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date: 09 December 2019

(p. 641) Index

(p. 641) Index

Figures, notes, and tables are indicated by “f,” “n,” and “t” following page numbers.

AARP, 102, 159, 191, 197, 201, 215, 216, 268, 269, 322
Abbott, Edith, 64
Abbott, Grace, 246
Abortion laws, 162
Accountable care organizations (ACOs), 308–309
Act for Better Child Care Services (proposed), 495
Addams, Jane, 43, 45, 55
Adult Education Program, 90
Advocacy groups, 43, 250. See also Interest groups
Affirmative action programs, 242
AFL-CIO, 88, 196–197
National Council of Senior Citizens, 88, 197
African Americans. See Race and ethnicity
Agriculture
exemption from minimum wage, 374
farm organizations, 43
FLSA provisions, 71
food-stamp bill and, 399
interest groups and, 197–198
Social Security exclusion of workers, 83
Agriculture Department, U.S., 394, 404, 407n11, 512
AHIP (America’s Health Insurance Plans), 195
Aid to Dependent Children (ADC), 68, 70, 71, 83, 84, 89, 158, 243, 367n1. See also Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 10, 12, 89, 97, 101, 142–143, 198. See now Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
child care and, 496
compared to other countries, 611
gender and, 246–247
historical development and trends, 356–357, 357f, 434, 436
political participation of beneficiaries of, 630
politics and, 358–360
public opinion’s impact on, 213
race and, 230
Aid to the Blind, 434
Aid to the Permanently and Totally Disabled (APTD), 435
Allman, David, 298
Almshouses. See Poorhouses
Amenta, Edwin, 8, 151
American Association for Labor Legislation (AALL), 43, 46, 50, 51
American Conservative Union, 200
American Farm Bureau Federation (AFBF), 198
(p. 642) American Federation of Labor (AFL), 45, 48–51, 72, 195–196. See also AFL-CIO
American Federation of Teachers, 196
American Health Care Association, 323, 324
American Hospital Association, 194, 534, 536
American Legion, 573
American Medical Association (AMA), 50, 72, 82, 198–199, 297, 301, 435, 535–536
Blue Shield Plans, 534
Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment, 460
American Nursing Association, 199
American Political Science Association, 105
American Psychiatric Association, 437
American Public Welfare Association, 199
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), 367, 385, 400, 407n10
Americans for Tax Reform, 191
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), 13, 342, 439, 440, 463
America’s Health Insurance Plans (AHIP), 195
Andrews, Christina M., 327, 337
Anglican Church, 25
Anticommunist loyalty oaths, 80
Antitrust laws, 196
Aon Consulting Group, 292
APTD (Aid to the Permanently and Totally Disabled), 435
Armenia, Amy, 503–504
Auletta, Ken, 228
Australia, 113, 114, 118, 445, 505, 516, 612, 613
Austria, 117, 553, 604
Bachrach, Peter, 188
Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Co. (1922), 48
Bakke, E. Wight, 64
Balanced Budget Act of 1997, 301, 325, 385
Ball, Robert, 298, 300
Bankruptcy, effect on pension plans, 290–291
Banning, Tom, 344
Baratz, Morton, 188
Barrett, E. J., 211, 213
Bartfield, Judi, 595
Baumgartner, Frank R., 188
Béland, Daniel, 3, 162
The Bell Curve (Murray), 233n1
Berkowitz, Edward D., 261
Berry, Jeffrey, 191
Bethune, Mary McCloud, 69
Bismarckian regime, 5. See also Conservative regimes
Black Lung Benefits Act, 457
Blaustein, Saul J., 472
Block, Fred, 135, 136, 137, 138, 141, 142
Blue Cross-Blue Shield plans, 535
Blue Cross hospital insurance plans, 534, 537, 553
Boden, Leslie I., 451
Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo, 231
Boren Amendment, 325
Boston
almshouses in, 26
Moving to Opportunity (MTO) in, 593–595
Scots Charitable Society, 26
Bowles-Simpson commission (2010–2012), 308
Boys and Girls Clubs, 498
Boy Scouts, 498
Brademas, John, 495
Brady, David, 585, 597
Brady, Henry E., 624, 628, 630
Brandeis, Louis D., 46, 472
Breastfeeding, 504
Britain. See United Kingdom
Brooke, Edward, 419
Brooks, Clem, 138–140
Brown, J., 318
Bureau of Public Assistance, 70
Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 36
Burroway, Rebekah, 597
Bush, George H.W., 99, 103, 496, 502
Bush, George W. See also Deficit Reduction Act of 2005
entitlement reform and, 100
on homeownership, 520
Medicare prescription drugs and, 306
minimum wage and, 382
No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 and, 499
Social Security privatization proposal, 102, 191, 214–215, 270
tax cuts, 105, 179
(p. 643) Business. See also Corporatist institutional arrangements
former Republican congressmen hired by, 191
interest groups tied to, 192–195
small businesses and health insurance, 540
Business Roundtable, 193, 194
Butrica, Barbara, 288
California
paid childbirth leave, 501
Proposition 13, 99
state employee health care plans, 551
state pension plans (CalPERS and CalSTERS), 291
workers’ compensation in, 454
Campbell, Alec, 575
Campbell, Andrea Louise, 11, 206, 268, 631
Campbell, John L., 134, 147
Canada, 4, 5, 6, 113, 162, 445, 516, 533
Canaday, Margot, 635
Cantril, Hadley, 209
Carlson, Deven, 594
Carter, Jimmy, 98, 267, 358, 437
Catalyst, 492
Cato Institute, 15, 269, 274
CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps), 64, 69
CDBG (Community Development Block Grants), 513
Center for Retirement Research, 279
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), 305
Century Community Learning Centers, 499
Chamber of Commerce, U.S., 82, 193, 194, 195, 435, 502, 536
CHAMPUS (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services), 568
Chicago Housing Authority, 418
Child and Dependent Care Tax Credits. See Taxation
Child care, access to, 12, 118, 242, 247–248, 493–497, 615
Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG), 496, 497, 499
Child Care and Development Fund, 242
Child custody, 251
Child labor, 41, 47–48, 53
Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004, 404
Children
benefits compared to other countries, 118
child care. See Child care, access to
child poverty, 355–356, 592–593
disabled children, transitions to adulthood, 446
food assistance programs. See National School Lunch Program; Schools
health insurance, access to, 14. See also Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP)
latchkey children, 498
Medicaid coverage of, 343
poor children in colonial period, 25–26
school-age children, 497–500
White House Conference on the Care of Dependent Children (1909), 46, 52
Children’s Bureau, U.S., 45, 52, 68, 72, 248
Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), 126, 341, 365
effectiveness of, 595
public opinion’s impact on, 213, 218
Child Tax Credit. See Taxation
Choice Communities, 421
Chong, Dennis, 146
Christian conservative organizations, 201
Christian democratic regimes, 120
Citizens’ groups, 200–201
Citizenship, 623–639
attitudes associated with, 632–633
civic engagement, 624–625
civil and political rights and, 625–627
contemporary issues and developments, 633–635
membership, identity, and belonging, 628–630
political participation, 630–632
(p. 644) research agenda on social policy and citizenship, 635–636
social policy’s influence on, 627–628
“Citizenship and Social Class” (Marshall), 625
Civic engagement, 624–625
Civic Participation Study of 1990, 630
Civic status, 628–629
Civic Voluntarism model, 628
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), 64, 69
Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS), 568
Civil Rights Act of 1964, 91
Civil Rights Act of 1968, 91, 518
Civil rights laws, 170
Civil rights movement, 7, 87, 91, 434, 436
Civil War veterans, 11, 32–34, 156, 157, 243, 280, 567, 628
Civil Works Administration (CWA), 65
Clark, Robert L., 562n6
Clark, Wesley, 574
CLASS Act (proposed 2010), 328
Clean Air Act of 1970, 170
Clemens, Elisabeth S., 136
Clinton, Bill
child-care provision and, 499
conservative politics and, 180
EITC and, 384–385
FMLA and, 502
health-care reform and, 99–102, 106, 140, 176, 194, 215, 217, 538–539
Medicaid and, 349
minimum wage and, 382
school lunch programs and, 404
welfare reform and, 360, 589–590
Clinton, Hillary Rodham, 504
Cloward, Richard, 230
Club for Growth, 191
CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services), 305
Coal workers, Black Lung Benefits Act for, 457
COBRA (Consolidated Budget Reconciliation Act of 1986), 541
Collective bargaining, 80, 123, 535, 554
Colonial and Revolutionary period, 24–28
identification of deserving citizens, 29
military pensions for Revolutionary veterans, 31–34, 567
oppressive landlords, immigration to escape, 519
poor law and poor relief, 24–27
programmatic approach to social welfare, 29
veterans’ benefits, 24, 27–28
Commission on Industrial Relations, U.S., 49
Committee of One Hundred on Public Health, 45
Committee on Economic Security, 67, 72
Commons, John R., 46, 49
Community Action, 90
Community-based long-term care, 320–323, 322f, 348
Community Chests, 61
Community Development Block Grants (CDBG), 513
Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, 518
Comprehensive Child Development Act (vetoed 1971), 248, 495, 499
Cone Mills’ bankruptcies, 290
Confederate soldiers, veterans’ benefits not allowed for, 33, 36
Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
on ACA coverage, 546
on long-term care insurance, 318
on Medicare costs, 308, 310
on military cash compensation, 570–571
Congressional Research Service on homeownership subsidies, 516
Congressional role, 8
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 72, 79, 196. See also AFL-CIO
Connecticut, long-term care and discrimination against Medicaid recipients in, 325
Conservative regimes, 113, 626
Conservatives. See also Republican Party
child-care provision, opposition to, 496
coalition of southern Democrats and northern Republicans, 13, 77, 177–178
on costs of welfare programs, 15
disability benefits, opposition to, 435
downsizing government as goal of, 107, 180
framing and value redefinition of 1990s, 180
goals of, 170
health insurance and, 537
(p. 645) public understanding of term “conservative,” 206–207
racial equality and, 228
Reagan’s economic views and, 99
scholars funded by, 180
welfare reform and, 589
Consolidated Budget Reconciliation Act of 1986 (COBRA), 541
Constitution, U.S.
general welfare, funding of, 30
sovereignty powers, 44
spending power, 31–32
Consumers’ Leagues, 243
Continental Army and Navy, 27–28
Cook, Fay Lomax, 211, 213
Coolidge, Calvin, 519–520
Core Food Security Module (CFSM), 394
Core values, 135, 140, 145
Corporatist institutional arrangements, 9, 80, 113, 188, 190
Costigan, Edward, 62, 63
Coulton, Claudia J., 590
Council of Economic Advisors, 105
Council of State Governments, 460
Craig, Lee A., 549
Critical race feminist theory, 240
Critical race scholars, 143
Cross-national comparison, 9, 112–130
abortion laws, 162
American creed and white supremacy, 123
child and family benefits, 118
child care provision, 493, 615
child poverty, 355
comprehensiveness of social programs, 115, 115f
costs of social programs, 17n2
decentralized discretion in U.S., 120, 157
elderly orientation, 121, 122f
feminist perspectives on welfare state, 241–242
generosity of social programs, 115, 116f, 156, 158
health care, 117, 531–533, 531t
homeownership tax breaks, 516
housing policy, 119
income inequality, 604–606, 605–606f
institutions, 123–124
interest groups’ role in U.S., 121–123
labor market policy, 117–118
logic of deservingness, 120–121
maternity leave, 500, 505
minimum wage, 373
old-age and survivors pensions, 115–117
post-1970 adaptations, 125–126
poverty research, 587, 596–597
private provision in U.S., 120
Protestant work ethic, 123
public-pension net replacement rates, 613
public-sector pension plans, 553
social assistance and poverty relief, 118
social policy strategies, 609–611, 610t
structural characteristics of U.S. welfare state, 119–121, 158
tax policies, 611–612, 617
underdemocratized regimes, effect of, 158
unemployment benefits, 117
veterans’ programs, 567, 568
welfare regimes and, 5–6, 113–115, 115f
Cultural influences, 133–150
core values, 135, 140, 145
distinguishing between deserving and undeserving poor, 142–143
empirical exemplars, 136–146
frames and framing, 135, 139–142, 146
future research, 144–146
ideational regimes, 135, 136–138
during industrialization, 42
meaning-making in social policy development and, 134–136
moral categorization of, 142–143
perversity rhetoric, 137
programmatic beliefs, 134–135
in public opinion, 138–139
value redefinition, 139–142
Current Population Survey (CPS, 1996), 394
CWA (Civil Works Administration), 65
Dahl, Robert, 187, 625
Danielson, Caroline, 590
Danielson, J. Taylor, 133, 146
Danziger, Sheldon, 485, 589
D’Auria, Stephanie, 239
Day care for children. See Child care, access to
Death benefits from workers’ compensation, 456
(p. 646) Defense Department (DoD). See Military programs; Veterans’ programs
Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), 577
Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, 327, 346, 348, 362
Defined benefit plans, 270, 282, 283–284, 292–293, 550
Defined contribution plans, 280, 283–284, 292–293
Delegation to state and local governments
Democratic Party
of 1930s, 170
Dixiecrats and alliance with Republicans, 77
FMLA support, 502
health-care reform and, 176, 191
labor movement allied with, 45
liberal goals of, 171, 179
pro-government stance of, 95, 179
on public-sector pensions, 557
on race-coding of poverty politics, 143
racial segregation and, 54
Social Security, funding methods for, 378
split between northern and southern wings on welfare state, 12–13, 77
welfare state and, 11, 156, 179, 191
working-class electoral base of, 172
Department of ___. See name of specific department
Dependents Medical Care Act of 1956, 568
Depression. See Great Depression
Deserving citizens. See Undeserving vs. deserving citizens
Destro, Lane M., 585
DeWitt, Larry, 261
Dingell, John, 536
DiPasquale, Denise, 523
Disability. See also Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)
Continental Army and Navy pensions for, 28
definition of, 442
disabled children, transitions to adulthood, 446
employment of disabled, 446–448
impact on economic well-being, 444–445
intellectual disabilities, 442
Medicare coverage of certain conditions, 302
reduction of benefits for, 15
service-related disability coverage for veterans, 573, 579
stigmatization of disabled workers, 459
Disability Benefits Reform Act of 1984, 438
Disability Insurance (DI). See Social Security Disability Insurance
Disadvantaged groups, 16.See also Children; Elderly population; Race and ethnicity; Single-mother families
poor law principle of giving assistance only to those truly worthy, 26–27, 38, 120–121
Discursive institutionalism, 141
Dole, Robert, 399
Domestic workers
minimum wage and, 374
Social Security exclusion of, 83
Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell policy, 577
Douglas, Paul, 54
Dred Scott (1857), 36
Dreier, Peter, 510
Druckman, James A., 146
DuBois, W. E. B., 36
Dunifon, Rachel, 595
Dutch Reformed Church, 25
Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic Treatment (EPSDT) program, 340
Early childhood education. See Head Start; Preschool programs
Earned Income Disregard, 142
Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), 12, 13, 14, 98, 105, 118, 126, 157, 180, 356, 360, 365, 383–385, 483
child care and, 495, 496, 505n5
effectiveness of, 217, 378–379, 379f, 386, 591–592
emphasis on public assistance strategy, 611–612
future challenges, 388–389
future research, 252
(p. 647) partisan politics and, 380
poverty measurement and, 587
public opinion’s impact on, 213
real federal spending on, 387, 387f
EBT (Electronic Benefit Transfer) cards, 399
Economic Bill of Rights, 76, 77
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 (EOA), 89–90, 141
Economic policy, party polarization on, 175
Economic Recovery Act of 2009, 496–497
Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (ERTA), 378
Economic stimulus bill (2009), 179
Edison, Thomas, 45
Educational assistance
Post-9/11 G.I. Bill, 573
Veterans Educational Assistance Program, 569
Eighteenth Amendment, 53
Eisenhower, Dwight, 84, 435, 536
Elderly population. See also Medicare; Social Security
cross-national comparison on social support for, 121, 122f
food insecurity and, 398
impact of public opinion of, 214, 215
increase of, 14
poverty among, 14, 16, 97, 108
Electoral systems, 8
Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) cards, 399
Eliot, Martha, 246
Elitism, 187
Emergency Home Finance Act of 1970, 513
Emergency Maternal and Infant Care (EMIC) program, 72
Emergency Relief and Construction Act of 1932, 62
Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), 282–283
preemption of employee-funded health plans, 541
Employment-based health insurance, 13
Employment discrimination, 91–92
Employment status, importance of, 628
Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000, 457
England. See United Kingdom
English Poor Law (1601), 6, 24–25
Entitlements, 180
EOA (Economic Opportunity Act of 1964), 89–90, 141
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 92
Erkulwater, Jennifer L., 433
ERTA (Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981), 378
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta, 4, 5, 6, 112, 114, 125, 155, 160, 241, 603, 626, 627
Europe. See also Cross-national comparison; specific countries
child care in, 242
diversity as new phenomenon in, 124
national-level collective bargaining in, 80
universal entitlement in, 120
U.S. policies compared with, 112, 155
Fair Deal, 77–78
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA), 71
Fair Labor Standards Board, 381
Family. See also Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA); Work-family policies
changes in structure of, 14
as long-term caregivers, 316, 321, 328–329
Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA), 241, 329, 463, 492, 614
Family Assistance Plan (FAP, 1969), 383
Family cap policy, 249, 250
Family-Friendly Workplace Act of 1996 (proposed), 504
Family Support Act of 1988 (FSA), 101, 141, 200, 358, 493, 496
Farmers Home Administration, 512
Farm organizations, 43
Farm Security Administration, 79
Federal Art Project, 65, 66
Federal Child Labor Act of 1916, 48
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), 63, 65, 66, 69
(p. 648) Federal employees. See Public-sector employees
Federal Employees’ Compensation Act, 457
Federal Employees Health Benefits plan (FEHB), 559
Federal Employees Retirement Act of 1920, 552
Federal grants-in-aid, 46–47, 52, 53
Federal Home Loan Bank, 511
Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac), 513, 518
Federal Housing Administration (FHA), 85, 90–91, 512, 517
Federalism, 5, 6, 9, 24, 36, 44, 46, 54, 55, 157, 158
Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae), 119, 512, 518
Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC), 512
Federal Security Agency, 82
Federal Theater Project, 65
Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA), 472, 479, 487n4
Federal Writers Project, 65
FEHB (Federal Employees Health Benefits plan), 559
Feldstein, Martin, 486
Feminism, 143, 239–240, 250, 492. See also Gender
Financial crisis (2007-2009), 137. See also Great Recession
Finkelstein, Amy, 318
Firefighters and policemen, benefits for, 37
Fisher, Irving, 45
Flextime, 492, 504
Florida
long-term care and discrimination against Medicaid recipients in, 325
underwater mortgages in, 521
FLSA (Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938), 71
Food insecurity, 394–395
challenges, 405–406
determinants and consequences of, 397–398, 397f
extent of, 395, 396f
NSLP’s impacts on, 404–405, 406
poverty and, 595–596
SNAP’s impacts on, 401–403, 405
Food Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, 400
Food Stamp Act of 1964, 399
Food Stamps, 7, 98, 143, 180, 198. See now Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP)
effectiveness of, 595–596
Great Recession and, 9, 14, 107
public opinion’s impact on, 213
Ford, Gerald, 384
Fording, Richard, 230
Forest Service, U.S., 64
401(k) plans, 269, 279, 282, 283–284, 287, 291
403(b) plans, 282, 283
457 plans, 283
Fox, Cybelle, 233
Fragmentation, 190
Frames and framing
political institutions and, 135, 139–142, 146, 163
political parties and, 173–174, 176
public opinion’s susceptibility to, 208
France, 117, 119, 505
Fraser, Nancy, 249, 626
Fraud in workers’ compensation system, 461–462
Free, Lloyd A., 209
Freedmen’s Bureau, 36
Freeman, Richard, 389
Friedan, Betty, 492
Friedman, Milton, 99, 268–269
Froud, Julie, 133
FSLIC (Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation), 512
(p. 649) GAI (Guaranteed annual income) policies, 142, 143
Gassman-Pines, Anna, 590
Geertz, Clifford, 133
Gender, 239–257
in colonial era, 26–27
cross-national comparison of U.S. welfare state and, 241–242
cultural beliefs about, 12
defined, 239
Esping-Andersen criticized for ignoring, 6
“first-tier” welfare programs and, 244–245
future research on, 251–252
history of discrimination, 24
income inequality and, 606–609, 608f
low-income families, development of welfare for, 245–247
military service and veterans’ benefits, 576–577
in New Deal policy, 68–71, 246
norms and values associated with, 143
in Progressive Era, 51–53, 54
Social Security and, 243, 244–245, 272–273, 613
subsidized child care and, 247–248
“two-tiered” welfare state and, 242–244
welfare reform (1996) and, 246, 248–251
General Accounting Office
on child care for welfare recipients, 496
on housing vouchers, 425
General Federation of Women’s Clubs, 52, 243
General Motors, 81, 291
Germany, 113, 117, 505, 533
Gerstel, Naomi, 503–504
Ghilarducci, Teresa, 279, 289
G.I. Bill (Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944), 77–78, 156, 245, 512, 566, 569, 629, 631
Gieve, John, 136
Gifford, Brian, 245, 574, 575–576
Gilens, Martin, 228
Gingrich, Newt, 100
Gini index, 605, 610t, 617n1
Girl Scouts, 498
Gitterman, Daniel P., 373
Glaeser, Edward, 523
Globalization, 192, 223
Goldberg v. Kelley (1970), 92
Golden Ring Clubs of Senior Citizens, 88
Goldwater, Barry, 228
Gompers, Samuel, 49, 50, 196
Gordon, Linda, 54, 249, 626
Gornick, Janet C., 241
Gottschalk, Peter, 485
Government employees. See Public-sector employees
Government National Mortgage Association, 513
Graefe, Deborah Roempke, 590
Gramsci, Antonio, 136
Grants-in-aid to states, 7
Great Britain. See United Kingdom
Great Depression, 59–71. See also New Deal
business interests during, 192
emergency relief, 62–64
housing policy in, 511
mass unemployment, 60–62
school-lunch program in, 403
voluntary organizations in, 136
work relief, 64–66, 156, 157
Great Recession
food assistance programs and, 9
homeownership and, 510, 520–522
poverty and, 104–105
race and, 232
unemployment insurance and, 9, 476–477, 483, 484, 485
welfare programs and, 14
workers with disabilities and, 440
Great Society, 10, 76, 87–89, 95, 139, 178, 197, 229
Greece, 117
Greenstein, Robert, 388
Grogan, Colleen M., 327, 337
Guaranteed annual income (GAI) policies, 142, 143
Guetzkow, Joshua, 141, 142
Gundersen, Craig, 393
Guthrie, Doug, 136
Hacker, Jacob S., 104, 160, 190, 632
Hakim, Catherine, 505n1
Halfmann, Drew, 162
Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918), 48
Harlem Riot of 1935, 69
(p. 650) Harrington Meyer, 12, 315, 325 Hastert, Dennis, 214
Hausauer, Jessica, 12, 315
Hawley, Ellis, 61
Hawthorne, Fran, 290
Hayek, Friedrich, 99
Head Start, 7, 98, 118, 248, 495, 496, 593
political participation of parents of children in, 630–631
Health, Education, and Welfare Department (HEW), 84
Health care. See also Health-care reform; Medicaid; Medicare
consequences of fragmented approach, 531–532
costs of, 531
cross-national comparison, 117, 531–533, 531t
for elderly persons, 88. See also Medicare
fragmented approach, 530
future challenges, 546–547
income inequality and, 615
increase in costs of, 14
insurance companies setting up plans for employers, 80–81
interstate competition limiting, 54
managed care, 539–540
New Deal policy, 72
party polarization on, 176
pay-as-you-go plans for public-sector workers, 558
public-sector employees, 549–564
state and local employees, 561
Tricare (formerly CHAMPUS) for military service members, 570
underwriting of, 81
uninsured population, 532
veterans. See Veterans’ programs
Health-care reform
Clinton’s initiatives, 99, 105–107, 140, 176, 538–539
defeat of universal public health insurance. See Universal benefits and services
framing and value redefinition by Republications on, 140, 174
Medicare and, 301
political parties and, 191
private insurance industry and, 193–194, 543–544
public opinion on, 208–209
race and, 223, 232
Health insurance. See Health care; Private health insurance
Health Insurance Association of America (HIAA), 194
Health Savings Accounts, 104
Henderson, Kathryn, 329
Herbst, Chris M., 590
Herd, Pamela, 245
Heritage Foundation, 15, 193
Hero, Rodney, 233
Hill-Burton Hospital Survey and Construction Act of 1946, 82
Hipes, Crosby, 565
Hirsch, Arnold, 86
Hispanic Americans. See Race and ethnicity
History of social provision, 23–38
Colonial and Revolutionary period, 24–29
from early Republic to twentieth century, 30–37
Fair Deal, 77–78
Great Depression and New Deal, 59–71
Great Society, 87–89
political change after 1970, 95–111
Progressive Era, 7, 41–58
slow adoption of social insurance policies in U.S., 155, 157
War on Poverty, 89–90
World War II, 71–73
Hoan, Daniel, 46
Hobby, Oveta Culp, 435
Hochschild, Arlie, 492
Home health services, 316
HOME Investment Partnership program, 513–514
Homelessness, 251
Home Mortgage Disclosure Act of 1975, 518
Homeownership. See Housing policy
Home Owners Loan Corporation, 511
(p. 651) Homestead Act of 1862, 36, 519
Hoover, Herbert, 59, 61, 136, 520
HOPE VI redevelopment program for public housing, 420–422
Hopkins, Harry, 63–66, 69
Housing Act of 1934, 512
Housing Act of 1937, 86
Housing Act of 1949, 86–87
Housing Act of 1954, 87
Housing and Urban Development, Department of (HUD), 91, 418, 424, 426, 512
Housing Authority, U.S., 86
Housing Choice Voucher program, 414, 423–427, 426t, 593–594
Housing policy, 12, 86
American culture and homeownership, 518–520
class and race and, 514–518, 515t, 517f
construction industry and, 523
cross-national comparison, 119, 516
exclusionary zoning, 518
FHA role, 85, 90
Great Recession’s effect on homeownership, 510, 520–522
historical background, 511–513
homeownership, 510–529
landlord-tenant law, 514
military service members, allowances for, 571
Moving to Opportunity (MTO), 593–595
postwar policy, 85–87
public housing, 413–430. See also Public housing
racially restrictive covenants, 518
redlining, 86, 517
Section 8 Existing Housing Program, 423–424, 426t
Section 235 loans, 512
Section 502 loans, 512
state and local policies, 513–514
VA-insured home loans, 569, 573–574
voucher program, 423–427, 593–594. See also Public housing
Howard, Christopher, 3, 158, 374, 495, 632
Hull House (Chicago), 43
Hunter, Robert, 43
Iams, Howard, 288
Ideational regimes, 135, 136–138
Illinois state employees’ pension fund, 557
Immigrants
during industrialization, 42
lack of health insurance for undocumented immigrants, 546
maternalist welfare state and, 51, 52
Medicaid coverage of, 538
settlement houses for, 43
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (INA), 223
Imprisonment policy, 152, 160, 161
Income inequality, 603–622
cross-national comparison, 604–606, 605–606f
gender and, 606–609, 608f. See also Gender
health and, 615
increase in, 16, 107
policy drift’s effect on, 104
public opinion on, 211–212
race and ethnicity and, 606–609, 607–608f. See also Race and ethnicity
“racism without racists” and, 231
social policy strategies and, 609–616, 610t
in U.S. compared to other countries, 14, 125, 155
work-family policies and, 614–615
Indentured servitude, 24, 25–26
Independent Payment Advisory Board (IPAB), 309
Individual retirement accounts (IRAs), 282, 291
Industrialization, 42, 452, 491, 505n6
Inequality. See Income inequality
Ingram, Helen, 627, 628
Injuries on the job. See Workers’ compensation
Inland Steel v. National Labor Relations Board (1948), 535
Institute of Medicine
on deaths due to lack of health insurance, 532
on racial and ethnic disparities in health insurance, 542–543
Institutions. See Political institutions
Intellectual disabilities, 442
(p. 652) Interest groups, 12, 16, 121–123, 187–205
agricultural groups as, 197–198
business groups as, 192–195
citizens’ groups as, 200–201
comparative theories of welfare state development, 189–190
history in American politics, 187–189
intergovernmental organizations as, 199–200
labor organizations as, 195–197
professional associations as, 198–199
relationship with U.S. political parties, 190–191
tactics of, 191–192
International comparison. See Cross-national comparison
International Labour Organization on maternity leave policies, 500, 501
Interstate competition, 54
Ireland, 113, 612, 613
Iversen, Torben, 8, 190
Jacobs, Elisabeth S., 139
Jacobs, Lawrence R., 106, 138, 140
Japan, 117, 505
Jefferson, Thomas, 519
Jensen, Laura S., 7, 11, 23
Job Corps, 90, 142
Johnson, Hiram, 45, 46
Johnson, Kimberley, 46
Johnson, Lyndon, 87–91, 298, 520. See also Great Society
Jones, Samuel “Golden Rule,” 46
Kahneman, Daniel, 146
Kaiser Monthly Health Tracking Poll, 345
Kam, Cindy, 211
Katz, Michael B., 62, 229, 585, 591
Kawachi, Ichiro, 615
Kelley, Florence, 46, 48, 52, 55
Kennedy, Bruce P., 615
Kennedy, John F., 87
Kenworthy, Lane, 140
Kerner Commission (1968), 228
Kerr-Mills Act of 1960, 338–339
Keynesian economics, 72, 84
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 91
King v. Smith (1968), 92
Klein, Jennifer, 7, 76
Klerman, Jacob Alex, 590
Kleykamp, Meredith, 565
K-Street Project, 191
Kymlicka, Will, 625
Labor Department, U.S., 45, 503
Labor market policy in cross-national comparison, 117–118
Labor unions
collective bargaining, subjects of, 80, 123, 535, 554
cross-national comparison, 123
health insurance benefits and, 535, 554
as interest groups, 195–197
in New Deal, 72, 196
opposing privatization of Social Security, 215
in Progressive Era, 41, 43, 48–51
retirement plans of firms with, 287, 288t
strikes by mineworkers, 78–79
welfare programs for health and retirement, 80
LaFollette, Robert, 45, 46, 62, 63
Lalich, Nina, 590
Land grants, 28, 29, 34–36
Lanham Act, 247, 494
Latchkey children, 498
Lathrop, Julia, 52
Latin America, 158
Law and order issues, 228, 229
League of Cities, 199
Lenroot, Katherine, 246
Less-skilled workers. See Low-wage workers
Lewis, David, 62
Lewis, John L., 78–79
Liberal market economy, 190
Liberal regime, 6, 123, 626
U.S. as part of, 6, 113–115, 125, 155, 160
Liberals, political, 170, 179
disability programs favored by, 435
health insurance and, 537
public understanding of term “liberal,” 206–207
Lichter, Daniel T., 590
Lieberman, Joseph, 308
(p. 653) Lieberman, Robert C., 12, 222
Lim, Younghee, 590
Lincoln, Abraham, 519
Lindblom, Charles, 192
Lipset, Seymour Martin, 123
Lobbying, 10, 188, 305
Lochner v. New York (1905), 49
Long, Russell, 383, 537
Long-term care, 12, 315–333
admissions discrimination, 324–326
CLASS Act (proposed), 328
community-based, 320–323, 322f, 348
estate recovery by Medicaid, 326–327
family as long-term caregivers, 316, 321, 328–329
family as main providers of, 316
frozen asset tests, 323–324
health care coverage under Medicaid, 88–89, 98. See also Medicaid
Home and Community Based Services (HCBS) waivers, 322
institutional bias of Medicaid and, 320–323, 322f
insurance, 317–318
Medicaid and, 88–89, 98, 316, 318–320, 319–320f, 341, 344
Medicare and, 316–317
overview, 316
personal needs allowance (PNA) of Medicaid recipients, 326
Losing Ground (Murray), 228
Loughrin, Sandra, 239
Low-income housing. See Public housing
Low-Income Housing Tax Credit, 415, 425, 426t
Low-wage workers, 373–392. See also Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Minimum wage
future challenges, 387–389
health insurance and, 538, 542
partisan politics and, 380
protection of, 374–377, 376t
as SNAP recipients, 407n9
support for, 386–387
tax entry threshold of, 377–379
women as, 251
Loyalty oaths, 80
Ludwig, Jens, 594
Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), 587, 590, 598n1
Lynch, Julia F., 6, 112, 121, 124
Lynd, Helen, 519
Lynd, Robert, 519
Madison, James, 188
Managed care, 539–540
Mandel, Hadas, 614
Manza, Jeff, 138–140
Market-based approach
long-term care and, 316
Medicare policy introduced by MMA, 104, 307
welfare programs and, 241
welfare reform (1996) and, 143
Marriage promotion, 249
Marshall, T. H., 112, 625–626, 634
Martin, Cathie Jo, 194
Marx, Karl, 136
Massachusetts
child labor in, 48
industrialization and social initiatives in, 44, 53
minimum wage in, 52
poorhouses and workhouses in, 30
Revolutionary veterans’ benefits, 28
Massachusetts v. Mellon (1923), 52
Maternalism, 493, 505n3, 628
Maternity leave, 118, 500, 614. See also Paid parental leave
McCain, John, 572
McCarty, Nolan, 389
McNamara, Robert, 575
Means-tested benefits, 5
feedback effects, 152
low-income workers and, 374
maternalist welfare state and, 52
Medicare and Social Security distinguished from, 97, 298
political participation of beneficiaries, 630
poverty and, 588
state financial assistance for elderly, 263
(p. 654) Medicaid, 5, 337–354
access and quality problems, 349
block grant program, 15, 100, 346
cost of, 14, 15, 97, 347–348
coverage of, 532, 538
delegation to state governments, 9
description of, 342–343
dual Medicare and Medicaid enrollees, 324
early history of, 339–340
eligibility criteria, 97
estate recovery, 326–327
expansion and growth of, 340–342
frozen asset tests, 323–324
institutional bias of long-term care and, 320–323, 322f
long-term and nursing home care, 88–89, 98, 316, 318–320, 319–320f, 341, 344
means-tested benefits, 341
middle-class coverage, 343–345
partisanship and cooperative federalism, 345–347, 367n2
passage of, 7, 88, 96, 170, 298
public opinion’s impact on, 213, 218, 345
race and, 232
during Reagan and G.H.W. Bush administrations, 103
rehabilitation coverage of, 348–349
Medicare, 5, 296–314
Advantage plans, 303, 304, 306
age increase for eligibility, proposals for, 309
all-payer system, proposal of, 310–311
benefits, 303–304
Clinton and, 100
cost containment of, 301
cost of, 14, 103, 296, 299–300, 317
coverage of, 532
description of program, 302–303
dual Medicare and Medicaid enrollees, 324
as “earned” benefit, 97
evolution of, 299–301
Fee Schedule for physician services, 301
financing of, 304–305, 307–308
health care reform and, 301
history and passage of, 7, 88, 96, 170, 297–299, 537
income differentials, proposals for, 309–310
long-term care and, 316–317
market-oriented practices introduced by MMA, 104, 307
medigap policies, 88, 538
politics of, 305–308
prescription drug benefit, 13, 101, 103, 126, 179, 193, 208, 215, 300, 538
private insurance plans, proposal of, 11, 308, 309–310
Prospective Payment System (PPS) for hospitals, 301
public opinion’s impact on, 213, 216
purpose of, 296
Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB) program, 324
reform of, 308–311
resilient to reform, 159
Specified Low Income Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB), 324
voucher system proposal, 15
Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act of 1998 (MCCA, repealed 1989), 300, 341–342
Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA), 101, 103, 300, 305, 307
Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MEDPAC), 305
Mettler, Suzanne, 269, 623, 631, 632, 636
Metzgar, Jack, 81
Mexican Americans. See Race and ethnicity
Mexican War veterans, 35
Meyer, Bruce D., 611
Meyer, Jack, 540
Meyers, Marcia K., 241
Michel, Sonya, 12, 491
Mickey Leland Childhood Hunger Relief Act (1993), 400
Military Officers Association of America, 573
Military programs, 565–582. See also Veterans’ programs
challenges, 578–579
current service members’ benefit programs, 570–571
defined-benefits pension, 571
health care, 570
“hidden” welfare state of, 574–576
housing, 571
(p. 655) income tax, declaration of state of residence, 571
inequality and, 576–578
Servicemembers’ Group Life Insurance (SGLI) program, 571
Servicemembers’ Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection (TSGLI) program, 571
spending competing for resources with social policy, 152, 160, 161
tax exemption for military service in combat zone, 571
Mills, Wilbur, 266, 298, 339, 341
Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, 463
Minimum wage, 15, 380–383
cross-national comparison, 373
FLSA, 71
future challenges, 387–388
history of, 374, 376t
for women and children, 51
Minnesota
long-term care and discrimination against Medicaid recipients in, 325
Medicaid coverage of childbirth in, 343
Misra, Joya, 603
Model Cities, 91
Moller, Stephanie, 603
“Mommy Track,” 492
Mondale, Walter, 495
Monroe, James, 31
Montgomery G.I. Bill of 1985, 569, 573
More Than Just Race (Wilson), 230–231
Morgan, Kimberly, 3
Morone, James A., 530
Morris, Andrew, 7, 59
Mortality rates, linked to lack of health insurance, 532
Mortgages. See Housing policy
Mothers’ Congresses, 243
Mothers’ Pensions, 244, 246
Moveon.org, 191
Moving to Opportunity (MTO), 593–595
Moynihan Report (1965), 227
Muckraking journalists, 43
Muller v. Oregon (1908), 51
Municipal and local governments. See also Public-sector employees
independent discretion allowed to, 38, 120, 163
pension schemes, 36–37, 553, 560–561
Progressive Era social policy and, 54
public housing and, 86–87
Murray, Charles, 228–229, 233n1
Myrdal, Gunnar, 228
Nam, Yunju, 211
National Academy of Social Insurance, 261
National Association of Home Builders, 513
National Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials, 199
National Association of Manufacturers, 50, 80, 194
National Association of Realtors, 513, 523
National Association of Social Workers, 199
National Association of State Workforce Agencies (NASWA), 481, 482
National Child Labor Committee (NCLC), 48, 53
National Commission on Social Security Reform, 102
National Commission on State Workmen’s Compensation Laws, 453, 460
National Conference of Charities and Corrections, 43
National Congress of Mothers (later the PTA), 43, 52
National Consumers League (NCL), 43, 46, 51, 52
National Council of State Legislatures (NCSL), 199
National Education Association (NEA), 199
National Election Study (2008), 209
National Employment Law Project (NELP), 480
National Farmers’ Union (NFU), 198
National Federation of Independent Business, 193, 194
National Federation of Women’s Clubs, 43
National Governors Association (NGA), 200, 340, 346
National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, 568
(p. 656) National Housing Act of 1934, 85
National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 (NIRA), 380
National Industrial Recovery Act of 1935, 71
National Institute on Out-of-School Time, 498
National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (NLRA), 78, 80, 196, 380, 535
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), 80, 381
National League of Senior Citizens, 88
National Organization for Women (NOW), 250, 494
National Resources Planning Board, 72
National School Lunch Program, 198, 393, 403–405, 406
National Welfare Rights Organization, 493
The Nation’s Health—a Ten Year Program (Truman commission report), 535
Native Americans
in colonial era, 24, 27
expropriation of land from, 35
NCSL (National Council of State Legislatures), 199
NEA (National Education Association), 199
Negative income tax (NIT), 383, 384
Neighborhood Youth Corps, 90
NELP (National Employment Law Project), 480
Nenno, Mary, 417
Neoliberalism, 11, 155
Netherlands, 117, 613
Neumark, David, 591
New Deal, 7, 10, 54, 62–71
business interests and, 192–193
emergency relief, 62–64
at end of WWII, 76
housing policy, 85
labor unions and, 196
president’s willingness to help the poor, 139
race and gender in policy of, 68–71, 124, 246
Social Security, creation of, 66–68
work relief, 64–66, 156, 157
New Hope program, 590
Newman, Katherine S., 139
Newman, Oscar, 417
New politics of social policy, 151, 162, 163
New Poor Law (UK 1834), 137
News media, partisanship of, 174–175
New York
child labor in, 48
industrialization and social initiatives in, 53
Medicaid eligibility in, 339
poorhouses and workhouses in, 31
Revolutionary veterans’ benefits in, 28
Revolutionary war displacing persons in, 30
workers’ (workmen’s) compensation in, 452
New York City
Department of Health, 405
Housing Authority, 414
Moving to Opportunity (MTO), 593–595
public housing, 414, 427
New Zealand, 113, 118, 133
NFU (National Farmers’ Union), 198
NIT (Negative income tax), 383, 384
Nixon, Richard, 91, 97, 98, 247, 248, 267, 271, 357, 383, 423, 436, 495
NLRB (National Labor Relations Board), 80, 381
No Child Left Behind Act of 2002, 499
Nord, Mark, 407n10
Norman, Wayne, 625
Norquist, Grover, 191
Novy-Marx, Robert, 556
NOW (National Organization for Women), 250, 494
Nuclear weapons industry, Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000 for, 457
Nursing homes. See Long-term care
Nutritional assistance programs, 198. See also Food-assistance programs; National School Lunch Program
OAA (Old Age Assistance), 434
Obama, Barack
election of, 209
(p. 657) foreclosure prevention programs and, 522
on homeownership, 520
making work pay (MWP) credit and, 385
Medicare and, 307, 308
minimum wage and, 383
poverty measurement and, 586
Rental Housing Demonstration program and, 429n2
on veterans’ programs, 579
Oberlander, Jonathan, 296
Occupational diseases, 453. See also Workers’ compensation
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, 453, 463
Occupy Wall Street movement, 212
O’Connor, Julia S., 636
Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), 90
Office of Education and the Children’s Bureau, Extended-Day Services, 498
Ohio, long-term care and discrimination against Medicaid recipients in, 325
Old Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI), 68, 70, 158. See also Social Security
cross-nation comparison, 115–117
funding and expenditures, 261
gender and, 244–245, 246
inclusive scope of, 83
poverty and, 588
Old Age Assistance (OAA), 434
Old Age Insurance (OAI), 67, 68, 71, 243
Older population. See Elderly population
Olmstead v. L.C. (1999), 342
Olson, Mancur, 188
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1980 (OBRA 1980), 404
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 (OBRA 1981), 101, 404
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 (OBRA 1987), 141, 142
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (OBRA 1990), 496
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 (OBRA 1993), 326
O’Neill, Thomas P., 268
Oregon
Home and Community Based Services (HCBS) waivers, 323
Medicaid coverage of childbirth in, 343
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, 155
Orloff, Ann, 239, 273, 626, 636
Paid parental leave, 12, 118, 241, 500
Palin, Sarah, 174, 176
Partisan politics, 380
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA), 6, 7, 14, 126
breastfeeding and, 504
compared to other countries, 117
constitutionality of, 346, 546
description of, 544–546
framing and value redefinition, 140–141, 217
future of, 546–547
insurance exchanges, 544–545
Medicaid and, 106, 337–338, 350, 545–546
Medicare and, 301, 306, 308, 310
passage of, 106, 530
race and, 223, 232
Republican opposition to, 16
tax credits, 545
uninsured individuals, tax penalty on, 545
workers’ compensation and, 462
Patriarchal character of U.S. welfare policies, 240
Patronage
in federal employment, 552
influence in slowing adoption of social insurance policies in U.S., 157
party system and, 157
post-Civil War period and, 34, 124, 552
in state and local employment, 45
Paulson, Hank, 105
Pavalko, Eliza, 329
Pay-as-you-go system, 270
Payroll taxes. See Taxation
(p. 658) PBGC (Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation), 283, 291
PDA (Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978), 501
Pedriana, Nicholas, 142
Pendleton Act of 1883, 552
Pension Act of 1818, 567
Pension Act of 1832, 33
Pension Act of 1862, 33
Pension Act of 1871, 33
Pension Act of March 1818, 32
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC), 283, 291
Pensions. See also Private pensions; Veterans’ programs
cross-national comparison of public-pension net replacement rates, 613
funded plans, 555
pay-as-you-go plans, 554–555
public-sector employees, 549–564. See also Public-sector employees
Perkins, Frances, 67, 263
Perkins, Roswell, 435
Pershing, Jana L., 577
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA), 101–102, 103, 137, 141, 360–362, 367n3, 385
child care and, 496
family-work issues and, 493
food assistance and, 400
gender and, 246, 248–251
market fundamentalism and, 143
Perversity rhetoric, 137
Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, 194, 195
Philadelphia, almshouses in, 26
Physicians for a National Health Program, 199
Pierce, Franklin, 35
Pierson, Paul, 101, 104, 190, 268, 628
Pingree, Hazen, 46
PIRGs (Public Interest Research Groups), 201
Piven, Frances Fox, 230
Pluralism, 187–188
Plymouth Colony, 24
Polarization, 169, 171, 172f, 175–176, 181, 389
Policy drift, 104, 152
Policy feedback theory, 628, 636
Political action committees (PACs), 188
Political institutions, 10, 151–168
causes-of-effects strategy, 154–155
definition of institutions, 152
historical institutionalists, 152–153, 154–155
large-scale formal institutions, 151, 155–159
negative feedbacks, 152, 160–163
“new politics of the welfare state” approach, 159
policies as, 151, 153–154
policy feedbacks and, 159–162
rational choice institutionalists, 152
sociological institutionalists, 152, 163
unfavorable to social policy development, 151–152
Political parties, 8–9, 169–186. See also Democratic Party; Republican Party
conservative coalition as dominant in Congress from late 1930s through 1980s, 170
cross-national comparison, 123
as formal political institutions, 153
framing issues, 173–174, 176
future research, 180
as hindrance to direct social policy, 156
polarization of, 169, 171, 172f, 181
political change and, 170–173, 180
political rhetoric of, 174–176
power of, weakened by candidate-centered political campaigns, 156, 172
presentation of policy alternatives, 173–174
in Progressive Era, 45
relationship between parties and groups in U.S., 190–191
social policy decisions, control of, 177–181
two-party system, 190
unified control and short-term changes, 177–178
weak party discipline, 191
Politicians, reliance on public opinion polls, 140
Pontusson, Jonas, 121
Poorhouses
in colonial and Revolutionary era, 26
proliferation of, 30–31
Populist movement, 43, 45, 192, 197
(p. 659) Postracist era, 229, 231
Poverty, 585–602. See also Poorhouses
among elderly, 14, 16, 97, 108
among women, 241
child poverty, 355–356, 592–593
in colonial and Revolutionary period, 24, 29
cross-national comparison, 119, 155, 241, 587, 596–597
disability as factor, 444–445
employment-related policies, 591–592
“fallacy of intractability,” 597
food and health programs, 595–596
health insurance for the poor. See Medicaid
housing policy and, 593–595
increase in rate of, 104, 107, 585
industrialization and, 43
intergenerational, 594
liberals’ desire to reduce, 16
Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), 587
official U.S. measure of poverty, 586–588, 586t
policy drift’s effect on, 104
threshold, 377, 587
in US compared to other countries, 14
War on Poverty, 7, 87, 89–90
welfare reform (1996) and, 589–590
Poverty (Hunter), 43
Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 (PDA), 501
Prell, Mark, 407n10
Preschool programs, 615. See also Head Start
President
role of, 8
social policy of, formed despite public opinion, 139
President’s Commission on Pension Policy, 292
President’s Emergency Committee on Unemployment (renamed President’s Organization on Unemployment Relief), 61
Preuhs, Robert, 233
Private health insurance, 82, 530–548. See also Health-care reform
after WWII, 78
class and race and, 542–543
community rating, 537
ERISA preemption, 541
experience rating, 537
lack of regulation, 541
lifetime caps, 541, 544
origins of, 534–535
pre-existing conditions, 541–542, 544
problems with employer plans, 540–541
rescission used to cancel policy, 542, 544
small businesses and, 540
U.S. reliance on, 532–534
Private nature of U.S. welfare system, 114, 120
Private pensions, 279–295
coverage of, 286–287
current challenges, 289–291
decline of, 279–280
description of types of, 283–285
ERISA and, 282–283
as incentive for employees, 13, 83
municipal and state pension schemes, 36–37, 53
New Deal fostering private pension system, 72
nonportable nature of, 125
origins and development of, 280–282
retirement income and, 287–289, 293n3
unionized firms with, 287, 288t
value of, 285–286, 286–287t
Programmatic beliefs, 134–135
Progressive Era, 7, 41–58
child labor, 41, 47–48
citizens’ groups in, 200
definition of progressivism, 42–43
gender and, 243
impediments and opportunities, 41, 43–45
maternalist welfare state, 51–53
precedents and consequences of, 53–54
reform strategies, 45–47
trade unions’ selective resistance to social policy, 41, 43, 48–51
workers’ compensation and, 452
Progressive Party, 45, 192
Prohibition, 53
(p. 660) Proposition 13 (California), 99
Protestant work ethic, 123
Prothrow-Stith, Deborah, 615
Provost, Colin, 136
Proxmire, William, 518
Psychiatric medicine, 437–438
Public education, 17n1, 43, 118
Public Health Service, U.S., 45, 79
Public housing, 86, 413–423
capital needs, 419–420
challenges, 427–428
decrease in units for, 15
design and construction quality, 416–417
history of, 414–415
HOPE VI redevelopment program, 420–422
management of, 418
operating subsidies, 418–419
project location, 416
public housing authorities (PHAs), role of, 413, 418
Section 8 Existing Housing Program, 423–424
statistics of households receiving subsidies, 413, 414
tenant profiles, 415
voucher program, 423–427, 593–594
Public Housing Act amendments (1960s and 1970s), 419
Public Interest Research Groups (PIRGs), 201
Public opinion, 11, 206–221
alternative explanations vs., 218
characteristics of public attitudes about social programs, 209–212
combination of abstract conservative with operational liberal, 209–210
cultural factors in, 138–139
future research on influence of, 144
on government spending purposes, 209–210, 210t
on homeownership, 520
impact on welfare state, 212–218
on inequality and redistribution, 211–212
limits of, 206–209
on Medicaid, 345
non-effects of party control and, 216
obscured program designs and, 217–218
on public assistance recipients, 210–211
reinforcing government social policies, 140, 159
on retrenchment, 213–216
Public-private partnerships, 4, 6, 10, 136
Public schools. See Schools
Public-sector employees
characteristics of retirement and health plans, 549–551
cross-national comparison of pensions, 553
defined benefit plans, 550–551
federal Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS), 558–560
Federal Employees’ Compensation Act, 457
Federal Employees Health Benefits plan (FEHB), 559
Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS), 558
flextime, 504
funded pension plans, 555
funding of plans, 554–558
history of plans, 552–554
military personnel’s transition to, 568–569
pay-as-you-go health plans, 558
pension and health benefits, 280, 282, 286, 549–564
Pregnancy Discrimination Act exemption, 501
state and local plans, 560–561
Public Welfare Amendments of 1962, 89, 493, 496
Public works programs of New Deal, 7, 417. See also New Deal
Quadagno, Jill, 140
Race and ethnicity, 222–238. See also Civil rights movement
ADC program, African American reliance on, 85
(p. 661) AFDC and, 357
American creed and, 123
child poverty and, 356
in colonial and Revolutionary era, 26–27, 29
consequences for welfare state, 12, 224–226, 229–230, 249
critical race feminist theory, 240
cultural beliefs about, 12
deservingness of welfare recipients, 211
disability and, 444–445
elimination of racial barriers at end of 1970s, 77
Freedmen’s Bureau, 36
Great Recession and homeownership and, 521
Great Society seeking end to racial discrimination, 87
health insurance and, 542–543
history of discrimination, 24
housing policy and, 85–86, 91, 514–518, 515t, 517f
income inequality and, 606–609, 607–608f
long-term care and, 325
of Medicaid recipients, 319
military pensions and, 33, 577
in New Deal policy, 68–71, 124
official U.S. measure of poverty and, 586, 586t
poorhouses and, 31
in Progressive Era, 47, 51, 54
race riots, 227
of SNAP recipients, 407n9
Social Security and, 272, 613
Social Security exclusion of farm and domestic workers and, 83
TANF and, 363–364, 590
unemployment insurance and, 612
urban crisis and, 227–229
War on Poverty and, 90
white supremacy, 123, 124, 135
work-family policies and, 505
“Race to the bottom,” 138
Racial segregation
in Progressive Era, 51, 54
protests against segregated housing, 91
Radford, Gail, 417
Radigan, Anne, 501
Rational choice institutionalists, 152
Rauh, Joshua D., 556
Reagan, Ronald, 95, 98, 99, 101, 102, 103, 267–268, 345, 382, 399–400, 437, 438, 496, 499
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC), 62
Red Cross, 61, 136–137
Redlining, 86, 517
Reese, Ellen, 239
Rehabilitation
Medicaid coverage of, 348–349
vocational rehabilitation benefits, 456–457
Reinhardt, Uwe, 531
Removal Act of 1830, 35
Republican Party
anti-government stance of, 95, 179, 180
conservative majority of, 171
cost controls on welfare programs, 15
disability benefits, opposition to, 435
FMLA opposition, 502
health-care reform, framing and value redefinition of, 140, 174, 176, 191, 539
Medicare and, 308
minimum wage and, 382
pledge not to raise taxes, 191
on public-sector pensions, 557
racial segregation and, 54
Social Security, funding methods for, 378
Southern Democrat coalition with, 13, 77, 177–178
Tea Party movement and, 191
on welfare state, 11, 179
Restrictive covenants in deeds, 86
Retrenchment of social programs since 1990s, 155, 158–159, 213–216
Social Security and, 268
Revenue Act of 1954, 536, 537
Revolutionary period. See Colonial and Revolutionary period
RFC (Reconstruction Finance Corporation), 62
Robertson, David Brian, 7, 41
(p. 662) Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 540
Robinson, John, 136–137
Roof, Tracy, 9, 187
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 59, 62–71, 76, 380–381, 512, 520, 535. See also New Deal
Roosevelt, Theodore, 45, 46
Rose, Deondra, 631
Rosenbaum, Dan T., 611
Rosenman, Sam, 535
Ross, Wilbur, 290
Rubin, Murray, 482
Rural areas, old-age assistance in, 83
Ryan, Paul, 308, 309–310, 346
Saad-Lessler, Joelle, 289
Sacerdote, Bruce, 523
Same-sex marriage, 577
Sances, Michael W., 11, 206
Scandinavia, 5, 113, 114, 119, 604
Schattschneider, E. E., 188
SCHIP (State Children’s Health Insurance Program). See Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP)
Schlafly, Phyllis, 492
Schlozman, Kay Lehman, 624, 628, 630
Schmidt, Vivien, 134, 141, 147
Schmitz, Lauren, 289
Schneider, Anne, 627, 628
School-Age Child Care Project, 498
Schools
after-school programs, 498, 500
National School Lunch Program, 198, 393, 403–405, 406
preschool programs, 615. See also Head Start
School Breakfast Program, 407n14
School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children, 404
teacher pensions, 553
Schram, Sanford F., 143, 230
Schwartz, Alex, 413, 510
Schwartz, Felice, 492
Scientific management, 42
Sebelius, Katherine, 543
Section 8 Existing Housing Program, 13, 423–424, 426t, 593
Section 235 loans, 512
Section 502 loans, 512
Segal, David R., 575
Segregated housing, protests against, 91
Seligson, Michelle, 498
Seminole Wars, 35
Semyonov, Moshe, 614
Seniors. See AARP; Elderly population
Servicemembers’ Group Life Insurance program, 571
Servicemembers’ Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection program, 571
Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944. See G.I. Bill
Service-oriented employees, wages of, 375–377
Settlement houses, 43, 45, 46
Shapiro, Robert Y., 140
Shapiro v. Thompson (1969), 92
Shaver, Sheila, 636
Shelley v. Kraemer (1948), 518
Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infancy Protection Act of 1921, 52
Shklar, Judith, 628
Single-mother families, 12, 16, 239–240
AFDC and, 12, 243, 246
EITC and, 591
income inequality of, 608–609, 608f, 615
political portrayal of, 249
poverty and, 590
as SNAP recipients, 407n9
welfare reform and, 250–251
Sixteenth Amendment, 47, 198
Skocpol, Theda, 106, 201, 243, 628, 633
Slaughter, Anne-Marie, 492
Slaves in colonial era, 27
Small Business and Work Opportunity Tax Act (2007), 383
Small businesses and health insurance, 540
Small Business Job Protection Act (1996), 382
Smeeding, Timothy M., 596
Smith, Dennis, 348
Smith, Karen, 288
Smith, Rogers, 624
Social assistance, 5
research on, 588
(p. 663) as welfare, 84–85
Social democratic regimes, 5, 113–114, 120, 122, 626
Social dynamics of assistance, 628–629
Social engineering, 43
Social Gospel movement, 42
Social identity theory, 146
Social insurance, 5
coalitions formed in U.S. for passage, 157
in European states, 13
research on, 588, 598n2
Socialism, 519
Socialized medicine, 12
Social policy. See also Welfare state
citizenship and, 623–627
comparative theories of welfare state development, 189–190
definition of, 4
party polarization on, 175–176
research agenda on social policy and citizenship, 635–636
Social Security, 5, 261–278. See also Old Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI)
in 1950s, 265–266
in 1970s and 1980s, 267–268
administration of, 159
as antipoverty program, 217, 271, 276
consolidation in postwar period, 82–84
cost of, 14, 15, 103, 274–275
cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs), 266–267
description of, 262–263
as “earned” benefit, 96–97
effectiveness of, 613
exclusion of farm and domestic workers, 83
fiscal security of program, 102–103
former spouses and, 262
gender and, 243, 244–245, 272–273, 613
historical context, 7, 263–265
inclusive access to, 83
indexed to cost of living, 97
privatization proposal, 11, 15, 101, 102, 191, 214–215, 270
program balance sheet, 271
public opinion’s impact on, 213, 214
race and, 272, 613
resilient to reform, 102, 107, 159–160, 214
retirement age, raising of, 15, 102, 274
retirement income and, 287–289, 293n3
self-employed, coverage of, 265
Trust Fund balance, 275
Social Security Act of 1935, 66, 68, 96, 158, 170, 199, 356, 434, 535
Social Security Administration (SSA), 139, 262, 270, 272, 298–299, 437–438
Appeals Council, 444
FUTA and, 472
Office of Disability Adjudication and Review, 444
Social Security Advisory Council, 270, 434
Social Security Clubs of America, 88
Social Security Disability Insurance (DI), 261, 302, 433–450
administrative structure, 443–444
African Americans and, 444–445
alternate to workers’ compensation, 462
appeals process, 444
benefit levels, expenditures, and financing, 443
eligibility and enrollment, 441–443
origins and development, 433–441
poverty level of recipients, 445
Social solidarity, 123
Somers, Margaret, 135, 136, 137, 138, 141, 142
Soskice, David, 8, 190
Soss, Joe, 143, 230, 630–631
The South
ADC program in, 70–71, 246
child labor in, 47–48
during industrialization, 42
influence in slowing adoption of social insurance policies in U.S., 157, 158
labor and, 196–197, 381
low wages and limited government in, 44, 47–48, 53, 434
maternalist welfare state and, 52
New Deal policy in, 68–69
paternalistic structure of agriculture in, 44
Republicans seeking conservatives in, 170–171
workers’ compensation in, 53–54
Southern Homestead Act of 1866, 36
(p. 664) Spieler, Emily A., 451
Standing in community, 628
State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). See Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP)
State employees. See Public-sector employees
States
discretion allowed to, in cross-national comparison, 120, 163
federalism and, 44
income taxes, 46
independent discretion in addressing needs of the poor, 38, 157
merit selection of state administrative staffs, 46
Mothers’ Pensions, 244, 246
pension schemes, 36–37
in Progressive Era, 46, 54
tax treatment of pension plans, 290
unemployment insurance programs of. See Unemployment insurance
workers’ compensation programs of. See Workers’ compensation
Statewide Afterschool Networks, 500
Steensland, Brian, 142, 143
Stigma of public assistance, 629
Stone, Deborah, 29
Stone, Pamela, 492
Stone, Robyn I., 329
Stonecash, Jeffrey M., 169, 636
Strikes by mineworkers, 78–79
Stryker, Robin, 133, 141, 142, 145
Student aid, 180
Subprime crisis. See Great Recession
Sugrue, Thomas, 227
Sullivan v. Zebley (1990), 438–439
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps), 398–403
challenges, 405–406
eligibility, 400–401
future research, 252
history of, 398–399
impacts on food insecurity, 401–403, 405
low-income families as recipients, 364, 407n9
public opinion’s impact on, 213
Supplemental Security Act of 1972, 356
Supplemental Security Income (SSI), 4, 433–450
administrative structure, 443–444
appeals process, 444
benefit levels, expenditures, and financing, 443
coverage of blind, disabled, or aged, 98
eligibility and enrollment, 441–443
future research, 252
origins of, 340, 436–437
poverty level of recipients, 445
transitions to adulthood for disabled children, 446
welfare reform cuts in 1990s, 440
Supreme Court, U.S., 8
on child labor, 48
on minimum wage, 52, 71
PPACA challenge, 106
on protection of maternity and infancy, 52
on Social Security, 264
welfare cases and Great Society legislation, 92
on working hours cases, 49, 51
Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), 289
Sweden, 190, 611, 613
Switzerland, 4, 117, 604
Syndicalism, 49
Taft, Robert, 535
Taft, William Howard, 48
Taft-Hartley Act of 1947, 80
Task Force on Food Assistance (1983), 400
Taxation. See also Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)
ACA tax credits, 545
Bush tax cuts (2001), 105, 179, 385
Child Tax Credit, 13, 118, 201, 495, 505n4, 612, 615
consumption taxes to fund social policy, 163
credits for dependent children, 118
employee health insurance benefits, 535, 536
estate tax, 179, 180
(p. 665) Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA), 472, 479, 487n4
home mortgage deduction, 513
housing policy and, 119, 515–516
income tax passage, 198, 281
income tax to fund social policy, 163, 180
Low-Income Housing Tax Credit, 415, 425, 426t
military service in combat zone, tax exemption for, 571
negative income tax (NIT), 383, 384
payroll taxes, 262, 297, 304, 307–308, 378, 387, 472
pension treatment, 284–285
pledge not to raise taxes, 191
public opinion and, 11
reform, 16, 170
retirement planning and, 290
servicemen’s declaration of state of residence for income tax purposes, 571
tax revolt of late 1970s, 99
as welfare delivery device, 114, 155
Taxpayer Relief Act (1997), 385
Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA), 378
Tea Party movement, 191, 561, 634
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), 5, 355–372
2012 presidential election and, 232
block-grant allocation to individual states, 362
compared to other countries, 118, 611
creation to replace AFDC, 101, 102, 200, 360–362
delegation to state governments, 9
future research, 252, 366–367
gender and, 248–251
implementation of, 362–364
means-tested benefits, 5
origins and historical development, 356–358, 440, 483
outcomes for recipients, 364–366, 589–590, 592
race and, 363–364, 590
SSI comparison to, 447
state variations, 363–364
Temporary Emergency Relief Administration (TERA), 63
Texas, Medicaid in, 344
Textile industry, 44, 47–48, 53, 60, 71, 374
The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (Esping-Andersen), 113
Ticket to Work (TTW), 440
Tierney, Amber Celina, 8, 151
Topel, Robert H., 480
Townsend Movement, 67, 207
TRA (Tax Reform Act of 1986), 378
“Treaty of Detroit,” 81
Tricare (formerly CHAMPUS), 570, 572
The Truly Disadvantaged (Wilson), 229
Truman, David, 187
Truman, Harry, 77, 79, 82, 86, 106, 199, 297, 530, 535
TTW (Ticket to Work), 440
UMW (United Mine Workers), 78–80
“Underclass,” 228, 233n2
Undeserving vs. deserving citizens
distinguishing between deserving and undeserving poor, 142–143
identification of deserving citizens, 29, 629
logic of deservingness, 120–121
public opinion on who is deserving, 210–211
Unemployment insurance, 5, 7, 471–490
advocacy groups and, 480–481
antipoverty goals and, 483
appeals process, 475–476
benefit adequacy, 486
cross-nation comparison, 117
dependents’ allowance, 476
disqualifying income, 476
effectiveness of, 612
eligibility, 473–475
Emergency Unemployment Compensation 08 (EUC08), 476–477
Extended Benefits (EB) program, 473, 476–477
federal-state relations and, 481–482, 486–487
Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA), 472, 479, 487n4
financing, 477–480, 482
gender and, 243, 612
(p. 666) Great Recession and, 9, 14, 107
historical background and goals of, 471–473
interstate competition limiting, 54
modernization of eligibility, 485
partial benefits, 476
policy issues, 482–486
political economy of, 480–481
Progressive Era and, 46, 67
race and ethnicity and, 612
recipiency, 477, 478t
seasonal employment and, 476
state trust fund solvency, 483–485, 484f
waiting period, 476
work-search test, 245
Unions. See Labor unions
United Automobile Workers (UAW), 79–80, 81, 196
United Kingdom, 6, 51, 113, 117, 118, 162, 505, 516, 533, 612
United Mine Workers (UMW), 78–80
Unite-HERE union, 290
Universal benefits and services, 5
cross-national comparison, 120
defeat of universal public health insurance, 82, 194, 530, 535–536
sexism of, 240
US aversion to, 13, 123
University of Michigan’s Survey Research Center, 206
Unmarried mothers, 366, 368n9. See also Single-mother families
Urbanization, 42
race and, 227–229
U.S. Chamber of Commerce. See Chamber of Commerce
U.S. Department of ___. See name of specific department
UWC–Strategic Services on Unemployment and Workers’ Compensation, 480
Value redefinition, 139–142
Verba, Sidney, 624, 628, 630
Veterans Affairs (VA) Department, 565, 566, 568, 572
Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW), 573
Veterans’ programs, 565–582
challenges, 578–579
Civil War veterans, 11, 32–34, 243, 280, 567, 628
colonial and Revolutionary era soldiers and, 24, 27–28, 567
costs of pensions and health care, 578–579
cross-national comparison, 567, 568
disability coverage, 573, 579
from early Republic to twentieth century, 31–34
expansion of benefits to families, 569
gender and, 245
health-care system, 12, 568, 572
history of, 7, 566–569
housing policy and, 85, 91, 569, 573–574
land benefits, 28, 29, 34–36
Mexican War veterans, 35
Montgomery G.I. Bill of 1985, 569, 573
Pension Act of March 1818, 32
race and ethnicity and, 577
Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 (G.I. Bill), 77–78, 156, 245, 512, 566, 569, 629, 631
transition to civilian labor force, 568–569
Veterans Educational Assistance Program, 569
War of 1812, 31, 33, 34
World War I servicemen, 53, 280, 567, 569
Veterans’ Readjustment Assistance Act, 569
Veto points in U.S., 8, 9, 11, 45, 123–125, 151, 156, 158, 160, 190
Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Company (1926), 518
Vocational-education grants, 47, 54, 89
Vocational rehabilitation benefits, 456–457
Voice and Equality (Verba, Schlozman, & Brady), 630
Voluntarism and unionization, 49
Voluntary organizations
aid to poor in colonial times, 26
in Great Depression, 136
Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA), 90
Voting Rights Act of 1965, 92
Vroman, Wayne, 479, 485
(p. 667) Waddan, Alex, 7, 95
Wagner, Robert, 45, 62
Wald, Pamela, 141, 142, 145
Waldfogel, Jane, 503
Walker, Alexis N., 623
War Labor Board, 281, 554
War Labor Disputes Act, 79
War of 1812, 31, 33, 34
War on Poverty, 7, 87, 89–90, 227, 229
War Risk Insurance Act of 1917, 53
Wascher, William, 591
Washington, Booker T., 45
Waxman, Henry, 340
Wealth gap. See Income inequality
Weaver, R. Kent, 355
Weber, Max, 136
Weir, Margaret, 117
Welfare capitalism, 80
Welfare reform (1996)
Clinton and, 99–100
family-work issues and, 493
framing and value redefinition, 141
gender and, 246, 248–251
political parties and, 178
poverty and, 589–590
purpose of, 12, 200
race and, 223, 229–230, 231
SSI and, 440, 447
Welfare state. See also History of social provision; Social policy
costs of, 17n2. See also specific programs
cross-national comparison, 112
definition of, 4
public opinion on recipients of, 210–211
“two-tiered” welfare state, 242–244
welfare regimes, 5
Welfare-to-work program. See Welfare reform (1996)
The West
ADC program in, 246
during industrialization, 42
White, Theodore, 95
White House Conference on the Care of Dependent Children (1909), 46, 52
White supremacy, 123, 124, 135
Widows
Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) and, 84
pension programs for, 52
Williams, Aubrey, 69
Wilson, William B., 45, 51
Wilson, William Julius, 229, 230–231, 233n2, 593
Wilson, Woodrow, 46
Wisconsin
state employees’ pension fund, 557
unemployment insurance in, 472
Witte, Edwin, 67
Women. See also Gender
access to social welfare programs at end of 1970s, 77
as “disconnected mothers,” 366, 368n8
job protection following childbirth, 118
long-term care and, 325
as long-term caregivers, 328–329
as low-wage workers, 251
maternalist welfare state, 51–53, 55
as Medicaid recipients, 319
in military service, 576–577
most influential female public official (1893), 46
mothers’ pensions and protections for women and children, 11
retirement income of unmarried women, 289
as veterans, 576–577
wage discrimination against, 179
widow’s pension programs, 52
in workforce, 12, 71. See also Work-family policies
working hours for, 51, 53
Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program, 595
Women’s Bureau, 248
Women’s clubs, 43, 45, 46, 51
Women’s Committee of 100, 493
Women’s Trade Union League, 46, 51
Woodbury, Stephen A., 471
Workers’ compensation, 451–468
AMA Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment, 460
(p. 668) benefit structure, 455–457
“clear and convincing” evidence for claim, 459
cost of, 14, 452, 459
coverage, 454–455
fatalities, 456
federal programs, 457–458
financing and experience rating, 457
fraud, 461–462
future challenges, 463–465
gender and, 243
history of, 50, 53–54, 155, 452–454
inefficiency of process, 460–461
occupational diseases and, 453, 459
permanent partial disability benefits (PPD), 456, 460
permanent total disability benefits (PTD), 456
“preponderance of evidence” for claim, 459
reduction in available benefits, 458–463
stigmatization of disabled workers and, 459
temporary disability benefits, 455
temporary total disability benefits (TTD), 455
union support for, 49–50
vocational rehabilitation benefits, 456–457
Work-family policies, 491–509
child care, access to, 12, 118, 242, 247–248, 493–497
inequality outcomes and, 614–615
origins of, 491–493
parental and family leave, 500–504. See also Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA)
race and, 505
school-age children, 497–500
social policy strategies and, 609
Workfare model, 158, 496, 575
Workhouses, 26
proliferation of, 30–31
Working hours, 49, 51, 53
Work Progress Administration/ Work Projects Administration (WPA), 59, 65–66, 69, 71
World War II, 60, 71–73. See also G.I. Bill
child-care provision, 494, 498
school-lunch program in, 403
wages cap, effect on health insurance benefits, 535
World War I servicemen’s programs, 53, 280, 567, 569
World War Veterans Act of 1924, 568
Wright, Gavin, 381
Yin, George, 388
YMCA and YWCA, 498
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu, 590
Zigler, Edward, 495
Zoning, 514, 518