- The Oxford Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice
- Doing Crime as Doing Gender?: Masculinities, Femininities, and Crime
- Intersectionality and the Study of Sex, Gender, and Crime
- Sexual Violence
- Back to Basics: Gender and the Social Psychology of Aggression
- Feminist Criminologies’ Contribution to Understandings of Sex, Gender, and Crime
- Explaining the Volte-Face: Turning Away from Criminal Law and Returning to the Quest for Gender Equality
- Long-Term Trends in Female and Male Involvement in Crime
- A Historical Perspective on Criminal Justice Responses to Female and Male Offending
- Gender, Sex, and Intimate-Partner Violence in Historical Perspective
- Masculinities and Crime in Historical Perspective
- Sexual Violence in Historical Perspective
- Crimes Related to Sexuality and Reproduction
- Evolutionary Perspectives on Sex, Gender, and Crime
- Biological Perspectives on Sex Differences in Crime and Antisocial Behavior
- Developmental Perspectives: Sex Differences in Antisocial Behavior from Childhood to Adulthood
- Adolescent Crime and Victimization: Sex and Gender Differences, Similarities, and Emerging Intersections
- Gender and Offending in a Life Course Context
- Intimate-Partner Violence
- Violence Against Children in Families
- Violence Against Sexual and Gender Minorities
- Sex, Gender, and Homicide: Contemporary Trends and Patterns
- Organized Crime: The Gender Constraints of Illegal Markets
- Street Gangs: The Gendered Experiences of Female and Male Gang Members
- White-Collar and Corporate Crime
- Sex Work, Gender, and Criminal Justice
- Complicating the Immigration–Crime Nexus: Theorizing the Role of Gender in the Relationship Between Immigration and Crime
- The Benefits and Penalties of Gender for Criminal Justice Processing Outcomes Among Adults and Juveniles
- Sex, Gender, and Imprisonment: Rates, Reforms, and Lived Realities
- Media, Gender, Sex, and Crime
- Empirical Vacuum: In Search of Research on Human Trafficking
- The Legal Regulation of Sex and Sexuality
- Honor Killings
- Beyond Rape: Reconceptualizing Gender-Based Violence During Warfare
- State Rape and the Crime of Genocide
Abstract and Keywords
Although sexual violence during mass atrocities has become formally criminalized under international law, relatively few cases referred to international or specialized courts have led to prosecution. This essay introduces the term State rape to call attention to State responsibility for widespread and systematic sexual violence as a particular class of atrocities. The term distinguishes sexual violence perpetrated by State or State-linked actors as a form of torture, a weapon of war, and an instrument of genocide. This new terminology suggests alternative grounds for establishing State liability for these crimes on the basis of either direct involvement or grave negligence. The essay discusses two case studies—Darfur and pre-invasion Iraq—to demonstrate application of the term to different types of regimes. It examines victims’ experiences collected through interviews and victimization surveys. Finally, it discusses the use of social science research methods to assess patterns of mass atrocities in other conflicts.
John L. Hagan, PhD, is John D. MacArthur Professor of Sociology and Law at Northwestern University and a Senior Research Fellow at the American Bar Foundation.
Jaime Nicole Morse is a PhD candidate in Sociology at Northwestern University.
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