- The Oxford Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice
- Doing Crime as Doing Gender?: Masculinities, Femininities, and Crime
- Intersectionality and the Study of Sex, Gender, and Crime
- Sexual Violence
- Back to Basics: Gender and the Social Psychology of Aggression
- Feminist Criminologies’ Contribution to Understandings of Sex, Gender, and Crime
- Explaining the Volte-Face: Turning Away from Criminal Law and Returning to the Quest for Gender Equality
- Long-Term Trends in Female and Male Involvement in Crime
- A Historical Perspective on Criminal Justice Responses to Female and Male Offending
- Gender, Sex, and Intimate-Partner Violence in Historical Perspective
- Masculinities and Crime in Historical Perspective
- Sexual Violence in Historical Perspective
- Crimes Related to Sexuality and Reproduction
- Evolutionary Perspectives on Sex, Gender, and Crime
- Biological Perspectives on Sex Differences in Crime and Antisocial Behavior
- Developmental Perspectives: Sex Differences in Antisocial Behavior from Childhood to Adulthood
- Adolescent Crime and Victimization: Sex and Gender Differences, Similarities, and Emerging Intersections
- Gender and Offending in a Life Course Context
- Intimate-Partner Violence
- Violence Against Children in Families
- Violence Against Sexual and Gender Minorities
- Sex, Gender, and Homicide: Contemporary Trends and Patterns
- Organized Crime: The Gender Constraints of Illegal Markets
- Street Gangs: The Gendered Experiences of Female and Male Gang Members
- White-Collar and Corporate Crime
- Sex Work, Gender, and Criminal Justice
- Complicating the Immigration–Crime Nexus: Theorizing the Role of Gender in the Relationship Between Immigration and Crime
- The Benefits and Penalties of Gender for Criminal Justice Processing Outcomes Among Adults and Juveniles
- Sex, Gender, and Imprisonment: Rates, Reforms, and Lived Realities
- Media, Gender, Sex, and Crime
- Empirical Vacuum: In Search of Research on Human Trafficking
- The Legal Regulation of Sex and Sexuality
- Honor Killings
- Beyond Rape: Reconceptualizing Gender-Based Violence During Warfare
- State Rape and the Crime of Genocide
Abstract and Keywords
Although homicide is less common than other types of violent crime, research on its relationship to sex and gender is relevant to key debates within criminology over the value of general theories of violence, the relationship between social change and crime, and the importance of cross-national analyses of violence. This essay summarizes macro- and micro-level research on homicide offending and victimization since the mid-twentieth century and engages with the questions of whether and how sex and gender should be fundamental to theories of homicide or interpersonal violence more generally. Similarities and differences in the correlates and contexts of homicides by and against women and men are discussed, drawing on data from around the world. The essay concludes that sex and gender have always been and will continue to be central to understanding homicide, but more comprehensive conceptualizations of both gender—that is, as more than an attribute of individuals—and gender inequality are necessary to advance the field.
Rosemary Gartner is Professor of Criminology and Sociology at the Centre for Criminology and Sociolegal Studies at the University of Toronto. She is the co-author of three books: Violence and Crime in Cross-National Perspective (Yale, 1984), Murdering Holiness: The Trials of Edmund Creffield and George Mitchell (University of British Columbia Press, 2003) and Marking Time in the Golden State: Women's Imprisonment in California (Cambridge, 2005).
Maria Jung is a PhD candidate in Criminology at the University of Toronto.
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