- The Oxford Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice
- Doing Crime as Doing Gender?: Masculinities, Femininities, and Crime
- Intersectionality and the Study of Sex, Gender, and Crime
- Sexual Violence
- Back to Basics: Gender and the Social Psychology of Aggression
- Feminist Criminologies’ Contribution to Understandings of Sex, Gender, and Crime
- Explaining the Volte-Face: Turning Away from Criminal Law and Returning to the Quest for Gender Equality
- Long-Term Trends in Female and Male Involvement in Crime
- A Historical Perspective on Criminal Justice Responses to Female and Male Offending
- Gender, Sex, and Intimate-Partner Violence in Historical Perspective
- Masculinities and Crime in Historical Perspective
- Sexual Violence in Historical Perspective
- Crimes Related to Sexuality and Reproduction
- Evolutionary Perspectives on Sex, Gender, and Crime
- Biological Perspectives on Sex Differences in Crime and Antisocial Behavior
- Developmental Perspectives: Sex Differences in Antisocial Behavior from Childhood to Adulthood
- Adolescent Crime and Victimization: Sex and Gender Differences, Similarities, and Emerging Intersections
- Gender and Offending in a Life Course Context
- Intimate-Partner Violence
- Violence Against Children in Families
- Violence Against Sexual and Gender Minorities
- Sex, Gender, and Homicide: Contemporary Trends and Patterns
- Organized Crime: The Gender Constraints of Illegal Markets
- Street Gangs: The Gendered Experiences of Female and Male Gang Members
- White-Collar and Corporate Crime
- Sex Work, Gender, and Criminal Justice
- Complicating the Immigration–Crime Nexus: Theorizing the Role of Gender in the Relationship Between Immigration and Crime
- The Benefits and Penalties of Gender for Criminal Justice Processing Outcomes Among Adults and Juveniles
- Sex, Gender, and Imprisonment: Rates, Reforms, and Lived Realities
- Media, Gender, Sex, and Crime
- Empirical Vacuum: In Search of Research on Human Trafficking
- The Legal Regulation of Sex and Sexuality
- Honor Killings
- Beyond Rape: Reconceptualizing Gender-Based Violence During Warfare
- State Rape and the Crime of Genocide
Abstract and Keywords
This essay synthesizes qualitative and quantitative research on sex, gender, and street gangs, following a developmental progression and, whenever appropriate, including international and otherwise culturally diverse research. It discusses historical and contemporary prevalence statistics and the factors that shape them. It reviews sex differences in risk factors for gang membership; reasons and methods for joining and leaving gangs; and gang members’ roles and activities, including violence involvement. The authors demonstrate that these experiences are structured by a gang’s sex composition, as well as gang members’ performances of masculinity. The essay also examines desistance from gangs and the long-term consequences of gang involvement. It concludes with recommendations for future research, specifically calling on gang scholars to include females in their studies for adequate comparisons by sex and gender and encouraging exploration into the roles of additional intersections such as race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, and gender identity.
Dana Peterson is Associate Professor of Criminology at the University at Albany, State University of New York.
Vanessa R. Panfil is a PhD candidate in Criminology at the University at Albany, State University of New York.
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