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date: 22 September 2019

(p. 743) Index

(p. 743) Index

Achilles Tatius, 16, 389, 399, 405–16, 472, 649, 677, 688n39, 712n27
asianism of, 57, 60
cult and rituals in, 735n36
Leucippe and Clitophon of, 55, 119, 353, 405–6, 413–16, 421, 470, 606, 616
myths of, 410, 471
Adrastus of Aphrodisias, 574, 591. See also Aristotelians
Aelian of Praeneste, 6, 28, 359–60, 448–50, 457–58, 485–86, 539, 724n25
atticism of, 44, 49–53, 58, 60, 108, 150, 720n7, 723n65, 724n17
epistolography of, 509, 511–12, 518
On the Characteristics of Animals of, 28, 447, 449, 452, 454
Varia Historia of, 358–59, 447, 456, 459
Aelius Aelianus, 193
Aelius Aristides, 5, 41, 49, 142, 233, 255–67, 346, 352, 371, 382, 384, 431, 563
atticism of, 51, 53, 424, 484
autobiography of, 615
the civic theater and, 184, 625
education and, 140, 191, 477, 695n4, 696n14
Hellenocentric universalism of, 635
Monody to Smyrna of, 55
oratory of, 89, 147, 171, 205, 213, 311, 425, 604, 695n8
Panathenaikos of, 89–93, 342, 424
Platonic discourses of, 261–62
on poetry, 263–64
polemics of, 261–63
religion and, 605–6, 615, 734n26
Roman Oration of, 93, 207, 736n1
Roman triumphalism of, 487
Sacred Tales of, 12, 259–61, 348, 354, 614
as a sophist, 374
See also atticism; oratory
Aelius Paion, 494, 499. See also melic poetry; poetry
Aesop, 143, 340, 696n14. See also Corpus Aesopicum; fable
aesthetics, 363, 405, 415, 629
anticlassical, 58–60
apocalyptic, 679, 681
artworks and, 364
of atticism, 56, 377
of blood and violence, 282
butch, 130
of erotic works, 406, 412
Latinity and, 71, 74, 78
of miscellaneousness, 448, 458
See also asianism; atticism
Alcaeus, 429. See also poetry
Alciphron, 511–12. See also epistolography; literature
Alexander of Aegae, 591. See also Aristotelians
Alexander of Aphrodisias, 83, 383, 574, 581, 583–87, 590–91. See also Aristotelians; commentary
Alexander of Cotiaion, 140, 142, 150, 695n7, 696n14. See also grammar
Alexander of Damascus, 383, 591. See also Aristotelians
Alexander Romance, 18, 422, 426–37, 517, 677. See also novel, the
Alexander Severus, 125, 190, 278, 485, 662, 739n52
(p. 744) Alexander the Great, 45, 56, 222, 264, 277, 321, 391, 422, 426–27, 431–36, 618, 641. See also Greece
allegory, 20, 228–29, 300–1, 472
of myth, 468, 472
Stoic, 467
Ammianus, 49, 501. See also epigram
anacoluthon, 432–33
Anacreon, 116, 130, 500. See also poetry
anatomists, 375, 379. See also medicine
Anderson, Graham, 229, 421
Andronicus of Rhodes, 582–83, 590. See also Aristotelians
Anthologia Palatina, 500–1, 503. See also epigram; poetry
Antigenes, 377. See also medicine
Antoninus Pius, 89, 123, 125, 128, 181, 210, 239, 250, 256, 498, 599, 615, 626, 628, 722n55, 733n5. See also Roman Empire
Antonius Diogenes, 517, 726n76. See also novel, the
Antonius Iulianus, 30, 116, 694n2
Antonius Polemon, 182, 233, 600–1. See also sophists
Antonius Romanus, 31. See also oratory; rhetoric
Apollodorus of Athens, 464, 469. See also mythography
Apollodorus of Damascus, 186, 191. See also architecture
Apollonius Dyscolus, 51. See also grammar
Apollonius of Athens, 54–55, 207, 602. See also sophists
Apollonius of Rhodes, 3, 15, 425, 498
Apollonius of Tyana, 32, 44, 94, 509, 513–14, 518–19, 532–34, 598, 705n15, 710n7
biography of, 275–83, 605
religion and, 607, 614, 617–18
See also religion
Apuleius of Madaura, 6, 34–36, 116, 120–21, 205, 224, 248, 342, 345–55
Apologia of, 118, 123, 125, 330, 341, 345, 350–52, 614
biography of, 345–50
Metamorphoses of, 120, 196, 345, 352–54, 362, 649–50, 701n4, 735n37
oratory of, 184–85
platonism of, 566–71, 576–77
religion and, 301, 606
archaism, 4, 12, 15, 18, 60, 70, 78
in Alexandrian writers, 425
in Apuleius, 248
in Aulus Gellius, 248
in Fronto, 245
in Pausanias, 362, 366
Archilochus, 425, 500, 502, 733n13. See also fable; poetry
architecture, 156, 174, 181–97, 265, 371–74, 382, 588, 700n3. See also civic theater
(Areus) Didymus, 84, 591. See also Aristotelians
Aristides of Athens, 626. See also Christianity
Aristides Quintilianus, 8. See also technical literature
Aristocles of Pergamum, 44, 256, 572, 591. See also Aristotelians; oratory; sophists
Aristophanes, 129, 424–25, 633
comparison of Menander and, 48
Thesmophoriazusae of, 411
See also comedy
Aristophanes of Byzantium, 45. See also Hellenistic scholarship
Aristotelians, 83, 91, 303, 339, 348, 376, 378, 557, 572, 581–91, 730n1, 731n17. See also Aristotle; philosophy
Aristotle of Mytilene, 585, 591. See also Aristotelians
Arius Didymus, 571, 591. See also Stoics
Arrian of Nicomedia, 49, 51, 53, 311, 359, 477–80, 482–84, 487–88, 498, 720n9
Anabasis of, 361, 722n42, 722n44
on Epictetus, 532, 534
Indika of, 366, 689n5
Periplous of the Black Sea of, 366, 722n42
Artaxerxes Memnon, 391. See also Persia
asceticism, 130, 277, 279, 604, 641. See also Christianity; Judaism
Asclepiadeans, 375, 380. See also Asclepiades of Bithynia; medicine
Asclepiades of Bithynia, 375–76, 380. See also medicine
Asclepius, 127, 257, 259–60, 262–63, 354, 371, 375, 382–83, 605–6, 613, 618
gymnasium of, 193
paean to, 500
sanctuary of, 256, 263, 614, 619
temple of, 615
vision of, 617
See also religion
asianism, 53–60, 188, 263, 365, 392, 643
atticism and, 41–61
defining, 53–58, 689n7
in the Second Sophistic, 58–60
Asinius Gallus, 124
Asinius Pollo, 124, 484
Asinius Quadratus, 720n7. See also atticism
Aspasius, 574, 581, 583–86, 590–91, 731n20. See also Aristotelians
Asper, Markus, 425
Athenagoras of Athens, 626–28. See also Christianity
Athenaeus of Naucratis, 6, 14, 32, 121, 125, 128, 130–31, 359–60, 477, 632
atticism of, 485
Deipnosophistae of, 53, 149, 358, 447, 451–58, 482, 493, 540, 694n2
historical examples in, 477, 512
Athenodorus, 44. See also oratory; sophists
Athens, 29, 55, 88–92, 95, 157, 337, 360, 391–93, 396, 431, 433–36, 700n2
atticism and, 43, 50, 52, 431, 484
constitution of, 641
cultural empire of, 5, 264, 329, 342, 424
democratic, 627
education in, 140, 150, 346, 350, 352, 633
eulogy to, 258
Hellenistic, 512
Herodes Atticus and, 238–42, 256
history of, 318–20, 697n11
monuments and buildings of, 101, 183, 186, 194, 300, 597, 599
Panhellenism and, 105, 602, 616
philosophy in, 292, 295, 426, 557, 565, 581–82, 586, 727n11, 729n8
rhetoric in, 169, 171, 173, 183, 208, 433, 602, 728n11
stadium at, 189, 239
superiority of, 88, 104, 186, 693n33
athletic trainers, 155–65
adaptations of, 161–64
criticisms of, 161–64
atomism, 293, 376. See also Epicureans; philosophy
atticism, 41–53, 389, 392, 424, 486, 689n4, 701n7
and classicism, 49–51
lexica of, 44–46
in the Second Sophistic, 43–44, 431–35, 478
varieties of, 51–53
Atticus, 565, 569, 572, 573–74, 629. See also philosophy; Platonists
Augustine, 107, 346, 348, 567, 576. See also Christianity
Aulus Cornelius Celsus, 376, 698n43. See also medicine
Aulus Gellius, 6–7, 28–32, 35–36, 240–41, 354, 448–49, 459
Favorinus and, 29–30, 127, 181, 233–38, 553, 568
on festivals, 615
Fronto and, 247–48, 354, 689n1
pederasty in, 121
philological interests of, 68–69, 181, 632, 690n11, 720n8
philosophy in, 553–54, 566, 568, 572
social outlook of, 458
Avianus, 499. See also poetry
(p. 746) Babrius, 503. See also fable
Babylon, 82, 390, 392, 394, 438, 483, 620, 639, 661
Bakhtin, Mikhail, 424, 435, 714n1, 719n45
Bar Daysan, 660–61. See also Christianity
Bologna, Corrado, 423
Bowersock, Glen, 9, 708n35, 723n66, 735n41
Bowie, Ewen, 9, 284, 359, 390, 477, 503, 663–64, 688n26
Caecilius, 74. See also latinitas
Caecilius of Caleacte, 689n3. See also rhetoric
Callimachus, 3, 15, 124, 424–25, 435, 499
Aitia of, 498
Coma Berenices of, 127
Hecale of, 497
Iamboi of, 424, 429
See also poetry
Canfora, Luciano, 426, 458
Caracalla, 191, 274, 384, 498, 513, 585, 590, 600, 618, 661. See also Roman Empire
Carmina Anacreontea, 500. See also Anacreon; melic poetry
Carneades, 236–37, 552–53. See also philosophy; Skeptics
Carthage, 34, 130, 345–51, 431–32, 616, 720n21
audience in, 346
theater at, 184–85
Cassirer, Ernst, 438
Cassius Dio, 8, 32, 120, 311, 316, 390, 477–78, 483–88, 720n8, 723n64
atticism of, 722n53
calumny of, 123
as a Greek historian of Rome, 322, 481–82
See also history; Rome
Cassius the Skeptic, 85. See also philosophy; Skeptics
Catullus, 70, 116, 118, 128, 435. See also Latin; poetry
Cavafy, Constantine, 439
Celsus, 573. See also philosophy; Platonists
Cerealius, 501. See also epigram
Chariton of Aphrodisias, 18, 20, 48, 51, 61, 389–402, 405, 513, 711n10, 712n16
Callirhoe of, 12, 15, 143, 389–98, 398, 516, 711n12
and the Greek novel, 16, 398, 477, 516, 649, 711n9
Christian Apocrypha, 6, 669–81
Acts of the Apostles of the, 676–78, 739n3
apocalyptic and, 678–79
collections of, 672–73
definitions in, 670–71
epistolography and, 678–79
gospels of the, 673–75
pseudepigrapha and, 678–79
See also Christianity
Christianity, 625–36, 655–65, 669–81, 739n52
court culture and, 659–61
elites of, 655–65
the emperor and, 626–29
Greek culture and, 633–36, 655–56
the logos and, 629–33
Plato’s metaphysics and, 563
the rise of, 277–78
sexuality in, 130
Cicero, 25–34, 56–57, 74, 95, 102, 124–25, 246, 350–53, 531
on Asianism and Atticism, 55–59
Brutus of, 55, 319
De Finibus of, 86
exilic literature and, 93
history and, 317, 478, 720n11
latinitas and, 68–78
Orator of, 55
philosophy and, 552, 554, 582
Pro Cluentio of, 350
Tusculan Disputations of, 236
cinaedus, 119, 127–29. See also sex
civic theater, 184–88, 208, 544. See also architecture; performance; rhetoric; sophists
Claudius, 26, 91, 123, 242, 384, 600, 640. See also Roman Empire
Clement of Alexandria, 130, 501, 544, 728n6. See also Christianity
Clement of Rome, 678. See also Christianity
comedy, 334, 339, 377, 411, 510, 604
Greek, 512
Greek novel and, 516
Persius and, 711n4
See also New Comedy; poetry
commentary
Aristotelian, 581–90, 731n15
in Aulus Gellius, 448
biblical, 632, 663
Epicurean, 546–47
and the Hippocratic corpus, 378
on the Iliadic catalog of ships, 469
Platonic, 569, 572–75, 729n19, 729n25
Plutarch and the, 293
Commodus, 383–84, 498. See also Marcus Aurelius
Cornutus, 467–68, 472. See also allegory; Stoics
Corpus Aesopicum, 503. See also Aesop; fable
cosmopolitanism, 81–96, 105
the Panathenaicus and, 89–93
exiles and, 93–94
philosophy and, 83–87
political, 87–89
Roman imperial, 718n43
Stoic, 82
Crates of Mallos, 45, 73. See also rhetoric
Cronius, 339, 574. See also philosophy
cult, 597–608
Imperial, 300
imperial measures and, 598–601
in literature, 604–6
mystery religion and, 300, 362, 604, 606, 614, 733n3, 735n38
priesthoods and, 601–2
religious festivals and, 601–2
religious trends and, 606–7
restorations of the traditions of, 603–4
cultural identity, 5–6, 99–110, 121, 206, 295, 341–42
Christian, 625–26, 636
elite, 150, 372, 389, 656–59
Fronto’s discourse on, 249–51
Greek, 15, 18, 20, 103–7, 208, 226–27, 230, 317, 321, 416, 494
Jewish, 19, 639–51
of Lucian, 327–28, 341
paideia and, 88–89, 455–58
Roman, 35, 92, 317, 345, 353
culture, 3–8, 12, 15, 20, 99–110, 178
Christian, 14, 655–65
ethnicity and, 89–91
of gymnasium and festival, 155–57
imperial athletic, 162, 164
Jewish, 19, 639–51
Latin, 67–78, 248
near-eastern, 18
paideia and, 88–89, 251, 256, 455–58
religious, 597–608, 613–20
rhetorical, 205–13
Roman, 35, 68, 75, 92, 150, 238, 317, 345, 353
Second Sophistic, 15, 25–36, 41–61, 197
Western popular, 120
Cynics, 190, 530. See also philosophy
declamation, 30, 146–51, 206, 208–9, 390, 482, 700n2, 721n32
asianism and, 54
atticism and, 51–52
and downward mobility, 25–28
in Hellenistic oratory, 13
historical themes and, 477, 707n1
Latin, 120
magic and, 699n23
Roman use of, 32, 35
school use of, 140, 142, 146–50, 450
Demetrius of Alexandria, 374. See also sophists
Demetrius of Phalerum, 16–17. See also oratory; sophists
(p. 748) Demetrius the Cynic, 190–91, 236, 530. See also Cynics; philosophy
Democritus, 376, 728n17. See also atomism
Demosthenes, 319, 391, 426, 433. See also oratory
Demotic Magical Papyrus, 428. See also Egypt
Didymus. See Areus Didymus.
diglossia, 46–49, 673. See also atticism; Greek
Dio Chrysostom (Dio of Prusa), 8, 28, 34, 48, 51, 94, 129, 205, 217–30, 233, 265, 347–49, 352, 423–31, 438, 482, 487, 502, 527, 531, 536
biography of, 176, 217–20
Euboicus of, 12, 119, 220–22
festivals and, 597
Greece and Rome in, 222–36, 709n62
myth and literature in, 226–30
Olympic Oration of, 472, 604
On Kingship of, 422, 424, 433
as philosopher, 539, 547
politics and, 207, 213
religion and, 605, 661
on rulers, 648
Trojan Oration of, 146, 280
Diodorus of Sicily, 48, 51, 319. See also history
Diogenes Laertius, 32, 85, 93, 121, 459, 485, 517, 552–57, 727n11, 728n17. See also philosophy
Diogenes of Oenoanda, 539–49, 556. See also Epicureans; philosophy
Diogenes the Cynic, 143, 223, 531, 533. See also Cynics; philosophy
Diogenianus, 501. See also epigram
Dionysius of Alexandria, 495, 497–99
Periegesis of, 497–99
See also epic; poetry
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 48, 50, 61, 148, 317, 331, 688n1. See also history; rhetoric
Dionysius of Miletus, 149, 160, 175–76, 390–92, 394–96. See also sophists
Dogmatists, 375–76. See also medicine
Domitian, 126–27, 176, 191, 279, 708n35. See also Roman Empire
Douris of Samos, 361. See also history
drama, 25, 353, 493–94, 502–3, 641. See also poetry
education, 6, 34–35, 139–51, 178, 394–95, 642, 695n11
grammatical, 469
and Greek culture, 104, 188–94, 234, 436, 493–94
gymnastic, 155–65, 372
history of, 7
imperial, 50, 88, 720n16
medical, 374–76, 385
nonpractical, 394
the organization of, 140–41
philosophical, 295, 305, 351, 375, 570, 588
rhetorical formation in, 205–6, 469, 472, 478, 598
Roman, 25, 68, 75
and the sophists, 5
of women, 305, 695n8
Egypt, 16–20, 101, 256, 291, 297, 300–1, 337, 399–401, 426–39, 484, 501
apocryphal Gospels found in, 673
chronology and, 634–35
cults of, 547, 605, 633
education and, 642
Greek borrowing from, 656–57
Joseph and Aseneth a story of, 649–51
religious travel in, 613, 615, 617–20
See also Roman Egypt
Empiricists, 375–76, 378. See also medicine
encomium, 89, 157, 213, 265, 352, 479, 494, 643, 723n67
the art of the, 57–58, 209–11, 629
mock, 208
the rhetoric of the, 212
See also oratory; rhetoric
Ennius, 31, 70–71, 129. See also Latin; literature; poetry
epic, 25, 36, 70, 228, 280–81, 353, 361, 464, 470, 493–99, 517
on biblical and Jewish themes, 19
didactic, 497–99
Homeric, 227, 466, 494
mythological, 496–97
polymathy, 454
See also Homer; poetry
Epicureans, 236, 293–94, 301–2, 374, 380, 575, 582
attacks on the, 292, 552, 572
Diogenes of Oenoanda and the, 539–49, 556
and religion, 281
epigram, 36, 124–26, 193, 493–94, 499–503, 510, 694n14
Byzantine, 409
cult traditions and the, 603
and the dinner party, 115–17
erotic, 120, 122, 514, 695n16
See also Martial; poetry
epistolography, 509–19, 723n2, 723n11, 724n12
Christian apocrypha and, 678–80
embedded letters and, 516–17
fictional, 724n15, 725n46
the novel and , 515–16
pseudonymous letter collections and, 514–15
Roman appropriation of, 25
short stories and, 515–16
Erasistrateans, 375, 379–80. See also Erasistratus; medicine
Erasistratus, 371, 375
human dissections and vivisections of, 371
On the Bringing up of Blood of, 380
See also Galen; medicine
erudition. See learning
ethics, 84–87, 94, 277, 301–5, 375, 532, 542, 557, 582, 584–90. See also virtue
ethnicity, 57, 69, 81–83, 140, 484, 625, 636
and culture, 89, 99–110, 327–32, 336, 341, 458
and diversity, 327, 429, 431, 439, 619
of Greekness, 88, 109, 382
language and, 423, 715n63
persecutions and, 298, 437
prejudices of, 59
purity of, 89–92, 342, 437
religion and, 336–37, 633, 635
stereotypes of, 56
transcendence of, 81–96, 150
Eudemus, 373, 377, 383. See also Aristotelians; Galen; philosophy
Eudorus of Alexandria, 292. See also philosophy; Platonists
Euripides, 3, 218, 220, 641, 698n34
Helen of, 411
Iphigenia in Tauris of, 423, 502
letters attributed to, 511, 514
Medea of, 93, 146
See also poetry; tragedy
Eusebius of Caesarea, 569, 576, 620, 634, 660, 663–64, 670–72, 675
Contra Hieroclem of, 278
Ecclesiastical History of, 659, 665
Preparation for the Gospel of, 572, 729n25
See also Christianity
Eustathius, 499. See also commentary
exiles, 93–94, 691n28
fable, 143, 205, 240, 493, 502–3. See also Aesop; poetry
Favorinus of Arelate, 6, 8, 28–32, 50–61, 108–9, 129–30, 233–38, 245–47, 437
exile and, 94
Greekness of, 103, 105, 127, 330, 341
Memoirs of, 447
Miscellaneous History of, 28, 447
as a Skeptic, 552–54, 560, 568
as a sophist, 175, 181, 447, 457, 552
festivals, 15, 26, 107, 155–61, 164, 169, 184, 266, 295, 734n25
dramatic, 502
musical and theatrical, 544
national, 424, 500
(p. 750) Flavius Damianus, 188, 191, 193, 700n2. See also oratory; sophists
Flavius Philostratus. See Philostratus
Frazer, J. G., 358, 365–66
Fronto, 7, 30–37, 205, 210, 235, 239–40, 245–51, 354, 701nn1–7, 702nn9–18
Correspondence of, 251
and Aulus Gellius, 689n1
and Marcus Aurelius, 116, 118, 121–23, 129–31, 330, 342, 349, 354
philological interests of, 68
Gaius, 567, 570, 574, 729n19. See also philosophy
Galen, 5, 7–8, 32, 161–65, 233, 237, 346, 371–84, 614
anatomical demonstrations by, 379–80
and “the Ancients”, 377–78
atticism and, 43–44, 49, 51, 485
biography of, 371–75
the crowd and, 380–81
debating in public by, 380
and the emperor, 383–84
on language, 377
the liberal arts and, 374
normative patient of, 372–73
On Anatomical Procedures of, 383
On Lycus’s Ignorance of Anatomy of, 379
On Prognosis of, 383–84
On the Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato of, 375, 378
On the Usefulness of the Parts of, 377–78, 383
paideia and, 373–79
philosophy and, 552–54, 567–69, 574, 584–90, 698n40, 731n18
and Roman imperial power, 382–84
Roman connections of, 382–83
and the senatorial aristocracy, 383
therapy as competition in, 381–82
women in, 119
geography, 28, 89, 141, 251, 277, 279, 366, 395, 406, 466, 479, 617. See also history
Gleason, Maud, 127
Goldhill, Simon, 14, 124, 276, 449
Gorgias of Leontini, 8, 13, 57–59, 108, 275–76, 629. See also rhetoric; sophists
Gowing, Alain, 484
Greece, 11–21, 396
Alexander and, 431
language of, 423
and Persia, 392–93
and Rome, 222–26, 432, 481–82
Greek, 4, 14–15, 19, 423
cultural identity and, 18–20, 103–7, 208, 226–27, 230, 317, 321, 416, 494
hellenismos and, 68, 71, 74
and Latin, 29, 247–51, 316, 342, 346, 352, 447, 457, 482, 486–87, 724n15
oratory, 26, 28–29, 431, 437
poetry in, 218, 220, 411, 493–95, 499
Greenwood, Emily, 480
Hadrian, 32, 210, 242, 382–83, 390, 396, 436, 486, 494, 498, 502, 626. See also Roman Empire
Hadrian of Tyre, 59, 170–71, 191, 233, 242, 374. See also sophists
Hall, Edith, 104, 423
Harrison, Stephen, 342, 353
Heath, Malcolm, 150
Heliodorus, 16, 20, 389, 393, 398, 477, 649, 677
Aethiopica of, 405, 421, 616
religion and, 606, 735n36
the sylistics of, 406
Heliodorus of Athens, 364. See also architecture
Hellenistic scholarship, 45, 70, 452, 454, 469, 671. See also grammar; Homer
Helm, Rudolf, 327, 333, 342
Heraclitus, 468. See also allegory; Homer
(p. 751) Hermocrates, 391, 711n8
Hermogenes of Tarsus, 58, 147–48. See also oratory; rhetoric
Herodes Atticus, 44, 177–78, 238–42, 245–46, 437–38, 499. See also oratory; sophists
Herodian, 477–78, 486–87, 721n28. See also history
Herodotus, 366, 392, 425–26, 478
Hesiod, 29, 425, 465–66, 502, 605, 630, 646–47. See also fable; poetry
Herophilus, 375, 378. See also medicine
Hippocrates, 374–75, 377–78. See also medicine
Hippodromus of Larissa, 129, 169–78, 240, 500. See also sophists
Hippolytus, 501. See also Christianity
Hipponax, 435. See also invective
historiography, 20, 124, 278, 392, 477–88, 634, 636, 720n12, 721n25
Africanus and Greek, 663–64
Antonine, 487
Christian apocrypha and, 680
and epistolography, 515–17
Greek, 663–64
Hellenistic, 392, 657, 739n61
oratory and, 141
Pausanias and, 361
Philostratus and, 513
Plutarch and, 312, 316, 318–22
political, 311
romantic, 16, 18
Severan, 487
history, 477–81
of Athens, 318–20, 697n11
Cicero and, 317, 478, 720n11
Plutarch and, 313–14, 318–21
of the Second Sophistic, 275–76
Homer, 218, 220, 411, 493–95
Iliad of, 142, 495
Odyssey of, 397, 662
Homeric Hymns, 498. See also poetry
Idomeneus of Lampsacus, 236. See also Epicureans; philosophy
intellectualism, 7, 335. See also education; learning
invective, 120, 123, 205, 209, 220, 332–33, 351–52, 435, 661. See also literature
Isocrates, 259, 262, 428. See also oratory; rhetoric
Jakobson, Roman, 424
Josephus, 18, 48, 107, 517, 547, 631–32, 647, 657, 721n25. See also history; Judaism
Judaism, 19, 438, 547, 639–51
allegory in, 300
Christianity and, 109, 693n60
Hellenism and, 642, 644, 648
Plutarch on, 297
Julia Domna, 130, 274
Julius Africanus, 6, 634, 655–65, 671. See also Christianity; history; polymathy
Julius Caesar, 31, 76, 124, 432
Julius Pollux, 8
Justin Martyr, 626, 633, 741n62. See also Christianity
Juvenal, 8, 117–28, 220, 512, 639. See also satire
koinê, 44–52, 61, 150, 241, 292, 424, 428–29, 437–39, 478, 482, 484, 487, 689n5. See also Greece; Greek
Krevans, Nita, 425
Latin
citizenship and, 106–7
erotic, 116, 120
Greek and, 247–51, 316, 342, 346, 352, 447, 457, 482, 486–87, 724n15
hegemony of, 435
letters in, 118, 510–11
literature in, 4, 7, 122, 345, 498, 352, 495–99, 650
origins and development of, 69–70
rhetorical culture, 205–13
words, 5, 127, 384, 390
(p. 752) latinitas, 67–78, 248, 690nn6–7
the development of a sense of, 70–73
theorized, 73–78
Latinity. See latinitas
Latin Second Sophistic, 4, 25–35, 67–78. See also Latin; Second Sophistic
learning, 29–35, 101, 155–56, 170, 181, 234, 338, 351–53, 406, 449–55
Greek, 640, 642, 656, 660
Jewish, 642
life and, 413, 640
literary, 353
lovers of, 628
philosophy and, 453
Leonidas of Byzantium, 498
Life of Sekoûndos, 436–37
literary antiquarianism, 52–53, 366, 607. See also archaism; literature
literary devices, 57, 411, 421. See also literature
literature, 273–524
cult and, 604–6
of exile, 93–94
Latin, 4, 7, 25, 31, 76, 122–23, 345, 352, 495–98
myth and, 226–30
of pilgrimage, 362
Livius Andronicus, 70. See also Latin; literature
Longinus, 425, 730n49, 733n3. See also Pseudo-Longinus
Longus, 16, 61, 359, 389, 511, 649
and Achilles Tatius, 405–16
cult in, 712n12
Daphnis and Chloe of, 55, 353, 398, 405, 412, 421, 700n3, 713n14
the novels of, 389
Lucian of Samosata, 149, 205, 273, 327–43, 425
Alexander of, 354
cultural identity in, 341–42
the gods of, 336–38
How to Write History of, 480
imposters and, 338–41
the literary project of, 333–36
On the Syrian Goddess of, 366
philosophers and, 339–40
Syrians and non-Syrians in, 329–33
True Stories of, 366
Lucianus, 501. See also epigram
Lucillius, 501. See also epigram
Lucius Verus, 191, 245, 371. See also Roman Empire
Lycus of Macedon, 377–80. See also medicine
Lysias, 54, 56, 59, 122, 236, 250, 428, 688n1. See also Greek; oratory
Marcellus of Side, 498–99
Iatrica of, 499
Ornithiaka of, 499
See also epic; poetry
Marcus Aurelius, 32, 124, 371, 383–84, 486, 498, 626. See also Commodus; Roman Empire; Stoics
Marinus, 379. See also medicine
Martial, 8, 118–19, 123, 435. See also epigram
medicine, 7, 117, 119, 174, 353, 371–84, 388, 732n50
Apuleius on, 349
Asclepius god of, 371
philosophy and, 161, 588–89, 698n40
Plutarch on, 163
See also Galen; philosophy
melic poetry, 499–501. See also poetry
Melito of Sardis, 620, 626. See also Christianity
Menander, 48, 512, 647. See also comedy
Menander Rhetor, 185, 209–11, 213, 266. See also encomium; rhetoric
Mesomedes, 12, 494, 499. See also poetry
Methodists, 375–76, 378. See also medicine
Michael Psellos, 266. See also philosophy
Middle Platonism, 300–1, 547. See also philosophy; Platonists
miscellanies, 28–29, 34, 52, 235, 447–59, 466–68, 717n1. See also literature
misogyny, 119, 130. See also sex; women
Mithridates, 102, 392–96. See also Persia
(p. 753) Morgan, John, 414, 712n12
Musonius Rufus, 83, 93–94, 217, 304, 340, 527–32, 535–36, 646, 695n17, 700n1. See also philosophy; Stoics
mythography, 358, 463–73, 603, 719n1, 719n3. See also literature
mythos, 364, 410
Naevius, 70–72. See also Latin; poetry
Near Eastern wisdom literature, 437, 647–49. See also Judaism
Nectanebo, 426–27, 429–31. See also Egypt
Neoplatonism, 213, 576, 604–5, 661, 680. See also philosophy; Platonists
Nero, 4, 12, 26, 32, 190, 224–25, 291, 299, 376, 447, 534, 600, 618. See also Roman Empire
Nerva, 14, 26, 48, 207, 218, 224. See also Roman Empire
Nestor of Laranda, 495, 497. See also epic
New Comedy, 221, 406, 501, 512, 540, 724n25, 724n27. See also comedy
Newlands, Carole, 127
Nicarchus, 501. See also epigram
Nonnos, 496, 498. See also epic; poetry
Norden, Eduard, 41–42, 57, 249, 327, 689n8, 722n53
novel, the, 41, 60, 279, 295, 305, 361–64, 477, 516, 649, 676, 711n9
anti-Sophistic, 5, 421–39
Latin, 34, 345–55
women and the, 694n6
Numenius, 565, 569, 572–74, 577, 729n27. See also philosophy; Platonists
Numisianus, 377. See also medicine
Odes of Solomon, 501, 678. See also Christian Apocrypha
Oppian of Apamea, 497–99
Cynegetica of, 498
See also epic; poetry
Oppian of Cilicia, 497–99
Halieutica of, 498
See also epic; poetry
oratory, 13, 27, 33–34, 141, 155, 195, 206–8, 331, 360, 601
Asiatic, 56, 61
Attic, 52, 59, 437
epideictic, 3, 182, 185, 196, 210, 559, 643
Hellenistic, 59, 687n10
judicial, 144, 349, 559
Latin, 26, 205–13
as a mission, 259–61
myth and, 463, 469
panegyric, 25
practical, 205
sophistic, 4, 28, 42, 187–88, 192, 209, 212, 431, 450, 556, 603
theatrical, 311
Origen of Alexandria, 569, 573, 575–77, 670–71
Against Celsus of, 573, 729n25
On First Principles of, 690n7
See also Christianity
Orphic Hymns, 501. See also melic poetry
Ovid, 3, 25, 93, 120, 235, 495, 724n15
Halieutica of, 498
Heroides of, 511
poetic epistles of, 510
See also Latin; poetry
paideia, 6, 11, 392–95, 399, 410–12, 429, 436, 455–58, 482, 735n42
poetry and, 493
professionals of, 165–78
schools and, 139–51
Pamphila of Epidauros, 29, 447–48, 458, 459. See also miscellanies
Panathenaicus, the, 89–93, 186, 258, 264–67, 342. See also Athens; cosmopolitanism
Panhellenic festivals, 105, 494, 598, 602–4. See also festivals; Greece
Parker, Robert, 427
(p. 754) Pausanias, 357–66, 599–600
Periegesis Hellados of, 51, 160, 194, 298, 311, 357, 598, 617
myth and, 472
pilgrimage and, 298
religion and, 598, 607
See also atticism; Greece
Pausanias of Caesarea, 357, 373–74, 710n2. See also sophists
Peloponnesian War, 258, 391–92. See also Greece
Pelops, 377–78. See also medicine
performance, 26–28, 35, 44, 60, 71, 99–105, 129, 181–96, 257, 493, 597
and competition, 379–82
of cultural memory, 295
culture of, 44, 103–7
declamatory, 26, 208, 719n4
dramatic, 502, 604
epideictic, 351
of erudition, 28–32
of love, 123
of lyric poetry, 117
oratorical, 211, 321
paideia and, 139–97, 455
philosophical, 346, 552
of poetry, 494, 499–500, 687n17
rhetorical, 346, 348
sophistic, 4–5, 82, 223–24, 276, 335, 603
Sotadic, 128
periodicity, 3–9. See also Second Sophistic
Peripatetics. See Aristotelians
Persia, 82, 88, 104, 157, 192, 297, 329, 390–96, 432, 616, 662. See also Greece
Persius, 16, 389, 711n4. See also comedy; poetry
Phaedrus, 502–3
Fabulae Aesopiae of, 503
See also fable; sophists
Philagrus, 44, 108, 176, 186. See also oratory; sophists
Philinus of Cos, 375. See also medicine
Philo of Alexandria, 626, 630, 640–42
koinê and, 48
religion and, 300
Philo of Byblos, 633–3
Philostratus (Elder), 26, 32, 99, 106–9, 139–40, 150–51, 273–83, 357
atticism and, 44, 49, 52–53, 485, 723n65
declamation and, 147–48, 208, 482
Epistles of, 55, 273, 513–14
Gymnasticus of, 161, 273
Heroicus of, 146, 273–74, 280–81, 283, 493, 600, 606
Imagines (first) of, 273–74, 281–83, 363
Life of Apollonius of Tyana of, 217, 273–74, 277–80, 283, 316, 534, 605–7
Lives of the Sophists of, 28, 44, 55, 58–59, 101, 121, 129–30, 149, 160–77, 192, 219, 221, 255, 273–76, 316, 373, 390, 421–22, 447, 495, 544
oratory and, 257–58
periodicity and, 3, 8, 12–13, 212
philosophy and, 237–38, 246
Philostratus of Lemnos (Younger), 43, 207, 274, 509, 513
on epistolary style, 274, 513
Imagines (second) of, 129, 273
See also sophists
Photius, 228, 230, 409, 449, 459, 664, 722n47, 740n39
physiognomy, 105, 117, 177–78, 281, 615, 694n5
physis, 104, 273, 412
pilgrimage, 613–20
Christian, 658
criticism of, 736n4
literature of, 362
religion and, 260, 298
See also cult; religion
Pindar, 52, 256, 434. See also poetry
Pisander of Laranda, 495–96. See also epic
Plato, 49–52, 71, 90, 95, 116–17, 121–25, 129, 256, 260, 265–66, 329, 378, 411
Apology of, 13, 532
commentaries on, 375
and Demosthenes, 335, 426
(p. 755) education and, 156
and Hippocrates, 378
language of, 424
letters of, 511, 514–15
Menexenus of, 89
Phaedo of, 532
Phaedrus of, 227, 236, 250, 298, 353, 407, 532
Politicus of, 423
Protagoras of, 533
Republic of, 298
Symposium of, 236, 295, 407, 532
Theaetetus of, 84–85, 533
Timaeus of, 228, 299
Platonists, 213, 236, 346, 374, 563–77, 582, 629, 631, 731n17, 733n53
as commentators, 586–87, 590
degenerate, 339
and Skeptics, 557
and Stoics, 292, 294
Pliny the Younger, 25–36, 50, 118, 124–25, 196, 487, 501–2, 510–11. See also epistolography; literature
Plutarch of Chaeronea, 291–305, 311–22, 477
biography and, 315–16
ethics and, 301–305
history and, 313–14, 318–21
miscellanies of, 447
Moralia of, 291, 347, 366
Parallel Lives of the Greeks and Romans of, 291, 311–22
philosophy and, 292–97
religion and, 297–301
Stromateis of, 447
Table Talk of, 447
Pneumatists, 375–76. See also medicine
poetry, 493–503
comic, 377
didactic, 498–99
drama and, 25, 353, 493–94, 502–3, 641
epic, 494–99
epigram and, 501–502
fable and, 502–3
geographical, 498
grammar and, 142–43
Greek, 494, 499
Hellenistic, 498
hexameter, 495
lyric, 494, 499–500
melic, 499–501
patronage of, 494
in the Second Sophistic, 493–94
Polemon, 30, 245–46. See also sophists
Polemon of Ilion, 364
Polemon of Laodicea, 437. See also sophists
Polemon of Smyrna, 32. See also sophists
Poliziano, Angelo, 448. See also Renaissance
Pollianus, 119, 501. See also epigram
Pollux of Naucratis, 44. See also oratory; sophists
Polybius of Megalopolis, 14–15, 48, 51, 316, 319, 456–57, 484, 721n28. See also historiography; history
polymathy, 274, 350, 452–55, 458. See also learning; sophists
Posidonius of Apamea, 14, 557. See also polymathy; Stoics
poverty, 220, 372, 437, 641
Priscianus, 120, 499. See also poetry
Proclus, 565, 572, 574, 680, 729n19, 729n25. See also Neoplatonism; philosophy
Proclus of Naucratis, 59, 173, 195. See also oratory; rhetoric
Pseudo-Apollodorus, 465, 467, 469
Bibliotheca of, 464
mythography of, 464–65
Pseudo-Longinus, 8, 58, 61, 266. See also Longinus
Ptolemy, 8, 235, 591. See also technical literature
Ptolemy of Naucratis, 148–49, 207. See also oratory; rhetoric
Quintus, 376–78, 382. See also medicine
Quintus of Smyrna, 495–98, 503
Posthomerica of, 495–96
See also epic; poetry
Rationalists, 375. See also medicine
religion, 20, 81, 366, 547, 617, 625
Aelius Aristides and, 605–6, 615, 704n39, 734n26
Christianity as the state, 659
cult and, 300, 597–607
Egyptian, 297, 301, 426–31
Greek, 301, 361, 426, 569, 606–7, 630, 633
magic and, 426–27
mystery, 300, 362, 604, 606, 614, 733n3, 735n38
mythology and, 604–5
Pausanias and, 366, 617
Persian, 297
Philostratus and, 274, 277–80
pilgrimage and, 613–20
Plutarch and, 291–305
traditional, 274, 361
trends in, 606–7
Remmius Palaemon, 123. See also grammar
Renaissance, 343, 382
retrosexuality, 115–31, 694n2. See also sex; women
Rhetores Graeci, 205. See also oratory; rhetoric
Rhetorica ad Herennium, 73, 75. See also rhetoric
rhetoric, 205–13, 377, 477–88
domestic space and sophistic, 194–96
epideictic, 3, 182, 185, 196, 210, 258, 559, 643
formation in, 205–6, 374
grammar and, 143–46
historiography and, 141, 487
and literary innovation, 259
locations of sophistic, 184–88
Richlin, Amy, 8, 342, 353
Rohde, Erwin, 8, 15–16, 20, 41–42, 59, 409
Roman Egypt, 427–30, 484, 613, 615, 619. See also Egypt; Roman Empire
Roman Empire, 19, 101, 291, 435, 500. See also Roman Egypt; Rome
Rome, 196, 218, 396, 401, 431–32
culture of, 67–78, 238, 248
eulogy of, 259
history of, 322, 481–82
the power of, 395
rhetoric in, 208, 211
sophists in, 173, 181–82, 186, 189, 233
Russell, D. A., 119, 220, 240, 699n23, 702n18
Sappho, 411, 429. See also poetry
Sardanapalus, 422, 424, 426. See also Alexander the Great
Satyrus, 378, 382. See also medicine
Scopelian of Clazomenae, 59, 177, 181, 189, 209, 311, 495, 502, 601, 705n15. See also poetry; sophists
Second Sophistic, 107–9, 255–58, 275, 389, 394, 399, 405, 421
agonistic culture of the, 381
Atticism of the, 435, 478
critique of the, 436–37
cultural aspirations of the, 427, 432, 435
cultural politics of the, 449
elite identity and the, 401
Greek aristocracy in the, 382
Greek influence in the, 258
history of the, 275–76
literary skill in the, 389
literature of the, 477
poetry in the, 503
rhetorical displays of the, 381
sex in the, 115–31
and the Third Sophistic, 212
Seneca, 450, 531, 646, 727n11. See also philosophy; Stoics; tragedy
Septimius Severus, 384, 585, 618
Septuagint, 19, 48, 430, 438, 646,