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date: 25 August 2019

(p. 709) Index

(p. 709) Index

abortion
forced, 674, 681
in history, 233
providers, 234
sex selective, 384
Abu Ghraib, 678, 681, 699, 701
abuse, physical. See child physical abuse
abuse, sexual. See child sexual abuse
Adler, Freda, 23, 344, 428–29
adolescence
abstention from delinquency, 307
and antisocial behavior, 266–67, 287, 290
and delinquency, 10–11, 320, 351
and self-control, 328
child abuse in, 392
delinquency and transition to adulthood, 352
property offending and gender, 324
sex differences in, 288–90, 324, 347, 349, 352
substance abuse, 321
victimization, 324–25
violent offending and gender, 323
adolescent sexuality. See legal regulation of sexuality
homosexuality, 648
youth agency, 647
alternative dispute resolution [ADR]
and sexual violence, 127
androcentrism, 22, 600
anomie
human trafficking, 621
anti-feminist backlash, 100
and criminology, 108–09
arrest decisions, 556
assortative mating, 82, 90
atrocity crime, 690–91
comparative analysis, 695
Darfur, Sudan, 697
measurement, 703
pre-invasion Iraq, 700
prosecution of, 693
sexual assault as, 692
United States in post-invasion Iraq, 701
Australia
and sex work regulation, 149, 229–30, 232, 518, 640, 644–45
child sex abuse, 385
contributions to gender and criminology, 100
conviction rates, 163
developmental criminology, 302–03
female convict transportation, 166
female gang members, 469
gang violence, 477
gender and offending rates, 110, 162–63, 322, 347
gender and substance abuse, 322
indigenous groups, 47, 104, 201
rape, 219
rape law reform, 125
restorative justice, 50
sentencing, 563
transgender prisoners, 584
backlash hypothesis, 345, 433, 436
battered women’s syndrome, 88, 599
behavioral ecology, 12
and organized crime, 462
biological theories of sex differences in offending, 8, 18, 280
behavior genetics, 261, 275
brain imaging, 261, 263–65, 276
epigenetics, 263
hormones, 272–74
molecular genetics, 262
psychophysiology, 268
(p. 710) black feminist theory, 40–42, 330
blood feuds, 657
Bourke, Joanna, 59, 61
experience of the victim, 72
perpetrators of sexual violence, 72
Brownmiller, Susan, 61–62, 105, 671, 678–79
criticisms, 67
rape as sexual violence, 61, 208
Canada
adolescent sexuality, 636, 647, 659
and sex work regulation, 232, 640, 643, 655
child sex abuse, 385, 389–90
contributions to gender and criminology, 100
conviction rates, 163
developmental criminology, 292, 296
family violence, 390
gang membership, 472, 484
gender and offending, 100, 110, 162–63, 321, 323, 328, 331
gender and substance abuse, 322
homicide, 427, 437
imprisonment, 575
indigenous groups, 104
intimate partner violence and immigration, 45
penal policy, 53, 585
rape, 219
transgender prisoners, 584
capital punishment, 197
for sex offenses, 201, 227
honor killings as, 654
in the United Kingdom, 165
in the United States, 165
race and gender, 166
Central Park jogger, 66, 609
child homicide, 380
cultural and ethnic differences, 382
father perpetrators, 381, 393
gender of victims and cultural differences, 383
mother perpetrators, 381, 393
step-parent perpetrators, 382
trends in, 393
child physical abuse, 2, 388
cultural and ethnic differences, 390
declining rates, 389
gendered patterns of perpetrators and victims, 389
implications for adult offending, 391
prevalance, 389
prosecution of, 198, 227, 648
step-parents, 390
child sexual abuse, 384
and criminal law, 638
cultural and ethnic differences, 387
fathers as perpetators, 385
gendered patterns of perpetrators and victims, 325, 385
implications for adult offending, 387
in history, 226
mental health, 388
mothers as perpetrators, 386
perpetrators, 384
siblings as perpetrators, 386
China, 7
delinquency, 320
gender-based violence under the Qing dynasty, 178, 219
infanticide, 384
intimate partner violence, 176
sex selectivity, 383
snakeheads [Chinese criminal
network] and human smuggling, 456
women in organized crime, 453
chivalry, 84, 87, 211, 498, 552, 556. See criminal justice processing and gender
police decision-making, 560
civilizing process, 146
and criminalization of men, 169
and homicide, 426
intimate partner violence, 196
regulation of private lives, 198
class and crime. See socio-economic status
colonialism, 43, 207, 636
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
Law reform, 129, 673
Conflict Tactics Scale [CTS], 363, 364
Connell, Raewyn, 21–22
gender as a practice, 20
gender dichotomy, 26
gendered action, 28
masculinities studies, 19, 25, 600
(p. 711) Crenshaw, Kimberle. See black feminist theory and critical race theory
critical race theory, 42
intersectionality, 40–42
violence against women, 44, 66
crime rates over time, 149–150
and imprisonment, 577
and female offenders, 111
and the gender gap, 109, 111
historical contingencies, 140
methodological concerns, 140
theories of increases in female offending, 111
crime victim surveys, 363
critiques, 109, 460
criminal justice processing and gender
chivalry versus paternalism hypotheses, 498, 552, 554, 555
court outcomes, 558
courtrooms, 557
discretion, 553
extra-legal factors, 554
focal concerns theory, 13, 498, 554–55, 564
historical patterns, 160
limitations of, 119, 122
managing uncertainty and risk, 554
selectivity and typicality, 553
criminal justice responses to sexual violence recommendations, 133
criminal justice system
“American Model,” 129
and inequality, 124
and “real rape,” 122
and the “justice gap,” 120
as gendered, 6, 42, 158, 170
discrimination in, 46
gender-specific policies, 585–86
limitations of, 50, 65, 119, 133, 552, 581
masculinity in, 159
reform efforts, 100, 118, 120, 125
role of the victim in, 105, 119
transformative potential, 122
criminal law reform, 125
incompatibility with sexual violence, 119, 121, 122
women as staff members, 169
critical race theory, 31, 40, 42, 48
cross-national research, 140, 170
adolescent violence, 323, 325
child physical abuse rates, 389
child sexual abuse rates, 385
convictions and gender, 162
criminal justice processing and gender, 163, 563
delinquency, 320–21, 333
homicide, 427, 432
importance of, 7, 394, 438
intimate partner violence, 371
regulation of sex work, 638–640
sexual violence, 683
United States and Canada, 292
cultural criminology, 595, 603, 604
cultural defense
in honor killings, 664
Darwinism, 246–48
Democratic Republic of the Congo
gender-based violence, 674, 675, 680–81, 703
development
age, 287
and antisocial behavior, 267, 286, 350
and child abuse, 392
and violence, 323
evolutionary processes, 289
gender differences, 10, 288, 304, 306
Moffitt’s taxonomy, 290
gender differences, 291
race and class differences, 307
responses to stress, 274
theories of gender differences, 288
differential association theory, 329–30
white-collar crime, 494–95
differentiating between rape and sex, 68
doing difference, 19, 25, 29
hate crimes, 412
doing gender, 5, 8, 19, 25, 28, 31
contributions to criminology, 22, 33
criticisms, 25, 31, 79
doing crime as, 24, 30
gay-bashing, 412
intersectionality, 31, 32
masculinity studies, 19
sex role theory, 21
tautological, 25
white-collar crime, 497
(p. 712) domestic violence. See intimate partner violence
and the labour market, 128
historical trends, 175, 179
political influences, 176, 177
Victorian era, 163
doubly deviant, 25, 102, 164
drug markets
gender differences in involvement, 32, 448, 454
violent retaliation, 454
drug use. See substance use
England, Wales, and the United Kingdom. See Stern Review and sex work regulation 230, 517, 643
child abuse, 385, 388
contributions to gender and criminology, 100
conviction rates, 163
criminal justice reforms, 120, 129, 131, 160–61
dueling, 145, 194
female crime, 100, 150
female gang members, 469
gender and offending, 110, 320
historical trends in crime, 142, 148, 149, 209–10
homicide, 434
imprisonment rates, 574
infanticide, 234
infanticide “panic,” 235
intimate partner violence, 176, 179, 181, 196
masculinity and violence, 200
sexual assault cases, 120, 211, 213
sexual offenses, 149, 209–210, 229, 405
witchcraft, 160
eradication of sexual violence, 73
essentialism, 23, 26, 108, 112
ethnography, 7, 33, 52–53
organized crime and methodological concerns, 455
evil woman hypothesis, 553, 557
evolutionary perspectives
adaptation, 250
adaptation to violence, 248
advantages, 274
and developmental psychology, 289
criticisms, 69–70, 256
homicide, 253
male competitiveness and violence, 248, 252
male sexual proprietariness, 245, 254, 656
mating and parental investment, 251
natural selection, 247
naturalistic fallacy, 255
polygyny, 252
rape, 69–70, 255
reciprocal altruism, 146
sex differences in offending, 9, 245
sexual assault, 254
sexual reproduction, 250
Tinbergen’s “Four Whys,” 246
violence against women, 85, 254
Europe, 45, 142, 151, 185. See cross-national research
abortion, 233
colonialism, 200–01
criminal punishments, 166–67
delinquency, 321, 324
dueling, 194, 196
female crime rates, 150–51
gender and criminal justice processing, 563
immigration and crime, 528, 530
infanticide, 234
intimate partner violence, 176, 184–85
homicide, 426–27
honor killings, 658, 661, 663
human trafficking, 625
male pacification, 147
masculinity, 200
prostitution, 232, 614
regulation of sexuality, 638, 642
sex crimes, 226–27
sexual violence, 209, 213, 218
sumptuary laws, 148
violence against sexual minorities, 405
violent crime, 142, 145, 152
youth gangs, 469–70
fear of crime, 27, 602
female gang members, 28
contemporary trends, 469
historical trends, 469, 471
(p. 713) methodological concerns, 470
paternalism, 477
racial and ethnic differences, 470, 475
sexing in, 474
female offenders
absence from feminist analysis, 112
as doubly deviant, 25, 102, 164
lenience toward, 84, 164, 498, 553
media constructions, 109, 197, 596, 600, 603
reformability, 168
female offending and agency, 112
criminal justice responses, 158, 551
exclusion from historical records, 141
explanations of, 23, 102, 151, 261, 496, 581
gender-specific theories of, 326, 424, 435, 496
historical trends, 139, 150, 158
homicide, 162, 424, 428, 429, 431
informal social controls, 151
relationship to male offending, 427
urban and rural women, 150
female police officers, 170, 554
female victimization/victims, 80, 86
child sexual abuse, 384
harsher sentences for crimes against, 552, 563
homicide, 324, 433, 435
honor killings, 652
intimate partner violence, 366
media constructions, 596, 602
sympathy for, 81, 179, 218
femininity, 5, 24, 26, 28
and sentencing in the Victorian era, 164–65
and sexual violence, 60, 67, 73
“Bad girl” femininity, 25, 26
doing femininity, 25, 28–29
historical patterns, 141–42, 151, 197
imprisonment, 167–68, 573, 582–83
non-normative, 478
normative, 25
race and femininities, 332
feminist anthropology, 68
feminist criminology, 40, 99, 585
activism, 79, 80, 106, 539
and adolescent delinquency, 330
and criminal law, 126
and incarceration, 585
and social change, 106
backlash against, 108
challenges faced by, 106–07, 113
contributions to criminology, 99
epistemology, 103
inclusion of women, 102
methodological limitations, 109
social construction of gender, 104
standpoint perspectives, 103
structural frameworks, 104
white-collar crime, 496
feminist jurisprudence, 125, 192
feminist movement, 40, 61, 121
and sex trafficking, 615
and sexual violence, 122
feminist pathways perspectives, 497, 581
feminist psychology, 67
cultural scaffolding, 67
schemas, 67
feminist theory, 594
adolescent crime, 330
alternative dispute resolution, 127
and cultural criminology, 605
exclusion of women of color, 41
homicide, 426
human trafficking, 620, 623
sexual violence, 59, 61, 126
sexuality, 641
feminist victimology, 105
making the private public, 106
Fenstermaker, Sarah, 19, 21, 33, 412
focal concerns theory, 13, 498, 554–55, 564
Foucault, Michel
and sexual violence, 60, 63
and sexuality, 637
France
dueling, 194
infanticide, 234–35
intimate partner violence, 185
regulation of sexuality, 405
rejection of the “American Model,” 130
sex work regulation, 230, 640
sexual violence, 211, 219
sexual violence laws, 130
(p. 714) gang membership, 7, 12, 470
and bad girl femininity, 25
criminal activities and gender, 476
exiting a gang, 478
familial structure and gender, 473
female identity, 28, 49
heteronormativity, 477
immigration status, 473
initiation, 474
lifetime trajectories, 480
risk factors and gender, 472
role differentiation by sex, 475
victimization and gender, 478
gang rape, 213, 218, 403, 596, 672, 681, 700
gangs
definition of, 471
historical accounts, 469
men’s prisons, 583
organized crime, 451–52
violence, 23, 164
gender and accountability, 21
gender and criminology, 22
gender animus, 70
gender as a practice, 20, 22
gender dualism, 20, 25–26, 32
gender gap
explanations of, 150, 326, 449
in delinquency, 320, 323
in homicide offending, 425
in homicide victimization, 425, 433
in imprisonment, 573, 582
in offending, 100, 110, 139, 142, 149, 320, 345, 460
in white-collar crime, 491, 494
gender hierarchies, 30, 583
gender identity, 5, 27, 60, 63, 68, 73
and crime, 139, 329, 481
and criminalization, 228
and victimization, 416
gender identity disorder, 584. See transgenderism and transgender people
gender inequality, 43
and criminal law, 128
and female crime, 23, 30, 32, 112, 329
and homicide, 425, 429, 433, 436
and honor killings, 657–58
and intimate partner violence, 178
and sex work, 511
and sexual violence, 8, 119, 129, 415, 428, 599, 678
and wartime, 664, 678
gender norms, 28
gender role theory, 21–22
gender roles, 21, 368, 528
gender-specific prison programs, 580, 585
gender-specific theories of female crime, 326, 424, 435, 496
gender stratification
and homicide, 425
gender studies, 21
gender violence, 7, 14, 596, 605
definition of, 673, 674
internally displaced persons, 675
reproductive violence, 675
strategic use during wartime, 681
gender violence and wartime
barriers to prosecution, 701
race and ethnicity, 695
genocide, 14, 671, 690
rape as an instrument, 208, 677, 681, 692
Global Alliance against Trafficking in Women, 642, 646
group-based trajectory studies, 292
Hate Crime Statistics Act, 406
hegemonic masculinity, 24, 63, 192,199, 201, 460, 573, 583, 586, 600
heteronormativity
and gang violence, 477
heterosexuality
and heterosexism, 11
and sexual violence, 62, 67
and violence against sexual minorities, 404
and youth violence, 331
historical trends
changing gender gaps, 149
crimes against morality, 148
demographics, 143
domestic violence, 144
exclusion of women from official records, 141, 164
gender and class norms, 164
gender roles and violence, 145
non-lethal violence, 144
(p. 715) non-violent crime and gender, 147
sex-specific offenses, 140, 148
suppression of violence, 145
violent crime, 142
homicide, 11, 424
and the unwritten law, 195
etiology, 431
gender and risk factors, 430
historical patterns, 142–43, 197
intimate partner, 179–81, 185, 197, 364, 366, 536
male-on-male, 253
media coverage, 598, 602
motives, 430
offending and gender, 87–88, 426
race-specific rates, 429, 434
relationship with honor killings, 658
significance of gender, 436
theories of sex differences in, 425
trends in rates, 428, 434
typical offender profile, 430
typical victim profile, 435
Verkko’s static and dynamic laws, 433
victimization and gender, 432, 435
victimization and race, 434
victimization risk, 436
homophobia, 47, 403, 409, 413, 481
homosexuality
and sex differences in sexuality, 85
and state punishment, 406, 648
criminalization of, 9, 178, 215, 227, 232, 405, 648
history of violence against, 405
honor killings, 655
in street gangs, 481
intimate partner violence, 82, 369
marriage, 635, 637
sexual violence, 89, 215
victimization, 325, 406, 683
honor killings, 7, 14
collective support, 654, 659, 663
criminal justice reforms, 663
definition of, 653, 662
economic explanations, 657
features, 653, 661
frequency, 655, 657
male targets, 655
patriarchal control, 656
pre-invasion Iraq, 699
prosecution, 660
rates in Arabic and Central Asian countries, 658
rates in Europe and North America, 661
religious influences, 658
hormones, 4, 261–263, 272–73, 385
human rights, 639
and honor killings, 658, 664
and human trafficking, 617, 629
and sex workers, 615–16
and sexual violence, 128, 130, 417
violations, 14, 695, 703–04
human trafficking, 2, 7, 14
agency and consent, 623
and gender, 617
and smuggling, 616, 617
anti-trafficking efforts, 615, 646
children, 623, 628
measuring victims, 618, 620, 622
methodological issues, 621
organized crime, 455, 461
origins of, 614
perpetrators, 619
responsible criminal networks, 627
sex trafficking, 513, 516, 638, 641, 646
small-scale networks, 627
theories, 620
victimhood, 623, 646
hypermasculinity, 24, 200, 369, 411
in the context of war, 679
in gangs, 468
in prisons, 583
ideal victim, 46, 65, 124, 130, 214, 623
identity politics, 41, 101, 125, 510
immigrants/immigration, 713
and child abuse, 387
and concerns about rape, 131
and crime rates, 527
and delinquency, 321
and gangs, 473, 477
and homicide, 437
and homophobia, 409
and intimate partner violence, 44, 183, 363, 370, 536
(p. 716) and offending, 527
and sexual violence, 131
and victimization, 44
female immigrants, 122, 530, 532, 618
honor killings, 652, 661
political organization of immigrant communities, 540
immigration policy
children in foster care, 533
deportation and crime, 532
impact on community cohesion, 534
Proposition 187 [denial of public benefits], 539
imprisonment, 572
consequences of, 13, 587
female inmates, 583
gang membership, 480
gender differences and lived experiences, 582
gender-specific policies, 579
historical patterns, 159, 168
immigrants, 527–28
indigenous women, 54, 99
pathways to, 579
racial disparities, 46, 49, 53, 166, 576
rates, 574
sentences to, 576–577
sex differences, 559
sex workers, 231
sexual minorities, 406
trends in, 13, 119–20, 574
incest, 226, 385–86
India, 7
caste system and domestic violence, 177
domestic violence, 129
homicide, 427, 437
honor killings, 658
infanticide, 384
masculinity, 200
sex-selectivity, 383
sex work, 647
sexual violence, 130, 219, 677
women and illegal trades, 453
indigenous women, 71
incarceration, 53, 99, 104
offending, 47, 50, 563
violence, 45
infanticide, 2, 9, 11, 143, 234, 381
and mental health, 381
Foundling Hospitals, 235
legal response, 162, 234–35
sex-selectivity, 178, 384
social panic over, 234
interactions with police
and gender, 161
international comparisons. See cross-national research
International Convention for the Suppression of Traffic in Women, 615
International Criminal Court, 71, 673, 695
definition of sexual violence, 672
definition of state rape, 692
international criminal law
and genocide, 692
and sexual violence, 14, 71, 131
criticisms, 132
rape as a war crime, 131, 217, 690
interpersonal aggression, 79
and retributive justice, 82
and theory, 79
offender motivation, 81
third parties, 82
intersectionality, 8, 19, 41, 48
and adolescence, 321
and adolescent delinquency, 321, 328, 332
and colonialism, 47
and criminal justice policy, 53
and gender-based violence, 682–83
and global contexts, 49
and methodological concerns, 51, 54
and postmodernism, 42
and race, 40, 49
and recidivism, 49
and sexual violence, 65
and the criminal justice system, 49
and victimization, 44, 46, 66
and violent crime, 48
and wartime victimization, 677
criticisms, 51, 80
definition of, 319
social bond theory, 327
violence against sexual minorities, 408
(p. 717) intimate partner violence. See domestic violence
adolescents, 325
and help-seeking strategies, 40, 45
and immigration, 44, 370, 535, 538
and industrialization, 185
and intersectionality, 47
and race, 46, 182, 370
and sexism, 90
arrest decisions and gender, 556
assortative mating, 82, 90
attempts to leave, 184
class bias, 198
coercive control, 129
cultural expectations, 537, 538
escalation of in 19th century, 183
female offenders, 185, 363
gender expectations, 364, 537
gender inequality, 436
gender symmetry, 77, 320, 364, 366
historical research, 175
history of research on, 363
homicides, 179, 180, 183, 197, 598
in dating relationships, 71, 325
Johnson’s typology, 90, 366
male gender roles, 368, 369
male sexual proprietariness, 245, 254
media portrayals of victims, 596, 598
methodological issues in studying, 364, 366
Native Americans, 182
non-western societies, 177
perpetrators, 364
provocation, 80, 88
racial differences, 185
relationship with honor killings, 657
reporting, 537
sexual orientation, 368
stealth murder, 183
third parties, 184
unwanted spouses, 185
women’s responses, 86
worldwide trends, 370
Iraq. See state rape: pre-invasion Iraq and Abu Ghraib
honor killings, 654, 659, 664, 699
rape and criminal law, 701
United States involvement in sexual violence, 701
Israel
gender violence, 674, 678
homicide, 427
honor killings, 655
sexual violence laws, 129
John schools, 518
Jordan
honor killings, 656, 659
honor killings and criminal law, 660
honor killings and legal reform, 664
justice gap, 119, 120, 124
legal regulation of sexuality, 635, 639
morality, 637
notions of protection, 648
trends in criminal law, 638, 640
liberation thesis, 23, 111, 344, 428, 494
life course perspective, 343
adolescent offending, 320
agency, 355
antisocial behavior, 287
behavioral continuity, 350
employment, 353
gender differences in the development of anti-social behavior, 346
historical context and gendered deviance, 345
marriage, 353
offending trajectories and gender, 348
parenthood, 355
persistent offending, 271, 290
socialization and delinquency, 350
MacKinnon, Catherine, 62, 641, 646, 679
Mafia, The 456
Mafias, 456
and gender, 448
criminal indictments, 458
female emancipation, 458
gender exclusivity, 12, 449, 460
relationships with women, 457
Maher, Lisa, 32, 43, 111, 454
male offenders/offending, 22, 192
as backlash, 345
child abuse, 393
criminal justice responses, 158, 551
exclusionary practices, 30
(p. 718) historical trends, 139, 150, 158
histories of victimization, 24
homicide, 428, 430
normalization of, 193
male victims/victimization, 47, 80, 86
child sexual abuse, 384
homicide, 324, 432, 435
honor killings, 655
intimate partner violence, 366
sexual violence, 703
trafficking, 461, 626
marriage
historical trends, 180
masculine women, 197, 413
masculinities studies, 19
and crime, 192
masculinity, 5, 6, 19
and crime, 1, 45
and gang membership, 476
challenge, 29
criminal justice processing, 159, 555
delinquency, 329, 331
doing gender, 19, 26, 28, 497
historical trends, 145–46, 176, 191, 426
in prison, 582–83
indigenous populations, 200
intimate partner violence, 369, 372
male prostitution, 232
military culture, 199, 679
protest, 24
race and class differences, 25, 48, 166, 200, 331–32, 528, 537, 600
sexual violence, 60, 66, 72, 123, 213
masculinity and honour, 159
dueling, 194, 196
family and sexual honour, 194
insanity defense for honor crimes, 195
mass media, 13
and crime, 594
as a gendered institution, 601
challenging stereotypes, 597
construction of female offenders, 109, 162, 599
construction of male offenders, 599
coverage differences by medium, 598
coverage of female offenders, 162
coverage of intimate partner violence, 598
coverage of rape, 597
portrayals of violence against women, 596
race, class, and masculinity, 528, 555, 600
white-collar crime, 498
Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Hate Crimes Prevention Act, 416
Megan’s Laws, 124
mental health
and child abuse, 388, 582
and infanticide, 381
female offenders, 430
gender gap in prisons, 581
impact of maltreatment, 582
trafficking victims, 625
Messerschmidt, James, 19–21, 192, 331
military structure
gender violence during wartime, 680
moral panics
female offenders, 109
immigration, 530
infanticide, 234
prostitution, 149
witchcraft, 160
Mothers Against Illegal Immigrants, 579
movies and crime. See mass media
multicultural feminism, 42, 66
multiculturalism, 67
and honor killings, 652, 661
National Coalition of Anti-Violence Projects
and violence against sexual minorities, 408
Native Americans
intimate partner violence, 182
Nazi Germany
and homosexuality, 405
neoliberalism, 119, 123, 147, 156, 631
and criminalization, 123–24
and immigration policy, 533, 539
and imprisonment policy, 586
and violence against women, 123
neuropsychology, 261, 265
New Zealand
adolescent delinquency, 346, 350
and sex work regulation, 149, 232, 518, 519, 639, 644, 649
conviction rates, 163
developmental criminology, 297
female gang members, 469
(p. 719) gender gap and crime, 324
prison sentences, 563
organized crime, 2, 12, 448
access and involvement, 450
auto theft and gender, 455
definition of, 449
female agency, 453
female drug traffickers, 453
female organizations, 452
fraud, 500
gender mixing, 451
human trafficking, 626, 627
law enforcement and gender, 459, 460
theory of war making, 694, 699
Palermo Protocols, 617, 623
paternalism. See chivalry
patriarchy, 67, 107
and intimate partner violence, 363
and law, 192, 198
and rape, 72, 207, 217, 638, 677
and sex work, 509, 641
bargaining with, 30
patriarchal controls, 426, 436, 459, 656, 662
patriarchal families, 178, 331, 426
patriarchal societies, 14, 69, 90, 387, 464, 597
and honor killings, 652
penal transportation, 166
perceptions of crime
and immigration, 527, 529, 530, 531
news coverage and race, 602
white-collar crime, 498, 502
phallocentric, 103
criminology as, 98
piracy, 451
policy reform
feminist definitions of success, 121
sexual violence, 120
pornography, 88, 508, 514, 606, 635, 641, 647
postmodernism, 40, 42, 64
feminism, 66, 103
power-control theory, 320, 331
prison population boom, 13, 119
and gender, 577
causes of, 577
consequences, 579
prisoners
as parents, 583
characteristics of, 580
experiences of, 49, 167, 582
female
assumptions about, 583
historical experiences of, 167–68
histories of abuse, 582
kin groups, 480
mental health, 582
gang members, 480, 583
male
adaptations of, 583historical experiences of, 167
masculinity, 583
sexual assault, 409, 583
transgender, 409, 584
probation
feminization, 170
prosecution
gender violence, 673, 689
historical trends, 142, 144, 148, 160–61, 210
intimate partner violence, 122, 125, 164
sexual violence, 210, 218
trafficking, 626
prostitution. See sex work
Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, 616, 617
Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, 616
psychopathy, 249, 264, 268, 272, 411
punishment
and female offenders, 164
and gender, 162
civilizing process, 165
corporal, 231, 393, 698
cost to young, black males, 555
gender-responsive, 585
of children, 388, 391
of rape victims, 219
of women and children, 165
politicization of, 577
race. See intersectionality, intimate partner violence, and sexual violence
and corporate crime victimization, 500
and crime, 7, 79, 307, 319, 348, 438, 434
(p. 720) and criminal justice processing, 158, 554, 558, 562
and imprisonment, 572, 575, 578, 583
“Criminalblackman,” 555
gender penalty, 552, 555
hate crimes, 406, 408
hierarchies, 130
media constructions, 600–01
relational schema theory, 332
youth gangs, 470
racial bias, 41, 46, 66, 124, 231, 597, 601, 694
radical feminism, 105, 108
and human trafficking, 620, 646
and sex work, 641–42
and sexual violence, 59
rape. See sexual assault
rape avoidance, 65
rape culture, 62, 67, 83, 119, 119, 123, 133
rape myths, 44, 61, 119, 122, 604
rational choice theory
human trafficking, 621
red light districts, 520–21, 640
reformatories and reformation, 168
relational schema theory, 332
responsibilization, 124, 586
restorative justice
and domestic violence, 127
and intersectionality, 50
criticisms, 50, 127
Rome Statute, 71, 692, 700
definition of sexual violence, 673
Rome Treaty of 1998, 71, 702
routine activities theory
violence against sexual minorities, 407
white-collar crime victimization, 500
second-wave feminism, 23, 107, 132, 645
and intimate partner violence, 598
and sex work, 640
seduction, crime of, 83, 212
self-control theory
white-collar crime, 495
white-collar crime victimization, 501
self-defense, 111
and honor killings, 657
and intimate partner violence, 79, 87, 365, 367
sentencing
and gender, 164, 502, 558, 577
and imprisonment, 576–77
and race, 42, 555, 560
familial paternalism, 559
gender of victims, 559
guidelines, 559, 577
honor killings, 665
international patterns, 563
parental status, 578
policy, 575, 586
theories of, 552, 554–55
white-collar crime, 497–98
sex tourism, 512, 615
sex trafficking. See human trafficking
sex versus gender, 28
sex work, 2, 12, 14, 32
and gender, 26, 511
benefits of state involvement, 519
comparing male and female sex workers, 511
consumers, 517, 642, 644
consumption by marginalized populations, 510
criminalization, 516, 639, 640
decriminalization and legalization, 518, 520, 640, 644, 645
empowerment paradigm, 509, 519
historical trends, 149, 161, 230, 614
indoor versus outdoor sex workers, 513, 644
law enforcement and gender, 513
legal context for, 230
male workers, 232, 520
New Zealand, 519, 639, 644
oppression paradigm, 509, 516, 642
polymorphous paradigm, 510
public disorder, 231
regulation of, 149, 230–31, 347, 513, 515, 640
relationship with human trafficking, 416, 517, 615, 616, 622, 646
stratification in, 32, 230
Sweden, 517, 642
theories of, 509
victimization risks, 232, 513
United States, 514
sexism, 41, 66, 77, 89–90, 102, 597, 603, 641
sexual violence, 82
abduction in medieval Europe, 209
and heterosexuality, 62
and intersectionality, 65
and law-and-order politics, 120
and male power, 61, 62
and qualitative methods, 64
and race, 61, 65, 207, 215, 677, 696
and self-image, 86
as a metaphor, 217
as a property crime, 208
as a violent crime, 209
consequences of criminal justice system involvement, 121
defining consent, 210
defining rape, 85, 122, 125, 207, 672
harm, 72
legal history of, 208, 212
male victims, 147
medical explanations, 211, 213
prevalence, 64, 211
portrayals in mass media, 597, 603
reluctance to report, 123
scripts, 66
sex differences in sexuality, 88
sexual motivation, 88
wartime, 217, 674
signaling theory
and organized crime, 12, 449, 462
situated action
gender as, 5, 20, 29
theory, 41, 51
slavery, 3, 66, 166, 176–77, 692, 696
sex trafficking as, 461, 509, 614–15, 627
sexual, 690
Snakeheads (Chinese criminal network)
human smuggling, 456
social capital
and crime, 345
women and organized crime, 454, 459
social class. See socio-economic status
social control theory
adolescence delinquency, 328
gender violence during war, 678
social learning theory
adolescent delinquency, 329
differential association, 330
social psychology, 105
and aggression, 77, 81
and embezzlement, 493
applying the scientific method, 79
language of violence, 79
social influence processes, 81
socio-biological explanations of sexual violence, 93
criticisms, 70, 71
evolutionary sexual selection, 69
in wartime, 680
reproduction, 70
socio-economic status
and antisocial behavior, 290, 307
and child abuse, 380, 390
and dating violence, 325
and delinquency, 331
and gang membership, 474
and gender socialization, 331
and homicide, 430, 455
and immigration, 529
and imprisonment, 587
differential association theory, 494
life course perspective, 343
sodomy, 9
and bestiality, 220
and reputation, 228
female perpetrators, 228
historical patterns, 193, 215, 227, 229, 405
laws, 636, 648
punishments for, 193, 225, 405
slavery in the Ottoman Empire, 227
South Africa
dueling, 199
sexual violence laws, 130
violence against sexual minorities, 403, 413
state rape, 7, 14, 694
barriers to prosecution, 692
comparative analyses, 707
Darfur, Sudan, 695
definition of, 691
ongoing and recent conflicts, 703
pre-invasion Iraq, 698
prosecution, 700, 702
(p. 722) status offenses, 288, 319, 560, 562, 564
statutory rape, 3, 647
Stern Review, 120
strain theory
delinquency, 326
human trafficking, 621
stripping, 512, 522, 644
effect of strip clubs on crime, 515
structured action
masculinity as, 331
theory, 20
substance use
adolescence, 321, 332
and marriage, 354
as doing gender, 24
superior responsibility
in cases of crimes against humanity, 693
Sutherland, Edwin, 492
Sweden
corporal punishment, 391
crimes against morality, 149, 229
female imprisonment, 574
homicide and gender trends, 143, 434
honor killings, 661
sex work regulation, 517, 642
symbolic interactionism
and adolescent delinquency, 328
and violence, 48
third-wave feminism
and dominance model, 42
traffic stops
gender and race, 557
Trafficking Victims Protection Act, 514, 516, 620
transgender people
attitudes toward, 411, 416
gang members, 481
prisoners, 585
sex work, 12, 508, 522
violence against, 404, 409, 512, 584
transgenderism
correctional policies, 584
sex work, 510
Turkey
female imprisonment, 574
honor killings, 654, 655, 659, 661
penal reforms, 664
sex trafficking, 622
undoing gender, 27, 34, 47
Uniform Crime Reports and violence against sexual minorities, 406
United Nations
honor killings, 683, 664
human trafficking, 616
intimate partner violence, 371
LGBTQ issues, 416
United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 129, 673
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 623
United Nations Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, 653, 658, 699
United States
anti-trafficking movement, 619
attitudes toward immigrants, 533
child abuse and homicide, 383, 385, 389
conviction rates, 163
criminalization of teen sexuality, 647
death penalty, 166
gender gap in crime, 333, 347, 349
historical trends in violence, 142, 144, 181, 183
homicide rates, 429, 434
immigration policies, 44
imprisonment, 13, 49, 119, 572, 574, 576, 588
intimate partner violence, 370, 536
responsibility for, in Iraq, 701
sex work regulation, 514, 517, 641
sexual violence
and race, 216
violence against sexual minorities, 406
violence against women policies, 119, 124, 128
United States Immigration Reform and Control Act, 539
United States National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs, 409
(p. 723) Victim-blaming, 80, 105, 122
and sexual violence, 63, 596
attribution theory, 609
causality, 80
violence against sexual minorities, 2, 11, 403
and democratization, 416
cultural explanations, 413
exposure to feared “others,” 414
fear, 407
gender norms, 413
gender stratification, 415
in Latin America, 414
interactional explanations, 412
lesbians, 413
methodological issues, 407
prisons, 409
social-psychological explanations, 410
youth, 409
violence against women
compared to violence against men, 84
“don’t hit girls” norm, 84
sexism, 89
similarities with violence between men, 77
Violence against Women Act of 1994, 64, 70
wartime and gender violence, 14, 208, 217, 690
barriers to prosecution, 692, 701
collateral consequences, 675
ethnicity and race, 676
female perpetrators, 677
male victimization, 676, 692
methodological limitations, 683
motivations, 681
state responsibility, 692
theoretical explanations, 678
victim selection, 674
West, Candace, 5, 19, 21, 33, 412
western feminism, 68
white-collar crime, 2, 12
and gender, 24, 152, 345, 491
corporate crime and gender, 493
embezzlement, 493
female pathways to, 497
fraud, 494
historical perspectives, 492
legal responses and gender, 497
occupational crime and gender, 493
organizational factors and gender, 496
reactions to, 497
sentencing, 498
workplace gender roles, 494
witchcraft, 148, 160, 193, 234
worker exploitation
female immigrant responses, 539
human trafficking, 621
immigrants, 538
young offenders. See adolescence and adolescent delinquency
arrests and gender, 560
gender and criminal justice outcomes, 561
general delinquency and gender, 561
paternalism and the criminal justice system, 560
sentencing and gender, 562
Zimmerman, Don, 5, 19, 21, 412