Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 20 September 2020

(p. 643) Index

(p. 643) Index

Academy of Experimental Criminology (AEC), 504, 512
Accelerated Hiring, Education, and Deployment, 62
Accountability and legitimacy, 15–21
citizen oversight, 18–19
individual officer behavior, oversight of, 16–19
institutional accountability for police performance, 15–16
police legitimacy, 19–21
Accreditation, control of police misconduct, 327
Accumulative harms, 133
African Americans
community policing and, 7–8
disadvantages of as suspects, 484
drug markets, poverty and, 36, 39
police legitimacy, view of, 250
police officers, 59
police race relations, 346–49, 355, 369
police shootings of, 61
promotion of, 57
urban drug markets, community race and status, 40–42
view of police, 363
Afro-American Patrolmen's League, 59
Afro-Carribeans, illegal immigration and local policing, 412
ALLFEDS database, 292
ALLSTATES database, 292
American Bar Foundation, 471
American Revolution, police authority, 217
Anderson, Elijah, 362–63
Anglo-American Democratic Policing (AADP), 552, 557–59
Anti-authoritarian force, policing as, 228–30
Anti-Drug Abuse Acts of 1986 and 1988, 39–40
Anti-Gang Initiative, 62
Anti-terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA), 412
Anti-war protests, 58
Applied theories of organizations, 73–76
Arab Americans, police race relations, 354–55
Arabs
Israel, 340
Paris, 341
racial profiling, 420
Arizona Association of Chiefs of Police (AACOP), 289–90
Arizona, illegal immigration and local policing
Senate Bill 1070, 415, 421, 424, 425n3
Arrest-related deaths, TASER and, 286
Asian Americans, police race relations, 353
ASIS International, 583
Assessing Police Use of Force Policy and Outcomes, 266
Assessment, problem-oriented policing, 107–8
Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO), 521
Association of European Police Colleges (AEPC), 613–14
(p. 644) "Audience legitimacy," 254
Austerity budgets, private policing in public spaces, 578
Australia, police legitimacy, 249–50
Austria
Federal Criminal Police Office, 612
Neustadt University of Applied Sciences in Vienna, 617
Austro-Hungarian Empire, 608
AXON system, 295
Bahn, Charles, 449
Banishment, practices of in Seattle, 597
Banton, Michael, 142n1, 522
Bateson, Gregory, 537
Bayley, David, 477–78
Beccaria, Cesare, 634
Beetham, David, 239, 241–43, 250
"Beltway Snipers," 628–29
Bentham, Jeremy, 232n5, 634
Berlin Wall, fall of, 611
Bittner, Egon
ethnographies of policing, 532–33, 535
militarization, concerns regarding, 633
order maintenance policing, 142n1
restraint and, 280
War on Terror and, 623, 625, 640nn8 and 10
Black box evaluations, racial profiling, 400
Black, Donald, 37, 312
Blackwater shootings, 582
Blankenburg, Rudolph, 55
Blankenship, Betty, 59
Block, Richard, 449
Blue Laws against commerce, 176–77
Booth, Charles, 522
Bordua, David, 449–50, 532
Boston
police strike, 57
systematic social observation of the police, 473
Boston Gun Project, 113
Boston Police Department
community surveys, use of to study policing, 451
Operation Ceasefire, 112–14
Braithwaite, John, 634
Bratton, William, 318
Compstat and, 63
order maintenance policing, 11
quality of life policing, 186
War on Terror and, 624, 634–35
zero tolerance and, 181
Britain, "Anti-Social Behavior" initiative, 129
British Crime Survey (BCS), 12, 452, 455, 561
British Home Office, 460
Broken windows thesis, 25n2, 124, 128
beyond broken windows, 131
community policing and, 151
counterterrorism and, 636
definitions, 142n1
disorder, effect on crime, 130
efficacy of, 186–88
experimental designs, use of to study police interventions, 500–501
generally, 172
limits of, 129–31
space, policing of, 594
"Broken Windows" (Wilson and Kelling), 500–501
Brokering access, police authority and, 223–24
Brown, Lee, 148
Brown v. Board of Education, 177
Budget
crises, 78–80, 88
politics and, 52
Bureaucracy, police organizations, 70–76
Bureau of Investigation, 56
Bureau of Justice, Police-Public Contact Survey, 314
Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), 77, 438
community surveys, use of to study policing, 451
Ensuring the Quality, Credibility, and Relevance of U.S. Justice Statistics, 440
Hispanics and police race relations, 350
Maryland, University of, 435–36
police administration, 440–41, 446
Police-Public Contact Survey (PPCS), 267
Burgess, Ernest, 537
Burglary, household, 459
Burk, Ian, 589–91, 601–2
Bush, George H. W., 60
(p. 645) Business Improvement District (BID), 576, 581–82
Byrne Memorial State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Program, 40
California
"Case Law Today," 288
Proposition 187, 412
Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice Group, 63, 115–16, 504, 512
Canada, drop in crime, 186–87
Capitalism, 70
Carnegie Steel Plant, 573
Causes of Delinquency (Hirschi), 253
Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies (CSLLEA), 436
Center for Policing Terrorism, 624
Center for Problem-Oriented Policing, 13, 288
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 287
Central and Eastern Europe, policing in, 606
community policing, 615
contemporary police activities, 611–14
Europeanization of policing, 613–14, 617
organizational patterns, 611–12
plural policing, 612–13
privatization, 612–13
democratization, 610–11
Europeanization of policing, 613–14, 617
future of, 617–18
organizational patterns, 611–12
organizational research, 615
plural policing, 612–13
police legitimacy, research, 615
police organizations, development, 607–11
democratization, 610–11
English influence, 607–8
French influence, 607–8
World War II, period following, 606, 608–10
privatization, 612–13
Regional Police Training Initiative, 614
research, 614–17
conducting, 616–17
organizational research, 615
police legitimacy, 615
victimization, 615–16
Soviet Union, collapse of, 606
victimization, research, 615–16
World War II, period following, 608–10
Central European Police Academy, 614
Central Park Police Force, 137
CEPOL (European Police College), 607, 613, 617
CEWs (Conducted Electrical Weapons). See TASER
Chandler Police Department (Arizona), 291
Chapman, Robert, 623
Charismatic leaders, 70–71
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department, 114
Chicago
community surveys, use of to study policing, 452–53, 457, 461, 465–66, 468
drug dealing, 42
illegal immigration and local policing, 421–22
order maintenance policing, 142–43n4
police race relations, 347
race riots, 1919, 56–57
systematic social observation of the police, 472–73
Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS), 11
Chicago Police Department, Mobile Strike Force, 370
Chicago School, 522, 535, 537
Chicago, University of, 539
Chinese Americans, police race relations, 353
Christopher Commission, 302, 317–18, 325
Chronic health conditions, persons with, 199
Cincinnati, Ohio
police race relations, 342
Policing in Cincinnati Project, 472, 476
racial profiling, traffic and pedestrian stops, 393
systematic social observation of the police, 480
(p. 646) Citizen input, community policing, 154
Citizen oversight, 18–19
Citizen reviews, control of police misconduct and, 325–26
City of Los Angeles v. Lyons, 323–24
Civil proceedings, police misconduct, control of, 323–24
Civil Rights Movement, 6
Clark, John, 473–74
Cleveland, order maintenance policing, 127
Clinton Administration, 63
Clinton, Bill, 152
Close Circuit Television (CCTV), 595
Coca-Cola, 178
Cochrane Collaboration, 504
Coercion. See Police coercion
Coercive isomorphism, 72
Coffal, Elizabeth, 59
Coicaud, Jean-Marc, 239
Cole, Catherine, 136
College of American Pathologists, 287
Colorado, Columbine School shootings, 179
Colorado, University of
Blueprints program, 63
Colquhoun, Patrick, 519
Columbine School shootings, 179
Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA), 17, 288, 303, 327
Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice, 472–73
Committee to Review Research on Policy Policy and Practices, 19–20, 114
Community
disadvantage, drugs and, 37–39
immigration law, local law enforcement, 418–19, 422–23
policing. See Community policing
Community policing, 7–10, 148–71
African Americans, 7–8
broad function, 154–55
broken windows, 151
Central and Eastern Europe, 615
citizen input, 154
Comparing the Effectiveness of Community Policing and Reactive Policing, 162
counter-terrorism, 160, 165
crime, 153
crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED), 156
defined, 153–59
organizational dimension, 157–59
philosophical dimension, 154–55
strategic dimension, 155–56
tactical dimension, 156–57
democratization, 152–53
evaluating community policing, 160–64
Comparing the Effectiveness of Community Policing and Reactive Policing, 162
reactive policing, 163
evolving police strategies, 149–50
Executive Session on Policing, 8–9
focus of, 172
foot patrol, 150–51, 161–62
geographic focus, 156
homeland security, 160, 165
implementing community policing, 159–60
information, 158–59
international organizations, 7
local police and the "war" on terrorism, 636–37
management, 158
money, 152
1990s, 62–63
organizational dimension, 157–59
information, 158–59
management, 158
structure, 158
organizational structure of police agencies, 80–82
partnerships, 157
personal service, 155
philosophical dimension
broad function, 154–55
citizen input, 154
personal service, 155
police-community relations, 150
police organizational development, 151–52
(p. 647) police reform, 152
police research, 150
politics and, 8, 152, 165–66
positive interaction, 156–57
prevention emphasis, 156
problem-oriented policing, 108–9, 164–65
problem solving, 151, 157, 164–65
race relations, 150
race riots, 7
reactive policing, 163
reasons for, 149–53
broken windows, 151
crime, 153
democratization, 152–53
evolving police strategies, 149–50
foot patrol, 150–51, 161–62
money, 152
police-community relations, 150
police organizational development, 151–52
police reform, 152
police research, 150
politics, 152, 165–66
problem solving, 151, 164–65
race relations, 150
Regional Community Placement Institutes, 9
re-oriented operations, 155
space, policing of, 593–94
strategic dimension
geographic focus, 156
prevention emphasis, 156
re-oriented operations, 155
structure, 158
systematic social observation of the police, 482
tactical dimension, 156–57
partnerships, 157
positive interaction, 156–57
problem solving, 157
urban drug markets, community race and status, 39–42
Community surveys, use of to study policing, 449–70
awareness, 456–57
Chicago, 452–53
confidence in police, 452–53
cross-sectional versus Longitudinal, 465–66
fear of crime, 450, 461–62
interview mode, 462–64
involvement in programs, 456–57
neighborhood disorder and crime problems, 450, 459–61
neighborhood-level factors, 453
police demeanor, 452
police legitimacy, 453–54, 466–67
quality of service, 467
random digit dialing (RDD) telephone survey, 463–64
respondent selection, 462–64
sample size, 464–65
sampling and surveying, 462–66
cross-sectional versus Longitudinal, 465–66
interview mode, 462–64
respondent selection, 462–64
sample size, 464–65
satisfaction with encounters, 454–56
topics, 452–62
awareness, 456–57
confidence in police, 452–53
fear of crime, 450, 461–62
involvement in programs, 456–57
neighborhood disorder and crime problems, 450, 459–61
police legitimacy, 453–54, 466–67
satisfaction with encounters, 454–56
victimization, 450, 458–59
underreporting of crime, 458
uses and users of police-community surveys, 451–52
U.S. Postal Service's Delivery Sequence File, 464
victimization, 450, 458–59
Compositional theory, police race relations, 344–45
Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, 41
Compstat
police accountability and legitimacy and, 15–16, 20
police organizations and, 75, 84
politics and policing, 62–63
supervisors and, 318
zero tolerance and, 181
Concrete resources, police legitimacy and, 244
(p. 648) Conducted Electrical Weapons (CEWs). See TASER
Conducted Energy Devices (CEDs), 275
Confederation of European Security Services (CoESS), 576–77
Conflict theory, police race relations, 348
Contingency, ethnographies of policing, 520–22
Contingency theory, 73–74
Cooper, Sally, 61
COPS MORE, 90n16
Core technology, defined, 89n5
Corruption. See Police corruption
Council of Europe, European Code of Police Ethics, 608
Counter-insurgency (COIN) actions, 225
Counterintelligence Operations (COINTELPRO), 225
Counterterrorism, 160, 165
broken windows thesis and, 636
local police and, 635–37
overlapping responsibilities, 627–30
Cover, John H., 283
Crack cocaine, 60
CRASH unit (LAPD), 370
Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 504
Crime, community policing and generally, 153
Crime mapping, 83
Crime prevention effects, problem-oriented policing and, 114–16
Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED), 156
Crime rates
England, 12
1960s to mid-1980s, 6
Criminalization, mental illness and, 201–3
Criminal proceedings, police misconduct, 322–23
"Criminological Theories: The Truth as Told by Mark Twain" (Gottfredson), 260–61
Crisis intervention teams (CITs), 198
Culpability, relevance of, 203
Customs and Border Protection, 63
Data collection, racial profiling, 385–86
Davis, Edward E., 510
Davis, Ray, 148
Dearborn, Michigan
Arab Americans, police race relations, 354
Decision making, policing vulnerable populations, 203
Deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill, 128, 201
Democratization
Central and Eastern Europe, policing in, 610–11
community policing and, 152–53
Denver, systematic social observation of the police, 477
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
creation of, 22, 63
Department of Justice (DOJ), collaboration with, 629
illegal immigration and, 424, 425n2
police authority and, 225
Department of Justice (DOJ)
Civil Rights Division, 17
criminal proceedings, 322
deadly force, use of, 601–2
Department of Homeland Security (DHS), collaboration with, 629
Edward Byrne Memorial State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Program, 40
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), 9, 62, 63, 153–54, 160, 441, 521
Operation Ceasefire and, 113
police coercion and, 444
TASER and, 288
terrorism and, 623
Deviance, zero tolerance and policing, 174–75, 190
Diallo, Amadou, 302–3, 344
Dialogical enterprise, policing as, 228–30
Diffusion of innovation theory, 280–301. See also Innovation, restraint and
Disadvantage, community
drugs and, 37–39
Disorder. See also Order maintenance policing
effect on crime, 130
preventing, 136–37
shared space, as unfair use of, 132–35
"social disorder," measurements of, 143n8
Disparate impact discrimination, racial profiling, 387
Disparate treatment discrimination, racial profiling, 387
Distributive justice, police legitimacy and, 244
Diversification
private policing in public spaces, 575–76, 579–80
Table 25.1 Services Provided by the Security Goods and Services Sector, 580
Domestic violence, policing
experimental designs, 503
"Don't ask, don't tell" policies, 417, 423
Douglas, William, 127
Dowd, Michael, 302–3, 325
Dragnet (tv show), 593
Drug Abatement Response Team (DART), 502
Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE), 60–61
Drug Market Analysis Program (DMAP), 497, 501–2, 512
Drug markets. See Policing urban drug markets
Drug problems, experimental designs and policing places with, 501–3
Drug use
mental illness and, 202–3
tough on crime stance and, 60–61
War on Drugs, 60, 224, 383, 385, 501
Druze Arabs, Israel, 340
Duchamp, Marcel, 5
Durkheim, Émile, 182, 232n5
Dyzenhaus, David, 239
Early warning systems, control of police misconduct, 320–21
Eastern Europe, policing in. See Central and Eastern Europe, policing in
East Germany, policing in, 609–10
Educational role of the police, 137
Edward Byrne Memorial State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Program, 40
Effectiveness, police legitimacy and, 245, 556–57
Eighteenth Amendment, 178
Emotions, ethnographies of policing and, 536
Empirical principle, problem-oriented policing, 117
Enforcement. See specific topic
England. See also Britain; England and Wales; London
Audit Commission, 16
National Reassurance Policing Programme (NRPP), 12
order maintenance policing, 11–12
street musicians, order maintenance policing and, 143n7
England and Wales
Audit Commission, 16
police community support officers (PCSOs), 576
Special Constabulary Act of 1831, 576
Ensuring the Quality, Credibility, and Relevance of U.S. Justice Statistics (BJS), 440
Environmental characteristics, restraint and, 291–93
geographic settings, 291–92
political conditions, 291
societal culture, 292
Erikson, Kai Theodor, 174
Ethnographies of policing, 518–48
articles, 524–32
Table 23.3 salient ethnographic chapters and articles on policing, 531
chapters, 524–32
contingency, 520–22
(p. 650) Ethnographies of policing (Cont.)emotions and, 536
fading of ethnography, 537–39
fieldwork with the police, 522–24, 532–37
focus, 520–22
gender considerations, 527
mandate, 520–22
monographs, 524–32
multiple realities of policing, 533–34
New Orleans Police Department, 530
occupational ethnographic studies, 524–32
Table 23.1 ethnographic monographs with a police occupation focus, 526
officially recorded data (ORD), 520
organizational ethnographic studies, 524–32
Table 23.2 ethnographic monographs with a police organizational focus, 528
"Peel model," 519–20, 534
policing, 519–20
race considerations, 527
strategy, 520–22
Table 23.1 ethnographic monographs with a police occupation focus, 526
Table 23.2 ethnographic monographs with a police organizational focus, 528
Table 23.3 salient ethnographic chapters and articles on policing, 531
tactics, 520–22
theme, 520–22
Wickersham report, 519
European Code of Police Ethics, 608
European Commission, 617
Europeanization of policing, 613–14, 617
European Police Office (EUROPOL), 613
European Union
expansion of, 615
Frontex Agency, 613
Evidence-Based Policing Matrix, 505–8
FIGURE 22.1 The evidence-based policing matrix, 507
FIGURE 22.2 The evidence-based police matrix (experiments only), 508
Evidence, systematic social observation of the police, 483
Evolving police strategies, community policing and, 149–50
"The Evolving Strategy of Policing" (Kelling and Moore), 148
Executive Session on Policing, 8–9
Experimental designs, use of to study police interventions, 497–517
broken windows thesis, 500–501
Campbell Collaboration, 504, 512
Cochrane Collaboration, 504
doing police experiments, 508–12
domestic violence, policing, 503
Drug Abatement Response Team (DART), 502
Drug Market Analysis Program (DMAP), 497, 501–2, 512
drug problems, policing places with, 501–3
Evidence-Based Policing Matrix, 505–8
FIGURE 22.1 The evidence-based policing matrix, 507
FIGURE 22.2 The evidence-based police matrix (experiments only), 508
foot patrols, 500–501
history of police experiments, 498–503
broken windows thesis, 500–501
domestic violence, policing, 503
Drug Abatement Response Team (DART), 502
drug problems, policing places with, 501–3
foot patrols, 500–501
Jersey City DMAP experiment, 502
Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment, 499–500, 512
Kansas City "raid" experiment, 501–2
"Koper Curve," 500
Martinson Report, 498
Minnesota Hot Spots Patrol Experiment, 497, 499–500
Newark Foot Patrol Experiment, 500, 512
Philadelphia foot patrol experiment, 501
preventive patrolling, 499–500
San Diego experiment, 502
implementation issues, 509, 511
institutionalizing experimental research in policing, 503–5
systematic reviews of experimentation, 504–5
Jersey City DMAP experiment, 502
(p. 651) Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment, 499–500, 512
Kansas City "raid" experiment, 501–2
"Koper Curve," 500
Martinson Report, 498
Maryland Report, 503–5
Minneapolis Hot Spots Experiment, 497, 512
Minnesota Hot Spots Patrol Experiment, 497, 499–500
Newark Foot Patrol Experiment, 500, 512
Philadelphia foot patrol experiment, 501
preventive patrolling, 499–500
Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN), 502
randomization, 509, 511
San Diego experiment, 502
Spousal Assault Replication experiments, 512
systematic reviews of experimentation, 504–5
Experimental methods to obtain evidence, zero tolerance and policing, 192
Fairness-legitimacy nexus, 563
"Fare beaters" (New York City), 11
Fear. See also Fear of crime
crime, governance through, 190–91
War on Terror, local police and, 632–34
Fear of crime
age and gender, 462
community surveys, use of to study policing, 461–62
terrorism, 639
"threat" definitions of crime, 461
zero tolerance and policing, 183
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 56–57
Counterintelligence Operations (COINTELPRO), 225
Police Employees data, 77, 90nn910
terrorism and, 22
Federal Housing Administration (FHA), 36
Fieldwork, ethnographies of policing, 522–24, 532–37
Fifth Amendment warnings, 321–22
Firth, Raymond, 537
Focus, ethnographies of policing, 520–22
Fogelson, Robert, 126
Foot patrol
community policing and, 150–51, 161–62
experimental designs, 500–501
Force. See Police coercion
Force, Robert, 132, 138
Formalization, structure of police organizations, 81
Foucault, Michel, 223
Fouche, Joseph, 608
Fourth Amendment, 310–11, 394
Franklin, Ben, 185
French Revolution, police authority, 217
Frontex Agency, 613
Funding Accelerated for Smaller Towns, 62
Fusions, liberal-consent democracies, 224–26
Fyfe, James, 477, 633
Gang drug-dealing organizations, 38
Gang violence, Boston Police Department Operation Ceasefire, 112–14
Garofalo, James, 477–78
Garrity v. New Jersey, 319
Gary, Indiana
systematic social observation of the police, 471
Gascon, George, 292
Geller, William, 280
Generalizability, systematic social observation of the police, 487–88
Geographic focus, community policing, 156
Geographic information systems (GIS), 597–98
Geographic settings, restraint and, 291–92
German Police University in Muenster, 617
Germany
Federal Criminal Police Office, 612
Federal Police, 612
Ruhr University Bochum, 617
Giuliani, Rudolph, 11, 186
Glendale Police Department (Arizona), 291
(p. 652) Globalization, private policing in public spaces, 580–81
Goldstein, Herman, 12, 101, 103, 111–12, 114–17, 128, 532
Herman Goldstein Award for Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing, 111
Problem-Oriented Policing, 132
"Good faith" exception to exclusionary rule, 60
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 610
Gottfredson, Don, 260–61
Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB), 438
Governmental authority, police authority and, 222–23
Graffiti, 460
Graham v. Connor, 310, 445, 447n1
Great Recession of 2008, 148, 630
Greene, Jack, 631
Green, Malice, 344
Group-position thesis, police race relations, 342
Gunn, David, 136–37
Habsburg Monarchy, 607
Harmonization, private policing in public spaces, 583–84
Harrison Narcotics Act of 1914, 178
Harvard University, 148
Herman Goldstein Award for Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing, 111
Hispanics. See also Latinos
police race relations, 347, 350–52
History of police, recent, 3–33
accountability and legitimacy, 15–21
citizen oversight, 18–19
individual officer behavior, oversight of, 16–19
institutional accountability for police performance, 15–16
police legitimacy, 19–21
community policing, 7–10
crime rates, 1960s to mid-1980s, 6
individual officer behavior, oversight of
early intervention systems, 17–18
order maintenance policing, 10–12
recent history of the police
terrorism, policing, 21–24
reforms, strategic, 4–14
community policing and order maintenance policing, 7–12
hot spots policing, 13–14, 172
problem-oriented policing, 12–13
standard model of policing, 5–6
terrorism, policing, 21–24
Hitler, Adolph, 70–71
"Hit rate," searches and seizures, 395
Homeland, American view of, 640n3
Homeland security, 160, 165
Homeland Security and Emergency Management Agency (HSEMA), 624
Homeless population, policing, 199
Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC), 36
Homestead Riots (1892), 573
Homogenization, 76
Hoover, Herbert, 56
Hoover, J. Edgar, 57
Hot spots policing, 451–52
Kansas City Patrol Experiment, 14
Minneapolis Hot Spots Experiment, 497, 512
Minnesota Hot Spots Patrol Experiment, 14
zero tolerance and, 191
Houston, Texas
community surveys, use of to study policing, 457, 463
Hungary, Civil Guard, 612
Hurricane Katrina aftermath, 91n19
I-95 corridor of Eastern Seaboard, racial profiling, 384–85
(p. 653) Illegal immigration and local policing, 409–29
Afro-Carribeans, 412
Anti-terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA), 412
Arizona Senate Bill 1070, 415, 421, 424, 425n3
California's Proposition 187, 412
communities, enforcement of immigration laws, 418–19
conflicting roles of officers, 417–20
devolution of immigration enforcement authority, 410
"don't ask, don't tell" policies, 417, 423
federal and local law enforcement, partnerships between, 410
history of undocumented immigration and local policing, 411–14
immigration-crime nexus, Latino paradox and, 412–14
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), 412, 415
Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), 414–15
inconsistencies in enforcing immigration laws, 419–20
Latino Paradox, 412–14
Latinos, 411–14, 420–22
legislation, 414–17
inconsistencies in enforcing immigration laws, 419–20
local law enforcement, 414–17
communities, effects of local law enforcement involvement on, 422–23
communities, enforcement of immigration laws, 418–19
conflicting roles of officers, 417–20
immigrant cooperation with, social costs, 421–22
pressures on local police, 416–17
Mexicans, 411
"mixed-status" households, 423
policies, changing, 414–17
pressures on local police, 416–17
social costs of immigration enforcement, 420–23
effects of local law enforcement involvement on communities, 422–23
immigrant cooperation with local law enforcement, 421–22
racial profiling, risks of, 420–21
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), 415–17, 419, 423–25
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), 412, 415
Illinois Crime Survey, 56
Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). See U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
Immigration, illegal. See Illegal immigration and local policing
Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), 414–15
Indianapolis, systematic social observation of the police, 481
Individualistic approach, theories of police misconduct
excessive force, use of, 311–12
police corruption, 307
Individual officer behavior, oversight of, 16–19
early intervention systems, 17–18
Information, community policing and, 158–59
Infrequent events, systematic social observation of the police, 486–87
Inner city, policing and race, 362–82
minority males, 362–63
police legitimacy, 365–68
aggressive urban policing, erosion of police legitimacy and, 369–71
inner city police, procedural justice and, 368
procedural justice model, 366–69, 372–73
policy recommendations, 371–76
identification and discipline of officers who mistreat citizens, 373–75
mobilization of community, 375–87
procedural justice as administrative mandate, 372–73
publicizing incidents of wrongdoing, 375
progressive policing model, 366
urban populace, earning and maintaining respect of, 365
(p. 654) Innovation, restraint and
diffusion of innovation theory, 280–301. See also Lines throughout this topic
environment, characteristics of, 291–93
geographic settings, 291–92
political conditions, 291
societal culture, 292
future innovation, 295–06
innovation as standard practice, 296
innovation, characteristics of, 283–87
benefits, 284–87
costs, 284–87
introduction, 283–84
private consequences, 284
public consequences, 284
innovators, characteristics of, 287–91
familiarity with the innovation, 289
personal characteristics of innovator, 290–91
social networks of innovators, 287–89
societal entity of innovators, 287–89
socioeconomic characteristics of innovator, 290–91
status of innovator, 290–91
unsuccessful innovation, 294–95
Institute of Clinical Justice and Criminology, 435
Institutional accountability for police performance, 15–16
Institutionalized organizations, police legitimacy, 559
Institutional theory, 74–75
politics and, 52
Instrumental effectiveness, police legitimacy, 556–57
Insurrection Act, 86, 91nn1819
Intelligence-led policing, 172
International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), 55–56, 288–89, 314, 418, 437
International City/County Management Association (ICMA), 434–35
Municipal Yearbook, 435
International organizations, community policing, 7
Iron cage metaphor, police organizations, 69–76, 88
Isomorphic, defined, 89n3
Israel
Druze Arabs, 340
Muslim Arabs, 340
IT. See Technology
Jacob, Herbert, 449
Jersey City DMAP experiment, 502
Johnson, Lyndon B., 58, 472–73
Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs), 22, 225
Kansas City Police Department (KCPD), 434–35
General Administrative Survey of Police Practice, 435
Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment, 14, 499–500, 512
Kansas City "raid" experiment, 501–2
Kelling, George
"Broken Windows," 500–501
community policing and, 151
"The Evolving Strategy of Policing," 148
order maintenance policing, 128, 131–32, 136, 139
War on Terror and, 634–35
zero tolerance and, 181, 185
Kennedy School of Government, 8–9
Kerner Commission, 8, 58
Kimmerer, Clark, 590
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 71
King, Rodney, 17, 190, 270, 302, 310, 313, 322, 325, 344, 372
Klinger, David, 483–84
Knapp Commission, 270, 304, 309, 323
Kohler, Fred, 127
"Koper Curve," 500
Landlords, urban drug markets and, 43
Latin America, "blue zones," 231n2
Latino Paradox, 412–14
Latinos. See also Hispanics
illegal immigration and local policing, 411–14, 420–22
police race relations, 350–51, 369
racial profiling, 420–21
(p. 655) urban drug markets, community race and status, 40, 42
Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA), 58–59, 62, 521
Law Enforcement Executive Forum, 289
Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), 77, 294, 319
police administrative records as social science data
force, police use of, 442–45
future of police administration, 445–47
overview, 433–34
reliability issues, 440–42
scope, determining, 437–40
systematic data collection, 433–37
validity issues, 440–42
Law Enforcement Statistics: The State of the Art (Ucihda et al.), 436
Lawlessness in Law Enforcement (National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement), 56
Leach, Edmund, 537
Legality, police legitimacy, 242–43
Legitimacy and Criminal Justice (Tonry), 249
Levi-Strauss, Claude, 537
Liberal-consent democracies, police authority in, 217–37
anti-authoritarian force, policing as, 228–30
balance, 221
brokering access, 223–24
dialogical enterprise, policing as, 228–30
fusions, 224–26
geography of authority, 222–26
governmental authority and, 222–23
liberal democracies, generally, 218–22
negative rights, 219–20
neoconservative position and, 224
plural policing, 224–26
police discretion, plural authority and, 226–28
positive rights, 221–22
prerogative power, 222
scorecard for anti-authoritarian policing, 230–31
Livingston, Debra, 140
Local Enforcement Block Grant (LLEBG), 62
Local police and the "war" on terrorism, 623
allocation of resources, 630–32
community policing, 636–37
counterterrorism, 635–37
overlapping responsibilities for, 627–30
fear, reification of, 632–34
multiple goals, 630–32
net widening problem, 634–36
paramilitarization of the police, 632–34
police departments, fighting terrorism by, 634–36
research issues for, 637–39
slippery slope problem, 632–34
technology, use of, 637
terrorism, role of the police, 625–27
Lohman, Joseph, 518, 539
London. See also England
order maintenance (1829-1900), 125–26
Project Griffin, 584
London Metropolitan Police
community surveys, use of to study policing, 451–53
politics and, 53–55
London Olympics, 584
Long Range Acoustic Device (LRAD), 296
Los Angeles
Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE), 60–61
"Zoot Suit" riot, 57–58
Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, 291, 326
Los Angeles Police Department, 317
battering ram vehicle, use in drug houses, 42
Board of Inquiry, 318
CRASH unit, 370
King, Rodney case, 17, 190, 270, 302, 310, 313, 322, 325, 344, 372
militarization and, 86
National Counter Terrorism Academy, 624
Professional Movement, 593
(p. 656) Los Angeles Rampart Scandal, 270
Louima, Abner, 302, 344
Lowell, Massachusetts Police Department, 510
Major Cities Chiefs, 417
Making Officer Redeployment Effective (MORE), 62
Malinowski, Bronislaw, 537
Malvo, Lee Boyd, 628–29
Management, community policing, 158
Mandate, ethnographies of policing, 520–22
Manning, Peter K., 82–83, 598
Mao Zedong, 71
Mapp vs. Ohio, 59, 322
Maribor, University of (Slovenia), 617
Marine spatial management, 600
Marks, Monique, 533–34
Martinson Report, 498
Marx, Karl, 232nn5 and 11
Maryland, University of
Institute of Clinical Justice and Criminology, 435
Maryland Report, 503–5
Preventing Crime, 63
Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START), 22
Mass media, police race relations and, 344
Mastrofski, Stephen, 475–76
Mayhew, Henry, 522
McKay, Henry, 537
Mead, Margaret, 537
Media, police race relations and, 356–57
Memphis, Tennessee
crisis intervention team (CIT), 206
Mental illness
criminalization and, 201–3
deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill, 128, 201
drug use and, 202–3
history of people with mental illness in the community, 200–201
mercy bookings, 201–3
military recruits, history, 200
myth of criminalization, 201–3
policing and, 199–203
crisis intervention teams (CITs), 206–7
current models of police response, 205–7
history of people with mental illness in the community, 200–201
identification of mentally ill, 208–9
mercy bookings, 201–3
multiple roles of mentally ill, 209
myth of criminalization, 201–3
police response, current models of, 205–7
role of police, understanding, 201
social disorganization theory and, 203–4
role of police, understanding, 201
Mercy bookings, mental illness, 201–3
Metro-Dade Police-Citizen Violence Reduction Project, 477, 483
Mexican Americans, "Zoot Suit" riot, 57–58
Mexicans, illegal immigration and local policing, 411
Miami-Dade Police Department, 316
Miami River cops scandal, 270
Micro-social focus, systematic social observation of the police, 486
MIDCARS (Minnesota Interaction Data Coding and Reduction System), 474
Midwest City Study, 472–74, 483
Militarization, 85–87
"environmental jolts," 86
Occupy movement and, 87
Military Cooperation with Law Enforcement Officials (MCLEO), 91n18
Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT), 225
Military recruits, mental illness, history, 200
Mimetic isomorphism, 72
Minneapolis Hot Spots Experiment, 497, 512
Minnesota Domestic Violence Experiments, 251
Minnesota Hot Spots Patrol Experiment, 14, 497, 499–500
Minnesota Interaction Data Coding and Reduction System (MIDCARS), 474
Minorities
inner city, policing and race, 362–63
(p. 657) procedural justice and, 21
"Minority threat," conflict theory and, 348–49
Miranda v. Arizona, 59, 321
Misconduct. See Police misconduct
"Mixed-status" households, illegal immigration and, 423
Model Penal Code, 264
Mode of incorporation thesis, police race relations, 340–42
Mollen Commission, 302–3, 305, 309, 317–18, 325
Monell v. Department of Social Services, 323
Money, community policing and, 152
Monkkonen, Eric, 125, 126, 128, 142n2
Monroe v. Pape, 323
Monsanto, 232n12
Moore, Mark, 148
Morton, John, 423
Muhammad, John Allen, 628–29
Multiple realities of policing, 533–34
Muslim Americans, 23
communities, War on Terror and, 625, 632–33
on police legitimacy, 250–52
police race relations, 353–55
racial profiling, 420
Muslim Arabs, Israel, 340
Napoleonic police structure, 608
National Academy of Science (NAS), 433, 440
Committee to Review Research on Policy Policy and Practices, 114
National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, 58, 190
National Association of Medical Examiners, 287
National Center for Problem-Oriented Policing (CPOP), 129
National Chief's Union, 55
National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement, 56
National Counter Terrorism Academy, 624
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 440, 458
National Institute of Justice (NIJ), 521
community policing and, 148
ethnographies of policing and, 521
experimental designs and, 501
police administrative records, 437
police coercion and, 265
restraint and, 285–87
National Opinion Research Center, 436
National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives (NOBLE), 288
National Police Research Platform (Rosenbaum), 437, 445
National Prohibition Act of 1918, 178
National Reassurance Policing Programme (NRPP), 12
National Research Council
community surveys, 453
ethnographies of policing, 531
experimental designs and, 501, 507
police misconduct and, 307
social observation of police, 491n11
zero tolerance and, 188–90
National Sheriff's Association (NSA), 288, 437
Nazis, 609
Negative rights, police authority and, 219–20
Neighborhood disorder and crime problems, community surveys, 450, 459–61
Neighborhood racial and class composition, police race relations and, 345–47
Neustadt University of Applied Sciences in Vienna, 617
Newark, community surveys, 457
Newark Foot Patrol Experiment, 500, 512
New Deal, 179
New Haven Connecticut Police Department, 137
New Jersey Office of Attorney General, 292
New Orleans, Hurricane Katrina aftermath, 91n19
New Orleans Police Department, 530
Newton, Isaac, 189
New York Asian Women's Center, 61
(p. 658) New York City. See also New York City Police Department (NYPD)
auxiliary police, 576
Center for Policing Terrorism, 624
Central Park, creation of, 143n5
Central Park Police Force, 137
drop in crime, 186, 188
Knapp Commission, 270, 304, 309, 323
order maintenance (1829-1900), 125
police legitimacy, 250–52
"police surge" demonstrations, 233n18
racial profiling, traffic and pedestrian stops, 391
"squeegee people," 11, 138–39
stop and frisk policies, 185
subway system, 132
"Clean Car Program," 136–37
systematic social observation of the police, 477–78
New York City Police Department (NYPD)
community surveys, use of to study policing, 453
counterterrorism, 225
Diallo, Amadou case, 302–3, 344
Dowd, Michael case, 302–3, 325
institutional accountability for police performance, 15–16
Louima, Abner case, 302, 344
Mollen Commission, 302–3, 305, 309, 317–18, 325
Occupy Wall Street, 230
order maintenance policing, 11
police corruption, 1960s and 1970s, 304
September 11, 2001, 623–24
Shield and Project Griffin, 584–85
stop and frisk policies, 43, 185, 226
supervisors, 317–38
terrorism, responses to, 23
budget and, 631
counterterrorism, 225
net widening and, 635
September 11, 2001, 623–24
zero tolerance and, 181
New York City Transit Police, 128
New York State Coalition Against Sexual Assault, 61
"Noble-cause corruption," 306
Normative isomorphism, 72
Normative principle, problem-oriented policing, 117
North Carolina State Highway Patrol (NCSHP), 391
Northern Ireland, police ombudsman model, 18–19
NYPD Blue (tv show), 270
Oakland (California) Police Department, 291–92
Obama, Barack, 424–25
Occupational differentiation, structure of police organizations, 81
Occupational ethnographic studies, 524–32
Occupy movement, 87
Occupy Oakland, 87
Occupy Wall Street, 225, 230
Ocean zoning, 600
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), 9, 62, 63, 153–54, 160, 441, 521
Office of Law Enforcement Assistance (OLEA), 58, 521
Office of National Drug Control Policy, 34
Officially recorded data (ORD), 520
Oklahoma City Bombings (1995), 628
Oldenberg, Fred, 128
Olmstead, Frederick Law, 137
Operation Ceasefire, Boston Police Department, 112–14
Operation Weed and Seed, 62
Order maintenance policing, 10–12, 122–47
(p. 659) broken windows thesis, 124, 128
beyond broken windows, 131
definitions, 142n1
disorder, effect on crime, 130
generally, 172
limits of, 129–31
Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS), 11
definition of order maintenance, 122–23
educational role of the police, 137
1929-1900, 125–26
enforcement, 137–39
England, 11–12
future research, 140–42
generally, 172
legal innovation and, 138
means to end, matching, 135–39
educational role of the police, 137
enforcement, 137–39
preventing disorder, 136–37
New York City Police Department (NYPD), 11
1900-1980, 126–28
1980 to the present, 128–29
origins of, 10
"padlock laws," 138
police discretion, 139–40
police tactics, future research, 141–42
preventing disorder, 136–37
rationale for order maintenance, 129–35
beyond broken windows, 131
disorder as unfair use of shared space, 132–35
limits of broken windows, 129–31
problem-oriented policing and, 131–32
regulating police discretion, 139–40
rise and fall of order maintenance, 124–29
retrenchment (1900-1980), 126–28
revival (1980 to the present), 128–29
roots of order maintenance (1829-1900), 125–26
"soft" crimes, 135–36
Organizational dimension of community policing, 157–59
Organizational ethnographic studies, 524–32
Organizational field, defined, 89n3
Organizational patterns
Central and Eastern Europe, policing in, 611–12
Organizational theories of police misconduct
excessive force, use of, 312–13
police corruption, 307–8
Ostrom, Elinor, 78, 474–75
"Outcome test," searches and seizures, 396
"Padlock laws," 138
Papachristou v. City of Jacksonville, 127
Paramilitarization of the police, War on Terror, 632–34
Paris, Arabs, 341
Parker, William, 58, 593
Parkhurst, Reverend Charles, 54
Park, Robert E., 522, 537
Parks, Roger, 474–76
Particularization of knowledge, policing vulnerable populations, 203
Partnerships, community policing, 157
"Peacekeeping," 142n1
Peace Officer Standards and Training Commission (POST), 288
Pearce, Russell, 425n3
Pedestrian stops. See Traffic and pedestrian stops
"Peel model" of policing, 519–20, 534
Peel, Sir Robert, 606–8, 633. See also "Peel model" of policing
Pennsylvania Crime Commission, 309, 317, 323
Performance, police legitimacy and, 245
Personal characteristics of innovator, 290–91
Personal service, community policing, 155
Petersilia, Joan, 510
Pew Research Center, 23
Philadelphia
foot patrol experiment, 501
politics and police, 55
Philadelphia Police Department, 317, 323
Philip-Sörensen, Erik, 580–81
Philip-Sörensen, Sven, 581
Phoenix Police Department (Arizona), 291
Pinkerton, 232n12, 572–73, 581
(p. 660) Place-based tactics, 173
Plural authority, police discretion and, 22, 226–28
Plural policing, Central and Eastern Europe, 612–13
Police activity and legitimacy, 554–57
Police Administration (Vollmer), 58
Police administrative records as social science data, 433
force, police use of, 442–45
FIGURE 19.1 Reported rates of physical force in 36 studies, 443
future of police administration, 445–47
police coercion, 442–45
reliability issues, 440–42
scope, determining, 437–40
Table 19.1 Police Department SEA Indicators, 439
systematic data collection, 434–37
unsystematic data collection, police use of force, 442–45
FIGURE 19.1 Reported rates of physical force in 36 studies, 443
validity issues, 440–42
Police agencies, responses to political pressure, 52–53
Police authority
anti-authoritarian cops, case for, 217–37
innovation, restraint and, 280–301
in liberal-consent democracies. See Liberal-consent democracies, police authority in
police coercion, 260–79
police legitimacy, 238–59
TASER, use of, 280–301. See also TASER for detailed treatment
use and abuse of, 481–82
Police brutality, 58
Police chief/administration
police misconduct, control of, 316–17
Police coercion, 260–79
appropriate force, 264
Assessing Police Use of Force Policy and Outcomes, 266
avoiding use of force, 265
causes of coercion, 267–73
illegitimate, 269–70
legitimate, 268–69
legitimate/illegitimate, 271–73
coercion, defining, 263–65
corruption, force as mechanism of, 269–70
deadly force, use of, 589–91, 601–2
elusiveness of force theory, 273–74
excessive force, use of, 310–14
causes of, 311–13
individualistic approach, 311–12
organizational approach, 312–13
Police-Public Contact Survey, 314
situational approach, 312
sociological approach, 313
as force, defining as, 263–65
forms of force, distinguishing between, 264–65
how often force used, 265–67
illegitimate coercion, 269–70
impact of force, 274–75
inappropriate force, 264–65
legitimate coercion, 268–69
legitimate/illegitimate coercion, 271–73
as misconduct, 305
police administrative records as social science data, 442–45
"police culture" and, 271–72
"police personality" and, 272
Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN), 267, 479
reasons for use of, 267
Police-community relations, 150
Police corruption, 305–9
causes of, 307–8
code of ethics and, 306
extent of, 308–9
force as mechanism of, 270
functional theories of, 307
gains of, 306
hypothetical scenarios, 306–8
individualistic theories of, 307
motivation for, 305
"noble-cause corruption," 306
occupational theories of, 307
organizational theories of, 307–8
sociological theories of, 308
surveys, assessment, 309
"traditional corruption," 306
(p. 661) Police demeanor, community surveys, 452
Police discretion, 139–40
organizational influences, 485
plural authority and, 226–28
Police Executive Research Forum (PERF), 13, 103, 288
Herman Goldstein Award for Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing, 111
police administration, 435–36, 441
Survey of Police Operational and Administrative Practices, 435
Police Foundation, 61, 435, 498, 500
Police legitimacy, 19–21, 238–59
aggressive urban policing, erosion of police legitimacy and, 369–71
Anglo-American Democratic Policing (AADP), 552, 557–59
"audience legitimacy," 254
as authorization, 555–56
Central and Eastern Europe, 615
community surveys, use of to study policing, 453–54, 466–67
concept of legitimacy, 240–46
Beetham's Three Dimensions of Legitimacy, 242
legality, 242–43
shared values, 243–45
concrete resources, 244
consequences of, 250–53
defined, 240
determinants of, 248–50
dialogic nature of, 553–54
distributive justice, 244
effectiveness, 245, 556–57
empirical account, 553
fairness-legitimacy nexus, 563
future research, areas for, 253–55
identification with police, 556
influence of, police organizations, 71–73, 88
inner city, policing and race, 365–68
procedural justice model, 366–69, 372–73, 375–77
institutionalized organizations, 559
instrumental effectiveness and, 556–57
legality, 242–43
"legitimacy-in-context," 242
measurement, 247–48
performance, 245
police activity and legitimacy, 554–57
policy implications, 562–65
"power-holder legitimacy," 254–55
procedural injustice, 555
procedural justice model, 244–45, 366–69
as administrative mandate, 372–73
benefits of, 368–69
mobilization of community, 375–77
police activity and legitimacy, 554–55
rational/legal, 366
research, results of, 246–53
consequences of legitimacy, 250–53
determinants of police legitimacy, 248–50
measuring police legitimacy, 247–48
shared values, 243–45
social context of police legitimacy, 557–61
empirical legitimacy, implications for, 560–61
sources of legitimacy, 554
symbolic resources, 244
theoretical implications, 561–62
theory and policy, 551–70
Anglo-American Democratic Policing (AADP), 552, 557–59
dialogic nature of legitimacy, 553–54
empirical account, 553
institutionalized organizations, 559
overview, 552–54
police activity and legitimacy, 554–57
policy implications, 562–65, 565
social context of police legitimacy, 557–61
sources of legitimacy, 554
theoretical implications, 561–62
"thick" security, 557–58
Police misconduct, 302–16
accreditation, control and, 327
citizen reviews, control and, 325–26
civil proceedings, control and, 323–24
control of, 315–29
accreditation, 327
citizen reviews, 325–26
civil proceedings, 323–24
criminal proceedings, 322–23
early warning systems, 320–21
external mechanisms of, 321–25, 328
(p. 662) Police misconduct (Cont.)Fifth Amendment warnings, 321–22
independent commissions, 324–25
internal control, 318–20
internal mechanisms of control, 315–21
mixed mechanisms of control, 325–27
official rules and policies, 315–16
police chief/administration, 316–17
supervisors, 317–18
U.S. Supreme Court, 321–24
criminal proceedings, control and, 322–23
early warning systems, control and, 320–21
excessive force, use of, 305, 310–14
causes of, 311–13
extent of, 313–14
Fourth Amendment standard, 310–14
individualistic approach, 311–12
organizational approach, 312–13
Police-Public Contact Survey, 314
situational approach, 312
sociological approach, 313
Fifth Amendment warnings, 321–22
forms of, 304–5
internal control, 318–20, 328
legal rules, 304
omission, 304
police chief/administration, control and, 316–17
police corruption, 305–9
causes of, 307–8
code of ethics and, 306
extent of, 308–9
functional theories of, 307
gains of, 306
hypothetical scenarios, 306–8
individualistic theories of, 307
motivation for, 305
"noble-cause corruption," 306
occupational theories of, 307
organizational theories of, 307–8
sociological theories of, 308
surveys, assessment, 309
"traditional corruption," 306
sexual violence, 305
social disorganization theory and, 205
supervisors, control and, 317–18
U.S. Supreme Court, control and, 321–24
Police ombudsman model, Northern Ireland, 18–19
Police organizational development, community policing and, 151–52
Police organizations, 68–98
applied theories of organizations, 73–76
bureaucracy, 70–76
iron cage metaphor, 69, 70–76, 88
legitimacy, influence of, 71–73, 88
militarization, 85–87
rationality, 70–76
size of police organizations, 76–79
growth, discussion of, 78–79
growth, evidence of, 77
structure of police organizations, 79–82
technology, 82–85
Police-Public Contact Survey (PPCS), 267, 314
Police race relations, 339–61
African Americans, 355
Arab Americans, 354–55
Asian Americans, 353
Chinese Americans, 353
citizens' orientation to state, 339–61
compositional theory, 344–45
conflict theory, 348
good experience, impact of, 344
group-position thesis, 342
Hispanics, 350–52
historical patterns, 340–41
mass media and, 344
media, effects of, 356–57
"minority threat," conflict theory and, 348–49
mode of incorporation of race or ethnic groups, 340–42
Muslim Americans, 353–55
neighborhood racial and class composition, 345–47
new directions, 352–57
qualitative studies, conducting of, 355–56
segregation and, 349
social disorganization theory, 346
social interactionism, 343
social learning theory, 343–44
social media effects, 356–57
social-psychological models, 342–43
subordinate racial/ethnic groups and, 340
(p. 663) theoretical frameworks, 341–49
under-researched populations, examination of, 352–55
young minority males, 356
Police reform, community policing and, 152
Police research, community policing and, 150
Police responsiveness, systematic social observation of the police, 482
Police Services Study, 472, 474–75, 479, 481, 483–84
Police support, systematic social observation of the police, 482
"Police surge" demonstrations, New York City, 233n18
Policing contexts
police organizations, 68–98
policing urban drug markets, 34–48
politics of policing, 49–67
recent history of the police, 3–33
Policing in Cincinnati Project, 472, 476
Policing into the future
Central and Eastern Europe, policing in, 606
local police and the "war" on terrorism, 623
police legitimacy, theory and policy, 551–70
private policing in public spaces, 571–88
space, policing of, 589–705
Policing strategies
community policing, 148–71
order maintenance policing, 122–47
policing vulnerable populations, 197–213
problem-oriented policing, 101–21
zero tolerance and policing, 172–96
Policing urban drug markets, 34–48
community disadvantage, 37–39
community race and status, 39–42
drug crime, structural shifts and opportunity structures, 36
gang drug-dealing organizations, 38
opportunity structures, 36
segregation and, 39
structural shifts, 36
systemic forms of violence, 38–39
violent crime and, 37–39, 62
Policing vulnerable populations
chronic health conditions, persons with, 199
culpability, relevance of, 203
definition of vulnerable populations, 198–99
homeless population, 199
mental illness, 199–203
crisis intervention teams (CITs), 206–7
current models of police response, 205–7
history of people with mental illness in the community, 200–201
identification of mentally ill, 208–9
mercy bookings, 201–3
multiple roles of mentally ill, 209
myth of criminalization, 201–3
police response, current models of, 205–7
role of police, understanding, 201
social disorganization theory and, 203–4
particularization of knowledge, 203
police response, current models of, 205–7
crisis intervention teams (CITs), 206–7
procedural justice, emphasis on, 208
public policy implications, 208–10
social disorganization, role of, 203–5
Policy implications, police legitimacy, 562–65
"Political," defined, 49
Politics. See also Politics of Policing
community policing and, 8, 152, 165–66
Politics of policing, 49–67
early policing, politics in, 53–59
crises (1960s and 1970s), 58–59
professionalism, limitations of (approaching the 1960s), 57–58
reform (early 1900s), 55–57
selfish interest, protection of (1838-1900), 53–55
1838-1900, 53–55
future of, 64
1890s to the present, 60–64
1980s, tough on crime and, 60–71
1990s, community policing, 62–63
tough on crime era, 60–61
21st century, early, 63–64
1960s and 1970s, 58–59
1960s, approaching, 57–58
1990s
community policing, 62–63
early, 55–57
overview, 50–53
"political," defined, 49
political influence, sources of, 51
(p. 664) Politics of policing (Cont.)political pressure, responses of police agencies, 52–53
"shady" side of politics, 49–50
tough on crime era, 60–61
21st century, early, 63–64
women officers, 59
Popular culture, zero tolerance and policing, 180
Positive interaction, community policing, 156–57
Positive rights, police authority and, 221–22
Posse Comitatus Act (PCA), 86
Potentially violent situations (PVs), 477
"Power-holder legitimacy," 254–55
Prerogative power, 222
Presidential Crime Commission, 449
President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, 4, 58, 288, 309
Preventing Crime (University of Maryland), 63
Prevention, community policing, 156
Preventive detention, 60
Preventive patrolling, experimental design, 499–500
Private policing in public spaces, 571–88
austerity budgets and, 578
changes of control and, 574
current private policing, 574–78
changes of control and, 574
defining privatization, 574–75
diversification, 575–76
private market, public penetration of, 577
public police organizations, private funding of, 577–78
public sphere, private penetration of, 575–77
defining privatization, 574–75
diversification, 575–76, 579–80
Table 25.1 Services Provided by the Security Goods and Services Sector, 580
future of private policing, 578–84
austerity budgets and, 578
diversification, 579–80
globalization, 580–81
harmonization, 583–84
privatization, 578–79
professionalization, 582–83
Table 25.1 Services Provided by the Security Goods and Services Sector, 580
technologization, 579
territorialization, 581–82
globalization, 580–81
harmonization, 583–84
history of private policing, 572–74
company towns and, 572
Pinkerton, 572–73, 581
World War II, period following, 573–74
Pinkerton, 572–73, 581
private market, public penetration of, 577
privatization, 578–79
professionalization, 582–83
public police organizations, private funding of, 577–78
public sphere, private penetration of, 575–77
Table 25.1 Services Provided by the Security Goods and Services Sector, 580
technologization, 579
territorialization, 581–82
Privatization
Central and Eastern Europe, policing in, 612–13
private policing in public spaces, 578–79
"Problem of order," 238
Problem-oriented policing, 101–21
analysis, 105–6
assessment, 107–8
Center for Problem-Oriented Policing, 13
community policing, 108–9, 164–65
crime prevention effects of, 114–16
empirical principle, 117
Herman Goldstein Award for Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing, 111
ideal applications of, 112–14
(p. 665) normative principle, 117
order maintenance policing, 131–32
Police Executive Research Forum (PERF), 13, 103
practice of, 111–14
principles of, 101, 102–11
problem solving, 108–9
Problem-Solving Partnerships Program, 13
process of, 103–8
rational choice perspective, 110
response, 106–7
routine activity approach, 110–11
SARA (Scanning, Analysis, Response and Assessment), 13, 101, 103–8
scanning, 104–5
scientific principle, 117
situational crime prevention, theoretical perspectives and, 109–11
Problem-Oriented Policing (Goldstein), 132
Problem solving
community policing, 151, 157, 164–65
problem-oriented policing, 108–9
Problem-Solving Partnerships Program, 13
Procedural injustice, 555
Procedural justice model
minorities and, 21
police activity and legitimacy, 554–55
police legitimacy, 366–69
as administrative mandate, 372–73
benefits of, 368–69
mobilization of community, 375–76
police legitimacy and, 244–45
policing vulnerable populations, 208
Professionalization, private policing in public spaces, 582–83
Professional Movement, 593
Profiling. See Racial profiling
Progressive Era, 593
Progressive policing model, 366
Prohibition and zero tolerance, 177–78
Project Griffin, 584
Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN), 267, 479, 481–83, 488, 502
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Weber), 70
Public housing, zero tolerance and policing, 179
Public space
disorder and, 132–35
private policing in. See Private policing in public spaces
Quality of life policing, 186
Race/ethnicity and policing. See also Racial profiling
illegal immigration and local policing, 409–29
inner city, policing and race, 362–82
police race relations, 339–61
racial profiling, 383–408
Race relations, community policing and, 150
Race riots, 6
community policing and, 7–8
1919, 56–57
Racial profiling, 383–408
Arabs, 420
black box evaluations, 400
data collection, rise of, 385–86
defined, 386–87
disparate impact discrimination, 387
disparate treatment discrimination, 387
evidence, 387–96
traffic and pedestrian stops, 389–92
future, 396–401
new research agenda, 398–400
history of, 384–87
data collection, rise of, 385–86
defining racial profiling, 386–87
I-95 corridor of Eastern Seaboard, 384–85
traffic and pedestrian stops, 386
I-95 corridor of Eastern Seaboard, 384–85
illegal immigration and local policing, 420–21
Latinos, 420–21
Muslims, 420
research, 387–88
searches and seizures
"hit rate," 395
"outcome test," 396
statistical discrimination, 387
(p. 666) Racial profiling (Cont.)taste discrimination, 387
traffic and pedestrian stops, 386, 389–92
arrests, 393–94
Census data, 390
citations, 393–94
outcomes, 392–96
searches and seizures, 394–96
Racial segregation. See Segregation
Radcliffe-Brown, Alfred, 537
Radelet, Louis, 148
Random digit dialing (RDD) telephone survey, 463–64
Randomization, experimental designs, 509, 511
Ratcliffe, Jerry, 501
Rational choice perspective, problem-oriented policing, 110
Rationality, police organizations, 70–76
Rational/legal model, police legitimacy, 366
Reactivity
policing, 163
systematic social observation of the police, 484–85
Reagan, Ronald W., 225
Reforms
community policing and, 152
strategic, 5–14
community policing and order maintenance policing, 7–12
hot spots policing, 13–14, 172
problem-oriented policing, 12–13
standard model of policing, 5–6
Regional Community Placement Institutes, 9
Regional Police Training Initiative, Southeastern Europe, 614
Reiss, Albert J., Jr., 135, 472–73, 475–76, 532
Re-oriented operations, community policing, 155
Restorative justice, 21
Richmond, systematic social observation of the police, 478
Riots. See also Race riots
anti-war protests, 58
"Zoot Suit" riot, 57–58
Rogers, Everett, 3
Roosevelt, Theodore, 54–57
Rosenbaum, Dennis, 437, 445
Routine activity approach, problem-oriented policing, 110–11
Ruhr University Bochum, 617
Sacramento Police Department, racial profiling, 390
Sample Survey of Law Enforcement Agencies (SSLEA), 436
San Antonio
Hispanics, police race relations, 352
San Bernardino County, S.M.A.S.H. unit, 370
San Diego experiment, experimental designs, 502
San Diego Police Department, problem-oriented policing, 112
San Francisco
Chinese Americans, police race relations, 353
San Francisco Police Department, 292
San Jose Police Department, 326
racial profiling, traffic and pedestrian stops, 390
SARA (Scanning, Analysis, Response and Assessment), 13, 101, 103–8, 157
problem-oriented policing, 13, 101
Savannah, systematic social observation of the police, 478
Scanning, Analysis, Response and Assessment model. See SARA (Scanning, Analysis, Response and Assessment)
Scanning, problem-oriented policing, 104–5
Scheider, Matthew C., 623
Schengen Agreement, 613
Schmitt, Carl, 220
Schools, zero tolerance and policing, 179–80
Scientific principle, problem-oriented policing, 117
Scott, Michael S., 280
Searches and seizures, racial profiling
"hit rate," 395
"outcome test," 396
Seattle
banishment, practices of, 597
(p. 667) police coercion, 444
policing teams, 75
urban drug markets, 41
Seattle Police Department (SPD), 589–91, 601–2
Secret Service, 63
Segregation
drug markets and, 39
police race relations and, 349
Self-interest, hedonistic psychology of, 130
September 11, 2001
aftermath, 4, 21–23, 226, 628
NYPD and, 623–24
police legitimacy and, 248–49
Washington, D.C., 631
Sexual violence, police misconduct, 305
Shared space, disorder as unfair use of, 132–35
Shared values, police legitimacy and, 243–45
Shaw, Clifford, 537
Sheriff's agencies, 89–90nn78
Sherman, Lawrence, 398, 498–500
Shield and Project Griffin, 584–85
Sipowicz, Andy, 270
Situational approach, theories of police misconduct, 312
Situational influences on police behavior, 482–84
Size of police organizations, 76–79
growth, discussion of, 78–79
growth, evidence of, 77
Skolnick, Jerome H., 280, 633
Slave laws, zero tolerance and policing and, 177
Slippery slope problem, local police and War on Terror, 632–34
Slovenia
Maribor, University of, 617
Police Act, 611
police legitimacy, 250, 252–53
S.M.A.S.H. unit, San Bernardino County, 370
Social context of police legitimacy, 557–61
empirical legitimacy, implications for, 560–61
Social contract, 560
"Social disorder," measurements of, 143n8
Social disorganization theory
police race relations, 346
policing vulnerable populations and, 203–5
Social interactionism, police race relations, 343
Social learning theory, police race relations, 343–44
Social media, police race relations and, 356–57
Social networks of innovators, 287–89
Social-psychological models, police race relations, 342–43
Social science data, police records as. See Police administrative records as social science data
Social tolerance, zero tolerance and policing, 174–75
Societal culture
environmental characteristics, restraint and, 292
Societal entity of innovators, 287–89
Socioeconomic characteristics of innovator, 290–91
Sociological theories of police misconduct
excessive force, use of, 313
police corruption, 308
"Soft" crimes, 135–36
Solidarnosc Trade Union, 610
South Africa, Indians, 340
Soviet Union
collapse of, 606
policing in, 610–11
Space, policing of, 589–605
approaches to, 592–95
broken windows thesis, 594
bureaucratic routines and, 596
Close Circuit Television (CCTV), 595
community policing, 593–94
deadly force, use of, 589–91, 601–2
geographic information systems (GIS), 597–98
legitimacy of state and, 593
marine spatial management, 600
new frontiers, 599–601
ocean zoning, 600
Professional Movement, 593
Progressive Era, 593
regulating, 595–99
zoning-based regulations, 600
Spano, Richard, 485
(p. 668) Spatial differentiation, structure of police organizations, 81
Special Constabulary Act of 1831 (England and Wales), 576
Spousal Assault Replication experiments, 512
"Squeegee people" (New York City), 11, 138–39
Staatssicherheit, 609
Stability Pact, Southeastern Europe, 614
Standard model of policing, 5–6
Statistical discrimination, racial profiling, 387
Status
of innovator, 290–91
policing urban drug markets, community race and status, 39–42
St. Louis, order maintenance policing, 127
Stop and frisk policies, 43, 185, 226
St. Petersburg, systematic social observation of the police, 481
Strategy, ethnographies of policing, 520–22
Street musicians, order maintenance policing and, 143n7
Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community (Anderson), 362–63
Structure of police organizations, 79–82
community policing movement, during, 80–82
formalization, 81
functional differentiation, 80–81
occupational differentiation, 81
spatial differentiation, 81
Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START), 22
Sunshine, Jason, 248–50
Supervisors, police misconduct and, 317–18
Sutherland, Edwin, 240
SWAT teams, 294–95
Sykes, Gary, 129
Sykes, Richard, 473–74
Symbolic resources, police legitimacy and, 244
Systematic social observation of the police, 471–96
community policing, 482
Denver, 477
evidence and, 483
future of SSO of police, 488–90
generalizability, 487–88
infrequent events, 486–87
limitations of SSO Data, 484–88
generalizability, 487–88
infrequent events, 486–87
micro-social focus, 486
reactivity, 484–85
temporal dynamics, 488
Metro-Dade Police-Citizen Violence Reduction Project, 477, 483
micro-social focus, 486
Midwest City Study, 472–74, 483
New York City, 477–78
overview, 478–80
police authority, use and abuse of, 481–82
police responsiveness, 482
Police Services Study, 472, 474–75, 479, 481, 483–84
police support, 482
Policing in Cincinnati Project, 472, 476
potentially violent situations (PVs), 477
President's Commission Study, 472–73, 479
previous SSO-based studies, 472–80
Denver, 477
Metro-Dade Police-Citizen Violence Reduction Project, 477
Midwest City Study, 472–74
New York City, 477–78
overview, 478–80
Police Services Study, 472, 474–75, 479
Policing in Cincinnati Project, 472, 476
President's Commission Study, 472–73, 479, 481, 483
Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN), 472, 475–76
Richmond, 478
Savannah, 478
smaller-scale SSO studies, 477–78
Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN), 472, 475–76, 481–83, 488
reactivity, 484–85
Richmond, 478
(p. 669) role and functions of the police, 480–81
Savannah, 478
situational influences on police behavior, 482–84
smaller-scale SSO studies, 477–78
temporal dynamics, 488
virtues of SSO data, 480–84
Tactics, ethnographies of policing, 520–22
Tammany Hall, 54
TASER, 280–301
arrest-related deaths, 286
benefits, 284–87
characteristics of, 283–87
consequences, public and private, 284
costs, 284–87
effects of spray, 285
environment, characteristics of use, 291–93
incident-level characteristics of use, 286–87
innovators, characteristics of, 287–91
TASER International, 295
TASER Research Compendium, 289–90
Taste discrimination, racial profiling, 387
Technologization, private policing in public spaces, 579
Technology, 82–85
Compstat. See Compstat
core technology, defined, 89n5
crime mapping, 83
local police and the "war" on terrorism, 639
restraint and. See Innovation, restraint and
unintended consequences, 85
Temporal dynamics, systematic social observation of the police, 488
Tennessee v. Garner, 61, 311
Tenth Amendment, 627
Territorialization, private policing in public spaces, 581–82
Terrorism
Anti-terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA), 412
counter-terrorism, 160, 165
crime, treatment as, 639
defined, 626
policing, 21–24, 64
War on Terror, 224
Thatcher, Margaret, 225
Theme, ethnographies of policing, 520–22
"Thick" security, police legitimacy, 557–58
Third Law of Motion, 189
Thomas, William I., 537
Thrasher, Frederick, 537
Tiedeman, Christopher, 125
Toch, Hans, 3
Tom Swift and His Electric Rifle (Cover), 283
Tough on crime era, 60–61
Town Centre Management (TCM), 576, 581–82
Traditional authority, 71
Traffic and pedestrian stops, racial profiling, 386, 389–92
arrests, 393–94
Census data, 390
citations, 393–94
outcomes, 392–96
Tuft, Larry, 449–50
Turnstyle jumpers, 188
Twain, Mark, 10
"Criminological Theories: The Truth as Told by Mark Twain" (Gottfredson), 261
Underreporting of crime, 458
United Kingdom
police legitimacy, policy, 564
private policing in public spaces, 574
United States v. Leon, 60
United States v. Salerno, 60
Universal Hiring Program, 62
Urban drug markets. See Policing urban drug markets
U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 17
U.S. Constitution, 626–27
U.S. Department of Justice. See Department of Justice
U.S. Government Accountability Office, 415
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), 63, 415–17, 419, 423–25
U.S. Postal Service's Delivery Sequence File, 464
(p. 670) U.S. Supreme Court
excessive force and, 310
police misconduct and, 303
police misconduct, control of, 321–24
politics and policing, 51, 59
space, policing of, 595
Utilitarians, 232n5
Varieties of police research
community surveys, use of to study policing, 449–70
ethnographies of policing, 518–48
experimental designs, use of to study police interventions, 497–517
police administrative records as social science data, 431
systematic social observation of the police, 471–96
Victimization
Central and Eastern Europe, policing in, 615–16
community surveys, use of to study policing, 450, 458–59
Violence and the Police, 539
Violent crime
assaults, community surveys and, 459
drugs and, 36–39, 62
potentially violent situations (PVs), 477
Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, 8–9, 17, 62, 324
Volkspolizei, 609
Vollmer, August, 54–56, 58
Volpe, Justin, 302
Volstead Act, 178
Vulnerable populations. See Policing vulnerable populations
Wakeman, Stillman S., 54
Waldron, Jeremy, 135
Walker, Samuel, 18
War on Drugs, 60, 224, 383, 385, 501
War on Terror, 224
Washington, D.C.
"Beltway Snipers," 628–29
Metropolitan Police Department, 631
police race relations, 356
September 11, 2001, 631
systematic social observation of the police, 473
Washington State University
Division of Governmental Studies and Services (DGSS), 435
Watts, Eugene, 126–27
Weber, Max
police authority and, 219
on police legitimacy, 241, 243, 366–67
police organizations and, 68–71
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, 70
Weimar Republic, 607
Weisburd, David, 115, 498–500
West Germany, policing in, 609
Westlaw, 292
Westley, William, 471, 522, 525–26
Whitaker, Gordon, 474–75
Why People Obey the Law, 249
Wickersham Commission, 56
Wickersham, George W., 56
Wickersham report, 519
Williams, John, 589–91
Wilson, James Q.
"Broken Windows," 500–501
on coercion, 271
community policing and, 151
ethnographies of policing, 527–28
order maintenance policing, 122–23, 128, 131, 139, 142n1
on police discretion, 485
on police legitimacy, 244
zero tolerance and, 181, 185
Wilson, O. W., 58
Wilson, Woodrow, 178
Women officers, 59
Worden, Robert, 475–76
World Trade Center, attacks on. See September 11, 2001
World War I, 608
World War II
period following, 179, 573–74, 608–10
private policing following, 573–74
Wrong, Dennis, 238
(p. 671) Youth Firearms Violence Initiative, 62
Zero tolerance and policing, 172–96, 174–75
American experience, 176–80
Blue Laws against commerce, 176–77
drug laws, zero-tolerance enforcement and, 178–79
popular culture, 180
prohibition and zero tolerance, 177–78
public housing, 179
schools, 179–80
slave laws, 177
Blue Laws against commerce, 176–77
causal progession of crime, 184
concept of zero tolerance, 185–86
consequences of zero tolerance, 189–92
crime through police action, 189–90
fear and crime, governance through, 190–91
remaining policy, 192
crime and, 174–75
crime through police action, 189–90
deviance and, 174–75, 190
drug laws, zero-tolerance enforcement and, 178–79
experimental methods to obtain evidence, 192
fear and crime, governance through, 190–91
fear of crime and, 183
history of, 176–80
popular culture, 180
practice of zero tolerance, 185–89
concept of zero tolerance, 185–86
generally, 186–90
prohibition and zero tolerance, 177–78
public housing, 179
remaining policy, 192
research questions, 192
road to zero tolerance and policing, 181–85
schools, 179–80
slave laws, 177
social tolerance and, 174–75
Znaniecki, Florian, 537
Zoning-based regulations, 600
"Zoot Suit" riot, 57–58