academic, 583
in classroom research, 583
future directions, 221
music programs, 508–509
in writing, 593–594
Collaborative intergenerational performance project (CIPP), 441, 508–509
Collaborative teacher study groups (CTSGs), 199, 374, 489
College choirs, 157
Collegiate-level string instrument students, 416–418
Columbia University, 189, 548
Colwell Playhouse, 620–621
Combined nonverbal, verbal, musical, and nonmusical analysis, 319
Combined verbal and nonverbal data analysis, 318
Come Ye Makers of Song (Henderson), 440
Commission on Community Music Activity (CMA) (ISME), 501–502, 519t
Committee on Critical Issues, 342
Common Rule
exempt research, 582–584
requirements of, 574–575, 576
Communication
collaborative conversations, 199
computer-mediated (CMC), 256
conversational interviews, 251
nonverbal, 280
“Communitas,” 26
Communities of practice, 192, 198–200, 352, 488–489
Community, 646–647
Community choir
case study, 128–129
phenomenological studies with, 157
qualitative interviews, 583–584
social capital in, 128–129
Community music, 501
American, 501–502
categories of, 501
with cultural connections, 511–515, 514t
with educational aims, 507–511, 509t
with focus on social justice, 515–516, 516t
future directions, 517–519
online, 513–515
with performance objectives, 502–506, 506t
spiritual connections, 505–506
vernacular, 512–513
Community music education, 501–523
Community music organizations, 519t
Community music schools, 507–508
Complementary Methods for Research in Education (AERA), 638
Composition, 313, 393
Comprehensive Musicianship through Performance, 144
Comprehensiveness, 214t
Computer Assisted Qualitative Data AnalysiS (CAQDAS) software, 263, 326
Computer-mediated communication (CMC), 256
Computer use, on-site participant, 292–293
Comte, August, 63
Concept maps, 296
Conceptual frameworks, 7, 77, 81, 86–87
Conceptual models, 77, 299
Concert band, 390
Concert Choir, 435
Concert experiences, 421–422
Conferences, 202
Confidence issues, 455f, 460–461
Confidentiality, 275–276, 585, 586–587
Confirmability, 97
Congregational Christian singers, 505–506
Conjectures, 624
Connectedness, 613
Connelly, Michael, 170–173
Connoisseurship, 227
Consistency, 98
Constant comparative method, 614
Constructed knowledge, 84
Constructionism, 79
Constructivist studies, 59, 79, 103, 379
Contemporary issues
in 2002 Handbook, 44, 45t
critiques and challenges, 200–201
Contemporary Music Project on Creativity, 343
Content logs, 299
(p. 656) Context(s), 29
Contributions to Music Education (CME), 387, 401t
Conversational interviews, 251
“Cool” instruments, 547
Corey, Steven, 193
Corporate welfare, 105
Council Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), 497n2
Cox, Gordon, 254
Craft, 34
Craig, Cheryl, 172
“Creating Positive Discipline and Management” workshops, 375–376
Creativity, 527
Credibility, 97, 98, 100, 139
Crenshaw, Kimberlé, 550
Criteria, 30–32
Critical change criteria, 105
Critical feminism, 105
Critical friends, 195, 448, 645–646
Critical race theory, 73n3, 79
Critical sexuality studies, 542–543
Critical storytelling, 173–176
Critical theory, 44, 79
Critical thinking, 456f, 465
Criticism, 645–646
Critqiue papers, 196
Cronenberg, Stephanie, 617–620, 620–624
Cultural artifacts, 134
Cultural behavior, 134
Cultural diversity, 553–570
Cultural knowledge, 134
Culturally relevant pedagogy, 539
Culturally responsive, age-appropriate pedagogy, 381
Culturally responsive teaching, 556, 557–558
Cultural relevance, 13, 539
Culture, 68–70, 126–127
classroom, 100
community music, 511–515, 514t
Culture shock, 438
Culver, Robert, 423
Cumulation, 647, 648
Curriculum
in 2002 Handbook, 44, 45t
commonplaces of, 83
spiral, 66
“Curriculum Research: Qualitative Methods Research” course, 614–624, 627b–634b
Assignment for Paper #2, 616
student paper excerpts, 617–624
Daily Observation Notes, 343
Data
meanings-of-music-making, 314–316, 316b, 321
music as, 644
process-of-music-making, 312–314, 316b, 321
product-of-music-making, 312–314, 321
“Data” (term), 35n6
Data analysis. see Data collection and analysis
Data audits, 97
Databases, large-scale, 302
Data codes, 239–240, 263, 283
for music-making data, 321
refining, 240–241
Data collection and analysis, 9–10, 578–579
for 2002 Handbook, 44, 45t
of analog artifacts and data, 294–295
through audio recording, 290
through bricolage, 301
broadening analysis categories, 320–321
combined nonverbal, verbal, musical, and nonmusical analysis, 319
combined verbal and nonverbal data analysis, 318
coordination and synchronization of data, 293–294
from data, 297–298
in ethnography, 135–136
of focus group data, 271–287
future directions, 302
interrogation of data, 327
of interview data, 262–264
of multimodal and multimedia data, 288–306
of music-making data, 307–324, 312–316, 316b
(p. 657) of observational data, 227–249
paradigmatic approach, 263
of participant-generated data, 295–297
preliminary data analysis, 237–238
preparing interview data for, 261–262
with QDAS programs, 327, 328t
qualitative, 225–336
reflexive process of, 25–27
representation of data, 30–32
software for, 325–336
traditional, 102–103
transcription, 261, 262, 282–283
trends in, 44, 45t
triangulation of data, 31, 100, 139–140, 217
validation of data, 31
through video and audio recording, 290
with web-based data, 302
Data management. see Data collection and analysis
Data mixing, 216–217
Data records, 238
Data transformation techniques, 219–220
Data triangulation, 31, 100, 139–140, 217
The David Hochstein Memorial Music School, 507–508
“Death and the Maiden” (Schubert), 421
De Bolla, Peter, 611–612
Decision-making “in-flight,” 197
dedoose, 331
Defence mechanisms, 411
DeLay, Dorothy, 411
Delorenzo, 48
Democratic validity, 643
DeNardo, Greg, 543
Denzin, Norman, 50, 638–639, 640
Dependability, 97
Derivative knowledge, 65
Descriptions of observational data, 241–242
Descriptive observation, 234
Descriptive studies, 378–379
Desert Foothills New Horizons Band, 504
Desert Winds Community Steel Orchestra (DWCSO), 512
Detachment, 611–614
Development, manipulative, 342
Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP), 85, 352, 367
Developmental niche framework, 352
DEVONThinkPro, 334
Dewey, John, 170, 227, 610, 611–612
Dialogic interviews, 255
Dickens, Charles, 173
Dickson, Luther, 621, 622
Digital devices, 292–293
Digital media, 302
Digital records, 238
Digitization, 294–295
Dilthey, Wilhelm, 24
Direct music instruction, 44, 45t
Disabilities, 154–155, 528–532
Disability theories, 79
Discourse analysis, 401t
The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research (Glaser and Strauss), 41, 262–263
Discrimination, gender, 397–398
Dissemination, 647–648
publication as, 600–602
Diversification of meanings perspective, 606
Diversity
cultural, 553–570
and music education, 538–552
Documentation
of band teaching practices, 388–390
data records, 238
digital records, 238
media records, 293
Dominant-less dominant studies, 216
Down syndrome, 527
Draves, Tami, 258
Drawings, 296–297
Duckworth, Eleanor, 188–189
Dunkle, Heidi, 194
Duplicate publications, 602–603
Dye, Christopher, 617–620, 624
Early childhood
as adult construction, 347–348
age parameters, 345, 346–347
concept of, 347–348
definition of, 347–348, 352–353
(p. 658) Early childhood music education
in 2002 Handbook, 44, 45t
definition of, 346, 347–348
history of, 340–347
stakeholders in, 347–348
Early childhood music education qualitative research, 339–361
21st-century approaches, 351–352
considerations for, 347–348
contemporary, 350
definition of, 346
future directions, 352–354
interest in, 343–345
reporting on, 345–347
Early Childhood Special Research Interest Group (EC SRIG) (MENC), 344
Early qualitative research, 47–48
East Lansing, Michigan, New Horizons band program, 504
Ecological psychology, 79
Education
community music with educational aims, 509t
music education (see Music education)
music teacher education (see Music teacher education)
in qualitative research, 608–636
theory of, 68
Educational ethnography, 135
Educational misconception, 579
Educational research, 64–67
arts-based (ABER), 264, 307, 308–312
site permissions, 578
Educational Researcher (AERA), 637
Educational storysharing, emancipatory, 105
Education Research Information Center (ERIC), 152, 450
Eighth moment, 639
Eisner, Elliott, 50, 173–176
Elegance, 100
Elementary general music, 364
outsider observation of students, 366
outsider observation of teaching practice, 366–367
panorama of, 365–373
Elementary school
music education in, 643
string instrument students in, 415–416
world music studies in, 554–557
ELLNORA Guitar Festival, 615–616
music teacher student writing excerpts, 617–620, 620–624
Emancipation, 214t
Emancipatory educational storysharing, 105
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 1
Emic theories, 35n5
Empathy, 24, 34n2
Engagement
in music teacher education, 455f, 462–463
preservice music teacher, 455f, 461–462, 462–463
prolonged, 31
Engaging in Narrative Inquiry (Clandinin), 170
England, 152
English-language learners (ELLs), 124–125
Enlightenment, 61, 62
Ensembles, 364
Epistemology, 57–75, 148–151, 642
case study, 62–71
implications for qualitative research, 71–73
Epistemology of the Closet (Sedgwick), 542
Epoche, 150–151
Equity, 538
Equivalent status research designs, 216
Establishing Identities: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Studies and Music Education, 541
Establishing Identity: LGBT Studies and Music Education, 540
Etherington, Kim, 258
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (2010 Amendments) (American Psychological Association), 575
Ethics, 32–33
core principles for human participant research, 574
in music education, 573–590
in observational studies, 244–245
in publishing, 602–607
(p. 659) regulatory review, 575–577
Ethnographic interviews, 252–254
Ethnography, 26–27, 43, 44, 79, 134–140, 614
in 2002 Handbook, 44, 45t
data collection and analysis, 135–136
definition of, 134, 145
educational or school, 135
interpreting, 43
levels of generalization possible through, 140
in music education, 133–147
new, 108
of place, 145
preservice music teacher education studies, 450, 451t
qualitative band research studies, 401t
quality in, 138–140
sampling, 141–144
school, 135
sonic, 28
sources of understanding for, 134
terminology, 48
theoretical framework for, 136–138
virtual, 145
Ethnography and Education Forum (University of Pennsylvania), 202
Ethnomethodology, 79
Ethnomusicology, 26–27, 142
Etic theories, 35n5
Evaluative criteria, 107–109
alternative sets of, 102
artistic, 103–104
constructivist, 103
critical change criteria, 105
establishing and selecting, 101–106
evocative, 103–104
traditional scientific research criteria, 102–103
Evaluative terminology, 95–98, 100–101
Evocative criteria, 103–104
Ewe tradition, 564
Exceptionalities, 524–537
Exempt research, 582–584
Experiential learning, 610–611, 625–626
Experiential learning theory, 610
Experiential qualitative research education, 608–636
Exploratory perception, 612
Express Scribe, 262
External reliability, 96, 138–139
Facebook, 302
Facilitators, 378–379
Faith-based ensembles, 505–506
Fauré’s Requiem, 441, 508–509
Federal research regulations, 589
Federalwide Assurance (FWA), 574–575, 576
Feedback, student, 196
Feminism, 68, 73n3, 540, 548–549
Feminist inquiry, 44
Feminist interviews, 254–255
Feminist studies, 538, 548–549
Feminist theories, 79
Feminist Theory and Music Conference, 540
Field notes, 235–236, 622–623, 625
Daily Observation Notes, 343
labeling, 238
reflections, 619–620
time-stamping, 294
Field research, 96, 138–139
Fieldwork, 302, 625
Final Cut Pro X, 294
Finland, 152
Finlay, Linda, 258
Fittingness, 10
Flanders’ Interaction Analysis System, 413
Flip video, 313–314
Florida State University, 49
Flow theory, 436
Focused observation, 234
Focus group interviews, 271–287
analysis of, 281–284
defining characteristics, 272
definition of, 272
with four-student focus groups, 370
group dynamics, 276–277
guidelines for, 277–278
history of, 271–272
informed consent for, 275–276
interview protocol, 277–278
logistics, 277
moderation of, 279–280
in music education, 273–275
opening, 279
(p. 660) posing questions during, 280–281
preparation for, 275–277, 277–278
process, 278–281
rationale for, 273
recording, 278
regulations for, 275–276
researcher role during, 278–279
selection of participants, 276–277
Focusing questions, 193–197
Folk-Music, 513
Folk songs, 557
Folk theories, 35n5
Follow-up questions, 260, 261
Formatting journal articles, 599–600
Foucault, Michael, 647
Foundational knowledge, 62–63
Four-student focus groups, 370
Freire, Paulo, 105
Friends, critical, 195
Fugitive literature, 201
Future directions
for choral music education research, 444–445
for community music, 517–519
for early childhood music education qualitative research, 352–354
for future band research, 402–403
for interviewing, 264–265
for mixed methods research, 220–221
for music education, 639
for phenomenology, 160–161
for practitioner inquiry, 201–204
for preservice music teacher education research, 471–472
for professional development research, 496–497
for qualitative research data collection and generation, 302
for qualitative research in music education, 53, 637–649
recommendations for, 380–382
suggestions for future research, 535–536
for teaching students with special needs, 535–536
Fuzzy search, 329
The Gambia, 233
Gay rights, 68
Geertz, Clifford, 167, 604
Gender
definition of, 545–546
forms of, 545–548
and instrument choice, 397, 547
“Gender” (label), 546
Gender discrimination, 397–398, 547
Gender Research in Music Education, 255
Gender roles, 546, 547
Gender studies, 538, 540, 547–548
Gender Trouble (Butler), 542
General education, 151–154
Generalizability, 95, 98, 100, 121
Generalizable knowledge, 579
Generalization, 28, 29–30, 243
analytic, 120–121
levels of, 140
naturalistic, 243
propositional, 243
General music
definition of, 363–365
elementary, 364, 365–373
secondary, 364
General music education, 362–386
General music teachers
research on, 373–376
support for, 374
Ghanaian music, 27, 566
Ewe tradition, 564
Giftedness, 529
Gifted students, 529–530
The Girl with the Brown Crayon (Paley), 190
Glaser, Barney, 262–263
“GLBT” term, 538–539
Global song, 565–566
Good fit, 10
Goodness criteria, 10, 380
Goodrich, Andrew, 254
Goodson, Ivor, 168
Gospel music, 563
Gouzouasis, Peter, 264
Graduate school, 490–491
Grand tour questions, 253
Grashel, John, 50
Griffin, Shelly, 172
(p. 661) G.R.I.M.E. (Gender Research in Music Education), 540
Grounded theory, 11–12, 30, 79, 85–86
The Discovery of Grounded Theory (Glaser and Strauss), 262–263
social constructivist, 15n2
Group dynamics, 276–277
Group interviews. see also Focus group interviews
small-group interviews, 370
Group theories, 88
Guitar teaching, 414
Haack, Paul, 193
Halperin, David, 542
Handbook of Narrative Inquiry (Clandinin, ed.), 170
Handbook of Qualitative Research (Denzin and Lincoln), 170
Handbook of Research in Arts Education (Bresler), 34n1
Handbook of Research in Music Education (Colwell), 42–43, 540, 548
Hart, Alvin Youngblood, 621, 622
Harvard University, 84, 490
Harwood, Eve, 46–47, 49–50, 51, 52
Hawaiian music, 564
Head Start, 341–342
Hermeneutical phenomenology, 153
Hermeneutics, 79
Heteroglossia, 67
Heuristic inquiry, 79
Higher education
college choirs, 157
collegiate-level string instrument students, 416–418
graduate school, 490–491
phenomenological studies with college choirs, 157
world music studies in, 560–563
High-quality inquiry, 31–32
High-quality reports, 31–32
High school, 82–83
High school band, 70–71
jazz band programs, 390–391
student perspectives on, 395
students with special needs in, 527–528
High school choir
case study, 124–125
participation in, 435–438
High school jazz programs, 390–391
High school string instrument students, 416–418
High school world music studies, 559–560
Hiland Mountain Correctional Center (HMCC), 516
Hip hop, 155
Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 152
History
of early childhood music education, 340–347
of qualitative research, 340–347
of qualitative research in American music education, 40–56
Hochstein School of Music and Dance, 507–508, 520n13, 520n20
Homeschooling, 156
Homonormativity, 541
Honkyoku music, 126–127
Horace-Mann-Lincoln Institute of School Experimentation (Columbia University), 189
Howes, David, 619
Hubbs, Nadine, 541–542
Human subjects
core principles for research with, 574
proposals for studies involving, 257
requirements for research with, 589
Hurst, Lawrence, 411
Husserl, Edmund, 148–149
HyperRESEARCH, 329, 330t, 333–334, 509
Hypertext, 594
Identification, bare, 227
Identity, 538
Establishing Identity: LGBT Studies and Music Education, 540
music teacher, 127–128, 455f, 464–465
performer, 620–621
racial, 68
Ideological commitments, 81–82
Improvisation, 625
“IMRAD” (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion) format, 599
Inclusion, 524–525
in choral music, 527
elements for success, 526
in instrumental music, 526
strategies for music education, 525–528
Incompatibility thesis, 217–218
Indexing, 238
Individual interviews, 250–270, 370
Individualized education programs (IEPs), 525
Individual responses, 321
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 524, 533
Individual theories, 88
Induction, 483–486, 487t
Informal interviews, 253
Informants, 100
Informed consent, 585–586, 587
for focus group interviews, 275–276
requirements for, 275–276
Inquiry. see also Research
art-based, 264
case study, 116
feminist, 44
heuristic, 79
high-quality, 31–32
narrative, 30, 44, 163–185
phenomenological, 151–154
practitioner, 186–208
as stance, 202
theoretical threads leading to, 86
Inquiry communities, 203
Inservice music teacher professional development, 84–85, 479–500
Inside-Outside: Teacher Research and Knowledge (Cochran-Smith and Lytle), 190
Insider observation, 368–371
Insider-outsider hybrid observation, 372–373
Insider/outsider observation, 367–368
Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), 228–229, 573–577, 587–589
activities outside IRB oversight, 580–582
regulations for focus group interviews, 275–276
research regulated by, 584–587
review by, 585–587
vignettes, 580–582, 585–587
Instructional strategies, 442
Instrumental ensembles
students with special needs in, 527–528
that perform multicultural music, 559–560
Instrumental music
inclusion of students in, 526
strings, 409–428
winds, brass, percussion, 387–408
Instrumental Music Teacher Educators (IMTE) Colloquium, 197
Instrument choice, 397, 547
Intellectually gifted students, 529–530
International Club, 438
International Journal of Community Music, 34n1
International Journal of Inclusive Education, 152
International Journal of Music Education, 34n1, 562
International Journal of Research in Arts Education, 34n1
International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 152
International Night, 438
International Society for Music Education (ISME), 501–502
International Vocal Ensemble (IVE), 561
Internet
online community music, 513–515
online interviews, 256
online music education, 33
web-based data, 302
web-based writing, 594
Interpretation, 24–25, 69, 242–243
Interpretive biography, 41
Interpretive communities, 79
Interpretive research, value-free, 35n3
Interpretive zones, 610
Interpretivism, 44
Intersectionalities, 550
Intersectionality theory, 550
(p. 663) Interview guides, 257
Interview questions
asking, 258–261
beginning, 259
follow-up, 260, 261
types of, 259, 259t
Interviews
blended studies, 159
conversational, 251
dialogic, 255
ethnographic, 252–254
excerpts, 260b
feminist, 254–255
focus group, 271–272
future directions, 264–265
individual, 250–270, 370
informal, 253
life history, 254
modes of interacting with interviewees, 255–257
in music education research, 264–265
online, 256
open-ended, 608–609
oral, 254
phenomenological, 157–158, 251–252
preparing data for analysis, 261–262
process, 46–47
protocols for, 257
qualitative, 583–584
selection of interviewees for, 46–47
semi-structured, 251, 608–609
small-group, 370
standardized, 251
studies with, 257–258
think-aloud, 315
types of, 251–255
unstructured, 251
Interview transcripts, 261, 262, 282–283
iPads, 331, 351, 622–623
iPhones, 351
iPods, 351
Irish music, 29
Irwin, Rita, 264
Iser, Wolfgang, 173
Japanese American drumming, 564, 565
Japanese brass bands, 26–27
Japanese music, 126–127
Jazz band, 390–392
high school programs, 390–391
middle school, 391
themes, 391
Ji-nashi, 126–127
Josselson, Ruthellen, 168
Journal of Band Research (JBR), 387, 401t
Journal of Music Teacher Education (JMTE), 44, 48, 77–78, 124, 595, 600
Journal of Narrative and Life History, 168
Journal of Research in Music Education (JRME), 43–48, 52, 77–78, 95, 96, 124, 142, 325, 387
audience, 600–601
author connections to colleges of education, 47
circulation, 601
mixed methods research in, 211
qualitative band research studies, 401t
review process, 47–48
Journal of String Research, 409
Journal review, 47–48, 597–599
Journals, 52, 220. see also specific journals by title
choosing for publication in, 600–602
consistency of purpose, 596
formatting articles, 599–600
“IMRAD” (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion) format, 599
“instructions to contributors,” 595–596
mixed methods studies in, 220
researcher, 236–237
review process, 47–48, 597–599
space constraints, 599–600
style requirements, 595–596, 600
titles of articles, 596
Kamehameha Schools (Hawaii), 564
Kennedy, Mary, 253–254, 258
(p. 664) Kent State University, 47
Khan, Samia, 115
Knowledge
beliefs about, 59–60
constructed, 84
cultural, 134
derivative, 65
foundational, 62–63
generalizable, 579
latitudinal, 85
local, 128–129
meaning of, 62
narrative, 166–169
received, 84
teacher, 374–375
Knowledge acquistion
in 2002 Handbook, 44, 45t
women-specific perspectives on, 84
Knowledge critique, 200
Knowledge landscapes, 85
Krannert Center, 615–616, 617–620, 620–624
Krueger, 47–48
Kurosawa, Akira, 626n5
Labeling field notes, 238
La Foi (Rossini), 440
Lamb, Roberta, 548–549
Language acquisition, 352
Lassiter High School, 400
Lather, Patti, 105
Latino music, 565
League of American Orchestras, 509
Learner-centered classroom environments, 413–414
Learning
as becoming, 626
as experience, 625–626
experiential, 610–611
scholarship of teaching and learning (SOTL), 609
from students' point of view, 194
Learning disabilities, 529
Learning to teach music, 467–470, 468f469f
perceptions or attitudes regarding, 454, 455f, 460–465
preservice teacher beliefs or concerns about, 454, 454f
Leggo, Carl, 264
Lenawee Community Chorus, 441
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) studies, 540–545, 549
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, and intersexed (LGBT2QI) studies, 538–539, 541–542
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and questioning (LGBT2Q) studies, 541–545
Letting-go-of-validity perspective, 606
Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 64
Lewis, Brian, 411
Lewis, Sinclair, 173
LGBT2QI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, and intersexed) studies, 538–539, 541–542
LGBT2Q (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and questioning) studies, 541–545
LGBTQQCSI acronym, 539
LGBT Research Symposium, 540
LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) studies, 540–545, 549
Lieblich, Amia, 168
Life Cycle of the Career Teacher model, 85
Life history interviews, 254
Lincoln, Yvonna, 638–639, 640, 647
Listening maps, 296–297
Literary nonfiction, 173–176
Literature reviews, 77
Lived experience, 410–411
Local knowledge, 128–129
Local or grounded theory, 30
Local teaching movements, 192
Logico-scientific mode, 166
Logistics, 277
Lomax, Alan, 254
Lutheran choir singers, 505–506
Lytle, Susan, 202
Madsen, Cliff, 46–47, 49, 50, 51, 53
Magnificent Horses (arr. Ling-Tam), 440
Mainstreaming, 524–525
Making Stories (Bruner), 62
Manhattanville Music Curriculum Program, 343
Manhattanville Music Curriculum Project, 66, 69
(p. 665) Manipulative development, 342
Marginalization, 538
Mariachi music, 558, 564, 566
Masculinity, 540
Mason, James, 362
Mason, Molly, 510
Master Teacher Profile observation form, 423
The Maud Powell Society for Music and Education, 255
MAXQDA, 329, 330t
McAdams, Dan, 168
McCabe, Allyssa, 168
McGowan, John J., 46
McInnes, Donald, 411
Meaning, 606
Meaningful clusters, 151
Meaningful investigations, 382
Meanings-of-music-making data, 314–316, 321
Media Educators Journal (MEJ), 48
major themes, 600
qualitative band research studies, 401t
Media records, 293
Member check, 31, 196
Mennonite singers, 505
Mentoring, 157, 483–486, 487t
Merriam, Sharan B., 115
Methodist choir singers, 505–506
Methodological frameworks, 11, 450–453
Methodological mixes, 217
Methodological perspectives, 80–81
Methodological problems, 122–123
Metz, Elayne, 46
Michigan State University, 3–4, 561–562
Microsoft Word, 332
Middle school
jazz themes in, 391
string instrument students in, 415–416
world music studies in, 557–559
Middle school band, 394–395
jazz band, 391
Middle school choir, 438–440
Middle school orchestra, 421–422
Miller, Janet, 70
“Milton” Community Choir (case study), 128–129
MindManager, 326, 334
Mind maps, 296
Mindmeister, 326
Mini-tour questions, 253
Mishler, Elliot, 168
MIT, 189
Mixed Choir, 435–436
Mixed methods research, 5, 160, 209–224, 642
components of, 203
designs, 215–216
early U.S.-based dissertations, 211, 212t
foundations of, 212–217
future directions for, 220–221
with multilevel use of approaches, 216
in music education, 210–211
preservice music teacher education studies, 450, 451t
publication of, 211, 220
purposes of, 213–215, 214t
qualitative research in, 217–221
qualitative rigor of, 218–219
Modeling, 442
Model of coherence, 470
Model of Exemplary Elementary Teachers’ Instructional Knowledge, 374
Montage, 301
Motivation
for participating in band, 395
proximal theory of, 436
Mountain Lake Colloquium, 197
The Mountain Lake Reader, 197
Mr. Holland’s Opus, 105
Multicultural choral music education, 564, 565–566
Multiculturalism, 13, 539
Multicultural music
in elementary school, 556
in music teacher education, 553–554
school instrumental ensembles that perform, 559–560
Multilevel use of approaches, 216
(p. 666) Multimedia data. see also Multimodal and multimedia data
generation and collection of, 290
preparation and processing of, 299–301
transformation and transcription of, 299–301
Multimodal and multimedia data, 288–306
analysis of, 298–301
generation and collection of, 289–298
Multimodality, 288
Multi-user domains (MUDs), 256
Mursell, James, 73
Music. see also specific types, instruments
Afro-Cuban, 564, 565
Afro-Puerto Rican, 565
and arts-based educational research, 308–309
audible aspects of, 309
Chinese, 556
choral, 442–444
church, 505–506
classroom, 364
collaborative, 508–509
community, 501–502, 502–506
as data, 644
general, 363–365
Hawaiian, 564
hip hop, 155
honkyoku, 126–127
instrumental, 526
instrumental (strings), 409–428
instrumental (winds, brass, percussion), 387–408
instrument choice, 397, 547
Japanese, 126–127
Latino, 565
Mariachi, 558, 564, 566
in the moment, 312–316
at moment of articulation, 309
multicultural, 553–554, 556, 559–560
ownership of, 32
participation with, 440–441
physical response to, 621–624
popular, 69
selection of, 558
subjective experiences of, 309
teacher participation in, 442–444
visual representation of, 296–297
vocal, 364
vocal-general, 364
world, 553–570
Music acquisition, 352
Musical Futures, 511
Musical instrument digital interface (MIDI) data, 292, 293, 294
Musical instrument digital interface (MIDI) synthesizers, 529
Musical interactions, 320
Musical performance
chamber music performance, 489
collaborative intergenerational performance project (CIPP), 441, 508–509
community music with performance objectives, 502–506, 506t
Comprehensive Musicianship through Performance, 144
as learning opportunity, 616–625
as research, 311–312
traditional performing ensembles, 504–505
Musical responses, 318–319, 321
Musical taste, 622
“Music and Minds: A Talent Development Model” program, 530, 531
Music Atelieristas, 350
Music class participation, 194–195
Music education
choral music, 429–447, 564, 565–566
community, 501–523, 646–647
contemporary issues, 44, 45t
cultural diversity in, 553–570
disabilities in, 528–532
diversity in, 538–552
early childhood, 339–361
elementary school, 554–557, 643
ethics in, 573–590
feminism in, 548–549
future directions for, 639
general, 362–386
higher education, 561–562
inclusion strategies for, 525–528
inservice music teacher professional development, 479–500
instrumental (strings), 409–428
(p. 667) instrumental (winds, brass, percussion), 387–408
middle school, 557–559
multicultural, 556, 564, 565–566
online, 33
personal experience method, 341
secondary school, 643
strategies in coursework, 455f, 463–464
students with exceptionalities in, 524–537
world music, 553–570
Music education career cycle, 494–496
Music education journals. see Journals; specific journals by title
Music education research
in 2002 Handbook, 44, 45t
and ABER, 310–312
case studies, 113–132
choral music, 429–447
designing projects for educational settings, 577–580
early childhood, 339–361
ethnography in, 133–147
feminist studies, 548–549
focus group interviews, 273–275
gender studies, 547–548
interviews, 250–270
LGBT2Q studies, 541–545
LGBT studies, 543, 545
mixed methods research, 209–224, 212t
narrative, 70–71, 163–185
observational, 227–249
phenomenological, 148–162
QDAS programs used in, 331–334
Music Education Research, 34n1, 124
Music Education Research Council (MERC), 341
Music Education Studies Research Group (AERA), 540
Music Educators Journal (MEJ), 47, 387, 601
Music Educators National Conference (MENC), 105, 342, 343, 354n5
Archives, 343
Early Childhood Special Research Interest Group (EC SRIG), 344
music standards for children 2-4 years old, 346
music standards for students k-12th grade, 346
National Council for Elementary General Music, 362
North Central Conference, 50
Music for Early Childhood, 342
Musicians
performer identity, 620–621
string instrument performers, 418–419
Musicianship education, 158
Music Learning Theory, 507
Music Learning Theory for Newborn and Young Children (Gordon), 352
Music makers, 82–83, 418–419
Music making, 489–490
Music-making data, 307–324
analysis of, 317–321
coding of, 321
collection of, 312–316, 315–316, 316b
meanings-of-music-making data, 314–316, 316b, 321
process-of-music-making data, 312–314, 316b, 321
product-of-music-making data, 312–314, 321
research topics that may benefit from, 322
Music Mania, 529
Music mentors, 157
Music of Young Children (Wilson), 343
Music Pedegogues or Music Atelieristas, 350
Music Standards (NAfME), 347
Music teacher education, 480, 531–536
engagement in, 455f, 462–463
multicultural music in, 553–554
preservice music teacher education, 448–478
self-study in, 197–198
strategies in coursework, 455f, 463–464
suggestions for future research, 535–536
for teaching students with special needs, 531–536
Music teachers. see also Teachers
in 2002 Handbook, 44, 45t
beginning, 481–488
career cycle, 494–496
experienced, 488–494
general music teachers, 373–376
identity development for, 127–128, 455f, 464–465
phenomenological studies with, 157
professional development of, 481–488, 488–494
role stressors, 84
second-stage, 495–496
self-study, 197–198
Music teaching. see also Music education; Teaching
in 2002 Handbook, 44, 45t
Music therapy, 321
Myers, David, 645–646
Narrative(s), 163
analysis of, 178
Bruner and, 166–169
configuration of, 263–264
definition of, 170
in music education research, 163–185
Narrative analysis, 79, 178–179
Narrative inquiry, 30, 44, 163–185
commonplaces of, 171
critiques of, 176–181
definition of, 170–171
Engaging in Narrative Inquiry (Clandinin), 170
Handbook of Narrative Inquiry (Clandinin, ed.), 170
markers of, 176–181
possibilities for, 176–181
preservice music teacher education studies, 450, 451t
purposes of, 170
rigor in, 180
with underrepresented populations, 155
Narrative Inquiry, 168
Narrative Inquiry: Experience and Story in Qualitative Inquiry (Clandinin and Connelly), 170–173
Narrative Inquiry in Music Education (NIME), 4
Narrative Matters conference, 168
Narrative phenomenology, 160
The Narrative Study of Lives (Lieblich and Josselson, eds.), 168
Narrative trends, 70–71
“Narrative turn,” 99–100, 163–164
Narrativists, 173
Narratology, 79
National American String Teachers Association (ASTA) Conference, 409
National Association for Music Education (NAfME), 3, 105, 354n5, 382n1, 450, 479
Adult and Community Music Education Special Research Interest Group (ACME SRIG), 519t
call for musically rich environments for all children, 347
Music Standards, 347
National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)
age parameters for early childhood, 345, 346–347
Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP), 85
National Association of Music Merchants, 254
National Association of Secondary School Principals, 602
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS), 488
National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 574
National conferences, 202
National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), 479, 497n2
National Council for Elementary General Music, 362
National Education Association, 340
National Guild for Community Arts Education (NGCAE), 501, 502, 519t, 520n1
National Museum of American History, 254
Naturalism, 43
Naturalistic action research, 370
Naturalistic generalizations, 243
(p. 669) Naturalistic observation, 367
Naturalistic research, 43, 49
criteria for, 96
of student perceptions of band, 396
with underrepresented populations, 154–155
Naturalistic study, 366
Negotiated thought, 198
The Neighborhood Music School (NMS), 507
Networks, 202
New Directions in Music Education (Michigan State University), 3–4
New ethnography, 108
The New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning (Colwell and Richardson), 43–44, 45t, 346
New Horizons International Music Association (NHIMA), 395, 503–504, 520n8
New York City public schools, 73n1
New Zealand, 152
Nichols, Jeananne, 175–176, 179
No Child Left Behind Act, 63, 480
Noesis, 151
Nonfiction, literary, 173–176
Nonmusical responses, 318–319, 321
Non-participation, 230
Nonverbal, verbal, musical, and nonmusical analysis, 319
Nonverbal communication, 280
Nonverbal interactions, 317–320, 321
Norfolk Chorale, 505
North American Coalition for Community Music (NACCM), 519t
North American Teacher Research Movement, 190, 192
Northern Week (Ashokan), 423–424
Northridge Children’s Choir, 431, 434
Northwestern University, 450
Notes
Daily Observation Notes, 343
field notes, 235–236, 622–623, 625
labeling, 238
reflections, 619–620
time-stamping, 294
NVIVO, 281, 333
Objectivity, 613
Observation
apprenticeships of, 196–197, 464
Daily Observation Notes, 343
descriptive, 234
effects on subjects, 379–380
ethical issues in, 244–245
focused, 234
insider, 368–371
insider/outsider, 367–368
insider-outsider hybrid, 372–373
modes of, 227
in music teaching and learning, 227–249
naturalistic, 367
outsider, 366–367, 371–372
participant, 44, 232, 234
participant-observer continuum, 230–231
preparing for, 228–229
qualitative, 227
researcher role in, 230–232
selective, 234
teacher, 367–368
unstructured, 608–609
Observation data
analysis of, 239–241
collection of, 232–233, 234–235, 235–238
writing about, 241–244
writing descriptions of, 241–242
writing interpretations of, 242–243
Occupational identity development, 127–128
Occupational role stress, 84
Office of Human Research Protections (OHRP), 582
OmniFocus, 334
Online community music, 513–515
(p. 670) Online interviews, 256
Online music education, 33
Open-ended interviews, 608–609
Opening questions, 252
Open sound control (OSC) data, 293
Operationalization, 80–81
Oppressed: pedagogy of the, 105
Oral inquiry, 192
Oral interviews, 254
Orchestra programs and curriculum, 419–424
Orff Schulwerk, 199
Orff-Schulwerk teacher training, 374
OrffSPIEL collaborative, 199, 374
Organizational systems research, 580–581
Organizational theories, 88
Orientational theories, 79, 81
Orientations, 78–81
OSCulator, 293
Outsider observation, 371–372
of students, 366
of teaching practice, 366–367
Ownership, 32
Paley, Vivian, 190
Palmer, Parker, 626
Paradigm(s), 76–93
definition of, 78–79
theory as, 81–82
Paradigmatic approach, 263
Paradigmatic or logico-scientific mode, 166
Paradigm wars, 42, 612–613
Parallel perspective, 606
Parallel/simultaneous studies, 215
Paraprofessionals, 528
Participant-generated data, 295–297
Participant observation, 44, 232, 234
Participant-observer continuum, 230–231
Participation
active, 230
in choir, 434–444
complete, 230–231
moderate, 230
with music, 440–441
in music class, 194–195
non-participation, 230
passive, 230
researcher, 230
student value on, 194–195
voluntary, 585
Participatory action research, 189
Partnerships, 203
Passive participation, 230
Past research, 7
Patakin/Carambu, 565
Patton, Michael Quinn, 257
Pearson intercorrelation, 96
Pedagogical action research, 198
Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), 374, 464
Pedagogy
antiracism, 565–566
culturally relevant, 539
culturally responsive, age-appropriate, 381
of the oppressed, 105
world music, 558–559
Peer tutors, 421
Peery, J. C., 345, 346
Pen-pals, 463
Perception, 227, 612
Percussion
Japanese American drumming, 564, 565
winds, brass, percussion (instrumental music), 387–408
Performance
chamber music performance, 489
collaborative intergenerational performance project (CIPP), 441, 508–509
community music with performance objectives, 502–506, 506t
Comprehensive Musicianship through Performance, 144
as learning opportunity, 616–625
as research, 311–312
traditional performing ensembles, 504–505
Performers
identity of, 620–621
string instrument performers, 418–419
Permissions, site, 578
Personal experience method, 341
“Personal Experience Methods” (Clandinin and Connelly), 170
(p. 671) Personal frameworks, 7
Personal interests, 77, 81–82, 86–87
Peshkin, Alan, 50, 641
Phenomenological analysis, 150–151
Phenomenological reflection, 150–151
Phenomenological research, 148–162
blended studies, 158–160
in general education, 151–154
interviews, 157–158, 251–252
in music education, 151–154, 154–161
in preservice music teacher education, 450, 451t
qualitative band research studies, 401t
study themes, 154
Phenomenology, 26–27, 79, 80, 148, 614
definition of, 150
foundations of, 148–151
hermeneutical, 153
methodology, 148–151
suggestions for future use, 160–161
Philadelphia Orchestra, 418
Philosophical inquiry, 352
Photo elicitation, 297
Physical response to music, 621–624
Piecemeal publication, 603–605
The Pillsbury Foundation for the Advancement of Music Education, 339, 341, 343
The Pillsbury Foundation School, 339, 344, 349
The Pillsbury Foundation Studies (The Studies), 339, 341, 346, 349, 352, 353
Pioneers, 402
Pittsburgh public schools, 490
Place: ethnography of, 145
Plato, 58, 60–61
Play theory, 352
Plummer, Kathryn, 411
PluralEyes, 294
Pluralism, 70
Poetic representation, 264
Polkinghorne, Donald, 168, 263
Popper, Karl, 624
Popular music, 69
Positivism, 31, 62–64, 79
Positivist objectivity, 613
Possible Selves Program in Music, 437
Post-humanism, 73n3
Postmodernism, 44, 66–67, 69, 73n3
Postmodern perspectives, 79
Postpositivism, 43, 79
Post-structuralism, 65–66, 66–67
Poststructuralism, 73n3
Practice-based orientation, 492–493
Practitioner inquiry, 186–208, 643
cautions, 203–204
contemporary critiques and challenges, 200–201
defining qualities, 186–188
future directions, 201–204
knowledge critique, 200
in music education, 193–200
new venues for, 202
roles for, 203
roots of, 188–192
science critique, 200
visibility of, 202
Practitioner Inquiry Series, 202
Practitioners, reflective, 188–189
Pragmatic utilitarianism, 106
Pragmatism, 79, 214
Prairie View Interscholastic League (PVIL), 399–400
Prendergast, Monica, 264
Preschool children, 345
Preservice band directors, 399
Preservice music teacher education research
categories of interest, 450, 451t
critique and conclusion, 470–472
future directions, 471–472
literature quality, 470–471
literature review, 450, 451t, 452f, 453, 454f, 455f, 456–467, 456f
methodological framework for, 450–453
phenomenological studies, 155, 158
qualitative, 448–478
studies, 450, 451t
theoretical framework for, 449
types of studies, 450, 451t
Preservice music teachers
analytical, reflective, and critical thinking, 456f, 465
beliefs about learning to teach music, 454, 454f, 456–460
(p. 672) beliefs about teaching, 454f, 458–459
case study, 127–128
concerns about self, technical, and impact issues, 454f, 457–458
confidence issues, 455f, 460–461
course connections, 456f, 466
education of, 83–84, 448–478
engagement in courses, 455f, 462–463
engagement in specific actions, 455f, 461–462
improvements/interventions aimed at, 454, 456f, 465–467
occupational identity development of, 127–128, 455f, 464–465
perceptions or attitudes regarding learning to teach music, 454, 455f, 460–465
phenomenological studies with, 155, 158
preparation for research, 196–197
prior knowledge or experiences, 454f, 457
reflection that generates self-awareness, 454f, 459–460
relationships, 456f, 467
self-evaluation, 456f, 465–466
skill proficiencies, 456f, 466
strategies in coursework, 455f, 463–464
Primary age children, 345
Primary sources, 644
Prior knowledge or experiences, 454f, 457
Privacy, 585
Private information, identifiable, 581
Procedural knowers, 84
Procedures, 98
Process-of-music-making data, 312–314, 321
Product-of-music-making data, 312–314, 321
Professional development
of beginning music teachers, 481–488
categories of, 83
continued, 370
definition of, 480
of experienced music teachers, 488–494
graduate school as, 490–491
inservice, 84–85, 479–500
music making as, 489–490
Professional Development Area for Strategic Planning (Society for Music Teacher Education), 489
Professional development research, 480–481
in 2002 Handbook, 44, 45t
action research/teacher research, 491–494
future directions, 496–497
phenomenological studies, 156–158
Professional Development School (PDS), 463
Professional socialization, 646–647
Professional string instrument performers, 418–419
Progressive Education movement, 341
Projects, 349
Project Zero, 350, 490
Prolonged engagement, 31
Proportionate reason, 245
Propositional generalizations, 243
ProQuest database, 325
Prospect School and Center (Vermont), 190
Proust, Marcel, 647
Proximal theory of motivation, 436
Psychology, ecological, 79
Publication(s), 591–607
choosing venues for, 595–602
as dissemination, 600–602
duplicate, 602–603
ethics of, 602–607
piecemeal, 603–605
redundant, 602, 603
style requirements, 595–596
writing for, 591–595
QDAMiner, 329, 330t
QSRNVivo, 329–331, 330t, 332–333
Qualitative comparisons, 96
Qualitative Conference in Music Education (University of Illinois), 325
Qualitative Data Analysis Software (QDAS), 326–327
decision to use, 334–335
main tasks of analysis with, 327, 328t
major programs, 329–331, 330t
programs used by music education researchers, 331–334
use and special features of, 329–331
(p. 673) Qualitative data collection and analysis, 225–336
software for, 325–336
Qualitative interviews, 583–584
Qualitative observation, 227
Qualitative research
21st-century approaches for, 351–352
in American music education, 19–110
in American school band programs, 387
approaches for, 111–224
assumptions of, 22–24, 605
band studies, 390, 400–402, 401t
basic studies, 8
characteristics of, 21–39
in choral music education, 429–447
in community music education, 501–523
conceptual framework for, 7, 21–39
considerations for, 347–348
contemporary issues, 44, 45t
criteria for, 101
“Curriculum Research: Qualitative Methods Research” course, 614–624, 627b– 634b
defining terms, 67
definition of, 22
designs for, 7–8
detachment and, 611–614
in diversity, 538–552
in early childhood music education, 339–361
emergence of, 67–68
epistemology and, 71–73
ethics and, 573–590
evaluative criteria for, 95, 101–106, 107–109
factors that contribute to external reliability, 138–139
foundation of, 641–642
framing, 76–93
functions of, 29
future directions, 53, 637–649
in general music education, 362–386
goals of, 21–39
guidelines for, 98
history of, 40–56, 340–347
in inservice music teacher professional development, 479–500
in instrumental music (strings), 409–428
in instrumental music (winds, brass, percussion), 387–408
intellectual roots of, 22–24
interpretive turn, 57
key criteria for, 6–10
key methods, 608–609
in learning to teach, 449
methodological frameworks for, 11
in mixed methods studies, 217–221
model of coherence for, 470
“narrative turn” in, 99–100
new affordances, 643–644
new realms for, 642–643
past research, 7
personal frameworks for, 7
in preservice music teacher education, 448–478
processes of, 643–644
professional evolution of, 51–52
purpose of, 640–641
quality in, 94–110
questions to consider, 108–109
regulatory ethical review of, 575–577
requirements for, 611–614
in selected areas, 337–570
sightings of, 42–45
on specific disabilities in music education, 528–532
strategies for, 643–644
on students with exceptionalities, 524–537
suggestions for, 98
suggestions for future research, 535–536
teaching, 608–636
techniques and strategies for ensuring “goodness,” 98
terminology, 48
theoretical frameworks for, 7, 8
Qualitative Research Conference (University of Illinois), 41
planning and implementation, 49–53
speaker and participant experiences, 51
Qualitative Research Methodologies Conference, 193
(p. 674) Qualitative research methods (QRME) course, 198
Qualitative sampling, 616
Qualitative sightings, 40, 42–45
Quality
in 2002 Handbook, 44, 45t
criteria for, 10
in ethnographic studies, 138–140
in literature, 470–471
in music education qualitative research, 94–110
in research and reporting, 44, 45t
Qualrus, 329, 330t
Quantitative research, 31, 134
Quasimixed methods research, 216
Queer theory, 73n3, 79, 540, 542, 543
Questions
asking, 258–261
beginning, 259
closed, 259
focusing, 193–197
follow-up, 260, 261
for future band research, 402–403
grand tour questions, 253
mini-tour, 253
open, 259, 260
opening, 252
posing, 280–281
of practice, 195–196
research questions, 6
types of, 259, 259t
“What if” questions, 195–196
Race To The Top, 480
Racial identity, 68
Radical deconstructionism, 542
Radocy, Rudy, 46, 47–48
Ranaldo, Lee, 622
Rapport, 276–277
Rashomon, 614, 626n5
Rational thought, 62
Realism, 79, 107
Reality testing, 79
Reason, proportionate, 245
Recall, stimulated, 297
Received knowledge, 84
Reclaiming the Classroom (Goswami and Stillman), 190
Recognition, 227
Recording, video and audio
choosing and operating devices for, 290–292
of focus group interviews, 278
generating data through, 290
time-stamping field notes, 294
time-stamping media records, 293
Records. see also Data collection and analysis
data, 238
digital, 238
media records, 293
Redundant publications, 602, 603
Reflection
shared, 297, 298
that generates self-awareness, 454f, 459–460
Reflective practitioners, 188–189, 196–197
Reflective thinking, 456f, 465
Reflexivity, 101, 258
Reggio Emilia philosophy, 349, 350
Reggio Emilia projects, 350
Regional conferences, 202
Regulatory ethical review, 575–577
Rehearsal, 413
Rehearsal Priorities Analysis Form, 413
Reid, Rufus, 418–419
Reimer, Bennett, 646
Reismann, Catherine Kohler, 168
Rejoice in the Lamb (Britten), 440
Relationality, 178
Reliability, 95, 96, 98
external, 96, 138–139
Renzulli’s Three-Ring Conception of Giftedness, 529
Replication perspective, 606
Reporting. see also Publication(s)
on early childhood music education qualitative research, 345–347
quality in, 44, 45t
Representation of data, 30–32
(p. 675) Requiem (Fauré), 441
Research. see also Inquiry; Qualitative research
academic, 585–586
action research, 186, 189–190, 370, 393–394, 491–494
activities outside IRB oversight, 580–582
arts-based educational research (ABER), 264, 307, 308–312
classroom, 585–586, 586–587
cognitive focus of, 44
combined qualitative and quantitative studies, 586–587
constructivist studies, 379
credibility of, 139
descriptive studies, 378–379
designing projects for educational settings, 577–580
educational, 64–67, 70–71
effects on participants, 380–381
ethnographic, 43
exempt, 582–584
on general music teachers, 373–376
goal of, 106–107
with interviews, 257–258
mainstream, 63
meaningful investigations, 382
mixed methods, 209–224
with multilevel use of approaches, 216
musical performance as, 311–312
in music education, 163–185, 310–312
narrative in, 163–185
naturalistic, 43, 49, 96, 370
on organizational systems, 580–581
phenomenological, 148–162
philosophical perspectives on, 44
practice-based orientation to, 492–493
as professional development, 491–494
in professional development, 480–481
proposals for studies involving human subjects, 257
qualitative research methods (QRME), 198
quality in, 44, 45t
quantitative, 31, 134
recommendations for, 380–382
reflexive process of, 25–27
regulated by IRBs, 584–587
as research, 51
scientific, 638
self-study, 191–192
subjectivity of, 258
terminology, 48
topical, 77, 81, 86–87
topics that may benefit from music-making data, 322
training in, 203
validity of, 139
Research Center for Group Dynamics at (MIT), 189
Research community, 646–647
Researchers, 99, 202
as adult visitors, 348
as collaborative participants, 233
as co-researchers with children, 349
as facilitators, 378–379
during focus group interviews, 278–279
influences on subjects, 379–380
as insider-outsider, 377
as insider/outsider, 381
as insiders, 377
as instruments, 375
as interviewers, 278–279
as “least adult,” 378
as moderators, 278–279
as Music Pedegogues or Music Atelieristas, 350
as observer/observer-participant, 379
as observers, 230–232, 376–377
on-site roles, 348
as outside experts, 379
as outsiders, 379
participation of, 230–231
perspectives of, 376–379
pioneers, 402
positioning of, 377–379
relationships with participants, 231–232
as research instruments, 231
selective inattention of, 231
teachers as, 189, 579–580, 643
visibility-invisibility of, 378
Researcher-storytellers, 173
(p. 676) Research interviews, 250. see also Interviews
definition of, 251
Research journals, 236–237. see also specific journals by title
Research participants
collaborative, 233
data generated by, 295–297
relationships with, 231–232
selection of, 99, 276–277
terminology, 48
use of computers and digital devices on-site, 292–293
views of, 381
Research questions, 6
Research Studies in Music Education, 34n1, 124, 164
Research subjects. see also Research participants
terminology, 48
Resonance, 644–646
Resources, 84
Respondent validation, 31
Responses
culturally responsive, age-appropriate pedagogy, 381
culturally responsive teaching, 556, 557–558
individual, 321
to music, 621–624
musical, 318–319, 321
nonmusical, 318–319, 321
physical, 621–624
to reviewers, 596–597
to reviews, 596–597
“Response to Reviewers,” 597
Responsivity, 318
Reviewers
importance of, 645–646
responding to, 596–597
Review process, 597–599
Ribot, Marc, 622
Richardson, Carol, 49, 50
Richardson, Laurel, 645
Richness, 100
Ritchie, William, 411
Rochester (NY) New Horizons band program, 503
Rodriguez, Nelson, 541, 542
Role theory, 84
Sacred songs, 159
Safety
in choir, 430–434
less safe places, 433–434
“Safe Place” concept, 432
Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research (Denzin and Lincoln), 539, 638–639
Saldaña, 164
Salvaging, 214t
Samples, 98
Sampling, 8–9, 228
qualitative, 616
San Jose Taiko, 565
Sankofa Drum and Dance Ensemble, 564
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 29
Satisficing, 214t
Saturate, 331
Scaffolding, 616–625
Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 152
Schleuter, Lois, 47, 48
Scholarship. see also Publication; Research
aesthetics of, 611
of teaching, 609
Scholarship of teaching and learning (SOTL), 609
School band programs, 387
high school band, 70–71, 395, 527–528
high school jazz band, 390–391
jazz band, 390–392
middle school band, 394–395
middle school jazz band, 391
School ethnography, 135
School instrumental ensembles, 559–560
School of Education (University of Illinois), 49
School orchestra programs, 419–424
Schools
community music schools, 507–508
teaching models and approaches in, 412–414
School-Wide Enrichment Model (SEM), 530–531
Schulwerk Project: Implementing Eastman’s Levels, 199
(p. 677) Schumsky, Abraham, 193
Science critique, 200
Scientific method, 62
Scientific research, 638
traditional, 102–103
Scientific thought, 62–64
Screencasting software, 293
Screenflow, 293
ScreenFlow, 334
Seattle Girls’ Choir, 144
SEC (Southeastern Conference), 400
Secondary general music, 364
Secondary school. see also High school; Middle school
music education in, 643
“Second Chair,” 164
Second-stage music teachers, 495–496
Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky, 542
Seeing for Ourselves (Bissex and Bullock), 190
Seelman, Marilyn, 411
Selective observation, 234
Self-awareness, 454f, 459–460
Self-concern, 454f, 457–458
Self-confrontation, 459–460
Self-efficacy, 417
Self-evaluation, 456f, 465–466
Self-image, 430–434
choir and, 436
Self-making, 167
Self-portraits, 296–297
Self-studies, 191–192, 203
in music teacher education, 197–198
qualitative band research studies, 401t
Self-Study of Teacher Education Practices (S-STEP), 191
Semiotics, 79
Semi-structured interviews, 608–609
Sengstack Educational Foundation, 354n7
Sensory exploration, 27–28
Sequential studies, 215
“Sex” (label), 546
Sexuality, 541–542
Shakuhachi music, 126–127, 240
Shared music focus, 320
Shared music interactions, 320
Shared music understandings, 320
Shared reflection, video-based (VBSR), 297, 298
Shelley, Shirley, 343
Shipps, Stephen, 411
Shuler, Scott, 479
Shulman, Lee, 638
Signature: Women in Music, 255
Silence, 84
Simons, Helen, 115, 118
Sims, Wendy, 211
Site permissions, 578
Skinner, B. F., 59, 63
Skype, 33, 256, 284
Small-group interviews, 370
Smithsonian Jazz Oral History Program, 254
Smithsonian Museum, 254
Social construction, 103
Social constructivist grounded theory, 15n2
Social context, 320
Social influence, 320
Social interactions/connections, 319–320, 321
with band, 396–397
with community choir, 128–129
Socialization
professional, 646–647
teacher, 410–411
Social justice, 515–516, 516t, 538, 539
Social networks, 153–154
Social theories, 88
Society for Music Teacher Education, 197, 489
Software, 325–336
Solow, Jeffrey, 411
Sonic ethnography, 28
Sources, primary, 644
Southeastern Conference (SEC ), 400
Special learners, 525
Special needs
adolescents with, 527
band students with, 392, 527–528
preparation for teaching students with, 531–536
Speech act theory, 81
Spiral curriculum, 66
(p. 678) Spirituality
spiritual connections, 505–506
as universal experience of music, 126–127
S-STEP (Self-Study of Teacher Education Practices), 191
Stake, Robert E. (Bob), 50, 115–116
Stauffer, Sandra, 263–264
Stern, Daniel, 610
Stinson, Sue, 609
Stokowski, Leopold, 339
Storytelling, 164
critical, 173–176
emancipatory educational storysharing, 105
self-making through, 167
Strauss, Anselm, 262–263
Stress, occupational role, 84
Stressors, 84
String Jam, 423, 511, 520n20
String Research Journal, 409
Strings (instrumental music), 409–428
“Strings Attached: The Reality Show,” 421–422
Structuralism, 64–67, 69
Student-directed teaching, 390
Student feedback, 196
Students. see also Preservice music teachers
band students, 392, 394–396, 527–528
choir students, 434–444
with disabilities, 154–155
with exceptionalities, 524–537
four-student focus groups, 370
gifted, 529–530
high school, 82–83, 434–444
insider observation of, 368–371
insider/outsider observation of, 367–368
in instrumental music ensembles, 527–528
intellectually gifted, 529–530
learning from, 194
middle school, 438–440
outsider observation of, 366
phenomenological studies on, 154–155
qualitative research on, 524–537
special learners, 525
with special needs, 392, 527–528, 531–536
string instrument students, 414–418
teacher observation of, 367–368
value on participation, 194–195
as vulnerable populations, 577–578
Student teachers, 582
Studio settings, 411–412
Study groups, collaborative teacher (CTSGs), 199, 374, 489
Style requirements, 595–596
Style vs substance, 607
Stylization, spectacular, 27–28
Subjective knowers, 84
Subjectivity, 23, 67, 121–122, 258, 613
subjective experiences of music, 309
transcendental, 149
Summer camp, 423
Summer music programs, 509–510
Suncoast Symposium (University of South Florida), 3–4
Support
for beginning music teachers, 483–486
for general music teachers, 374
Suzuki Method instruction, 411–412, 507
Symbolic interaction, 79
Sympathy, 34n2
Synchronization of data, 293–294
Synchronous multiple video (SMV) systems, 294
Systems theory, 79, 87
Tanglewood Symposium, 342
Target children, 99
Teacher (Ashton-Warner), 190
Teacher-as-research movement, 189
Teacher concerns model, 83–84
Teacher-directed modeling, 442
Teacher knowledge, 374–375
Teacher research, 186, 190–191
definition of, 491–492
as professional development, 491–494
Teacher Research Day (University of Pennsylvania), 191
Teacher-researchers, 579–580
Teachers. see also Music teachers
in 2002 Handbook, 44, 45t
community of, 646–647
development of, 83–84
education of, 44, 45t, 83–84, 152–153
life cycle model, 85
lived experience of, 410–411
observation of students by, 367–368
(p. 679) as participants, 580
preservice, 448–478
as reflective practitioners, 188–189
rehearsal priorities, 413
as research, 189
as researchers, 579–580, 643
socialization of, 410–411
student teachers, 582
teacher study by, 375–376
Teachers College, Columbia, 332, 548
Teacher study groups, collaborative (CTSGs), 199, 374, 489
Teaching. see also Education
in 2002 Handbook, 44, 45t
band, 387–396
beliefs about, 454f, 458–459
in chamber music settings, 414
guitar, 414
models and approaches for, 411–414
outsider observation of, 366–367
as profession, 44, 45t
qualitative band literature on, 390
qualitative research, 608–636
scholarship of, 609
scholarship of teaching and learning (SOTL), 609
in school settings, 412–414
student-directed, 390
in studio settings, 411–412
Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 152
Teaching movements, 192
Teaching Music to Learners with Special Needs course, 534
Technical issues, 454f, 457–458
Technology, 153–154, 644
focus group interviews with, 284
phenomenological studies with, 158
web-based, 302
Terkel, Studs, 254
Terminology, 31
changing use of, 48
choosing our words, 102–106
evaluative, 95–98
gender vs. sex, 546
music therapy, 321
new vocabulary, 100–101
Texas band programs, 399
Theoretical frameworks, 7, 8, 81–82, 86–87, 642
absence of, 85–86
definition of, 77–78
for ethnography, 136–138
from methodological perspectives, 80–81
for research in learning to teach, 449
understandings of, 77
Theoretical sampling, 29–30
Theoretical traditions, 79
Theory
absence of, 85–86
of education, 68
finding, 87–88
formal theories, 77
group theories, 88
individual theories, 88
levels of, 77
organizational theories, 88
as paradigm, 81–82
in qualitative research, 76–93
social theories, 88
understandings of, 77
Thick descriptions, 24, 31, 160
Think-aloud interviews, 315, 372
Think-aloud protocols, 100
Think alouds, 44
Thomas, Gary, 115, 117–118
Thompson, Linda K., 480
Thorndike, E. L., 59, 63
Three Flower Songs (Beach), 440
Three-Ring Conception of Giftedness (Renzulli), 529
Timelines, 238
Time-stamping field notes, 294
Time-stamping media records, 293
Titles, 596
Topical research, 77, 81, 86–87
Touching Eternity: The Enduring Outcomes of Teaching (Barone), 29, 173
Toward a Methodology of Naturalistic Inquiry in Educational Evaluation (Guba), 41
Traditional music, 155–156
Traditional performing ensembles, 504–505
Traditional scientific research criteria, 102–103
Training, research, 203
Transcendental subjectivity, 149
Transcription
of focus group interview data, 282–283
of individual interview data, 261, 262
linguistic-focused frameworks, 300–301
of multimedia data, 299–301
Transcripts, 261, 262, 282–283
Transferability, 10, 97, 121
Triangulation
between-methods, 214
of data, 31, 100, 139–140, 217
definition of, 214
as state of mind, 235
Turner, Victor, 26
Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 574
“Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star,” 420
Twitter, 302
Underrepresented populations, 154–156
Ungar, Jay, 510
United Kingdom, 189, 256
University of Illinois
Qualitative Conference in Music Education, 325
Qualitative Research Conference, 41, 49–53
Qualitative Research Methodologies Conference, 193
School of Education, 49
University of Maryland, 343
University of Pennsylvania
Annual Ethnography and Education Forum, 191
Ethnography and Education Forum, 202
Teacher Research Day, 191
University of South Carolina (USC), 509
University of South Carolina String Project (USCSP), 509
University of South Florida, 3–4
University of Washington, 561
University of Wisconsin, 47
UPDATE, 48
Update: Applications of Research in Music Education, 562, 595
Updike, John, 173
Upper Arlington, Ohio orchestra, 420
Utilitarianism, pragmatic, 106
Validation, respondent, 31
Validity, 95, 96, 98, 139, 214t
catalytic, 380
democratic, 643
perspectives on, 606
Value-free interpretive research, 35n3
Van Wynsberghe, Rob, 115
Variation theory, 614
Venues, 202
Verbal and nonverbal data analysis, 318
Verbal and nonverbal interactions, 321
Verbal interactions, 317–320
Verbal protocol analysis, 44
Verisimilitude, 644–646
Video and audio recording, 290
Video-based shared reflection (VBSR), 297, 298
Videoconferencing, 284
Video confessionals, 296
Video data or footage, 290
content logs of, 299
participant-generated, 295–297
transformation and transcription of, 299–301
writing with, 504
Video diaries, 296
Video elicitation, 297
Virtual ethnography, 145
Visibility, 202
Visual artifacts, 296
Visual data, participant-generated, 296–297
Vividness, 100
Vocabulary, 100–101, 102–106
Vocal events, 318
Vocal-general music, 364
Vocal music, 364
Voice, writer’s, 243–244, 591–595
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), 256
Voluntary participation, 585
(p. 681) Vygtoskian models, 87
Walls, Billy G., 400
Walt Disney Company, 105
Wang, Shi-Hwa, 411
Watkins, Alfred, 400
Watson, John, 59, 63–64
“Ways of Being at Risk: The Case of Billy Charles Barnett” (Barone), 174–175
Web-based data, 302
Web-based writing, 594
Webster, Peter, 46–47, 51, 52, 53
Wenger, Etienne, 609
Western classical music, 66
“What if” questions of practice, 195–196
Whitaker, Nancy, 49, 50
Williams Beuren syndrome, 530
Williams syndrome, 530, 531
Wilson, Bruce, 343
Winds, brass, percussion (instrumental music), 387–408
Wolof language, 233
Women-specific perspectives, 84
World music(s), 553–570
World music pedagogy, 558–559
World music studies
in community context, 565–567
in elementary school, 554–557
in higher education, 560–563
in high school, 559–560
in middle school, 557–559
in unclear or combined educational levels, 563–564
Worldviews, 79
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 187
Writer’s voice
development of, 592–593
establishing, 243–244, 591–595
new voices, 593–595
Writing, 30–32, 645
for academic publication, 591–595
as analysis, 178–179
collaborative, 593–594
descriptions of observation data, 241–242
goals in, 241–242
in hypertext, 594
“IMRAD” (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion) format, 599
interpretations of observation data, 242–243
about observation data, 241–244
researcher positioning, 377–379
space-saving strategies, 600
style requirements, 595–596, 600
with video, 504
web-based, 594
Writing assignments, 616–625
Yarbrough, Cornelia, 106
Yin, Robert K., 115, 116, 120–121
YouTube, 33, 302
Zimmerman, J. R., 345
Zimmerman, M. P., 345
Zimmerman, Marilyn, 73
Zone of proximal development (ZPD), 317, 625 (p. 682)