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date: 18 September 2019

(p. 661) Index

(p. 661) Index

Page numbers in bold indicate figures.

Abbasids, 452, 458–61
Abbott, Nabia, 454, 456–57, 461, 462, 467–68
abbreviations
Christian papyri, 592, 611n11, 612n14
Christian private letters, 607
Gnosticism, 632
Greek and Latin, 170–77
Pentecost speech, 612n14
Scholar's texts, 275, 279n17
slurs, 177
and symbols, 176
Aberystwyth (Wales), 69
Abinnaeus, Flavius, 68, 135, 141, 229, 249, 423
Abraham of Hermonthis, 439–40, 434, 445
Abusir al Malaq, 33–34, 345, 404
Abydos, 397, 407
academic mathematics, 342–43
accentuation, 268, 326, 330
accounts, 370–71
Achaemenid monarchy, 398, 473
Actium, 311, 315n9
Acts of the Apostles, 595–96
ad Demonicum, 330, 595, 600
Adams, J. N., 423–24, 446n8
Addaius, 637
administrative documents
Arabic papyri, 461–63
bilingualism, 408, 524–25
declarations, 379–81
Ptolemaic Egypt, 524–30
katoikic land, 386
Latin, 422
mummy cartonnage and, 400
Near Eastern papyri, 483
official correspondence, 375–76
petitions, 377–79
public documents, 373–74
adoptions, 366
Advanced Papyrological Information System (APIS), 199, 291–92, 649, 652–54
adverbs, 295–99
Aeschylus, 24, 268, 269, 286
Afghanistan, 475, 486–87n6
afsh, 36, 40, 50
agoranomic documents, 548–50, 556, 558n13
agoranomos, 364–65, 369, 484, 543–46, 556
agriculture
accounts, 370
and capitalism, 501
census of, 527
contracts, 368–69
dead lands, 466
and excavations, 647
Islamization, 463
multilingualism, 412
one-sixth tax (apomoira), 526
survey of land, 525
taxation of, 530–32
thesauroi (granaries), 530
AIP (Association Internationale de Papyrologues), 65, 69–70, 510n11, 644
Aland, K., 598
Alcaeus, 62, 131, 268, 273, 278, 285
Alcman, copies of, 275, 285
Alcubierre, Roque Joaquín de, 304–6
Alexander of Lykopolis, 436, 608, 633, 637, 638
Alexander the Great, 180, 184, 320, 335n11, 396, 399, 404, 405, 473, 476, 535, 541, 575, 579, 590
Alexandria
administration of Egypt, 526
administrative documents, 375–76
Alexandrian chancery, 103, 104, 105
Alexandrian majuscule, 127, 129, 131, 136
and Athens, 502
birth certificates, 380
as capital, 400
cartonnage, 33–34
chancery style, 105, 120–21, 133, 141, 142
and Constantinople, 535
declarations, 384
decline of, 464
demotic documents, 556
founding, 523
and Greek language, 433
imperial cults, 575
legal Latin, 425
Octavian captures, 396
Ali, Mohamad, 31–32
aliases, 172–73
Almagest, 349–51
alms, 464, 637, 642
Alopex archive, 224, 227
alphabet, 150, 167, 322–24, 327, 428, 431
Amenothes, 570–71
American Society of Papyrologists (ASP), 510n11
amicitia papyrologorum, 69
Amon, 565, 577, 582
amphitheatric papyrus, 6
amphora, 15, 16, 17
amulets, 372, 456–57, 467n13, 584, 591, 595–96, 611n8, 645
anagraphê, 546–48
Analecta Papyrologica, 75
Anastasi, Giovanni, 60
anepigraphic artifacts, 41
Annales school, 507
annotations, 272–77
Anonymus Londinensis, 355–56
Antinoopolis, 31–32, 34, 194, 242, 379–80, 523, 532
Antiochus II, 525
Antioch, 333, 371, 474, 487n12, 487n14
antiquities
antiquities laws, 497–98
Antiquities Service, 34
archives, 224, 225, 226
bakshish principle, 38
desecration of, 30–31
“hot” papyri, 648
Medinet Madi codices, 638
Near Eastern papyri, 478
papyrus cartels, 66–67, 73
Antonine Constitution, 423, 425, 485, 543, 554–55, 557
Apa Johannes, 436–37, 438
Aphroditê/Aphrodito papyri, 241, 242, 383, 434, 439, 440, 444, 453, 501
Apis bull, 405, 411, 414, 569–70, 582, 584, 586
Apocryphal literature, 598–600
Apocryphon of John, 628, 629, 630
Apollonios, finance minister of Ptolemy II, 103, 218, 226, 234–35, 243, 398, 413, 414, 474, 524, 528, 572. See also Zenon archive
Apollonius (mathematical writer), 340
Apostolic Fathers, 600
apostrophe, 262, 599
apparatus, 62, 202–3, 293, 300
Arabia, 479, 483, 523–24, 535
Arabic papyri
administrative documents, 461–63
Arabo-Nabataean, 474–76
astronomy, 457, 467n12
Checklist of Arabic Documents, 211, 454
conversion, 463–64
documentary papyrus, 458–66
editing of, 455, 657
International Society for Arabic Papyrology (ISAP), 454
last of, 467n6
Latin terminology, 460
Near Eastern papyri, 488n29
and poetry, 457
publication of, 453–56
and rural history, 465–66
study of, 453
Thousand and One Nights, 457
Wadi Daliyeh, 476
Arabs. See also Arabic papyri
conquest of Egypt, 433, 435–36, 441, 464, 481
Coptic documents, 436
handwriting development, 136
names, 193
ostraca, 16
Ptolemaic era, 406
regnal years, 183
Aramaic
after Alexander, 400
Cologne Mani Codex, 633
customs accounts, 404
Engadi caves, 479
Near Eastern papyri, 489n44
parchments, 11
Persian empire, 395–99
Petra papyri, 480
shipping, 412
Simon Choseba dossier, 479
technical vocabulary, 407
arbitration, 38, 387, 439, 440, 441, 447n28, 490n55
archaeobotanists, 41–42
Archaeological Institute of America, 499
archaeology
anepigraphic artifacts, 41
and archives, 226–27, 245–46
context of Oxyrhynchus excavations, 62
emergence of, 36–38
handwriting development, 102
Karanis excavations, 35, 38–39
museum archaeology, 228–29
archaeozoologist, 42
Archimedes, 339–40, 343
architecture, 32, 303, 314n2, 566
archives. See also bilingual archives
administrative documents, 377–81
antiquities excavation, 224, 225, 226
The Archive of Aurelius Isidorus, 73
archivization, 498
Babatha archive, 50, 51–52, 367, 476, 479
bilingual archives, 407–9
classifying, 243, 245
composition of, 237–40
definition, 217–18, 654
Dionysios archive, 548
Dioscoros archive, 439, 440
vs. dossier, 219
Dryton archive, 225, 229, 240, 388n25, 499
Dura-Europos, 477–78
editions, 229–30
(p. 663) excavations, 47–49
guides, 230, 247
Heroninos archive, 231, 235, 362
Karanis, 245–46, 423
Leuven Homepage of Papyrus Collections (LHPC), 230, 248, 655
Melitian monastery of Hathor, 435
museum archaeology, 228–29
loss of official archives, 360–61
original depositories, 219–24
Pachymios archive, 439
Pathermouthis archive, 439
real estate, 364
reconstruction of, 226–29, 247
Seleucids, 487–88n23
Totoes archive, 223
types, 231–37
usefulness of, 216, 247–48
virtual collaborations, 658
Arden papyrus, 257, 258
Arethusa, 295
Aristophanes, 132, 167n13, 269, 329
Aristotle, 167n13, 268, 269, 288, 309, 311, 356, 488n24, 614n55
aroura, 177, 179, 185–86, 234, 489n47, 528, 531
Arsinoe Philadelphos, 525
Arsinoite nome (Fayyum). See also Karanis; Tebtynis
administration of Egypt, 530
Christianity, 600–601, 605
death notices, 381
declarations, 384
deeds of divorce, 367
dialect, 209
dike-work certificates (penthemeros), 384
excavations, 648
first Fayyum find, 32
geography, 184–85, 523
Greek soldiers' settlement, 401
irrigation system, 384
lease contract, 369
liquid measurement, 188
nomarchs, 529–30
prosopography, 194
Roman era, 532
artaba, 177, 179, 186, 187, 382, 407
asceticism, 636–37
ASP (American Society of Papyrologists), 510n11
Assiut (Lykopolis), 44, 637, 639
Association Internationale de Papyrologues (AIP), 65, 69–70, 510n11, 644
astrology
and astronomy, 349–52
and Christianity, 586
Hellenization, 580–81
and Old Coptic, 431
papyri, 339
Roman period, 345–46
temples, 566, 584
astronomy, 339, 343–46, 349–52, 457, 467n12, 566
Aswan, 32, 184, 290, 397
asylum, 575, 581
Athanasius of Alexandria, 593, 599–600, 608–9, 616n97
Athena, 577, 583, 578
Athenaion Politeia, 288, 299n4
Athenian, measure, 187
Athenian ostraca, 14, 15
Athens, 12, 157, 276, 313, 320, 502, 550, 577
Attic dialect, 150, 154–55, 157, 159–61, 187–88, 288, 298, 327, 331
auditoria (classrooms), 321
Augustan papyrus, 6
Augustan writing style, 111
Augustine, 335n5, 590, 632–33
Augustus, 6, 34, 45, 109, 190, 214n12, 264, 374, 381, 484, 575–76
Aurelian, 474–75
Austrian National Library, 60, 99
authors, 329–32
autopsy, 379
Babatha archive. See archives
Babylonia, 350, 473, 487n23, 580
Bacchias, 40
Bacchylides, 232, 273, 278n13, 285
Bactria, Bactrian language, xviii, 11, 461, 473, 482, 490n61
Badr, 458
Baghdad, 452, 458
Bagnall, R. S., 496, 500
Bagnall, W. S., 227
Bahr Yusuf, 523
Bailey, D. M., 39, 43
bakshish principle, See also antiquities, 38
balloting, 14
Banaji, J., 501, 512n41
banking transactions, 364, 371
baptism, 615n71
Bar Kokhba
archives, 49–50, 51, 52, 219
coinage, 489n47
document cache, 49–50
Hebrew language, 474
legal documents, 490n72
Near Eastern papyri, 476, 479, 489n44
Barns, J. W. B., 593
Bartoletti, Vittorio, 71
Basile, Corrado, 8, 25n8
basilikos grammateus, 376, 378, 384–85, 526, 527, 533
Bayardi, O. A., 305
Becker, C. H., 454
beer, 43, 206
Bell, H. I., 66, 68, 70, 229, 599, 616n99
Belzoni, G. B., 497
Berenice, 648
Berichtigungsliste der griechischen Papyrusurkunden, 65, 198, 212, 651
(p. 664) Berlin Codex, 630–31
Berlin Museum, 60–61
Berliner Klassikertexte (BKT), 211
Berytus, 334
biblical majuscule, 128–29, 130, 131, 132, 136, 145, 146n11
Bibliographie papyrologique, 209
Bibliotheca Teubneriana, 310
bikos, 186
bilingual archives, 241, 242. See also bilingualism
antiquities trade, 224, 226
guides, 230
Hellenized Egyptians 216
legal documents, 387
Leuven Homepage of Papyrus Collections (LHPC), 230
publication of, 229–30
title deeds, 228
bilingualism See also diglossia
administrative documents, 408, 524–25
in Alexandria, 400
Apa Johannes letter, 438
Arabization, 459
archives, 407–9
Babatha archive, 479
Christian papyri, 612n26
contracts, 409, 445
dreams, 414
education, 442–44
family archives, 409
Glaukias, 411, 414
Greek-Arabic documents, 461–62
Kellis papyri, 429, 434, 437
koine Greek, 327, 483, 591
Latin-Greek, decline of, 423
legal documents, 377, 437
literacy, 444–45
literary papyri, 444
monasteries, 434
Nessana dossier, 459, 480–81
Palmyra, 487n10
Pehlevi documents, absence in 420–21
school exercises, 334, 443
school texts, 442–44
scribes, 408
Soknebtynis dossier, 504
tax receipts, 408
translations, 445
urban/village status, 434
Zenon archive, 408–9
billeting, 410–11
Bingen, Jean, 69, 72–73, 246
biography, 283, 291, 633, 635–36
birth certificates, 360, 379–80, 389n57, 423, 462
birthdates, 240, 346–48
bitumen, 80
Blanchard, A., 170, 173n1, 175
blotting paper, 82–83, 86, 89–90, 97
Boak, A. E. R., 35, 67, 73, 615n81
Bodmer papyri, 287, 443, 612n26
Bonaparte, Carolina, 309
Bonaparte, Napoleon, 30, 55n2, 309–10, 314n5, 316n25
book hands, 105, 257, 324, 347, 459, 632
Book of the Dead, 21, 83, 586
Book of the Temple, 568, 586
bookrolls. See also desiderata
as ancient writing material, 19
Arden papyrus, 258
authors, 268, 269
book hands, 257
columns, 257, 259, 260, 261, 263
computer-assisted tomography, 314
dimensions of, 259
Herculaneum papyri, 264, 305–8, 313, 315n9
lectors, 265
length of, 264–65
literary papyri, 267
lyric texts, 277n2
Maas's law, 258, 261
manufacture of, 256–57
margins, 263, 277n5
as material for codex, 25
multispectral imaging (MSI), 313
and muse, 20
production of, 18–23
punctuation, 261–63
replacement of, 24, 256, 430, 631
scholar's texts, 273–74
title tags, 264
tombs, 44–45
Books of Jeû, 631
Borchardt, L., 44
Borgia, Stefano, 59. See also Charta Borgiana
Boubastos, 44, 92, 94, 95, 185
boulê (town council), 184, 375, 390n81, 533
Bowman, A. K., 513n66
B-R uncial, 145
brackets, 202, 203, 455
British Library, 145, 212, 631
British Museum, 47, 61, 66, 69
Brussels, 67–69
Bu Njem, 140, 446n5, 656
Buchis bull, 569–70, 586
Buddhism, 633, 637
Bureaucracy. See also agoranomos; basilikos grammateus
Arabic, 461–62
Byzantine period, 535
Ptolemaic era, 400
scribal training, 407
business correspondence
Christian, 602, 603
private documents, 362
registration system, 243
Zenon archive, 234–35
Byzantine papyrology. See papyrology
Byzantine period
administration of Egypt, 534–35
(p. 665) Aphroditê/Aphrodito papyri, 501
arbitration, 387, 490n55
archives, 241
dry measure, 186
Greek and Coptic documents, 154–55
leases, 369
loan contracts, 369
magical texts, 584
Near Eastern papyri, 476, 484–86
school exercises, 330
cadastral reference system, 528
cadastre of Aphrodito, 383
Caecilius Statius, 311
Cahen, Claude, 454
Cailliaud, Frédéric, 31
Cairo antiquities market, 33, 60, 66, 67, 626
Cairo codex, 287
Cairo Museum (Egyptian Museum), 5, 226
calamus, 18, 19, 26n12
calcium burns, 87
calcium carbonate, 87, 88, 89
Calderini, Aristide, 198
calendar, 159, 180–83, 209, 214n12, 339, 344–46, 350, 482
calligraphic writing. See also Augustan style; biblical majuscule; Gnomon of the Idios Logos
Antonine papyri, 127
Coma Berenices of Callimachus, 112
development of, 101–2
Ebers papyrus, 353
emergence of, 106–7
Latin handwriting development, 138–39, 141
literary papyri, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117
Oxyrhynchus papyri, 123, 126
Roman uncial, 128
Callimachus, 48, 112, 129, 206, 264–65, 269, 277n6, 287–88, 329
Cambyses, 395–96, 398
cantina deipapiri (Tebtynis), 227, 228
Cappadocians, 595
Caracalla, 374, 381
carbonized papyrus. See also papyrus; Petra papyri
archives, 231
conservation of, 91–98
Herculaneum papyri, 306–8
official correspondence, 375
restoration techniques, 84, 95–98
cardboard backing, 85–86
Carians, 397–98, 404–5, 412
Carmen de bello Actiaco, 139
Caromemphites, 404–5
Carter, Howard, 47
cartonnage
reused archive, 221
conservation and restoration of, 88, 89–91
crocodile mummies, 45, 46, 47
dating of papyri, 88
epigrams, 287
under Greek rule, 400
Gurob cemetery, 33–34
handwriting and, 102
mummy, 40, 43, 80, 87–88, 89–91, 102, 285, 287, 406
production of, 87
Sappho poetry, 285
Tebtynis, 45
Timotheos papyrus, 286
Caspians, 397, 399
Catalogue of Paraliterary Papyri (CPP), 291
catechism, 331, 600
catechumens, 601, 636–40, 642
catfish, 42
Catullus, 287, 290
caudate hastas, 111
cave of horror, 479, 489n48
cave of the letters, 49–50, 51, 219, 479
Cavenaile, Robert, 212
cedar oil, 83
cellulose treatment, 82–83
census, 227, 373, 380–1, 462, 479, 527, 574, 656
Centre de Documentation de Papyrologie Littéraire (CEDOPAL), 199, 292
Centro Internazionale per lo Studio dei Papiri Ercolanesi, 71
ceramics, 4, 42
Chalcedon, 446n19
Champollion, Jean-Francois, 31, 55n3, 60
chancery style
Byzantine period, 135–36
imperial writing style, 120–21, 125
Latin handwriting development, 139–42, 143
writing development and, 111
Zenon archive, 105
chaos, 561–62, 565, 629
Chariton, 288
Charles III, 304, 307
Charta Borgiana, 30, 59, 98
Chartae Latinae Antiquiores, 212
Checklist of Arabic Documents, 454
Checklist of Editions of Greek, Latin, Demotic, and Coptic Papyri, Ostraca, and Tablets, xviii, 211, 299n8, 388n7, 397, 446n16
Chester Beatty papyri, 443, 596, 597, 612n26, 638
child-donation contracts, 508
choachytai/choachytes 60, 219, 230, 235–36, 565, 571
Choat, M., 601–2
choinix (pl. choinikes), 186, 187
chôra, 528, 543–44
chous, 188
chrêmatismoi, 545–46
Chremonidean War, 525
Christianity. See also codices; Constantine; conversation manuals; nomina sacra
amulets, 591, 595–96, 611n8
Apocryphal literature, 598–99
Arabization, 460
business correspondence, 602, 603, 604
(p. 666) Chalcedonian, 433, 446n19
chancery style, 136
condolence letters, 363
contracts, 387
and Coptic, 431–34
cryptograms, 607, 615 n88
and demons, 587
Dioscoros archive, 242
documentary papyri, 601–7
and Egyptian religion, 584, 586–87
and Gnosticism, 625–26
heretics, 623–24
legal documents, 461
literary papyri, 591–601
and Manichaeism, 637, 642
Melitian schism, 608–10
names in papyri, 193
as official state religion, 623
order to arrest, 604–6, 615n76
and Oxyrhynchus excavations, 61–62
patristic literature, 599–601
persecution of, 373, 605–8
private letters, 601–3, 607, 614n62, 616n89
restoration of property, 534–35
school exercises, 328, 593–95, 612n26
school texts, 600
scribes, 592–93
The Shepherd of Hermas, 591, 600, 614n58, 614n59
and slavery, 365
Chronique dʼÉgypte, 67
chronology, 180–83
Chrysippus, 107, 311
Chrysostom, John, 324
Church History, Manichaean, 638
Cicero, 141, 163, 167n12, 289, 311, 317n34, 334, 336n17, 428
circumcision, 380–81, 389n60, 573, 586
citizenship, 161, 380, 423, 542, 543, 554–55, 557, 605
civitas, 534
Clarysse, Willy, 230, 238, 246
classical literature, 24, 135, 150, 266–67, 282–300, 309, 328, 600, 612n23, 612n26
Claudian papyrus, 6
Clement of Alexandria, 598–600
Cleopatra, 34, 376, 396, 570
cleruchs, settlement of, 401–2, 412, 528. See also klerouchos
clothing, 42, 371, 436, 462, 465, 513n64, 572, 606, 615n71
codex. See also Chester Beatty papyri
ḥadīth collections, 456–57
authors, 268, 269
biblical majuscule, 129
Christianity, 266–67, 592, 611n8
Codex Askevianus, 631
Codex Brucianus, 631
Codex Jung, 626–27
Codex Washingtonianus, 596
columns in, 266
development of, 23–24, 25, 265–67, 278n8
Jewish, 592
Matthew, 591
New Testament, 595–96
Oxyrhynchus excavations, 62
patristic literature, 599–600
Pauline epistles, 598
Psalms, 593, 594
punctuation, 266
reconstruction of, 25
replaces bookroll, 24, 224, 256, 266–67, 430, 631
restoration techniques, 91
tax receipts, 224
tax registers, 383
Tura codices, 599–600
waxed tablets, 12
coinage, 37, 189–91, 489n47
Collart, Paul, 71–72, 73
collation, 272, 275, 277
Collombert, Philippe, 402
Cologne Mani Codex, 633, 634, 635–36, 638
Columbia University, xx, 66, 649
columns (selides, paginae), 14, 21, 59, 200, 204, 206–7, 214n10, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 263, 266, 278n9, 308, 309, 316n20, 330–31, 348, 353, 377, 490n74
Coma Berenices of Callimachus, 112
commentary (hypomnema), 114, 200, 208–9, 275, 277, 291, 325, 364, 379
commerce, 39, 419, 464–65, 590
common script, 140, 141–42
comparanda, 297–98
compound words, 173, 277n4, 296
compulsory services, 364, 379, 384–85
computer-assisted tomography, 314
concertina tablets, 11, 13, 14, 23, 27n42
condolence letters, 362–63
Conservation Service, 31
consonants, 152–53, 162–63, 173, 277n4, 324, 444, 599
Constantine the Great, 189, 191, 422, 433, 535, 554–55, 586, 616n97, 623
Constantinople, 129, 136, 373, 382, 422, 501, 535, 555
Constitution of Athens, 44, 61
consulate, 183
context, 499, 645–46
Contra Haereses, 628
contracts. See also notaries (agoranomoi); bilingualism
adoptions, 366
agriculture, 368–69
Arabic papyri, 465
contract keeper (syngraphophylax), 363
contracts of deposit, 369
divorce contracts, 238, 367
freemen, 365–66
Hellenization, 542
marriages, 366
Pehlevi documents, 419
property ownership, 367–70
(p. 667) Roman policy in Egypt, 557
slavery, 365, 368
tabellio, 364, 386, 485
wet-nursing contracts, 655
conversation manuals, 428, 444
conversion, 433, 461, 463–64, 466
copper, 18, 87, 383,
Coptic. See also Gospel of Thomas
Alexandrian majuscule, 131
in Arabic Egypt, 436, 453, 459–60, 467n3
Arabic names, 193
Arabization and conversion, 463
archives, 240–41, 242
Checklist of Editions, 211
child-donation contracts, 508
and Latino-Greek in Christian milieus, 428–31
calendar, 180
deeds of surety, 387
development of, 435–37, 439–42
documents, 3, 4, 16, 192, 199, 229, 359, 434–442, 446n16, 453, 460, 657
editing of, 657
electronic databases, 199
emergence of, 430–31, 432
first dated document, 440
and Greek, 430–45, 435, 442, 443, 631
Greek pronunciation, 153
handwriting development, 444
as language of the monks, 433–34
legal documents, 441, 442, 541, 460
as liturgical language, 460
Manichaeism, 639–40
Nag Hammadi Codices, 428, 627–31
place names, 185
school exercises, 328
Sophia Jesu Christi, 630
technical vocabulary, 194
Coptic Museum (Cairo), 627
copybooks, 328, 335n9, 375
Cornelius Gallus, 139, 290, 522
Cornell University, 66
Corpus dei Papiri Greci di Medicina, 354
Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum (CII), 419
Corpus Papyrorum Graecarum, 212
Corpus Papyrorum Latinarum, 212
Corpus Papyrorum Raineri, 211
corrector, 274
cosmic order, 561–62, 565
costrels, 42
Cotton, Hannah, 480, 483, 486n1
court proceedings, 238, 376, 543, 546–48, 550–52, 556–57, 607
creation, 624–26, 629, 636
Cretans, 398–99, 411, 582, 584
Cribiore, Raffaella, 320, 325, 335n7, 500, 593, 595, 612n26
Crisci, E., 481
crocodile as religious symbol 373, 405, 565, 569, 578–79, 580, 583
mummies, 46, 47, 80, 221–22, 226, 231, 247, 566, 574
Cronache Ercolanesi (CErc), 310, 314n1, 317
cryptograms, 607, 616n88
cubit, 4, 6, 185, 186, 187, 218, 341
cults. See also Amenothes
imperial, 575–76, 576
mortuary, 565
sacred animals, 569–70
Tutu, 583
Virgin Mary, 586
cuneiform script, 350, 352, 477, 488n32
currency, 158, 175, 177, 189, 190–91, 485
“Curse of Artemisia,” 405
cursive writing
abbreviations, 171
Arabic papyri, 455
bookrolls, 257
Byzantine period, 135–36
common script, 140, 141–42
cursivization, 109, 112
and decipherment of texts, 200–202
emergence and development of, 101–2, 106–7, 109, 111, 241
Greek, 443, 444
Latin handwriting development, 139–40
Latin papyri, 137
Near Eastern papyri, 481
Pehlevi documents, 419
Ptolemaic style, 106
restoration techniques, 203
Roman cursive, 115, 120, 121, 122
school exercises, 334
customs duties, 383
Cuvigny, Hélène, 648
Cyrenaeans, 411–12
Cyril of Alexandria, 599–600
Cyrus, prefect, 422
Dakhla Oasis, 437, 583, 639, 648
tablet books, 12, 14, 23
Dakhleh Oasis Project, 56n12, 648
Daniel, Book of, 591, 600
Daninos, Albert, 47
dating
abbreviations, 175, 177
papyri of Psalms, 593, 595
Christian private letters, 614n62
chronology, 180–82
commentary and, 209
fiscal year, 183
New Testament, 596, 613n31
Old Testament, 595
palaeography, 649
regnal years, 486
dative, 154, 157, 159, 160, 165
Davis, Natalie Zemon, 508
(p. 668) Davy, Humphry, 307
DDBDP (Duke Data Bank of Documentary Papyri), 192, 194, 198–99, 212, 521, 649–59
dead lands, 466
Dead Sea, xviii, 453, 473, 479, 489n44
caves, 56n21, 475–76, 478
scrolls, 474, 476
death notices, 381
decans (constellations), 345, 580–81
Decius, 584, 586, 605–6
Edict, 373
declamations (meletai), 325, 332–33, 335n15
declarations, 177, 227, 228, 243, 367, 379–81, 383–84, 389n54, 441, 479, 497, 547, 606
declensions, 153–55, 157, 165, 171–72, 325
decorations, 322–23, 576
deeds of surety, 386–87
Deir el-Bahari 236–37, 571, 586
Deir el-Medina, 223
defensor civitatis, 534
dekaprotoi, 533–34
dʼElboeuf, Prince of Austria, 303–4
demes, 185
Demosthenes, 26n34, 161, 167n13, 204, 264, 268, 269, 335n15
demotic writing
abbreviations, 175
administrative documents, 524–26
agoranomic documents, 558n14
at Alexandria, 556
archives, 220, 221, 222, 226, 229–30, 236, 240–41, 242
astronomy, 346, 351–52
bookrolls, 19, 21
in Checklist of Editions, 211
court proceedings, 547–48
decline of, 236, 241, 242, 430, 549, 555–57
Demotic Chronicle, 284
dream books, 571–72
editing of, 657
Egyptians and Amazons, 284
horoscopic astrology, 347–8, 351–2, 581
legal documents, 399, 406, 541–43, 546–49
literary papyri, 283
mathematics, 342
measures, 186
medical texts, 353
Myth of the Eye of the Sun, 284
Oracle of the Lamb, 284, 576
oracle questions, 579
ostraca, 14–15, 245
Papyrus Amherst, 397–98
in the Persian empire, 399
resistance to Greek loanwords, 506–7
rush pen, 408
Tebtynis, 513n60
war of scepters archive, 219
in Zenon archive, 408–9
denarius, 158, 189, 190–91, 263, 485
Derveni papyrus, 45, 92, 94, 103, 288, 313
Deutsches Papyruskartell, 66
di Sangro, Raimondo, 307
dialects, 149, 159, 192, 209, 262, 405, 407, 431, 482, 611n3, 628, 638, 657
diaries (commentarii), 360, 374, 384
diastole, 262
dichôra, 43
dicolon, 261–62
Didymus Judas Thomas, 630
Didymus the Blind, 593, 599–600, 614n54, 614n68
Diegeseis, 287
Diels, H., 310
Diem, Werner, 454, 459
Dietrich, Albrecht, 454
digitization, 649, 653
diglossia, 327, 419, 421–30, 427, 434, 446n8. See also bilingualism
dikastêrion, 546
Diocletian. See also Edictum Diocletiani de pretiis rerum venalium
and bilingualism, 424
coinage, 190–91
Latin professorships, 425
Latinization, 422, 428
persecution of Christians, 606–8
property ownership, 386
regnal years, 183
Romanization, 422
taxes, 382
Diodorus's circle, 270–71, 277, 278n13
Diodorus Siculus, 309
dioiketes, 474, 524, 526, 528, 531–33
Dionysia dossier, 551–52
Dionysios Petosorapis, 576–77
Dionysios, son of Kephalas, archive, 226, 230, 235, 548
Dionysius of Alexandria, 601, 615n82
Dionysius Thrax, 295–99, 332
diorthôtês model, 274
Dioscoros of Aphroditê
archive, 241–42, 246, 655
bilingualism, 427, 434, 444
Coptic, 439, 440, 447n27
handwriting development, 241–42
Kôm Ishqaw, 49
Dioskourides, 378, 402–3
diphthongs, 150, 152, 162
diplomatic handbook, 652, 659
diplomatic transcript, 203–5, 293–94
diplomatics, 480, 482, 484–85. See also double document
disegni, of Herculaneum papyri, 307
diviso acu, 8, 26n8
divorce contracts, 238, 367, 388n22, 554–55
Dizionario dei nomi geografici, 198
document cache, 49–50
Arabic papyri, 458–66
book hands, 263
Christian, 601–6
classifying, 359–60
dating, 209
decipherment, 202
dreams, 652
Dryton archive, 499
editing of, 211
Greek handwriting development, 103
Greek language, 149–50, 154, 157–58
imperial writing style, 120, 125
numerical data, 342
Pehlevi, 419–21
publication of, 358–59, 645
restoration techniques, 206–7
severe style, 71, 132
translations of, 650
types of, 361
Wörterbuch, 198–99
Doric dialect, 286, 405, 407
dossiers. See also choachytai/choachytes; Kronion and Isidora; Nessana dossier
definition, 218–19
Kôm Gamman, 513n56
Near Eastern papyri, 479
ostraca, 219, 246
Soknebtynis priests, 504, 513n55
dots
diacritical, in Arabic papyri, 455
Leiden system, 202, 203, 214n7
punctuation, 261, 277n3
ruling dots, 261
double documents, 485, 544, 548. See also diplomatics
double names, 579
drachma/ drachmê (weight/currency), 175, 177, 179, 188, 189, 190–91, 272, 485, 574–75
dreams, 240, 245, 414, 566, 571–72, 577, 582, 584, 652
Nectanebo's, 400
Nektembes, 414
Drovetti, Bernardino, 55n1, 60
dry measure, 186–87
Dryton archive, 499
D-scholia, 331–32
ductus, 101, 103, 105, 107, 109, 110, 111, 114, 120, 127, 129, 131, 136, 141–42
Duke Data Bank of Documentary Papyri. See DDBDP
Duke University, 649
Dura-Europos papyri
administrative documents, 385–86
archives, xvii, 47
literary papyri, 300n12
military history, 385–86
Near Eastern papyri, 475–78
ostraca, 477
parchment, 11
published, 74
Sassanid invasion, 477
writing style, 120, 125
Yale excavations, 67–68
Easter, 602, 615n71
Ebers papyrus, 353–54
eclipses, 346, 352
Edessa, 474, 478, 483, 487n10
Edfu, 219, 241, 397–98, 400, 453, 502, 562, 565, 569, 573–74
donation text, 502, 573–74
Edgar, C. C., 226
edict, xvii, 123, 373–4, 381–82, 389n45
Edictum Diocletiani de pretiis rerum venalium, 257, 263
Egypt. See also irrigation system; Islamization
administrative documents, 524–30
antiquities laws, 497
and Antonine Constitution, 554–55, 557
Arab era, 435, 441, 466, 523–24, 535
astrology, 346–52
astronomical papyri, 343–46
bilingualism, 327, 395–445
Cambyses conquers, 395–96
charred papyrus, 92–98
and Christianity, 431–34, 590–622, 627–28
chronology, 180–83
cleruchic settlement, 528
coinage, 189–91
conquest of, 180, 399, 590
Egypt Exploration Fund/Society (EEF/EES), 33–34, 36, 61–63, 645
epikrisis registers, 380
ethnic identity, 432–33
geography, 184–85, 522–24
and Gnosticism, 598, 613n44, 624, 626–32
Greek documentary language, 162
Greek population of, 401
Hellenization, 524, 530, 542–43
insurgencies, 576
land registration, 546
Latin papyri, 137, 162
law of the Egyptians, 550–52, 555–57
legal documents, 541–45
literacy, 359–60
literary papyri, 282–84
Macedonian conquest, 158
Manichaeism, 632–42
military history, 386
monasteries, 608, 637
multilingualism, 395–445
municipalization, 532–33
(p. 670) papyrus origin, 5
peregrines, 543
publication of papyri, 211
regnal years, 182–83, 491n77
salt tax, 382
Sassanids, 419
Seven Nomes, 523
Sonderstellung problem, 64–65, 500, 512 n40
status of Egyptians, 530
taxes, 382–83
writing development and, 109, 111–12
Egyptian language. See also demotic; Coptic
administrative documents, 524–25
Arabization of Egypt, 460
decline of, 430–31
legal documents, 542
names, 191–93
Ptolemaic era, 406
technical vocabulary, 194
Egyptian religion. See also cults
amulets, 584
and Christianity, 584, 586–87
demons, 583–84
disappearance of, 582–87
dreams, 571–72
Edfu temple, 219, 502, 562, 569
Greek inscriptions, 581–82
Hellenization of the gods, 578–80
interpretatio graeca, 522–23, 577–78
listening gods, 568, 570
magical texts, 583–84
oracles, 563, 571
sacred animals, 569–70
saints, 570–71
temple administration, 573–76
variations, 565
wisdom literature, 583
worldview, 561–64
Egyptology, 60–61
Eighteenth International Congress of Orientalists, 68
eisthesis, 262
ekdosis, 366
ekphrasis, 332
ekthesis, 262
electi, 636
electrolysis, 97
electronic databases. See also Advanced Papyrological Information System; DDBDP (Duke Data Bank of Documentary Papyri); Leuven Database of Ancient Books (LDAB)
Bibliographie papyrologique, 209
Catalogue of Paraliterary Papyri (CPP), 291
images, 648–49
Leuven Homepage of Papyrus Collections (LHPC), 230
Mertens-Pack, 285, 292, 300n12
elegy, 285, 290, 294
Elephantine, 103, 220, 343, 397–98, 409–10, 420, 565, 582
Eloquent Peasant, 283
emancipations, 365–66
employment contracts, 364, 369–70
emporitic papyrus, 6
encomium, 332–33
endogamy, 504, 506, 513n58
Engadi, 479
enguetes (surety), 530
enkyklios paideia, 321, 328
Ennius, 311
enteuxis, 377–78, 526,
enzyme treatment, 86, 90–91
epagomenê, 180, 181, 182
ephemeris, 349
Epicurus, 303, 310–13, 317n34
epicycle, 350
epigrams, 105, 261, 287, 309, 311, 317n34, 498
epigraphê, 533
epikrisis, 208, 360, 363, 380, 389n59, 504
Epiphanius of Salamis, 623–26, 632
Epistles of Mani, 638
epistolary courtesies, 160
epistolary writing, 330
epistrategos, 184, 385, 551
epoikion, 184
epsilon-theta style, 114, 119
Erasistratus, 355–56
Erinna, 286
erôtêmata, 331
ethics, 498
ethnic identity, 432–33
ethnos (caste), 524–25
êthopoiiai, 332–33
Euclid, 340, 342–43
Eudoxus papyrus, 344–45
Euripides, 105, 268, 269, 286–87, 327, 309, 327, 329, 603
Eusebius of Caesarea, 600–601
evolving hand, 324, 330–31
exactor civitatis, 390n81, 534
excavations. See also individual sites
context destruction, 646–47
Egypt Exploration Fund (EEF), 33–34
house-to-house-approach, 48
illicit excavations, 33–35, 40, 67, 247
multidisiplinary, 41–44
papyrus conservation, 81
pre-WWI, 36
rescue excavations, 647
Exodus, Book of, 591, 595, 598
fables, 283, 330, 488n27
Fachwörter, 198
Fackelmann, M., 94, 96
(p. 671) family archive
Aramaic, 398
definition of, 218
description of, 233–34
editing of, 654
legal documents in, 238
mixed marriages and, 411–12
of mortuary priests, 565
of soldiers, 241
family law, 557
“Fannius' clever workshop,” 6–7
Fayyum. See also Arsinoite nome; Karanis; Tebtynis; Zenon archive
administration of Egypt, 529
Arabic papyri, 453, 465
archives, 232
Bahr Yusuf, 523
Egyptian religion, 565
Fayyum portraits, 500, 511n35
Fayyum Villages Project, 523
first Fayyum find, 60
gate of justice, 568
Kimân Faris, 60
Medinet Madi codices, 638
miracle year, 61
mummy cartonnage, 401
naming of, 522–23
Pehlevi documents, 419, 420
sebbâkhîn, 32–33
toparchies of, 534
Febvre, Lucien, 496–97
female students and teachers, 328
Ferdinand, 310
Ferguson, C. A., 446n8
Fikhman, I. F., 70–71, 74
Filmoplast, 85, 97
fiscal year, 183
foodstuffs, 41–42
foreclosures, 543–44, 556
Fouad papyri, 71–72
Fournet, Jean-Luc, 655
fractions, 177, 186, 328, 340–41, 350
fragmentary texts, 226, 658
Frantz-Murphy, Gladys, 454, 466
freemen, 365–66
frog lamps, 43
Frösén, Jaakko, 95–98
full transcript, 203–4, 206
funerary practices, 80, 372, 500, 511n35, 565
Fusṭāṭ, 453, 462, 465
Gadamer, H.-G., 497
Gaius Cassius, 18
Galen, 355–56
Galerius, 534
Gallazzi, Claudio, 40
gallnuts, 18
Gamble, H. Y., 267
garbage dumps
archives, 218, 221, 231, 654
context, 40, 48, 80, 222, 247
Didymoi, 54
importance of, 50–55
Mons Claudianus, 41
oracle questions and, 571
ostraca, 245–46
Oxyrhynchus excavations, 62, 273–74
papyrus storage, 80
Gardner, I., 601–2
Geb names, 514n77
gender, 155, 192, 512n51
Genesis, Book of, 123, 129, 565, 591, 595, 598–99, 604
Geneva, 66
Geneva papyri, 212–13
Geniza documents, 464
geniza, 513n57, 654
geography, xvii, 44, 184–85, 198, 209, 478, 502–3
administrative, 521–35
geometrikon, 186
geometry, 342–43
gesso plaster, 87, 90
Ghoran papyri, 528
Gigante, Marcello, 71, 310, 316n28
Glaukias, 414
glossaries, 150, 194, 331, 334, 428, 444, 481, 490n57
Gnomon of the Idios Logos, 123, 127, 374
Gnostics
Books of Jeû, 631
Coptic, 433
in Egypt, 598, 613n44
and the gospel of John, 598
as heretics, 624
Nag Hammadi Codices, 627
Pistis Sophia, 631
private letters, 601
goldbeater's skin, 308
Gospel according to Mary, 631
Gospel of Thomas, 598–99, 629–30
Gradenwitz, Otto, 63
Graeco-Latin koinê, 135
Graeco-Roman Memoirs, 208
Graf, Theodor, 32, 60
graffiti, 162, 397, 407, 431, 478
grammarians, 72, 167n3, 271, 275, 277n3, 279n17, 321, 323, 325–26, 328–33
grammatical treatises, 288, 291, 295–99
grapheion (record office), 231, 364, 549, 556
Greek. See also interpretatio graeca
abbreviations, 170–74, 175, 176
administrative documents, 524–25
agoranomic documents, 556
in Apa Johannes letter, 438
in Arabic Egypt, 452–53
archives, 230, 240–41, 242
astronomy, 344–45, 350
and Bactrian, 473
(p. 672) bilingualism, 327, 423–24
bookrolls, 21, 256
as business language in Egypt, 590
and Coptic, 430, 432–45, 435, 443, 631
Corpus Papyrorum Graecarum, 212
“Curse of Artemisia,” 405
decline of, 441
documentary language in Egypt, 162
documentary papyri, 149–50, 154, 157–58
double documents, 482
dream books, 572
and Egyptian religion, 568
Gospel of Thomas, 599
Graeco-Latin koinê, 135
graffiti, 407
grammatical treatises, 295–99
grapheion registers, 556
Greek-Arabic documents, 461–62
handwriting development, 102–5, 107–14
horoscopic astrology, 347, 581
inscriptions, 581–82
Ionian notation, 340
kômê, 184
and Latin, 158, 428
legal documents, 376, 422, 541–43, 550, 556–57
literary papyri, 284–89, 428, 645
as liturgical language, 433
loanwords, 163
magical texts, 652
and Manichaeism, 639
mathematics, 339, 352
medical texts, 352–56
monastic language, 433–34
morphology and syntax, 154–57
names, 192
Nessana dossier, 481
notaries, 545–46, 566
novels, 288
as official language, 399–400, 419, 422–23
and Old Coptic, 431
oracle questions, 584
patristic literature, 600
petitions, 542
phonology, 150–53
as prestige language, 396
private letters, 361
as sacred language, 590–91
scholar's texts, 320–21
school exercises, 325, 334
technical vocabulary, 194
transliterations, 152–53, 167n5, 427
vocabulary, 157–58
weight system, 188–89
wills, 367, 422, 554
Grenfell, Bernard P.
and crocodile mummies, 46–47, 222
Fayyum finds, 34
historiography, 498–99
logia Iesu, 629–30
Oxyrhynchus excavation, 52, 53, 54, 61–63
papyrus editing, 211
on principles of afsh, 36
scientific archaeology, 36–38
translations, 207–8
Grohmann, Adolf, 453–54
Gronewald, M., 599
guardianship, 366, 484, 555
Guéeraud, Octave, 72
gum arabic, 18, 82–83
gunpowder, 32
Gurob, 33–34, 345
gymnasium, 380, 402, 504, 506, 511n35, 513n66
ḥadīth collections, 456–57
Hadrian, 56n13, 193, 232, 364, 373, 385, 523, 532, 574
Haensch, R., 489n44
Hagedorn, U. and D., 94
hagiography, 498
hamma, 186
handwriting development
archives, 227
Coptic, 444
declarations, 379
Dioscoros of Aphrodito, 241–42
Graeco-Latin koinê, 135
Near Eastern papyri, 481, 485
normative script, 127
official correspondence, 376
school exercises, 321–22, 327, 330–31, 335n7
severe style, 131–32
Handy Tables, 349, 351
Harpochrates, 565, 567, 577–79, 583
Harrauer, H., 88
Harris Homer, 114
Hawara, 44, 220, 409, 600
Hawara Homer, 128
Hayter, John, 306–7, 315n11
Hebrew, 22, 50, 406, 474, 479, 483, 489n50, 490n72, 590
Hebrews, Letter to, 591, 596, 597, 603, 604, 613n29, 613n38
Heidelberger Gesamtverzeichnis der Papyrusurkunden Ägyptens (HGV), 3, 145n1, 199, 446n5, 522n1, 657
Hellenes, 524
Hellenica Oxyrhynchia, 288
Hellenization, 542, 543–46, 548, 578–79, 631
hellenocentricity, 498
Hellenomemphites, 404–5
Hendriks, I. H. M., 9–10, 26n10
henotheism, 584
Herakleopolite nome, 33–34, 316n28, 529
Herakles, 567, 577
Herculaneum papyri. See also Philodemus
bibliography, 316n28, 317
bookrolls, 264
calligraphic writing, 112, 114
(p. 673) carbonized papyrus, 94–95
Centre Internazionale per lo Studio dei Papiri Ercolanesi, 71
editing of, 308–10, 315n15
Epicurus, 310–13
excavations, 312
handwriting development, 102, 138, 139
Latin papyri, 311–12, 315n9
library, 303–6
Obbink-Delattre method, 315n12
papyri, 59, 306–9, 315n15
polyptych, 23
restoration techniques, 92
Stoics, 311
heresy and heretics, 623–24, 626, 628, 630–31
Hermes Perpheraios, 206
Hermetic texts, 628
Hermopolis
agoranomic documents, 548
Egyptian religion, 565
excavations, 31
gunpowder factories, 32
Idumaeans, 405
illicit excavations, 33, 35
medical texts, 355
tax rolls, 383
Hero, 339–40
Herodotus, 293–94, 398
Herondas, 61, 287
Heroninos archive, 48–49, 231, 235, 362
Herophilus, 355
Hesiod, 268, 269, 286, 329, 335n9, 488n27, 504
hexameters, 200, 259, 286, 333, 335n12, 581
Hibeh parapêgma, 344
hieratic
decline of, 430–31
and demotic, 399
editing of, 657
literary papyri, 283–84
manufacture of, 6
medical texts, 352–54
and Old Coptic, 432
at Tebtynis, 236
hieroglyphs, 55n3, 60, 402, 405, 430, 566–67, 573–74, 581
high stops, 295
Hijra year, 183
Hipparchus, 349
Hippocrates, 160, 355
historical notes (historiai), 330
historical papyri, 372–73
historiography, 351, 458, 495–509, 6, 512n40
Hobson, Deborah, 496, 498
Hogarth, D. G., 34, 38
Holy Trinity, 624
Hombert, Marcel, 67–69
Homer
bookrolls, 21, 277n1
in Dioscoros archive, 242
Harris Homer, 114
plus verses, 288
rhetoric, 332
school exercises, 268, 325, 327, 329–31
subliterary papyri, 285
Homilies (Manichaean), 638
homophony, 151, 154, 156
Hopkins, Simon, 455, 459
Horace, 317n35
Horden, P., 512n50
horizontals, 174
horoscopic astrology, 346–48, 351, 372, 581
Horus, 565, 572, 574, 583, 585
house-to-house-approach, 48
humidor, 82
Hunt, Arthur S.
Christian papyri, 595
crocodile mummies, 46–47, 222
Fayyum finds, 34, 55
hierarchy of contexts, 48
historiography, 498–99
logia Iesu, 629–30
Oxyrhynchus excavations, 52, 61–63
papyrus editing, 211
principles of afsh, 36
and scientific archaeology, 36–38
translations, 207–8
Husselman, Elinor M., 73
hydrochloric acid, 87
hydrogen sulfide, 304, 307
hydrolysis, 79
hymns, 405, 581, 611n8, 614n69
of Callimachus, 287
Hyperides papyrus, 61, 114, 118
hyphen, 262
hypographê, 549, 556
hypomnema, 114, 200, 275, 277, 364, 379
hypomnematographos, 526
hypotheseis, 286, 288–89
ibis, 569–70
idios logos, 386, 526, 575
Idumaeans, 405
IFAO (Institut Français dʼArchéologie Orientale), 71–72
Iliad, 44, 264
illegitimacy, 380
illicit excavations. See excavations
illustration, 209–10
inclined ogival majuscule, 132–33, 136
incoming documents, 237–38
index, 624, 650–51
indiction, 183, 534–35
infanticide, 403
inheritance model, 274
inheritance tax, 553–54
ink, 18, 82, 84, 300n16
inscriptions, 581–82, 652, 655–56
Institut Français dʼ Archéologie Orientale (IFAO), 71–72
Institut für Altertumskunde, Cologne, 72
Institute of Papyrology, Sorbonne, 72
intercalary months, 180, 183
intermarriage, 403
internal documents, 238
International Committee of Papyrology, 68
International Society for Arabic Papyrology (ISAP), 454
interpretatio graeca, 522–23, 577–78
Invernizzi, A., 487–88n23
invitations, 363
Ionian notation, 340
Ionians, 397–98, 404–5, 412
iota adscript, 262–63
Iranian, 407, 477
Iraq, 452, 463
Irenaeus of Lyons, 628
iron-gall ink, 18, 82
irrigation system, 32, 59, 218, 384–85, 407, 466, 523
Isidora. See Kronion and Isidora
Islamization, 462–464
isnāds (chains of transmitters), 457
Isocrates, 14, 114, 161, 330, 595, 600
Istituto Papirologico “G. Vitelli”, Florence, 71
Iulius Isocrates, strategos, 213
ius trium liberorum, 555
Japanese tissue paper, 84, 85, 88, 96
Jensen, C., 310
Jericho, 475–76, 479, 488n29, 489n44
Jesus
in Apocryphon of John, 628–29
and Egyptian cults, 586
and Gnosticism, 625
Kephalaia of the Teacher, 638
logia Iesu, 598–99, 629–30
and Manichaeism, 640
sayings of Jesus, 62, 267 (see also logia Iesu)
Jews. See also Bar Kokhba; interpretatio graeca
Babatha archive, 476
and the codex, 592
in Elephantine, 397–98
Greek language, 483
immigrants to Egypt, 398, 409
Islamization, 464
Judaism, 267, 624, 628, 635–37
legal documents, 461
liturgical language, 406
marriages, 366
names, 193
Old Testament, 592
politeuma, 405, 654
revolt (115–117 CE), 232
Septuagint translated, 590
use of parchment, 473
John, Gospel of, 593, 595–96, 598
Johnson, J. de M., 34, 38, 44–45, 615n69
Jonah, 129, 131
Jones, A. H. M., 65
Jördens, Andrea, 219
Jouguet, Pierre, 63, 68, 71
Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 70
Judaism. See Jews
Judea, 480, 483
juridical documents, 238, 240
juristic papyrology, 64, 145, 374
Justinian
cadastre of Aphrodito, 383
use of Greek language, 422–23
legal documents, 427
regnal years of, 183, 491n77
tax receipts, 480
taxes, 382
Kahun papyrus, 353
Kallistos, 608–9
Kampichler, J., 95
Karabacek, Joseph, 453
Karanis
The Archive of Aurelius Isidorus, 73
archives, 245–46, 423
bookrolls, 39
context, 511n30
excavations, 647
hierarchy of contexts, 48
house-to-house-approach, 226–27
inkwells, 52–53
sebbâkhîn, 35
tax rolls from, 383
University of Michigan excavations at, 38, 67
Karnak, 43–44
katochos, 414, 508, 515n88, 572, 575, 582, 584
katoikic land, 368, 386, 528
Keenan, James G., 508
Kellis, Tutu cult, 583
Kellis papyri
accounts, 370
bilingualism, 434, 437, 444
Coptic, 433
Dakhleh Oasis Project, 648
excavations, 640
Manichaeism, 601–2, 639
private letters, 641
Kelsey, Francis W., 38–39, 66
Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, Ann Arbor, 73
Kenyon, Frederic G., 61, 63, 288
Kephalaia of the Teacher, 638
keramion, 42, 188
Kerkeosiris, 46, 219, 222, 371, 383, 401, 564
Kerkesoucha Orous, 364
Khan, Geoffrey, 454
(p. 675) Khirbet Mird, 476, 488n29
Khoury, Raif Georges, 454, 456
Kilpatrick, G. D., 593
kimân, 34
Kimân Faris, 60
kinship terms, 160
klerouchos 528
Koenen, Ludwig, 94
koinê Greek. See Greek
kollêsis, 9, 19–21, 81, 265–66. See also tomos synkollêsimos
kolophônion, 42
Kôm Gamman, 513n56
Kôm Ishqaw, 49
kômai (villages), 184, 523
komarches, 526, 527, 531, 533
kotylê, 187, 188
Krokodilo, 53
Krokodilopolis 231, 523, 548, 557n2, 568
Kroll, Joseph, 72
Kronion and Isidora, 503, 505, 506, 513n58, 513n60, 514n77
Kronos, 507, 514n76, 514n77
Kulikowski, M., 512n41
La Graufesenque (Condatomagos, Gaul), 141
land registration, 544–45, 556, 558n7, 603–4
language, 395–96, 399, 407–9, 459–60, 482–83, 541–43. See also bilingualism; individual languages; multilingualism
laokritai, 546, 558n9, 567
Latin. See also hypotheseis
and Arabic papyri, 460
archives, 241
bilingualism, 423–24
birth certificates, 379
at Bu Njem, 655
chancery style, 143
Chartae Latinae Antiquiores, 212
conversation manuals, 428
Corpus Papyrorum Latinarum, 212
cursive writing, 137
diglossia, 421–30
documentary papyrus, 149–50, 645
in Egypt, 162–66
handwriting development, 137–45
in Herculaneum papyri, 311–12, 315n9
as language of power, 424, 428, 446n8
Latinization, 429–30
legal documents, 553, 557
literary papyri, 282, 289–90, 422, 423, 427–28
loanwords, 158
and Manichaeism, 632
medical texts, 352–56
morphology and syntax, 163
in Near Eastern papyri, 483
as official language, 422–3
oracle questions, 584
Oxyrhynchus letter, 164–66
papyrus decipherment, 201
regnal years, 183
rhetoric, 334
semiuncial, 144
transliterations, 427
uncial writing, 145
Vulgar Latin, 162–63, 166
wills, 542
law of succession, 481, 553–54, 557
law of the Egyptians, 543, 550–52, 555, 556–57
lawyers, 428
LDAB (Leuven Database of Ancient Books), 3, 4, 21, 25, 145n1, 266, 291–92, 299n11, 300n13
leaf-tablet, 13, 14
leap years, 181, 214n12
leases, 369, 549
lectors, 265
legal documents. See also contracts; notifications (prosangelmata); scribes
administrative documents, 376–77
agoranomic documents, 548–50, 556
anagraphê, 546–48
Arabic papyri, 460–61
arbitration, 387
banking transactions, 364
Bar Kokhba, 490n72
bilingualism, 377, 387, 437
Coptic, 437, 441, 442, 541
demotic writing, 399, 541–43, 549
double documents, 544
employment contracts, 369–70
family archive, 238
Gnomon of the Idios Logos, 374
Greek language, 376, 422, 541–43, 550, 556–57
Hebrew, 490n72
Hellenization, 542, 548
language, 541–43
Latin, 424, 425, 427
law of succession, 553–54
law of the Egyptians, 543
marriages, 238, 544
misthôesis, 369–70
Near Eastern papyri, 483–85
order to arrest, 377
private, 363–69
Ptolemaic era, 376, 542
parchment, 473
Tebtynis, 364
wills, 367, 542
Leiden system, 68, 202, 203, 211, 455, 650
lemma, 200, 325, 331
Leriche, P., 478
Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel, 507
Leuven Database of Ancient Books. See LDAB
Leuven Homepage of Papyrus Collections (LHPC), 230, 655
Levi Della Vida, G., 454
(p. 676) Lewis, Naphtali, 71–72, 231, 483
Lex Youtie, 207
Lexikon der lateinischen Lehnwörter, 429
Libanius of Antioch, 333
libelli (petitions), 606, 615 n81
library, 218, 305–6
ligatures, 120, 136, 137, 174
limestone, 14
linen, 3, 4, 45, 87
linguistic interference, 460
liquid measurement, 187–88
listening gods, 568, 570
literary papyri
Arabic, 456–57
in archives, 240
bilingualism, 444
book hands, 257
bookrolls, 267
calligraphic writing, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117
Catalogue of Paraliterary Papyri (CPP), 291
chancery style, 123
Christian, 429, 591–601
codices, 278n9
decipherment, 200, 203
definition, 282–83
Derveni papyrus, 92, 94
vs. documentary papyri, 359, 407
in Dryton archive, 499
editing of, 198, 211
Greek, 103, 149, 284–89, 428, 645
Manichaeism, 639
Near Eastern papyri, 475
Oxyrhynchus, 34, 62–63, 268
prose, 288–89
Ptolemaic style, 105
punctuation, 262
restoration techniques, 204, 205, 300n16
scholar's texts, 272
school exercises, 321, 334
severe style, 132
study of, 65
stylization, 150
Tebtynis, 236
litterae caelestes, 140, 142
litterae communes, 142
liturgical service, 375, 382, 385, 390n80, 390n87
liturgies, 291, 405–6, 433, 460
livestock, 382
Livian papyrus, 6
loan contracts. See contracts
loanwords, 158, 460
Lobel, Edgar, 63, 293, 300n14, 511n27
logia Iesu, 598–99, 629–30
logistes, 534
Louvre, 60, 212
love poems, 284
Lowe, E. A., 145
Lucian, 269, 276–77
Lucretius, 311
Luijendijk, AnneMarie, 615n76
Luke, Gospel of, 591, 596, 598
Lumbroso, Giacomo, 63
Lykopolis, 436, 608, 633, 637–38
Lydian, 399
lyric texts, 277n2
Maas's law, 258, 261
Macedonia, 158, 180, 182–83, 473, 590
magical texts, 583–84, 595–96, 602, 642, 652
magnetometry, 41
Mahaffy, John P., 61, 63, 522
Mai, Angelo Cardinal, 60
majuscule, 128–29, 139, 141–42, 145, 481. See also biblical majuscule
Makarios, 640
Manchester, University of, 454
Manichaeism
asceticism, 636–37
catechumens, 638–40
and Christianity, 636–37, 642
Church History (lost), 638
Cologne Mani Codex, 632, 633, 634
Coptic, 433
Easter, 602, 615n71
in Egypt, 631–37
Epistles of Mani, 638
Homilies, 638
and Judaism, 636
Kephalaia of the Teacher, 638
Latin, 429
Mani, founder, 625, 635–37, 640
Medinet Madi codices, 351, 581, 637–42
Panarion, 624–26
private letters, 601–2, 639–40, 641
Psalm Book, 638
and Serapion of Thmouis, 615n69
Synaxeis of the Living Gospel, 638
Zoroastrianism, 636
Manning, J. G., 501–2
manure, 32, 35
marble, 486n2
margins
bookrolls, 259, 263, 277n5
codices, 267
and papyrus decipherment, 199
and restoration techniques, 206, 214n10
in school exercises, 329
Margoliouth, D. S., 454
Mariette, Auguste, 31, 44
Mark, Gospel of, 598
marriage
agoranomic documents, 558n14
Babatha archive, 479
(p. 677) betrothal agreement, 439–41
contracts, 366
divorce contracts, 554–55
endogamy, 504, 506, 513 n58
intermarriage, 403
law of the Egyptians, 550–52
legal documents, 238, 544
mixed marriage, 410–12
Near Eastern papyri, 489n4
Marrou, H.-I., 320
Martin, Victor, 68
Martinez, David G., 49
martyrdom, 606
Masada, 476
Maspero, Gaston, 33–36, 43–44, 70
mathematics, 339–43, 352–53, 566
mation, 186
Matthew, Gospel of, 591, 598
Maximianon, 43
maxims, 325, 327
Mazzochi, Alessio Simmacho, 306–7
measures, 175, 185–89, 421
medical texts, 291, 352–56, 378–79, 457, 506
medicine, 566, 572, 585
Medinet Madi codices, 351, 581, 637–42
Melitian monks. See monasteries
Memphis
after Greek conquest, 400
Egyptian religion, 565
ethnic identity, 404
Greek inscriptions, 582
imperial cults, 575
multilingualism, 398–99, 414
shipping, 412
Menander, 49, 105, 114, 133, 242, 268, 269, 287, 309, 327, 329, 443
Mendesian archive, 47
mephitic gas, 304
mercury, 307
meridarches, 526, 527, 529
merides, 184, 528, 529, 532
Merkelbach, Reinhold, 72, 206
Mertens-Pack, 285, 292, 300n12
Mesopotamia, 120, 342, 352, 478, 635–36
metallic inks, 18, 26n12
methyl cellulose, 83–84
metropolis (capital), 184, 228, 376, 378, 380, 522–23, 548, 605
metropolite-gymnasial class, 506
microfiche, 210
Middle Euphrates, 475–78
Middle Kingdom, 283, 570–71
Middle Persian. See Pehlevi
midollo, 307–8, 315n14
military. See also soldiers
administration of Egypt, 526
administrative documents, 385–86
Arabic papyri, 462
bilingualism, 423
Bu Njem ostraca, 655
Dura-Europos archive, 477
Latin papyri, 162
legal documents, 377
Pehlevi documents, 419–20
petitions, 378
taxes, 382
Millar, Fergus, 478
Mimes of Herondas, 44
Min, 578, 580
minuscule, 140, 141–42, 145, 481
minutes, 374–75
misspellings, 151–52, 165
misthôsis, 369–70
Mitteis, Ludwig, 63–64, 644
mixed marriage, 409–12
mixed papyri, 299n7
mnemonic devices, 327, 330
modius Italicus, 187
Mommsen, Theodor, 63, 644
monasteries and monasticism. See also Pachomius
archives, 219, 236–37
bilingualism, 444
child-donation contracts, 508
in Egypt, 433–34
Manichaeism, 632, 637, 642
Melitian monks, 220, 435, 608–10, 616n97
Nag Hammadi Codices, 627
Near Eastern papyri, 476
origin of, 608
patristic literature, 599–600
The Shepherd of Hermas, 600
monograms, 172–73, 175, 177
monopoly, 530
monotheism, 584
Mons Claudianus
diet and provisions, 42
excavations, 40–41, 648
garbage dumps, 246
ostraca, 15, 16, 43, 648
quarries, 56n13
school exercises, 322
Montevecchi, Orsolina, 71
Montserrat codex, 428
Morgan, Teresa, 320, 335n7
morphology, 154–57, 163, 165
Moscow papyri, 341
Mueller, Katja, 502–3
multilingualism
agricultural shipping, 412
Arabic papyri, 454
Arabization, 459
contracts, 409–10
in Egypt, 418–19, 445
(p. 678) absence in Pehlevi documents, 419–21
Persian empire, 395–99, 409
Ptolemaic era, 399–406
multiplication, 340
multispectral imaging (MSI), 98, 313
mummies. See also cartonnage
and Christianity, 586
crocodile mummies, 45–47
Egyptian religion, 565
labels, 4, 12, 371–72
sacred animals, 570
transport of, 371–72
municipalization, 532–33
muriarouros, 528–29
Museo Nazionale Archeologico, Naples, 60
museum archaeology, 228–29, 246, 654
Muslims, 432
Myos Hormos, 42, 322
mythographical texts, 331–32
Nabataeans, 406, 479
Nag Hammadi Codices
cartonnage, 437
discovery of, 626
Gospel of Thomas, 598–99, 629–30
illustrations of, 627
language, 428–29
Sophia Jesu Christi, 630
Nahal Hever
Babatha archive, 50, 51–52
diplomatics, 482
Engadi caves, 489n47
excavations, 56–57n21
Near Eastern papyri, 478–80
Salome Komaïse, 476
Semitic languages, 483
writing development and, 120, 124
Nahman, Maurice, 66–67
Namenbuch, 65, 198
names
abbreviations, 172–73
Egyptian gods, 578–79
in Egyptian papyri, 191–93
ethnic identity, 402–3, 433
and ethnic origin, 398–99
in the Fayyum, 522–23
Islamization, 463
in Nessana dossier, 481, 483
Oxyrhynchus letter, 165–66
Petra papyri, 483
Roman citizenship, 160
Tebtynis, 514n77
Nanaion, 549
Naples, 303, 314n5, 315n15
Narmouthis, 581–82, 638
narrative tradition, 508
natron salts, 79–80
naubion, 186
Naukratis, 402, 404
Naville, Edouard, 33, 47, 231
necrologies, 74
necropolis, 103, 219, 404, 571
Neith, 577, 578
Nelson, C. A., 310, 316n25
Nessana dossier, 459, 475–76, 480–81, 486n2
Neugebauer, O., 346–47, 350
New Kingdom, 284, 568–72
New Testament
Chester Beatty papyri, 597
codices, 266, 595–96
Coptic, 631
dating, 596, 613n31
Greek vocabulary, 157
koinê Greek, 149
parchment rolls, 22
patristic literature, 599–600
Nicaea, 608
Nicole, Jules, 61, 63
Nile, 412, 523
Nimrud, 27n42
Nobbs, A., 601–2
nomarches, 232, 525, 526, 528–31
nomes
basilikos grammateus, 527
Byzantine period, 534
definition, 184
geography of Egypt, 522–24
Pathyrite nome, 545–46, 548, 556
Roman era, 532–33
strategos, 528
nomina sacra, 200, 592, 631
nominal phrases, 192
Nongbri, B., 596
normative script, 138–39
Norsa, Medea, 70–71
notaries (agoranomoi)
bilingualism, 441, 444
contracts, 364, 542
Egyptian priesthood, 573
land registration, 545–46
Near Eastern papyri, 484, 485
property ownership, 383–84
Roman era, 549–50
temples, 566
transliterations, 427
notifications (prosangelmata), 378
Notitia Dignitatum, 534
novels, 268–69, 288
numerical literacy, 327–28, 340
Obbink, Dirk, 498
Obbink-Delattre method, 315n12
obliques, 174–75
obols, 190–91
Octavian, 181–82, 396
(p. 679) octavo, 24
official archives, 231–33
official doctor, 378–79
Officina dei Papiri, 310, 314n5
oikonomos, 526, 527, 529, 531
Old Babylonian period, 352
Old Coptic, 430–31, 432
Old Testament, 22, 590, 592, 595, 624
omens, 352
one-sixth tax (apomoira), 526
onomastics, 192, 463, 478, 480, 583, 586
onomatopoeic, 151
open text, 299
Oracle of the Lamb, 284
oracles, 372, 563, 571, 579–80, 584, 586
oral tradition, 458, 461, 636
oratory, 288
order to arrest, 377, 604–6, 615n76
Oriens, 485–86
Origen, 595, 599
Orrieux, Cl., 231
orthography, 163, 650
Osiris, 565
Oslo, 66
ostraca
abbreviations, 170
accounts, 371
administrative documents, 375
Amenothes cult, 571
amphora, 15, 17
as writing material, 3, 14–17
Arabic, 453
archaeobotanists, 41–42
archives, 245–46
from Bu Njem, 655
dossiers, 219, 246
dreams in, 572
Dura-Europos archive, 477
frequency of use, 4
garbage dumps, 53, 246
geometrical theorems, 343
horoscopic astrology, 347, 351
from Krokodilô, 53
language evolution, 149
from Maximianon, 43
medical texts, 354
military history, 385–86
from Mons Claudianus, 15, 16, 43, 648
Near Eastern, 473, 486n2
and Old Coptic, 431
published, 645
school exercises, 322
shaped, 16
survey of land, 525
tax receipts, 15–16, 63, 383
from Tebtynis, 40
temple archives, 237
temple oaths, 567
outgoing documents, 237–38
“Oxford Dioscuri”, 34
oxidation, 79, 81
Oxyrhynchus
abbreviations, 175
Alcaeus poetry, 285
astronomy papyri, 350
birth certificates, 379
bookrolls, 264
death notices, 381
Egyptian priesthood, 586
garbage dumps, 50, 52
Gospel of Thomas, 598–99
Greek letter, 158–62
Grenfell and Hunt excavations, 34, 54
Latin letter, 164–66
literary papyri, 268
logia Iesu, 598–99, 629–30
Manichaeism, 639
minutes, 375
oracle questions, 372
The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, 211, 499, 511n27, 650
papyrus fragments, 37
prosopography, 194
regnal years, 183
ruling dots, 261
sacred animals, 569
Sarapion, 513n56
scholar's texts, 270–77
translations, 207–8
Pachomius, 428, 600, 627–28, 637
Pachymios, 439
Pack, R. A., 199, 292
Paderni, Camillo, 305–6, 315n9, 315n12
pagan texts, 266, 631
pagarchy, 535
pagi, 184, 533–35
paginae, 21
palaeography
Arabic papyri, 456, 459
digitization of papyri, 649
grammatical treatises, 295
Kellis papyri, 602
Near Eastern papyri, 481
scholar's texts, 273
Palestine, 120, 123, 133, 234, 480–81, 490n55
Palmyra, 475, 487n10
Panarion (Epiphanius of Salamis), 624–26, 632
Panopolis, 612n26, 630
Papaccio, Valerio, 314n3
paper, 3, 4, 453
papier-mâché, 87
Papiri della Società Italiana, 211
Papyri graeci regii Musei Taurinensis, 60
papyrological millennium, 368–69
papyrologists, 61, 68, 73–74
(p. 680) papyrology
Analecta Papyrologica, 75
Annales school, 507
Arabic, 452–55
Archiv für Papyrusforschung, 63
archives, 217–18
Bingen definition, 72–73
Byzantine papyrology, 70, 132, 135–36, 439
development of, 59–61
excavations, 648
Greek authors, 288
hellenocentricity, 498
and historiography, 498–99
integration, 500–507
international organization, 67–75
Leiden convention, 68
metapapyrology, 73
microhistory, 507–8
Near Eastern, 484–86
necrologies, 74
papyrological millennium, 61
papyrus cartels, 66–67
publication backlog, 645
and religion, 626
summer institutes, 645
unpublished material, 658
papyrus See also carbonized papyrus; Derveni papyrus; documentary papyrus
in Babylonia, 473
bookroll manufacture, 19, 256–57
carbonized, 83, 92
Christian documents, 591, 604–5
codices, 265–66
conservation of, 80–81, 648
Cornelius Gallus papyrus, 139, 290
cultivation of, 4–5, 452–53
damage to, 79–80
frequency of use, 4
manufacture of, 5–8, 9–10, 26n10
mills, 467n2
mummy cartonnage, 87–88
oracle questions, 563, 571
origin of, 5
restoration techniques, 81–86
schoolbooks, 326
papyrus texts. See also Arabic papyri; Dura-Europos papyri; literary papyri; Petra papyri; subliterary papyri
archives, 220, 221, 222
as artifacts, 645–46, 657–58
Berliner Klassikertexte (BKT), 211
carbonized papyrus, 92–98
Checklist of Editions, 211, 299n7, 299n8
commentary, 208–9
conservation of, 81–86
decipherment, 199–203
digitization, 649
diplomatic handbook, 659
editing of, 197–99, 210–11, 644–45
as facts, 653–59
handwritings, 101–2
historical papyri, 372–73
hot papyri, 648
illustrations of, 209–10
last of, 453, 467n6
Near Eastern papyri, 474–77, 480–81, 483–86, 486–87n6, 489n44, 491n77
papyrological habit, 360
reediting of, 651–53
restoration techniques, 203–4, 206–7
sciences, 338–39
as texts, 649–53
transcription, 202
translation of, 207–8
Paraclete Spirit, 640
paragraphos, 261
paraliterary texts, 140
parallels, 204, 206
Paraloid B-48, 88–90
parapêgma, 344
parchments (pergamena)
as ancient writing material, 3
bookrolls, 22
codices, 266, 278n9
manufacture of, 11
medical texts, 354
Near Eastern, 473
and papyrus codex, 27n44, 265
school exercises, 322
temple archives, 237
title tags, 264
Parsons, P. J., 293, 294, 615n76
Parthenon, 56n13
Parthians, 477
Pathermouthis archive, 439
Pathyrite nome, 545–46, 548, 556
patristic literature, 599–601
Pauline epistles, 428, 596, 598
Pehlevi, 419–21, 420
Peloponnesian War, 288
Pentecost speech, 612n14
peregrines, 543, 553
Pergamenes, 11
persecution, 605–8, 623
The Persians, 405
Pestman, P. W., 70, 214n7, 228, 229–30, 238, 558n7
petitions
Abinnaeus, Flavius, 423
administrative documents, 377–79
archives, 237, 360
Christian persecution, 606
koinê Greek, 591
Near Eastern papyri, 485
(p. 681) Ptolemaic era, 542
Zenon archive, 406
Petra papyri
carbonized papyrus, 92, 95, 480
Near East papyri, 476
papyrus restoration, 93
regnal years, 486
restoration techniques, 94, 95
Petrie, William Matthew Flinders, 33, 36–38, 44, 47, 61, 220
Peyron, Amedeo Angelo Maria, 60
Philadelphia, 383
Philae, 431
Philip the Arabian, 533
Philo of Alexandria, 590
Philodemus
bookrolls, 264
handwriting development, 102
Herculaneum papyri, 306, 309, 311–13
and Piso Caesoninus, 317n34
writing style, 114
philologists, 36, 62, 650
Phoenicians, 397, 412
Phoenico-Egyptians, 405
phonology, 150–53, 163
photographic documentation, 97–98
physicians, 354–55, 378–79
Piaggio, Antonio, 92, 307–9
Pindar, 114, 269, 273, 285, 309, 329, 582
Pira, Gaetano la, 307
Piso Caesoninus, Lucius Calpurnius, 311–13, 317n34, 317n35
Pistis Sophia, 631
Pithom, 33
plague, 373, 501
Planatol BB, 88–90, 97
plates, 209–10
Platonic fragments, 160, 627–28
Plautus, 286–87
Plexiglas, 86, 97
Pliny the Elder, 4–8, 11, 467n2
plus verses, 288
Plutarch, 293–94
poetry
Arabic papyri, 457
bilingualism, 434
Greek, 285–87
love poems, 284
rhetoric, 321, 333–34
school exercises, 329–30
Simonides, 292–95
politeuma, 405–6, 654
poll tax. See taxes
Polotsky, Hans Jakob, 638
Polybius, 149
polyptych, 19, 23
polytheism, 582–83, 585
polyvinyl acetate (PVA), 97
Pompeii, 140, 162, 165, 303
porcellino, 313
Portici, 306, 310
Posidippus papyrus, 106, 107, 287
postal service, 375
postscript, 270
potsherds, 14
pottery, 42
power of attorney, 607–8
Prayer of the Emanations, 639, 642
prayers, 284, 457
Prayers of Serapion, 602, 615n69
Preaux, Claire, 68
Preisendanz, K., 75
Preisigke, Friedrich, 65, 198–99, 211–12
prepositions, 157
priesthood
administration of Egypt, 525
circumcision, 380–81
imperial cults, 575
mortuary priests, 565
notaries, 573
Roman era, 504, 506, 533, 574–75
taxation of, 576
theagoi, 565, 566
Princeton University, 66
private archives, 48–49
private documents, 361–72. See also private letters
private letters
Arabic papyri, 455–56
as archives, 216
Christian, 595, 601, 603, 614n62, 616n88, 616n89
Coptic, 437
destruction of, 16
Gnostics, 601
language evolution, 150
Latin papyri, 162, 423
lost documentation, 360–61
Manichaeism, 601–2, 639–40, 641
Pehlevi documents, 419
restoration techniques, 206
problem texts, 341–42
progymnasmata, 325, 332–33
pronunciation, 151–52, 163, 167n5
property ownership
Christian documents, 605
cleruchic settlement, 401
contracts, 367–70
Diocletianic reforms, 386
land registration, 399
Ptolemaic era, 383–84
taxes, 383–84
temples, 565–66, 573–74
Prophecies of Neferti, 284
prosopography, 193–94, 213, 227, 246
prostagmata, 374, 547–48
proto-Gospel, 267
(p. 682) protokollon, 19, 263
Psalms, Psalter, 443, 592–93, 594, 595, 638–39, 642
psogos, 332
Ptolemaic era
abbreviations, 171–73, 175
administration of Egypt, 526
administrative documents, 374
astronomy, 581
bronze coinage, 190
bureaucracy, 400
census, 381, 574
Chremonidean War, 525
chronology, 181
conveyance tax, 558n7
demotic writing, 241
Egyptian language, 158, 406
geography, 184–85
geography of Egypt, 522–24
Greek, 105, 106, 107, 152, 155
imperial cults, 575, 576
land registration, 545–46
leases, 369
legal code, 555
legal documents, 376, 542
liquid measurement, 188
mixed marriage, 412
multilingualism, 399–406
petitions, 377–78
private documents, 361
property ownership, 367–68, 383–84
Ptolemais founded, 523
Second Syrian War, 525
Septuagint translated, 590
taxes, 382, 530–32
temple administration, 573–74
trade, 648
Ptolemaios (katochos), 240, 414, 572, 582, 584
Ptolemy (mathematician), 349–51
Ptolemy X, 376
public documents, 372–87
punctuation
bookrolls, 261–63
codices, 266
dicolon, 261–62
dots, 261, 277n3
Leiden system, 214n7
literary papyri, 262
papyrus decipherment, 201, 203
scholar's texts, 273
sigla, 261
Punic, 645
Purcell, N., 512n50
pyroclastic flow, 306
pyrolized, 83–84, 92
Pythagoras, 342
Qamadir, 44–45
Qasr Ibrim, 290
Q source, 629
quarto format, 24
Quintilian, 11–12
quires, 24, 265, 278n8
Qumran, 476, 478–79
Qurʼāan, 452, 456, 467n10
Qurrah ben Sharik, 136
radon, 304
Ragab, Hassan, 5, 8, 10, 25n8
Raghib, Yusuf, 454
Rainer, Archduke, 32, 60, 453
Ramesseum papyri, 353
rank-size rule, 503, 512n50
rapid hand, 324–25, 333
Rathbone, D. W., 231, 235, 513n66
Ray, John D., 399, 506
real estate, 228, 364, 368
receiving measure, 186–87
recommendation letters, 424, 426
recto/verso, 102, 322, 592–93, 594, 595, 604
reed brush, 7, 26n12
reed pen (calamus), 7, 18, 19, 140, 408
reformed documentary hand, 266
regnal years, 182–83, 482, 485–86, 491n77
reincarnation, 637
reintegration edicts, 381
religion. See also individual beliefs
accounts, 371–72
Apis bull, 414
Arabic papyri, 457
circumcision, 380–81
Derveni papyrus, 288
epikrisis registers, 380–81
Hibeh parapêgma, 344
invitations, 363
leases, 369
liturgies, 385
multilingualism, 412, 414
Muslims, 432
Papyrus Amherst, 397–98
Resina, 303
restoration techniques
cartonnage, 89, 90, 91
literary papyri, 205, 300n16
margins, 207, 214n10
papyrus editing, 203–4, 206–7
papyrus conservation, 81–86
Revel, Jacques, 497
Revelation, Book of, 600–601
Revenue Laws, 524–25, 530–32
Reynolds, L. D., 612n26
rhetoric, 321, 325, 328–29, 332–34, 335n7
Rhind papyrus, 341–42, 353
Richter, Tonio Sebastian, 508
Roberts, C. H.
abbreviations, 593, 611–12n11
codex, 267
(p. 683) Gnostics, 613n44
New Testament, 596
papyrus manufacture, 8
The Shepherd of Hermas, 600
Rome
abbreviations, 172, 174, 177
administration of Egypt, 532–33
administrative documents, 374
agoranomic documents, 549
and Arabia, 479
army camps, 647–48
astrology, 346–52, 580–81
astronomy, 345–46
Bu Njem ostraca, 655
census declaration, 381
chronology, 181, 182
circumcision, 381
citizenship, 160, 379–80
conquest of Egypt, 402, 504
demotic writing, 241
Dura-Europos, 477
Egyptian priesthood, 504, 506, 574–75
epikrisis registers, 380
Fayyum, 523
Graeco-Latin koinê, 135
handwriting development, 107–14,