Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 22 February 2020

Subject Index

Subject Index

action-centered subsystem (ACS)
in CLARION, 118, 119f
in memory, 122f
NACS v., 119–22, 122f
in simulation, 127–28
action extrapersonal space, 176
ACT-R architecture. See Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational
Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R)
applications of, 20–24, 20f, 22f
auditory perception in, 19
base-level learning in, 221–22
brain imaging in, 22–23
buffers of, 16, 16f
complex dynamic tasks in, 21, 22f
in decision making, 260
declarative knowledge in, 16–17, 16f, 221
EPIC compared to, 3
future directions of, 9, 24
intelligent tutoring in, 23, 224
Leabra compared to, 96–97
LISP in, 21, 243–44
mapping brain regions, 16f
memory in, 20, 20f
neural mechanisms in, 24
neural region mapping in, 226
overview of, 16–17, 16f
perceptual resource systems in, 18f, 19–20
predictive interface evaluation in, 23–24
in problem solving, 243–44
procedural knowledge in, 16, 16f, 18–19, 18f, 18t, 221
production compilation in, 222
production rules of, 16, 16f, 18, 18f, 18t
research of, 20–24, 20f, 22f
skill acquisition in, 15, 21
tactical decision-making task in, 22f
utility values in, 221
Adaptive Control of Thought– Rational/Spatial (ACT- R/S)
data for, 178–79
development of, 176–77
addition problems, 237
adjectives, 304
adults, 181
adverbs, 305
age, 185
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 109–10, 109f
arrangement problems, 232, 234
artificial intelligence (AI)
in cognitive science, 7–8, 226
MT influenced by, 339
natural language influenced by, 350
research in, 340
in tutoring, 224
with NLP, 340
WordNet relations from, 305
artificial neural networks
in behavior, 85
in connectionist models, 71–72, 72f
uses of, 69
auditory perception
in ACT-R, 19
in EPIC, 29f, 30
autism, 64f
automatic processing, 351–52
backpropagation algorithm, 70, 219
bidirectional excitation, 99f
blending
concept of, 288
in mental spaces, 291
value, 257–58
blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD), 22–23
brain
capacity utilization in, 56–57, 58f
in cognitive tasks, 267–68, 268f
complexity of, 92
functional specializations in, 103–7, 104f, 105f, 107f
glass visualization of, 95f
in large scale functional organization, 95f
lesion, impairment from, 62f
mapping regions of, 16f
in multitasking, 265, 268, 275–76
noninvasive studies of, 6
organization of, 109, 109f
subcortical systems model of, 94f
synchronization in, 276–77
total work of, 269–70
training effects in, 274–75
visual perception in, 177–78
(p. 367) brain imaging
in ACT-R, 22–23
in 4CAPS, 55
measuring performance with, 269
in multitasking, 267, 270–73, 270f, 272f, 277
in neural resources, 274
in simulations, 95f
in total brain work, 270
uses of, 225
Building Relations through Instance Driven Gradient Error Shifting (BRIDGES)
examples of, 144–45, 144f
future directions of, 148
importance of, 143
capacity utilization (CU), 57–58, 61
causal reasoning
backward blocking in, 199
in children, 200–201, 207
in different cultures, 202–3
future directions of, 206–7
idealization of, 205
in infants, 200
in learning, 196–97
in nonhuman animals, 198–200
normative ideals in, 201–2, 206
similarity-based reasoning in, 198
space in, 202–3
studies, in rats, 199–200
supporting explanation in, 197–98
temporal coincidence in, 193
in thinking, 192–93
causal relations
cause structure in, 195f
characteristics of, 193–95
in China, 202
different roles for, 203
examples of, 191–92
future directions for, 206–7
Greeks study of, 202
high order, 203
intervention in, 194–95
Kantian proposals in, 196
in learning, 192–93 (p. 368)
manipulation in, 193
Methodist school using, 202
for predictions, 203
stability in, 193
unity view of, 203
causal support
example of, 196
model, 194
strength in, 195
cell phones, 270, 270f
chess game, 179f
children
behavior in, 207
causal reasoning in, 200–201, 207
progressive differentiation in, 220–21
spatial development in, 180–81
chunking model
of learning, 219
process of, 297
circadian rhythms
control of, 154
importance of, 151
studies of, 154–55
CLARION
ACS in, 118, 119f
arguments against, 130
avoidance drives in, 124t
characteristics of, 118
declarative processes in, 120–21
differences in, 117
emotion in, 128–30
explicit processes in, 117–18
four subsystems of, 118–19, 119f
future directions for, 131
implicit processes in, 117–18
MCS in, 118, 119f, 122–25, 123f, 124t
memory models in, 121–22, 122f
motivational subsystems in, 122–25, 123f, 124t
MS in, 118, 119f
NACS in, 118, 119f
other models v., 130–31
overview of, 118
primary drives in, 124t
in problem solving, 242–43
procedural knowledge in, 120–21
psychological phenomena in, 125–30, 126f
rule-based reasoning in, 127–28
similarity-based reasoning in, 127–28
success of, 117
cognition. See also spatial cognition
backstage, 288
connectionist models in, 85–86
control of, 42–44, 42f
cultural impact on, 7–8
development of, 1, 8
dismembering, 2
embodied, 9–10, 86, 284–86, 290
grounded, 285
macrostructure of, 97, 103–7, 104f, 105f, 107f
microstructure of, 97–99
music, 4
schemas in, 77
theories about, 212
threaded, 22
unified theories of, 15–16
cognitive anthropology, 1, 7
cognitive architecture. See also specific type
common mechanisms of, 349
computational models in, 50
computer simulations in, 27–28
concepts of, 27–28, 91
contributions of, 27–28
development of, 15
four levels of, 95f
future directions for, 9
history of, 91
motivation of, 92–93
new computational, 2–3
NLP in, 349–51
for problem solving, 231, 241–44, 242t
psychology of, 15–16
success of, 28
task-specific portions in, 27
time perception in, 162–63, 162f
types of, 1
cognitive commitment, 284–85
cognitive development, 8–9
cognitive linguistics
concerns of, 289–95, 291f, 294f
details of, 284
development of, 5, 283, 298
methods of, 297
primary commitments in, 284–85
studies of, 297
theses of, 285–89, 287f
cognitive load theory (CLT), 223–24
cognitive modeling
applications of, 349
core task of, 350
ICMs, 292
input-output in, 350
NLP in, 343, 349, 354
as tool, 338
cognitive neuroscience, 54, 63–64
cognitive psychology, 1, 152
cognitive science
additional facets of, 5
AI in, 7–8, 226
characteristics of, 1–2, 6–7
decision making in, 249–50
embodied approaches to, 86
future directions of, 9–10
-inspired paradigm, 348–49
learning as, 213
cognitive tutors. See intelligent tutoring systems
collaborations, 245
Collaborative Activation-Based Production System (CAPS). See also 4CAPS; 3CAPS
beginnings of, 3
for brain lesion behavioral impairment, 62f
constraint satisfaction in, 50–51
contributions of, 63
development of (1981-1992), 51–52
future directions of, 9, 63
goals of, 49–50
spatiality in, 62
colors, 183–84
complex dynamic tasks, 21, 22f
compositional semantics, 293
computational models
biologically inspired, 226
in cognitive architectures, 50
framework of, 92
of IBLT, 257–59
of intelligent tutoring systems, 226
of learning, 218
in problem solving, 218
in spatial cognition, 176–77, 184
conative alternation, 323–24
conceptual integration, 291–92
conceptual structure, 290, 291f
conjoined actives, 60, 60f
connectionism
background of, 69–71, 70f
emergent properties in, 71
future directions of, 84–86
implicit processes in, 84
learning dynamics in, 77, 85
mechanics of, 71–74, 72f
weight in, 70, 72f, 77
connectionist models
activation propagation in, 72–73
artificial neural networks in, 71–72, 72f
in behavior, 85–86
in cognition, 85–86
distributed representations in, 74
feed-forward network in, 72, 72f
future directions of, 84–86
hidden layers in, 72, 72f
input layers in, 72, 72f
learning in, 77
mapping in, 71
output layers in, 72, 72f
pattern matching in, 73–74
success of, 3
connectivity, 64, 64f
constraint satisfaction, 50–51
construction. See also meaning construction
coercive, 321
grammar, 294–95
context layer, 81, 81f
contralateral takeover
in 4CAPS, 61, 61f
in neuroarchitecture, 49
corpus annotation, 343–44
(p. 369) cortical center, 49
cortical connectivity, 65
cortical information processing, 57
cortical networks
discoveries in, 269
in multitasking, 268, 268f
Cube Comparison Test, 171
decision making. See also dynamic decision making
ACT-R in, 260
adaptive, 252
biases in, 251, 252t
choice in, 249
closed-loop view of, 249–50, 253f
in cognitive science, 249–50
from descriptions, 251
from experience, 254f
explicit, 255
future directions of, 260–61
heuristics in, 251, 252t
as high-level process, 249
historical view of, 250
in human behavior, 261
IBLT in, 254
implicit, 255
information processing in, 251–52
judgement in, 249
memory in, 256, 256f
naturalistic, 259–60
NDM, 259–60
open-loop view of, 249–50, 250f
process-tracing methods in, 251–52
prospect theory of, 251, 253–54, 254f
research in, 260
RPD type of, 260
time influence on, 164
declarative knowledge
in ACT-R, 16–17, 16f, 221
in CLARION, 120–21
in learning, 17–18
patient studies of, 226
declarative memory, 216, 226
dentate gyrus, 104f
diathesis alternations
compatibility with, 323
in expansions, 325
importance of, 315
uses of, 321
distributed representation
benefits of, 79–80
catastrophic interference in, 221
content-addressable memory in, 80
in PDP, 220f
principles of, 77
dopaminergic system
in Leabra architecture, 110
PVLV of, 107f
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), 58, 64f
dual code
of chess game, 179f
in imagery, 179f
in memory, 178–79
duals tasking. See multitasking
dynamic decision making (DDM). See also decision making
as closed-loop view, 252–53
examples of, 253f, 254f
learning in, 252–55
dynamic gating system, 106, 107f
dynamic spillover, 49
egocentric-allocentric split, 173
elaborative interrogation, 216
electric circuits, 240
embodied cognition
approaches to, 86
examples of, 9–10
nature of, 290
theory of, 284
thesis of, 285–86
embodied experience, 285
embodied robotics, 111
emergence
concept of, 71
of emotion, 129
in learning, 69, 211
of multitasking, 275
emer virtual robot simulation, 95f
emotion
in CLARION, 128–30
emergence of, 129
in Leabra, 111–12
empiricist paradigm
examples of, 341
new, 342
shift to, 340
system evaluation in, 348
uses of, 341
encyclopaedic semantics, 286
entorhinal cortex, 104f
entrenchment, in symbolic unit, 289
environment
GATE, 347
of humans, 211
maps of, 212
during multitasking, 254
naturalistic, 255
task, 28, 29f
error-driven learning
backpropagation algorithm, 79
delta rule in, 78
epochs in, 78
error signal in, 78
Hebbian integrated with, 101
prediction error in, 79
target activation patter in, 78
error signal, 78, 83f
Euclidean space, 180f
EUREKA, 241–42
event- related potentials (ERPs), 225
executive function
changes in, 106
in EPIC architecture, 42–43
gating in, 106–7, 107f
hierarchical processing stages in, 107–8
trade off in, 105–6
in video games, 275
Executive Processes Interact with and Control (EPIC)
ACT-R compared to, 3
auditory input in, 29f, 30
cognitive processor in, 28, 29f
development of, 2
evaluating model of, 39–41, 40f
example models of, 35–39, 36f, 37f, 38f, 39f, 42f
executive processes in, 42–43
eye processor in, 27–28, 29f
features of, 32–34
fixating objects in, 38f, 39f
future directions of, 9–10, 44
history of, 45–46
interrupts in, 42
involuntary ocular processor in, 29f, 30
large-scale architecture with, 44
LISP in, 45
motor processors in, 32
ocular motor processor in, 29f
parallel processing in, 27, 42–43, 42f
perceptual motor constraints in, 33
perceptual processor in, 28, 29f
physical store in, 28, 29f
predicted light in, 40f
production rule in, 27, 29f
retinal acuity function, 37f
simulated device in, 28, 29f
spatiality in, 44
tactile processor in, 29f
task environment in, 28, 29f
understanding model of, 39–41, 40f
vision in, 34–35
visual input in, 29f
visual memory in, 28, 29f
visual perception in, 27–30, 29f, 37–38, 37f, 38f, 39f, 40f
visual processor in, 29f
visual search in, 34–35
voluntary ocular processor in, 29f, 30
working memory in, 41
exemplar-based models
benefits of, 147
future directions of, 148
problems with, 143
prototype-based models v., 142–43
(p. 370) exemplar-based relational learning
challenges of, 144
example of, 144f, 145
uses of, 143
Expedition Project, 353
experts
learning in, 217–18
of NDM, 260
schemas in, 237
explicit-implicit interaction (EII), 243
eXtended Contrastive Attractor Learning (XCAL), 100f, 101
extraneous load, 224
eye movements
controls of, 28
integration of, 30
processors for, 27–28, 29f, 32
saccadic, 151
task-relevant properties of, 34
FAHQMT. See high-quality MT
FAIRRAVEN, 52
falsehood, 296, 296f
family resemblance, 204
feedback connections, 72
feed-forward network, 72, 72f
Findlay task model
first-saccade task, 36f
fixating objects in, rules, 36f, 38f, 39f
results of, 41
fire point neurons, 99f
fires, 18
five missionaries-cannibals problem
example of, 234
search space for, 235f
fixation type, 40f
flexible general intelligence, 7
fluid intelligence, 53
focal extrapersonal space, 176
focal prominence, 294
food aversion study, 204
formal semantics, 351
FORR, 348
forward timing, 157
4CAPS
brain imaging in, 55
capacity utilization in, 56–57, 58f, 61f, 63f
for cognitive functions, 55
collaborative processing in, 56
communication in, 55–56
computation in, 55–56
connectivity in, 64, 64f
contralateral takeover in, 61, 61f
contributions of, 63
cortical connectivity in, 65
CU in, 57–58, 61
dynamic spillover in, 59, 60f
fMRI study showing, 59f, 63f
history of, 49–50
increasing computational demands of, 58f
models in, 57
optimality in, 64–65
parametric response in, 58f
resource constraints in, 49, 55–56
spatial models for, 62
training effects in, 65
four-card selection problem, 236
FrameNet
development of, 346
example of, 316
links to, 326f
mappings, 327
use of, 5
frontal ganglia, 105–7, 107f
functional connectivity, 64, 64f
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
advent of, 6
for 4CAPS, 59f, 63f
for memory research, 212
for multitasking studies, 267
TOL problem in, 58, 58f, 59f
genetic markers, 164
geometric module, 184
germane load, 224
gestalt psychology, 232
graded specialization, 49
grammar
cognitive, 294
generative approach for, 283
performance in, 289
symbolic thesis in, 286–87
systems of, 290, 291f
grounded cognition, 285
Hebbian learning
error-driven integrated with, 101
founding of, 77
in Leabra architecture, 100
use of, 78
heuristics
in decision making, 251, 252t
for problem solving, 231
in transformation problems, 233–34
hidden layers
in connectionist models, 72, 72f
in simple recurrent network, 81, 81f
high-quality MT (FAHQMT), 339
hippocampal memory system
in amnesic patients, 221
pattern separation in, 104–5, 104f, 105f, 107–8
in spatial cognition, 173–74
hybrid models
benefits of, 147
for intuition, 145
SUSTAIN using, 145–46
idealized cognitive models (ICMs), 292
inducing structure problems, 232, 235–36
infants
causal reasoning in, 200
colors in, 183–84
dead reckoning in, 185
learning in, 184–85
spatial cognition in, 180–81, 184
information processing
in decision making, 251–52
language, 50
infradian timing, 155
inhibition function
average-based kWTA, 103f
in Leabra, 101–3, 102f
principles of, 98, 101
input layers
in connectionist models, 72, 72f
in simple recurrent network, 81, 81f
instance-based learning theory (IBLT)
computational models of, 257–59
in decision making, 254
dynamic tasks in, 256
in SDU instances, 256
theory of, 255
instrumental conditioning
questions about, 215
research on, 214
Integrated Cognitive- Neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS), 93, 94f
integrate neurons, 99f
integrative timing model
attention in, 160
clock in, 160
components of, 160
importance of, 151
memory in, 161
intelligent tutoring systems (cognitive tutor)
in ACT-R, 23, 224
animation tutor in, 245
benefits of, 224
computational models for, 226
in problem solving, 243–44
interactive-activation (IA)
in action, 75–76
background of, 71
constraint satisfaction in, 76
emergent property in, 71, 77
lessons learned from, 76–77
model architecture in, 75, 75f
in perception, 74–75
schemas in, 77
interoperability
importance of, 326
lemma in, 326
sense mappings in, 326
interval timing
experiments in, 153 (p. 371)
future directions in, 163–64
genetic markers for, 164
importance of, 151
models of, 158–63, 159f, 162f, 163f
multiple, 164
temporal patterns in, 153–56
intervention
in causal relations, 194–95
role of, 193
tutor, 183
in video games, 185
involuntary ocular processor, 29f, 30
IT cortex, 104f
Kantian proposals, 196
“kind-of” noun hierarchy, 304f
knowledge-based paradigm
cognitive science inspired, 348–49
meaning in, 349
in NLP, 348
knowledge bottleneck
examples of, 342
resources for, 343
k-Winners inhibitory competition, 99f
kWTA inhibition function, 103f
large-scale spaces
examples of, 173
human access to, 174
spatial ability in, 172
LCCM
aim of, 293
theory of, 288
Leabra architecture
ACT-R compared to, 96–97
for cognitive functions, 104f
dopaminergic system in, 110
in embodied robotics, 111
emotion in, 111–12
future directions of, 111
Hebbian learning in, 100
history of, 93
inhibition function in, 101–3, 102f
interference in, 104
kWTA used in, 102–3, 102f
in learning, 96–98, 100–101, 100f, 103–4, 104f
macrostructure of, 104f
mechanisms of, 99f
memory in, 103–4, 104f
metalevel guiding principles in, 94–97, 95f
model of, 93, 94f
for motivation, 111–12
neural activation function in, 99
neural mechanisms in, 93
PBWM of, 107f
temporal processing in, 112
learning. See also specific type
analytics, 225–26
of behavior, 211–13
causality in, 192–93
causal reasoning in, 196–97
causal relations in, 192–93
chunking model of, 219
as cognitive-level process, 44–45
as cognitive science, 213
collaborations in, 245
computational models of, 218
computers in, 212
connectionism in, 77, 85
in DDM, 252–55
declarative knowledge in, 17–18
in education, 222, 225
emergence in, 69, 211
expectation in, 101
in experts, 217–18
future directions of, 225
historical trends in, 212–13
implicit processes in, 120
in infants, 184–85
Kantian proposals in, 196
of language, 295–97, 296f, 297f
in Leabra, 96–98, 100–101, 100f, 103–4, 104f
mechanisms in, 99f
memory in, 104, 104f, 215–16
models for, 15, 137–38
PDP models of, 70, 70f
principles of, 77
psychology of, 211
relational models of, 143–45, 144f
research of, 211–14, 222
spacing effect in, 222
spatial cognition in, 182, 183
synaptic net activity in, 101
testing effect in, 223
left ear message, 272f
Levin’s classification system
for conative construction, 323
for verbs, 315–16, 325
lexicon
cognitive models of, 334
natural language, 303, 307–8
specific, 307–8
VerbNet organization, 315
WordNet organizing, 301
Linguistic Infrastructure for Interoperable Resources and Systems (LIRICS)
development of, 317
hierarchy in, 330
VerbNet comparison to, 328–29, 329t
linguistics
input, 350
research in, 310
semantics in, 292
LISP programming language, 21, 45, 243–44
listening comprehension, tests, 271, 272f
long- term potentiation and depression (LTP/LTD), 101
machine translation (MT)
applications of, 353
BLEU, 348
Candide, 348
FAHQMT, 339
natural language for, 316
research in, 337
system evaluation of, 348
mappings
in brain, 16f
in connectionist models, 71
constraints of, 239
direct, 346
FrameNet, 327
I/O, 107f
in military problems, 238–39, 238t
of neural regions, 226
one-to-many, 239f, 240–41
one-to-one, 239f, 240–41
across problems, 239, 239f
in problem solving, 231
sense, 326
across solutions, 240–41
Verbnet-probank, 327
matchstick problems, 232, 233f
mathematical models
in behavior, 15
in psychology, 2
spatial models v., 170
meaning construction. See also construction
annotation of, 343
conceptualization thesis of, 288
encyclopedic nature of, 292–93
in knowledge-based paradigm, 349
means-end analysis, 233–34, 234f
memory
ACS in, 122f
in ACT-R, 20, 20f
associative cortex in, 226
in CLARION, 121–22, 122f
content-addressable, 80
in decision making, 256, 256f
declarative, 216, 226
differences in, 6
dual code in, 178–79
in educational neuroscience, 225
in expert performance, 218
future directions of, 225
hippocampal, 104–5, 104f, 105f, 107–8, 173–74, 221
in integrative timing model, 161
in Leabra, 103–4, 104f
in learning, 104, 104f, 215–16
medial temporal lobe cortical structures in, 226
NACS in, 122f
neuroscience for, 212 (p. 372)
nondeclarative, 216
in Parkinson’s disease, 216–17
procedural, 216
relationships encoded into, 173f
in repeated binary choice, 258
research on, 4, 212, 215
retention of, 216
in schemas, 237
in spatial cognition, 177–78
study, showing correct span size/input position, 20f
time in, 159f
transient, 215
visual working, 28, 29f
weight-based, 106
WordNet inspired by, 305
military problem, 238–39, 238t
millisecond timing
importance of, 151
studies in, 152
motivational systems (MS)
in CLARION, 118, 119f
of cognitive architecture, 92–93
example of, 109
human, 128–29
Leabra architecture for, 111–12
multiple-systems models
benefits of, 147
choosing between, 146
future directions of, 148
multitasking performance
bandwidth in, 269
biologically based accounts of, 268–69
brain changes in, 265, 268, 275–76
brain imaging of, 267, 270–73, 270f, 272f, 277
central bottleneck in, 277
in college students, 272–73
cortical networks in, 268, 268f
emergence of, 275
environment during, 254
in EPIC, 27
fMRI of, 267
future directions in, 278
higher level, 273–74
individual differences in, 276–77
listening comprehension in, 271, 272f
lower level, 273–74
music listening during, 273
neural bases in, 266
neural circuitry of, 278
new information in, 265
parallel processing in, 42
research on, 265
studies of, 270f, 271–72, 272f
task automaticity effecting, 272
technology in, 266
training effects in, 266–67, 273–74
underadditivity in, 62–63, 63f, 270
in video games, 266–67
while driving, 270, 270f
with two simple tasks, 277
music
cognition of, 4
multitasking during, 273
nativist perspective
limitations of, 183–84
other perspectives v., 182
naturalistic decision making (NDM)
experts of, 260
study of, 259
natural language
AI influence on, 350
ambiguity of, 351, 353, 354n1
analyzing of, 343
input of, 351, 353
lexicons, 303, 307–8
for MT, 316
problem of, 10
structure of, 80
of students, 224
study of, 283
translation of, 351
understanding, 316, 324
natural language processing (NLP)
adapting existing resources for, 342–43
AI with, 340
applications of, 352–54
building resources for, 345–47
in cognitive architecture, 349–51
in cognitive modeling, 343, 349, 354
correlations with, 334
development of, 337
empiricist paradigm in, 340
history of, 339
integrated systems of, 347–48
knowledge-based paradigm in, 348–49
lexical ambiguity in, 338
morphological ambiguity in, 338
referential ambiguity of, 338
research on, 337
semantically annotated corpora in, 343–45
Soar using, 350
syntactic ambiguity in, 338
system components of, 347–48
system evaluation for, 348
text annotation for, 343–45
textual inference in, 351–52
uses of, 302, 316
for VerbNet, 316, 322
for WordNet, 302, 311, 343
neural activation function
in Leabra, 99
role of, 98
trade offs in, 106
neural bases
of improvement, 275
of interference, 277
in multitasking, 266
neural computation, 97–99
neurobiology
foundations of, 163
future directions of, 164
study of, 151
neurocognitive science
cognitive tasks in, 267–68, 268f
examples of, 6
study of, 1
non-action-centered subsystem (NACS)
ACS v., 119–22, 122f
in CLARION, 118, 119f
in memory, 122f
in simulation, 127–28
normativity, 201–2, 205–6
nouns
hierarchy of, 83f, 84
“kind-of” hierarchy of, 304f
object-relative, 60, 60f
ontology
design of, 307
development of, 346
in WordNet, 307
OntoNotes sense groupings, 326f
open-loop view
of decision making, 249–50
example of, 250f
orbital frontal cortex (OFC)
example of, 109, 109f
models of, 110
output layers
in connectionist models, 72, 72f
in simple recurrent network, 81, 81f
pacemaker, 159f
parahippo cortex, 104f
parallel distributed processing (PDP)
background of, 69–71
backpropagation algorithm in, 219
basis of, 219
distributed representation of, 220f
learning models of, 70, 70f
TOH in, 219
Parkinson’s disease, 216–17
parsimonious production system (PPS), 31f, 45
pattern matching, 73–74
perceptrons, 78
perceptual problem solving, 58
perceptual processor, 28, 29f
perceptual resource systems, 18f, 19–20
perceptual stimuli, 7
perceptual store, 28, 29f
peripersonal space, 176
perirhinal cortex, 104f
personality, 128–29
physical action, 350
Piagetian perspective, 179–81, 180f
pilots
efficiency of, 276
studies of, 266
polysemy, 293, 303
posterior cortex
basal ganglia v., 105–7, 107f
frontal ganglia v., 105–7, 107f
I/O mapping of, 107f
prediction error, 79, 83f
prefrontal cortex (PFC)
neural mechanisms in, 106
timing in, 154
prefrontal cortex basal ganglia working memory (PBWM), 107f
prepositional phrase (PP), 321
primary commitments
cognitive commitment in, 284–85
generalization commitment in, 285
primary value, learned value (PVLV)
of dopaminergic system, 107f
pathway in, 110
procedural knowledge
in ACT-R, 16, 16f, 18–19, 18f, 18t, 221
basal ganglia in, 226
in CLARION, 120–21
learning and, 18–19, 18f, 18t
production rules
of ACT-R, 16, 16f, 18, 18f, 18t
cognitive processor and, 30–32, 31f
encoding type letter key, 18t
encoding visual stimulus, 18t
in EPIC, 27, 29f
processing timeline from, 18f
production-system working memory (PSWM), 28, 31f
projective space, 180f
PropBank
frame files, 326
mappings of, 327
rolesets of, 327–28
prototype-based models
benefits of, 147
for categorization, 140, 140f, 141f
exemplar-based models v., 142–43
future directions of, 148
problems with, 141–42
rule-based vs., 140–41
psycholinguistics
beginnings of, 1
history of, 5
research in, 310
Q-Soar model, 181
radiation problem, 238–39, 238t
Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices, 52–53, 245
reasoning problems, 235–36
recognition-primed decision making (RPD), 260
Reno, 173f
repeated binary choice, 257–58
resource constraints, 49, 55–56
retinal acuity function, 37f
retrospective timing
importance of, 157
study of, 158
right ear message, 272f
robotic systems, 10, 111
rule-based models
benefits of, 147
in CLARION, 127–28
future directions of, 148
prototype-based models vs., 140–41
simple rule categories for, 138f
RULEX
hypotheses of, 138
SUSTAIN v., 146
San Diego, 173f
schemas
abstraction, 238, 238t
in cognition, 77
convergence, 238t
in experts, 237
-instance relations, 289, 289f
in learning language, 295
memory in, 237
for problem solving, 231
research on, 236
systems of, 290, 291f
schematization
in learning language, 295
in symbolic unit, 289
search space
example of, 234
for five Missionaries problems, 235f
selectional restriction hierarchy
development of, 320f, 321
example of, 320f
for VerbNet, 319, 320f
selective attention
in cognitive processing, 34
gorilla test of, 161
mechanisms, 146–47
in video games, 275–76
semantically annotated corpora
in NLP, 343–45
in WordNet, 309, 343
semantic role labeling (SRL), 324
semantics
cognitive, 289
compositional, 293
formal, 351
frame, 5, 292
interfacing, 324–25
lexical, 288, 334
in linguistics, 292
Montague approach for, 283
predicates, 316, 321–22, 332
research in, 5
similarity in, 239
structure in, 286
syntax-, interface, 323–24
in thematic roleset, 322
Semantic Web
development of, 339
use of, 345
SemLink
benefits of, 327–28
examples of, 326
sensory input, 107f
similarity-based reasoning
in causal reasoning, 198
in CLARION, 127–28
simple recurrent network (SRN)
context layer in, 81–82, 81f
explicit representation in, 84
hidden layer in, 81, 81f
input layer in, 81, 81f
output layer in, 81, 81f
prediction error signal for, 83f
verbs in, 83f, 84
simulated device, 28, 29f
simulations
ACS in, 127–28
brain imaging in, 95f
in cognitive architecture, 27–28
emer virtual robot, 95f
NACS in, 127–28
spacing effect
example of, 222
uses of, 226
sparse activity levels, 105f
spatial ability, 171–72
spatial cognition. See also cognition
components of, 170–74, 173f
computational models in, 176–77, 184
egocentric representations in, 173
factor analysis in, 171
foundational resources in, 179–85, 180f
future directions of, 185
hippocampal memory system in, 173–74
importance of, 4, 169
in infants, 180–81, 184
in learning, 182–83
mathematical models v., 170
range of, 169–70
spatial representations, 180–82
spatial visualization, 170
speech perception, 152–53
start signal, 159f
(p. 374) state operator and result (Soar)
basis of, 218
NLP in, 350
phases of, 219
in problem solving, 243
stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), 162, 162f
structure center lesion, 61f
subject-relative, 60, 60f
subtraction problems, 237
supporting assessment, 192–93
SUSTAIN, 145–48
symbolic unit
entrenchment in, 289
example of, 287, 287f
synaptic net activity, 101
synaptic weights
evidence of, 98
plotting change in, 100f
principle of, 97
synonymy, 303
syntactic ambiguity, 338
syntactic frames
evaluation of, 332–33
for VerbNet, 321, 332
syntax-semantics interface, 323–24
tactical decision-making task, 22f
tactile processor, 29f
Tag store, 31
task automaticity, 272
temporal sensitivity, 151
testing effect
example of, 223
use of, 226
text annotation
rules in, 344
use of, 343
Text REtrieval Conferences, 347
textual inference
automatic processing of, 351
example of, 352
thematic roleset
comparisons of, 329t
hierarchy of, 330, 331f
for PropBank, 328
semantics in, 322
in VerbNet, 317–18
for verbs, 315
threaded cognition, 22
3CAPS
contributions of, 63
development of, 52–54
future directions of, 63
working memory in, 53
tiger DNA, 139
token frequency, 296, 296f
top-down control
activation-based memory for, 106
hierarchical processing stages in, 107–8
topological space, 180f
total brain work
brain imaging of, 270
limits on, 269
total synaptic activation, 100f
Tower of Hanoi puzzle (TOH)
other problems v., 235–36
PDP in, 219
Tower of London puzzle (TOL), 58, 58f, 59f, 64f
training effects
brain changes with, 274–75
in 4CAPS, 65
in multitasking, 266–67, 273–74
trajector-landmark organization, 294, 294f
transformation problems, 232–34
transient memory, 215
transshipment problem, 64
type frequency, 296, 297f
type letter key, 18t
underadditivity, 62–63, 63f, 270
underconnectivity, 64
Unified Verb Index, 326
unity view
of causal relations, 203
motivation for, 204
unsupervised learning, 345
usage-based thesis, 288
VAX minicomputers, 50
verbal action, 350
verbal estimation, 158
verbalizers, 170
verbal theories, 15
verbal working memory, 41
VerbCorner, 332
VerbNet
applications of, 324–25
component description of, 317
crowdsourcing for, 332
development of, 5, 345–46
future directions of, 334
hierarchical structure of, 323, 331f
lexicon for, 315
LIRIC compared to, 328–29, 329t
motion in, 333
NLP for, 316, 322
-probank mappings, 327
selectional restriction hierarchy for, 319, 320f
semantic interfacing in, 324–25
semantic predicates in, 316, 321–22, 332
syntactic frames for, 321, 332
syntax-semantics interface in, 323–24
thematic roles in, 317–18
verbs
automatic classification of, 325
class hierarchy for, 323
hierarchy of, 83f, 330, 331f
Levin’s classification system for, 315–16, 325
senses, 325
Spatial Configuration class of, 321
specific, 322
in SRN, 83f, 84
subcategorization frame of, 316
synsets, 304
thematic roles for, 315
unified index for, 326
video games
executive function in, 275
intervention in, 185
multitasking in, 266–67
selective attention in, 275–76
Vierordt’s law
basis of, 156
recent studies of, 157
visual attention, 34–35
visualizers, 170
visual perception
in brain regions, 177–78
covert attention in, 34
in EPIC, 27–30, 29f, 37–38, 37f, 38f, 39f, 40f
facts about, 41
Pandemonium model of, 50
visual processing
behavior in, 177
in EPIC, 29f, 30
visual working memory, 28, 29f
Watson computer, 352–53
weak analogies, 204
web-based translation engines, 352
Weber’s law, 155–56
web search engines, 352
weight-based memory changes, 106
Wernicke’s area, 59f, 61f, 63f, 272f
white matter, 269
winner-takes-all (WTA), 101–2
word meanings, 292
WordNet
from AI, 305
applications of, 308
crosslingual, 302, 307
development of, 4–5, 301
Euro, 307
experiments with, 306
future directions of, 310–11
Global, Organization, 307
history of, 302
inferencing in, 309
“kind-of” noun hierarchy, 304f
lexicon organization of, 301
links to, 326f
memory inspired, 305
motivation of, 302
Multi, 307
NLP for, 302, 311, 343
ontology in, 307
in other languages, 301–2
polysemy in, 303
Princeton, 307
relations in, 303–5 (p. 375)
semantically annotated corpora in, 309, 343
using word sense disambiguation, 308–9
verb synsets in, 304
word sense disambiguation, 308–9
worked example effect, 224
working memory
in EPIC architecture, 41
in matchstick problems, 233
PBWM, 107f
PSWM, 28, 31f
in 3CAPS, 53
visual, 28, 29f
Zeitgeber, 154, 158, 160