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date: 21 May 2019

(p. 733) Index

(p. 733) Index

Page numbers followed by f and t refer to figures and tables page numbers respectively.

A
Abduction, 24, 588
Abelard, 557
Aboriginals
definition and origins of, 179
vs. Indigenous, 190
participatory action research on, 181–182
power and knowledge in, 180
Above the Death Pits, Beneath the Flag: Youth Voyages to Poland and the Performance of Israeli National Identity, 353
Absolute relativism, 172
Accommodating, 563
Accountability, 172
The Active Interview, 291
Active interviewing, 303
Activism, political, focus groups in, 330–331
Adams, T.E., 254–271
Addams, J., 25, 500–501
Addison, R., 105
Adopters
early, 570, 571
later, 570
Adorno, T., 281
Advocacy
in community-based research, 502, 507, 512
in evaluation models, 481
in feminist research, 147
participatory advocacy projects for, 413
photography as, 391
policy, 171
Aebischer, V., 160
Aesthetic merit, 689
Affectedness, 21
Affects, 588
Affirmative topic, 566
Agency, 55
Agreements
in critical participatory action research, 526–527
method of, 50
Ahmed, A., 665
Aho, A.L., 438
Ah Sam, A.L., 471–493
Albums, photo, 384
Alexander, J., 56
Alinsky, S., 502
Allee, D.P., 561
Allen, S., 539–540
Allnutt, S., 384
Al-Sa’Di, R.A., 438–439
Alternative evaluation, Lincoln and Guba's, 679, 680t
Alternative "fields," 239–240
Altheide, D., 650–651, 654, 678
American Educational Research Association’s Standards for Reporting on Empirical Social Science Research, 683–684, 684t, 685t
Amsing, H.T.A., 384
Analysing Qualitative Data, 582
Analysis, 584. See also Coding and analysis strategies; specific methods
in audience analysis research, 323
collaborative, semi-synchronous, 613–614
Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data AnalysiS (See Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data AnalysiS (CAQDAS))
content (See Content analysis)
contribution, 480
conversation, 29
creative practices for, 206
data (See Data analysis)
vs. interpretation strategies, 641–642, 642f
mapping, 367
narrative (See Narrative analysis)
policy, 366
in research reports, methods section, 669–670
in research reports, quality, 661–662
role of, 640, 646
semantic, 367
software for tracking of, 620–621, 621f
structural, 213
thematic, 213
in TRAVEL, 652–653
value network, 561
visual, software for, 612–613, 612f
in written reports, 661–662, 669–670
Analytic induction, 600, 667–668
Analytic logic, 110
Analyze, to, 584
Anderson, B., 534–535
Anderson, E., 86
Anderson, G., 673
Anderson, N., 239
Andrews, D.L., 710, 712, 715
Anger, autoethnography for, 263
Animators, 521
Animoto, 308, 309
Anklam, P., 562
Annotating software, 618–620, 619f, 620f
Anonymity, in online interviews, 429–430, 434
Anonymization, 65–66
in focus group research, 332, 335, 336–337
Institutional Review Boards on, 332
in photographic research, 389, 390f
Anthropological ethnography, 30
Anthropologists, native, late 20th century, 237
Anthropology, 224
Anthropology as Cultural Critique, 242
Appignanesi, J., 412
Applied phenomenology, 102, 105
Appreciative inquiry, 566
Apps, 446–447
Archival photos, 384
Area studies, 726. See also specific types
Argonauts of the Western Pacific, 19, 226
praise for, initial, 240–241
subject, method, and scope in, 241
Aristotle, 557
Armchair research, 35
(p. 734) Arnold, J., 180
Artful science, 206
Articulation, 21
Artistic inquiry, 404
Art journaling, 413
A/r/tography, 405, 413
Arts-based education research, 404
Arts Based Research, 406
Arts-based research, 9, 403–418
artful authenticity in, 417
art journaling in, 413
assessment and evaluation in, 414–416
canonical generalization in, 417
case studies in, 463
dissemination practices in, innovative, 408
ethics/social justice in, 407
ethnodrama and ethnotheater in, 411–412
evaluation criteria for, 687–688, 688t
fiction, 409–410
film, 412
future directions in, 417–418
holistic and transdisciplinary approach in, 406–407
lexicography of, 405–406, 406t
literary, 408–410
meta-cognitive experience in, 407
mixed media and multiple art forms in, 413–414, 414f
oral history in, 308, 311–313
overview of, 403–404
paradigm of, 410
participatory and transformative, 416–417
performative, 410–412
PhotoVoice in, 309, 404, 413
pioneers in, 404–406
playbuilding in, 411
poetic inquiry, 408–409
recent advances in, 406
strengths of, 406–408
texts on, 406
transdisciplinary, 410–411
visual, 412–414
Asad, T., 170
Ashok dilemma, 292–293, 293b
Assertions, 599–600, 649
development of, 599–601
key, 600
Assertive interviewing, 291–293, 293f
Assert, to, 599–601
Asylums, 101
Atalay, S., 504, 505, 514
Atkinson, P., 198, 205, 225, 279, 616, 679–680
ATLAS.ti, 612, 613, 636t
coding in, 621–622, 622f
marking and annotating in, 618–619, 619f
Attitudes, 595
Attwood, B., 180
Audacity, 309, 635t
Audience analysis research, 323
Audio recording
generating, 607
technological advancements in, 35
Auditing, software for, 620–621, 621f
Audit trails, in disaster research, 552–553
Authenticity
in arts-based research, 417
in research reports, 670
Authoritarianism, interviewing in Adorno's studies of, 281
The Authoritarian Personality, 281
Autobiography, intellectual, 145
Auto-coding software, 625–626
Autoethnography, 8, 254–271
breaking silence and (re)claiming voice in, 262–263
collaborative, 268
collaborative witnessing in, 270–271
community, 268
definition of, 8, 254–255
emergence of, 260
ethics of, 258–259, 266–267
evaluation and critique of, 269–270
existing research in, familiarity with, 261
fieldwork in, 265–266
form and content of, 255
generalizability of, 269
healing from, 263
history of, 255–256, 404
identity politics of, 259–260
indigenous/native, 268
insider knowledge in, 262
interviewing in, 283
lexicography of, 405–406, 406t
as orientation to research and life, 270
personal experience in, 260–261
principles of, 260–264
as process, 264–265
as product, 267–269
psychology and, 256–257
qualitative research and, appreciation for, 258
rationale for, 257–258
reflexive, 268
validity in, 269
writing accessible prose in, 263–264
writing up of, 659
Autoethnography, 256
Auto/Ethnography, 255
Autonomy, respecting, 63–64
Awareness of Dying, 116, 117
Axiology, 83
B
Babbie, E., 360
Bacigalupa, C., 712
Bacon, V., 662
Bagley, C., 406
Bailey, C.A., 225
Bakhtin, M.M., 198, 334
Ball, M.S., 395
Bamberger, M., 487
Bamberg, M., 203, 210
Bancienne, M.B., 406
Banks, M., 383
Banks, S., 409
Bargaining, integrative, 563
Barnes, K. L., 443
Barone, T., 403, 406, 410, 687
Barratt, M.J., 427, 429
Barrett, J., 640–641, 644
Basics of Qualitative Research, 123
Battersby, J., 202
Baumann, A., 504, 505, 512
Beam, C., 714
Beats, Rhymes, and Classroom Life, 325
Becker, H., 101, 659
Begun, A., 509
Behind many Masks, 242
Being and Time, 21
Belgrave, L.L., 649
Belief systems, 3
Belmont Report of 1979, 66, 332, 333
Beltz, C., 443
Bendix, R., 52–53, 58
Benjamin, W., 639
Benner, P., 105
Bennet, B., 662
Benney, M., 281
Benson, P., 206
Bereket, T., 511
Berelson, B., 359, 360
Berger, A., 509
Berger, J., 259
Berger, P., 86
Bering Strait (Beringia) hypothesis, 180
Berriman, G., 242
Bhavnani, K.-K., 165–177
Bias
definition of, 140
sexist, 140–141
Bibliographic software, 609–610, 610f, 637t
Big stories, 202, 204
"Big tent" criteria, eight, 690–692, 691t, 693
Biklen, S., 548
Biklen, S.K., 650
Biography of concept, tracing, 373–375, 373t, 385f
Blackboard, 425
The Black Power Mixtape 1967-1975, 223
Blake, W., 467
Blogs, 435, 436
Google Blog Search of, 439
WordPress, 309
Blumenfeld-Jones, D., 405
Blumer, H., 26, 86, 117, 548, 615, 670
Boas, F., 30
Bochner, A., 195–216, 270
Bogardus, E., 279–280
Bogdan, R., 548, 650
Borderlands, 527
Bordia, P., 437
(p. 735) Botha, L., 185
Bottorff, L., 713
Bourdieu, P., 56, 391
Bowd, R., 507
Bowker, N., 427, 429
Bowl, M., 515
Boyd, M., 498–516
Boyer, E., 503, 514
Boys in White, 101
Bracketing, 23
Bracketing assumptions, 88
Bradbury, H., 502–503
Brady, E., 236, 437
Brandon, P., 471–493
Braudel, F., 46–47
Brazil, K., 679
Breaching experiments, 28–29
Brems, C., 512
Brenner Debate, 50–51
Brenner, R., 50–51
Breur, J., 370
Bricolage, 5–6, 725
Bricoleur, 5–6
Briggs, C., 279, 289–290
Bringle, R., 501, 508
Brinkmann, S., 17–40, 277–298
Broerse, J.E., 725, 726
Brooks, A., 144, 145
Brotsky, S.R., 438
Brubaker, R., 58
Bruckman, A., 439
Bruggen, E., 335
Bruner, J., 197
Bruss, C., 512
Bryant, A., 116–135
Bryman, A., 360, 361
Buffardi, L.E., 442
Bunders, J.F., 725, 726
Burawol, M., 51
Burgess, E., 663
Burman, E., 141
Burris, M.A., 413
Burrows, D., 501, 503
Bush, A., 710, 712, 715
Bush Administration, George W., 709
C
Cabello, R., 151
Caesorpapism, 46
Calhoun, C., 54
Cambridge School, on Malinowski, 230–231
Campbell, B., 492
Campbell Collaboration, 485
Campus–community partnerships, 499, 501, 502, 510, 514. See also Community-based research
Camtasia, 613, 637t
Cancian, F., 513–514
Cancienne, M.B., 416
Cannella, G., 709–710
Capacity building, community-based research as, 507
Capital, 45
Capitalists, theoretical, 118, 119, 122–123
Capital relations, social relations as, 702
Carew, A.L., 726
Carey, J., 713
Cargo, M., 181
Case, 460–461
Case analysis, negative, in disaster research, 417
Case histories. See Case study research
Case precedent, 457
Case profiles, 459
Case scenario, 457
Case study
collective, 459
evaluation, 459
instrumental, 459, 461
intrinsic, 459
theory-led (-generated), 459
Case study research, 455–469
applications of, 456–457
case in, 460–461
concepts and purposes of, 456–457
country case studies in, 457
data analysis and interpretation in, 464
design of, 459–461
disadvantages of, 458–459
evaluation of, social and ethical, 459
features and advantages of, 458
flexibility in, 458
future directions in, 468–469
generalizing from single case in, 465–466
as history, 457
history and evolution of, 455–456
methodology and methods in, 461–464
methodology and methods in, artistic, 463–464
methodology and methods in, document analysis, 463
methodology and methods in, interviewing, 462
methodology and methods in, observations, 462–463
not defined by method or perspective, 457–458
particularization in, 466–467
in professional settings, 457
qualitative, 458
questions and issues in, 461
reporting of, 458, 464–465
in teaching, 457
types of, 459–460
unit of analysis in, 461
Cash, J.L., 383–384
Catalytic validity, 653, 687
Catastrophes, 536
Categories, 662. See also specific methods
Categories, core, 662
in research reports, 671–672
Categorization tools, 621–622, 622f
Categorize, to, 587–588
Categorizing software, 622, 622f, 623f
Ceglowski, D., 712
Censorship, 712
Change
social, 507–508
in team development, 562
Channel One, 704
Chaplin, E., 383
Characters, in content analysis, 362
Charmaz, K., 118–119, 124–125, 615
Charon, R., 215
Chat interviews, 290–291
Chat software, 426
Cheek, J., 713, 716
Chetkovich, C., 544
Chicago School of Sociology, 11–12, 25–26, 34, 239, 326, 501, 548
grounded theory method and, 122
symbolic interactionism of, 86 (See also Symbolic interactionism)
on writing up qualitative research, 658–660
Chilton, G., 403–418
Choreographer, 562
Christians, C., 333–334
Chua, P., 165–177
Churchill, W., 180
Church, K., 414
The Civilizing Process, 56
Clarke, J., 443
Classical positivists, 31
Clayton, P., 501, 508
Cleverly, S., 511
Client-centered therapy, 89
Clifford, J., 227, 243, 343, 344–345
Closer investigation, 692
Cluster maps, 612
CMap, 611, 637t
C model, 549
Cockburn, L., 510, 511, 513
Co-constructed narratives, 268
Coda, in interviewing, 283, 284b
Code and retrieve functions, 610
Code, L., 147, 148
Code, to, 584–587, 590–595
Coding
CAQDAS, 621–622, 622f, 623f
descriptive, 593–594
in disaster research, 548–549
dramaturgical, 595
focused, 652
in interpretation strategies, 641, 641f
open, 652
in playbuilding, 411
process, 585–587
selective, 662
values, 594
versus, 594–595
in vivo, 590–592
Coding Analysis Toolkit, 614, 636t
(p. 736) Coding and analysis strategies, 581–604. See also specific strategies
to analyze, 584
to assert, 599–601
to categorize, 587–588
to code, 584–585
to code, descriptive coding, 593–594
to code, dramaturgical coding, 595
to code, in vivo, 590–592
to code, process coding, 585–587
to code, values coding, 594
to code, versus coding, 594–595
to collect, 582–583
to compute, 603
definition of, 581
to display, 601, 602f
to feel, 583
to foresee, 582
to interrelate, 588
to jot, 583
to memo, 589
to narrate, 601–602
to organize, 583
to outline, 592–593
to pattern, 584
to poeticize, 602–603
to prioritize, 583–584
to reason, 588
to survey, 582
to theme, 596–599
to verify, 603–604
Coding, in grounded theory method, 127–130
focused, 130, 131t
open, 128t–131t, 129–130, 133t
selective, 130, 130t, 131t
The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers, 582
Coffey, A., 616
Cognitive culture, 304
Coherence, 686, 687
meaningful, 691t, 692
Cole, A.L., 406
Collaboration
in autoethnography, 268, 270–271
CAQDAS in, 630
in community-based research, 504–505, 512
in conflict resolution, 563
in dialectical pluralism, 561
in feminist qualitative research, 146–147, 159
Collaborative action research, Freire in, 320
Collaborative analysis, semi-synchronous, 613–614
Collaborative autoethnography, 268
Collaborative creativity, 564–565
Collaborative models, 485–486
Collaborative transformation, 565–566
Collaborative witnessing, 268, 270–271
Collective, 333
Collective case study, 459
Collective culture, 304
Collective memory, 47
Collect, to, 582–583
Collier, J. Jr., 384, 394, 397
Collier, M., 384, 394, 397
Collins, D., 165–177
Collins, K.M.T., 571
Collins, P.H., 143, 149, 156
Combination, 410
Commensurability of approaches, 95
Commission on Community Interrelations, 519–520
Commodification, of college life, 704–706
Communication. See also specific forms
computer-mediated, 335–336 (See also Internet-mediated research; Online)
Rogers on, 570
Community autoethnography, 268
Community-based research, 10, 498–516
background on, 499–501
campus–community partnerships in, 499, 501, 502
case study in, exploring “voice” and “knowledge” with poverty, 508
case study in, thwarted project on high school dropouts and absenteeism, 512–513
case study in, Turkey CPBR project, 505
case study in, youth empowerment, 506–507
collaboration vs. exploitation in, 512
definitions of, 498–499, 501–502
entering field of, 510–511
ethics and professional boundaries in, 511–512
evaluation in, 514–515
Freire in, 499
funding and resources for, 511
institutional barriers in, 513–514
methodology and transdisciplinary paradigm of, 503–504
principles of, 504–509
principles of, capacity building, 507
principles of, collaboration, 504–505
principles of, community driven, 506
principles of, innovation, 508–509
principles of, power sharing, 506
principles of, social change and social justice, 507–508
principles of, transformative, 508
professional barriers in, 513
questions for consideration and reflection in, 510–511
rationale for, 502–503
skills and practice of, 509–510
terminology and subdivisions of, 501–502
trust building in, 510
Community driven research, 506
Community organizing, 502
Community readiness model
in Métis community, 187, 187f
principles of, 186–187, 186f
Red River Cart as, 188–189, 188f
Community Self-Survey, 520
Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences, 54
Comparative-historical methods, 43–59
birth of self-consciousness of, 48–53
birth of self-consciousness of, Brenner debate, 50–51
birth of self-consciousness of, critical case selection (Eckstein), 51
birth of self-consciousness of, functionalism (Eisenstadt), 49
birth of self-consciousness of, functionalism (Parson), 48–49
birth of self-consciousness of, macrosociological orientation, 49–50
birth of self-consciousness of, modernization, 49
birth of self-consciousness of, principles of comparison (Mill), 50
birth of self-consciousness of, single historical trajectories, 51
birth of self-consciousness of, structuralism, 49
birth of self-consciousness of, U.S. 1960s and 1960s, 48
birth of self-consciousness of, Weberian (Bendix), 52–53
birth of self-consciousness of, world system analysis (Wallerstein), 51–52
cultural turn in, temporality, narrative, and process, 53–57
future directions in, 57–59
practice of field in, 43
predisciplinary masters and their early legacies in, 45–48
research strategies in, 43–44
three waves of historical sociology in, 53–54
Tilly's explanatory logics in, 44–45
in U.S. vs. Europe, 43
variety of, 43–44
Comparative sociology, 55
Comparison
constant, 642
Mill's principles of, 50
paired, 58
Compensatory justice, 559
Competencies, in team development, 562
Competing, 563
Complexity, focus group, 328–329
Composing Ethnography, 255
Composition, in team development, 562
Compromising, 563
Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data AnalysiS (CAQDAS), 11, 604, 606–638
analysis processes and methodological underpinnings in, 614–617, 615f
Audacity in, 638t
(p. 737) auditing process and tracking analysis in, 620–621, 621f
auto-coding structures and content in, 625–626
bibliographic software in, 637t
coding, categorizing, and conceptualizing in, 621–622, 622f, 623f
collaboration using, 630
connections in, making, 629, 629f
data analysis in, 610–612, 611f
data collection and transcription in, 607–608, 608f
data processing software in, 635t–636t
data processing software with analytic tools in, 636t–637t
data storage and access in, 612f, 617–618
design of, 614
development of, 37
document and bibliographic management in, 609–610, 609f, 610f
epistemological concerns in, 608–609
future of, 39
Geographical Information System with, 39
history and use of, 606–607
integrating quantitative and qualitative data in, 624–625, 625f
interpretation strategies in, 649
interrogating data set in, 626–627, 627f
limitations and constraints of, 630–633
limitations and constraints of, confused analytic strategy, 632–633
limitations and constraints of, overreliance on software, 631
limitations and constraints of, tool complexity and proliferation, 631–632
limitations and constraints of, underestimation of time involved, 630–631
Liveminds in, 638t
mapping software in, 637t
marking, annotating, and searching in, 618–620, 619f, 620f
mixed-methods support in, 613
multimedia software in, 637t–638t
online qualitative solutions in, 613–614
organizing factual features in, 622–624, 623f
outlining in, 592
quantitative analyses and representations in, 627–629, 628f
reporting and outputting in, 629–630
semi-synchronous collaborative analysis in, 613–614
software tools and research processes in, 607
visual analysis support in, 612–613, 612f
Computer-mediated communication, 335–336. See also Internet-mediated research; Online
Compute, to, 603
Comstock, D., 506
Comte, A., 31, 101, 167
Comte, C., 84
Concept generalization, 466
ConceptMap, 611, 637t
Concept mapping, 464, 652
Conceptual history, 18–20
human experience in, 19
origins of, 18–19
post -1970, 19–20
subjective/objective dichotomy in, 19
Conceptualizing software, 622, 622f, 623f
Concision, 687
Concordance, 636t
Concrete description, 283, 284b
Conferencing tools, online, 426
Confidentiality, 65. See also Anonymization
Confirmability, 679, 680t
Confirmation, 654
Conflict, 595
cognitive framing of, 563
constructive, 562–564
in dialectical pluralism, 566
Fisher and Ury's strategy for, 564
types of, 563
Confusion, autoethnography for, 263
Connections, CAQDAS for, 629, 629f
Connors, A., 508
Conquergood, D., 687
Conscientization, 320, 500
Consciousness
double, 143, 155–156
oppositional, 166
Consciousness raising
dialectic thinking in, 157
double consciousness in, 155–156
oppositional consciousness in, 156
trans/feminist methodology in, 156–157
Consciousness raising groups, 320–321
Consensual qualitative research, 89–90
Consensus, 89
Consent, informed, 64
Conservatism, methodological, 709–710
Constructing Grounded Theory, 124–125
Constructionism, 681
Constructionist interviewing, 282
Constructive conflict, 562–564
Constructive realism model, 55
Constructivist grounded theory method, 124–125. See also Grounded theory method
Consumerism
corporate university in, 704–706
interviewing in Dichter's studies of, 282
Content analysis, 9, 359–378
biography of concept in, tracing, 373–375, 373t, 385f
vs. communication research, 363
content of documents in, placing, 375–377
vs. data collection, 360–361, 375
definitions of, 359–360
of documents, verifying claims in, 366–369
of interview, concepts and semantic network in, 363–366, 365f
language and words in, 362–363
methodological context of, 360–361
in network, 374–375, 375f
origins of, 359
in photography, 395–396
qualitative vs. quantitative, 361
of single interview, case study, 369–372, 372f
typology of, 377, 377t
units of, 361–363
Context
contrast of, 52
in team development, 562
Contextual awareness, 110
Contradiction, in focus groups, 328–329
Contrast of contexts, 52
Contribution analysis, 480
Contribution, substantive, 689
Conventional ethnographical ethnomethodology, 29
Conversation, 277, 278–279. See also Interviewing
Conversation analysis, 29
Conversations with Dora, 256
Cooke, B., 523
Cook, T.D., 487, 491
Cooley, C.H., 290
Cooperation, in dialectical pluralism, 566
Coquillon, E., 523
Corbin, J., 123, 548–549, 611, 662, 677
Cordeau, M.A., 671
Core concepts (categories), 662
in research reports, 671–672
Corel VideoStudio, 613, 638t
Corporate America, 702
Corporate university consumerism, 704–706
Correspondence theory of knowledge, 199
narrative inquiry vs., 199–200, 201
Cosgrove, L., 140–142, 143, 144, 146–147, 148, 151, 153, 154, 159–160
Cosmopolitanism, 58–59
Cotsonis, G.A., 429
Coulehan, J., 713
Country case studies, 457
Couto, R., 515
Covering law model, 21
Covert research, justification for, 64
Cox, S.M., 408
Creative analytic practices, 206
Creative sociologies, 29
Credibility, 603–604, 679, 680t
Creswell, J.W., 613
(p. 738) The Crisis of the European Sciences, 23
Critchley, S., 703
Criteria, 487. See also specific methods
"big tent," 690–692, 691t, 693
good practice, 686
judgmental quality, 686
key evaluative, 682–683
personal, 690
validity, 686, 687–688, 688t
Crites, S., 197, 203
Critical, 165–166
meaning and debates on, 7
in qualitative research, 168–170
Critical approaches, 165–177
critical debates in, 7, 166–170
critical ethnography vs. research in, 170–171
critical in, 165–166, 168–170
feminist and queer micropolitics of, 173–175
as Kantian liberalism, 168–169
lived experience in, integrating, 176
popularity of, 165
practices of, 171–172
reinscription in, resisting, 175–176
thoughts from the field on, 172–173
Critical case selection, 51
Critical participatory action research, 523–529
agreements in, 526–527
borderlands in, 527
current work in, 526
Dilthey in, 524
Du Bois in, 524
epistemology of, 524
ethics in, 528
evidence and proof in, 527
feminists on, 527
Fine and Torre in, 525
indigenous scholars on, 527
in Latin America, 524
Martín-Baró in, 524
methods in, 528
participatory emphasis in, 528
theorists of, 524
training in, 528
Critical theory, 90–92, 681
application of, 91–92
foundational assumptions of, 90–91
history of, 90
on research methods, 91
Critique, 724
Croghan, R., 392
Crow, M.M., 708
Cultural competence, 472t, 510
Culture, 55
categories of, 304
cognitive, 304
collective, 304
in critical qualitative research, 171
descriptive, 304
Cushing, F.H., 244
Cutforth, N., 502, 504
Cwikel, J., 407
Cyclones, Australian Aboriginals on, 181–185
in daily lives, 181
data analysis (observe) in, 184, 184f
data collection (act) in, 183–184, 184f
features of, 182–183, 182f
importance of, 182
indigenous ontology and, 185
indigenous plus PAR principles of, 182–183, 183f
participatory action research on, 181–182
plan in, 183, 184f
reflect in, 184, 184f
two methods in, between, 184–185
D
Dance, as research, 405
Dancing the Data, 406
Daredevil Research: Re-creating Analytic Practice, 382
Darlington, Y., 668
Dasein, 21
Data analysis
CAQDAS in, 610–612, 611f
integrating qualitative and quantitative data in, 624–625, 625f
in research reports, 669–670
technological, 36–38
Database programs, 37
Data collection
CAQDAS in, 607–608, 608f
in research reports, 669–670
technological, 35–36
Data processing, CAQDAS in, 635t–637t
Data quality, for research reporting, 660–661
Data storage, CAQDAS in, 612f, 617–618
Davidson, E.J., 488
Davidson, J., 617, 624
Davis, K., 147
Deaux, K., 141
de Beer, F.H., 384
Debriefing interviews
in dialectical pluralism, 571
peer, 540, 552
Decision Explorer, 611
Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples, 180–181
Decolonizing research practice, 179–190
Aboriginal methods in, 180
Aboriginals on cyclones in, 181–185 (See also Cyclones, Australian Aboriginals on)
future directions in, 189–190
indigenous methodologies in, 179–181 (See also Indigenous)
knowledge-based empowerment in, 180–181
methods and methodologies in, 180–181
Red River Cart in, 185–189, 186f–188f (See also Red River Cart)
between two methods in, 184–185
Dedoose, 614, 625, 625f, 636t
Deduction, 588
Deductive approach, 126, 535
Deductive qualitative analysis, 667–668
De Las Nueces, D., 514
Deleuze, G., 330–331
Del Gandio, J., 706
Demetriou, C., 43–59
Democracy, processes leading to, 50
Democratic evaluation, 477–478
Democratization, 506
of research process, radical, 200
Democratization, 57
Dendrograms, 612
Denhart, M., 707
Denzin, N.K., 5, 31, 105, 205, 651, 693, 701, 713, 714, 724, 729
Dependability, 679, 680t
Depth interview, 282
Derrida, J., 30
DeSalvo, L., 214
de Saussure, Ferdinand, 29
Description
interpretive, 106–111 (See also Interpretive description)
qualitative, 105
Descriptive coding, 593–594
Descriptive culture, 304
Desmond, M., 544, 545
Deutsch, M., 520
DeVault, M., 142
Dewane, S., 512
Dewey, J., 24, 121, 310, 500
Dialectical integration, 560
Dialectical materialism, 166–168
Dialectical pluralism, 11, 557–575
assumptions of, 558
case example of, 573–574
dialectical in, 558
epistemology in, 572
ethics and axiology in, 572
facilitators in, 562
holistic approach in, 559–560
integrative complexity in, 560
as interperson dialogue, 561–566
as interperson dialogue, collaborative creativity in, 564–565
as interperson dialogue, constructive conflict in, 562–564
as interperson dialogue, fundamentals of, 561–562
as interperson dialogue, transformational change in, 565–566
intraperson and interperson dialogue in, 571–572
as intraperson dialogue, 560–561
methodology in, 572–573
mixed design types and, 574–575
(p. 739) need for, 558
ontological pluralism in, 558
ontology in, 572
outcome-oriented justices in, other, 559
procedural (process) justice in, 559–560
process in, 559
as process philosophy, 558
strategies in, 559
strategies in, as diffusion process, 570–571
strategies in, implementation framework in, 567t–569t,570
strategies in, key, 566, 567t–569t
Dialectic thinking, 157
Dialogic/performance analysis, 213
Dialogue. See also Interviewing
definition of, 278
in dialectical pluralism, 560–561, 566
importance of, 278
intraperson, 560–561
Dichter, E., 282
Dictatorship, processes leading to, 50
Dierking, L., 349, 354
Dietrich, A.S., 429
Difference, method of, 50
Diffusion of innovations, 570
Diffusion metaphor, 571
DiGirolama, A., 514
Digital Replay System, 636t
Di Gregorio, S., 617, 624
Dilthey, W., 20–21, 524, 557–558
Diment, K., 617
Dimitriadis, G., 315–339
Dingwall, C., 179–190
Disappearing "fields," 240
Disaster
definition of, 536
life cycle of, 536–538, 537f
Disaster Research Center, founding of, 534
Disaster research, qualitative, 10, 533–553
data analysis in, 548–551
disaster in, 536
ethical issues in, 538–539
history of, 533–535
inductive approach in, 535–536
methodology in, 539–542
methodology in, feminist, 540–541
methodology in, naturalistic paradigm, 539–540
methodology in, sampling, 541–542
methods in, 542–548
methods in, documents, 545–547
methods in, interviewing, 542–544
methods in, observation, 544–545
methods in, visual research, 547–548
mitigation in, 538
preparedness in, 537–538
quality of, 551–553
recovery in, 538
reporting of, 553
response in, 537
Disciplinary relevance, 110
Disclosing shadowy connections, 329
Disclosure, 410
in online interviews, 429–430
Discourse analysis. See also specific types
in content analysis, 361, 377
vs. content analysis, 362, 369, 370, 376
in feminist research, 151–152
Foucault and, 30
in photography, 396
The Discovery of Grounded Theory, 116
Discursive Psychology, 30
Discussion forums, 425–426, 447
Discussion sections, 672–673
Display, to, 601, 602f
Distributive justice, 559
Diversi, M., 712
Diversity
in dialectical pluralism, 566
of philosophical approaches, 82
The Division of Labor in Society, 47
DocPoint Personal, 635t
Document
in disaster research, 545–547
in narrative analysis, 367, 367t, 368
Document analysis
in case study research, 463
emergent, 304
Document analysis, content
documents as resources vs. topics in, 377, 377t
placing content in, 375–377
verifying claims in, 366–369
Document analysis, online, 442–445
design issues and strategies in, 443
sampling, recruitment, and ethics in, 443–444
tools, technologies, and procedures in, 442–443
Document management systems, 609, 609f
CAQDAS, 609–610, 609f, 610f
Epiware and, Kordil EDMS, 609
Dollard, J., 663
Donaldson, S., 492
Donmoyer, R., 466
Donohue, P., 502, 504
Double consciousness, 143, 155–156
Double visions, 143, 157
Downing, J., 443
Drabek, T.E., 553
Dragon Naturally Speaking, 608
Dramaturgical coding, 595
"Dreams as Data," 643, 646, 651
DRX, 617
Du Bois, W.E.B., 239, 524
Duffy, M., 729
Duneier, M., 326
Dunham, P., 389
Duquesne School, 88
Duran, B., 510
Durkheim, E., 31, 44, 46–47, 49, 167
Dyer, J.H., 562
Dyer, W.G., 562
Dyer, W.G., Jr., 562
Dynamics of Contention, 57
E
Eagly, A., 138–139
Eakin, P., 202
Early adopters, 570, 571
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 712–713
Early majority, 571
Eastwood, J.D., 443
Echoes of Brown Project, 322, 327
Eck, B., 663, 668
Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, 45
Economic and Social Research Council, 67
eDocXL, 635t
Educational Opportunity Gap Project, 327
Edwards, R.W., 186–187
Egbe, C.O., 666
Eight "big tent" criteria, 690–692, 691t, 693
E-Interview, on research, 35–36
Eisenhart, M., 655–656
Eisenstadt, S.S., 49
Eisner, E., 403, 406, 410, 479, 640, 644, 645, 687
Elias, N., 56
Ellingson, L.L., 643, 646
Ellis, C., 208, 254–271, 659
E-mail interviews, 290–291, 424–425, 436
Embodied vision, 149–150
Embryonic stem cell research, politics of, 710–711
Emergencies, 536
Emergent Document Analysis, 304
Emerson, R., 652
Emic, 82
Emotion, 583, 595
Emotion maps, 447
Empire, Eisenstadt on, 49
Empirical perspective, 24
Empiricism
in Chicago sociologists, 25
feminist, 140–142
phenomenological, 28
Empowerment
in decolonizing research practice, 180–181
in feminist research, 147
knowledge-based, indigeous, 180
youth, 506–507
Empowerment evaluation, 478
Endnote, 610, 637t
Endnote Web, 637t
Engagement, 213
prolonged, 551, 660–661
Engels, F., 166, 500
(p. 740) Enlightenment self, 316
Epistemological integrity, 110
Epistemology, 3, 5t, 82–83. See also specific methods
definition of, 140
feminist, 140–145 (See also Feminist epistemology)
Epiware, 609, 635t
Epston, D., 214
Equal-status mixed research, 575
dialectical pluralism in, 561 (See also Dialectical pluralism)
Erickson, F., 599–600, 649
Erikson, K., 538
Erklären, 21
Erlandson, D.A., 539–540
Ernst, R., 727
Essentialism, on gendered behaviors, 144
Ethical reflexivity, 72–73
Ethical regulation, rise of, 66–68
Ethics, research, 2, 2t, 4–5, 5t, 62–74, 727. See also specific research
in autoethnography, 258–259, 266–267
autonomy in, 63–64
definition of, 73
in focus groups, 333–335
harm in, minimizing, 62–63
"highest ethical standards" in, 67, 71
moralism in, dangers of, 69–73 (See also Moralism)
privacy in, 64–66
qualitative research changes in, 68–69
regulation in, rise of, 66–68
relational, 266
Ethnodrama, 411–412
Ethnographers, postmodern, 242
Ethnographic alternatives, 208
Ethnographic Alternatives, 207, 208, 255
The Ethnographic Interview, 282
Ethnography, 8, 30, 223–248
"all life is a stage" in, 224
categories of, 228–230
cognitive, social, and moral concerns in, 228
colonial impetuses of, 234–235
critical, 261
critical, vs. critical research, 170–171
definitions of, 225–226, 269
fields of, 224
frame of mind in, 225
future directions in, 245
history of, 101, 224–226
Institutional Review Boards in, 238
internet on, 237–238
interpretivism in, 229
as intersubjective science, 235–236
late modern cultural methods as fabricated commodifications in, 223
Malinowski in, 226–244 (See also Malinowski, B.)
messiness of, anecdotes on, 232
method vs. methodology in, 224–225
modern role of, 224
movements in, 230
in museum studies, 350–353
in other fields, 228
outside forces in, 231–232
paradigm shifts in, 242
participation vs. recording in, 236–237
performance, 405
in photography, 396–397
positivism in, 229
postmodern politics in, 242–243
postmodern writing in, 243
pragmatic tensions in, 229–230
racially loaded European fascination in, 224
recording technologies in, 236–238
sample description in, 668
science and humanity of, 228–230
smart phones on, 237
Swedish tourists in black upper Manhattan and, 223–224
technological rapport in, 236–238
thick description in, 225
variety of practices in, 225
writing up of, 659
Ethnomethodology, 28–30
conventional ethnographical, 29
Ethnotheater, 411–412
Etic, 82
Evaluand, 472t, 475
evaluated aspects of, 487
Evaluating qualitative research, 12, 677–694
categories of, 678–681
categories of, general, 680
categories of, Lincoln and Guba's alternative, 679, 680t
categories of, overview, 678–679
categories of, positivist, 679
categories of, post-criteriology, 680–681
categories of, post-validity, 681
categories of, "subtle-realist," 679–680
confusion on, 677–678
Corbin and Strauss on, 677
fundamentals of, 677–678
issues in, 678
Lichtman on, 678–679
Lincoln and Guba and trustworthiness in, 678
politics of evidence in, 688–693
politics of evidence in, evaluation, criteria, and power, 690–693, 691t, 692t
politics of evidence in, moving forward in contemporary contexts, 689–690
politics of evidence in, positivist paradigm, 688
politics of evidence in, purposes of research, 689
politics of evidence in, responses to critics, 689
strategies for, 681–688
strategies for, arts-based research and performance studies, 687–688, 688t
strategies for, criteria by, for, and of the readers, participants, and investigators, 686–687, 686t
strategies for, evaluative rubrics, 685–686, 685t
strategies for, research standards, 683–684, 684t, 685t
strategies for, ten commandments, 681–683
validity in, 677
Evaluation. See also specific types
conceptions of, 481
models of, 481
Evaluation case study, 459
Evaluation, program, 471–493
conduct of, 478–480
definition of, 475
evaluand in, 472t, 475
evaluand in, aspects evaluated in, 487
formative, 473t, 476
history of, 471
issues in, fundamental, 489–491
methods in, qualitative, 486–487
methods in, unique, 480–481
models and approaches to, 481–486, 482t–484t
profession of, expanding, 492–493
purposes of, 475–477
vs. research, 488–489
research on, 491–492
social roles of, 477–478
as subterfuge, 476–477
summative, 474t, 475–476
terminology for, 472t–474t
value in, 487–488
Evaluation theory, 472t
Evaluative rubrics, 685–686, 685t
Evans, J., 381
Evans, M., 179–190
Evans-Pritchard, E.E., 224
Evernote, 609, 635t
Evidence, 110
in critical participatory action research, 527
politics of research and, 709–710
in TRAVEL, 653–654
Evidence-based movement, 693, 715, 724
Evidentiary warrant, 600
Evocation, 687
Evocative narratives, 206, 209
Experience
in autoethnography, 260–261
in conceptual history, 19
lived, in critical research, 176
meta-cognitive, 407
in narrative inquiry, 196
of reality, 168
Experimentalism, criticisms of, 710
Explanation, logic of, 44–45
Express Scribe, 608, 636t
(p. 741) Externalizing narrative practices, 214
Extreme relativism, 172
Extrinsic values, 70, 73, 74
F
F4/F5, 607, 608f, 635t
Fabian, J., 235
Facebook, 426
Face-to-face interviews, 290
online, 424–435 (See also Interview, online)
Face validity, 417
Facts, social, 47
Factual features, software organizing, 622–624, 623f
Falk, J., 349, 354
Fals Borda, O., 521–523
Falsifiability, 654
Fardon, R., 241–242
Father's tongue, 209
Faulkner, S.L., 405, 408–409
Faultlines, 564
Fear, sociology of, 316
Feel, to, 583
Feldman, J., 352–353
Feminism
focus groups in, 320–322
Madriz and consciousness raising groups in, 320–321
voice in, discovering, 321
Feminist collaborative interviewing, 283
Feminist disaster research, 540–541
Feminist epistemology, 140–145
empiricism in, 140–142
feminist standpoint perspective in, 142–143
Harding on, 140
methods in, 140
postmodern perspectives on, 143–144
on qualitative methods, 144–145
Feminist micropolitics, 173–175
Feminist qualitative research, 7, 137–160
advocacy and empowerment in, 147
challenges to, 147–150
as challenge to traditional methods, 139–140
collaboration in, 146–147
consciousness in, developing, 155–157
as corrective, 138–139
definition of, 137–138
epistemology of, 140–145
on the everyday, 160
future directions in, 158–160
innovations in, 155–157
intersectionality in, 155
liberation potential of, 138
multidisciplinary collaborations in, 159
performance in, 159
power in, 146
principles of, 137–138
reflexivity in, 145–146
satire and irony in, 158–159
validity in, 148–150
values of, 145–147
voice in, 147–148
Feminist qualitative research methods, 150–155
discourse analysis in, 151–152
focus groups in, 152–153
in-depth interviews in, 150
narratives in, 150–151
participatory action research in, 153–155
phenomenological approaches in, 153
Feminist standpoint perspective, 142–143
Feminist theories, 92–93
Ferguson, J., 240
Ferguson, K.E., 157
Fetene, G.T., 327–328, 332–333
Fetterman, D.M., 478, 481, 490–491
Feyerabend, P.K., 33
Fiction as Research Practice, 405
Fiction-based research, 409–410
Fielding, N.G., 610, 613
"Fields"
alternative, 239–240
disappearing, 240
Fields of Play: Constructing an Academic Life, 1
Fieldwork, to collect in, 582–583
Figbert, A., 501, 503
Figuration, 56
Film research, 412
in disaster research, 547–548
Filter zone, 542
Final Negotiations, 255
Findings section, 671–672
Fine, G., 243
Fine, M., 143, 146, 154, 322, 327, 328–329, 503, 525–527
Finkelstein, J., 705
Finley, S., 415–416
Fiorilla, L., 508
First-order concepts, 667
Fischer, J., 242
Fischer, M., 242
Fisher, R., 564, 571
Fish, S., 74
Fit, 121
Fitzgerald, F.S., 560
Fitzgerald, H., 514
Five-step research strategy, 24
Five Ways of Doing Qualitative Analysis., 582
Flansburg, J., 313
Flexible Bodies: Tracking Immunity in American Culture from the Days of Polio to the Age of AIDS, 329
Flicker, S., 511
Flinterman, J.F., 725, 726
Flyvbjerg, B., 180
Focus, 316–317
Focused coding, 652
Focused interview, 315. See also Focus group research
The Focused Interview, 317
Focus group, 317–318
in feminist research, 152–153
Focus group research, 315–339
in applied fields, 318–319
assumptions of, early, 316
collective in, 333
conceptual-historical introduction to, 315–316
contemporary, 331–337
contemporary, conceptual vs. gritty practicalities, 331–332
contemporary, musings and conjectures, 336–337
contemporary, online focus groups, 335–336
contemporary, research ethics, 333–335
contemporary, threats, 332–333
in counseling and counseling education, 319
focus in, 316–317
functions of, 319–324
functions of, inquiry, 322–324
functions of, pedagogical, 319–320
functions of, political, 320–322
group in, 317–318
vs. individual interviews, 316
journals on, 319
in marketing, 319, 323
as performative, 324–331
as performative, complexity, nuance, and contradiction, 328–329
as performative, lifeblood of social activity, 326
as performative, natural, 326–327
as performative, quasi-unique affordances, 331
as performative, researcher authority, 325–326
as performative, saturating understanding, 327–328
as performative, shadowy connections, 329–330
as performative, solidarity and political activism, 330–331
public–private split in, 334–335
texts on, 318
Foley, K., 510
Fontana, A., 237
Foresee, to, 582
Formalizing, 212
Formative evaluation, 473t, 476
Form, Simmel's, 46
Forums, discussion (web), 425–426, 447
Foucault, M., 30, 564
Found poetry, 409
4D cycle, 566
Four Cs of team development, 562
Fournier, D., 475
(p. 742) Fox, F., 335
Fox, M., 524–525, 528
Fox, N., 438
Fox, R., 506
Fractionation, 564
Frame metaphor, 27–28
Frank, A., 196, 204, 205, 214
Frankfurt School, 90, 169
Franz, C.E., 151
Franzosi, R., 55
Frazier, E.F., 239
Frazier, J.G., 227, 240–241
Freeman, D., 237
Freeman, M., 198, 202, 204, 216
Free verse, 409
Freire, P., 318, 319–320, 499, 500, 521, 717
Frels, R.K., 571
French structuralism, 46
Fretz, R., 652
Freudenberg, W.R., 538
Freud, S., 32–33, 280, 283, 370
Frey, J.H., 237
Frieze, I.H., 144
Frith, H., 398
Frosh, S., 288
Fuentes, E., 502, 515
Fully interactive mixed research, 575
dialectical pluralism in, 561 (See also Dialectical pluralism)
Functionalism, 48–49
of Eisenstadt, 49
of Parson, 48–49
Functionalist modernization theory, 49
Fundamentalism, methodological, 709–710
Fundamental ontology, 21
Fundamentals of Qualitative Research, 582
Funding, politics of, 710–711
Furedi, F., 704
Furman, R., 408, 409, 672
Future, of qualitative research, 724–730
expansion and innovation in, 724–725
final words on, 729–730
public scholarship in, 727–729
shape in, 725
teaching in, 729
transdisciplinarity in, 725–727
two extremes in, 724
Future search, 565
G
Gable, E., 350–352
Gadamer, H.G., 21, 22
Gaiser, T., 427–428, 429
Galileo, 19
Game metaphor, 27
Garfield, E., 711–712
Garfinkel, H., 28–29
Gatekeeping, 712–713
Geertz, C., 21–22, 225, 237, 242, 581, 659
Geiger, S., 139
Gender, 141
Gender and Disaster Network, 540–541
General Elimination Methodology, 480
General evaluation, 680
Generalizability
intersectional, 527
in research reports, 670
Generalization
concept, 466
intellectual, 466
naturalistic, 466
process, 466
situated, 466
Generalized other, 87
Generative words, 318, 320
Generativity, 687
Generic qualitative research, 105
Genres, 3, 5t
Geographical Information System, 39
Geolocation, 446
Georgakopoulou, A., 203–204
George W. Bush administration, 709
Gergen, K., 85, 144, 201, 257, 324
Gergen, M.M., 151, 257, 324
German Ideology, 45
Gerring, J., 370
Gerunds, 130, 132, 133t
Giardina, M.D., 699–720
Gibbs, G.R., 582
Gibney, P., 668
Giles, D., 438
Gilgun, J., 658–674
Gilligan, C., 288
Giorgi, A., 22–23, 295
Giroux, H., 700, 702, 703, 704, 705, 709, 714, 715, 716
Glass, C., 514
Globalization, historicity of, 58
Global justice, 559
Goal-Free Evaluation approach, 480
Gobo, G., 184–185
God trick, 171
Goethe, J.W. von, 19
Goffman, E., 26–28, 31, 85, 87, 101, 224, 544
Goldberg, L., 256
The Golden Bough, 227
Goldschmidt, W., 255
Goodall, H.L., Jr., 708–709
Good practice criteria, 686
Google Blog Search, 439, 442
Google groups, 425
Google search, 442, 444. See also Document analysis, online
Gornick, V., 209
Gorski, P.S., 55
Gotham, K,F., 54
Gould, R., 53
Gould, S.J., 31
Goussinky, R., 729
Grab, 121, 662–663
Gramling, R., 538
Gramsci, Antonio, 101, 522
Gransnet, 447–448
Grazian, D., 223
The Great Transformation, 48
Greene, J.C., 477, 479, 480, 486, 490, 573
Greene, T.M., 404
Greenwood, D., 514
Greimas, A.J., 367
Gremmen, I., 148
Griffin, C., 392
Griffin, L., 55
Grimshaw, B., 239
Grosvenor, I., 384
Grounded hermeneutic research, 105
Grounded theory method, 7, 84–85, 116–135
alternative approaches in, 133–134
background and early development of, 118–119
coding in, 127–130
coding in, focused, 130, 131t
coding in, open, 128t–131t,129–130, 133t
coding in, selective, 130, 130t, 131t, 133t
constructivist, 124–125
data collection and analysis in, 120
defining features of, 85
in disaster research, 547–551
distinctive features of, 118–119
epistemological and ontological issues in, 121–123
fit in, 121
forms of, 125
future directions in, 134
grab in, 121
history of, 101, 116–118
innovations in, 123
in interviewing, 294–295
literature use in, 132
memoing in, 129
modifiability in, 122
in practice, 125–127
pragmatism and, 24, 121
questions in, 107
reading on, further, 135
reporting of findings in, 123–124
research vs. theory in, 119
results, theories, and publications in, 120–121, 132–133, 133t
status of qualitative research in, 119–120
theoretical sampling in, 131
theoretical saturation in, 131–132
theoretical sensitivity in, 133
traditional, 85
value of qualitative research in, 120–121
work in, 121
Group, in focus groups, 317–318
Group interviews, 289
Grubium, J.F., 291
(p. 743) Guardian website, 442
Guattari, F., 330–331
Guba, E.G., 103, 477, 539–540, 603, 678, 679, 680t, 681, 687
Guerin, S., 437
Gu, I., 443
Guidelines for Nonsexist Research, 140
Guiding Principles for Evaluators, 478
Gupta, A., 240
Gurian, E., 343
Guta, A., 511
H
Habermas, J., 90, 362–363, 370
Hacker, K., 514
Haddon, A.C., 230–231
Halbwachs, M., 47
Hall, A., 384
Hall, B., 503, 522
Hall, S., 381
Hamdan, J.M., 438–439
Hamera, J., 687–688
Hammersley, M., 225, 679–680
Handbook of Autoethnography, 256
Handbook of Historical Sociology, 56
Handbook of Qualitative Research, 124, 255, 256
Handbook of the Arts in Qualitative Research, 406
Handler, R., 350–352
Hanna, P., 428
Haraway, D., 149–150, 157, 171, 190
Harding, S., 140, 149
Hare-Musten, R.T., 143
Harm
identification of, 63
minimizing, 62–63
Harper, D., 381, 383, 395, 397, 608
Harré, R., 278
Harris, E., 539–540
Harris, J., 214
Harrison, A.K., 223–248
Harstock, N., 142
Hawkesworth, M., 139, 143, 155, 156
Hawkins, E., 310
Hayano, D.M., 255
Hazards Reduction and Recovery Center at the University of Colorado - Boulder, 534
Healing, autoethnography in, 263
Health theater, 417–418
Heartland Institute, 708
Heatmaps, 612
Hechter, M., 51
Hegemony, macroeconomic, 702
Heidegger, M., 21, 196
Heider, K., 255
Heinz, B., 443
Heinz dilemma, 292–293, 293b
Helsinki Declaration of 1964, 66
Henry, G.T., 486, 488, 490
Herding cats syndrome, getting beyond, 561–562
Herman, D., 210–211, 212, 214
Hermeneutic research, grounded, 105
Hermeneutics, 20–22
life, 21
ontological, 21
reflexivity in, 22
Herodotus, 44
Herrmann, A.F., 261
Hesse-Biber, S.N., 138, 145, 146, 158, 170
Hessler, R.M., 443
Heterophilous researchers, 571
Heterophily, 570
Hewson, C., 249, 423–449
Hicks, L., 514
High-level inferences, 600
Hill, M., 325–326
Hill, R.W., 345–346
Hindsight, practices of, 216
Hip hop–based education, 325–326
Historical materialism, 167
Historical sociology, 55. See also Comparative-historical methods
in U.S. vs. Europe, 43
Histories, 17–40. See also specific types
conceptual, 18–20
future of, 38–40
history writing in, 17–18
internal, 20–30
marginalizing, 30–32
repressed, 32–33
social, 33–34
technological, 34–38
History, conceptual, 18–20
human experience in, 19
origins of, 18–19
post -1970, 19–20
subjective/objective dichotomy in, 19
History, oral. See Oral history
History writing, 17–18
Holbrook, B., 616
Hollway, W., 140, 145–146, 280
Holm, G., 380–399
Holstein, J.A., 291
Homophilous researchers, 571
Homophily, 570
Honesty, 604
Hooks, B., 143, 263
Hoppenthal, J., 707
Horkheimer, M., 90
Hoshmand, L., 154
Hoskins, M., 413
House, E.R., 477, 479, 481, 488
Howe, K.R., 477, 488
How We Think, 24
Hubbard, R., 139, 140, 148–149, 640
Huberman, A.M., 601
Hudson, J., 439
Hull House Maps and Papers, 501
Hunter, J., 392
Huq, J., 501, 508
Huss, E., 407
Husserl, E., 23, 88, 153, 645
Husserlian phenomenology, 23
Hutchinson, P., 179–190
Hyde, J.S., 141
Hymes, D., 242
HyperRESEARCH, 626, 627f, 636t
HyperTRANSCRIBE, 607, 636t
I
Icenogle, M.L., 557–575
Identity politics, 259–260
Igloliorte, H., 350
Illumination, 687
Imaginative rehearsal, 688
iMindMap, 637t
Immersion, 662
Impact, 689
Impact factor, journal, 711–712
Impermeability, 686
Incisiveness, 687
Incongruence procedures, 28–29
In-depth interviews, in feminist research, 150
Indigenous
vs. Aboriginal, 190
definition and origins of, 179
Indigenous autoethnography, 268
Indigenous knowledge, 185
Indigenous methodologies, 7. See also Decolonizing research practice
Australian Aboriginals on cyclones in, 181–185 (See also Cyclones, Australian Aboriginals on)
collaborative problem solving in, 182
on European methods, 180
future directions in, 189
knowledge-based empowerment in, 180
origins of, 181
participatory action research and, 181, 182–183, 183f
vs. participatory methodologies, 181
principles of, 182
as proactive processes, 180
Red River Cart in, 185–189, 186f–188f (See also Red River Cart)
researchers' tribal affiliation in, 185
self-knowledge in, 179–180
subjectivity in, 185
Indigenous ontology, 185
Individual interviews, 289–290
Induction, 588, 654
analytic, 600, 667–668
Inductive approach, 126
in disaster research, 535
practice of, 535
Inferences
high-level, 600
low-level, 600
Inferiority complex, 31
Influences, 588
InfoRapid Cardfile, 609, 609f, 635t
Informed consent, 64
Inglis, D., 59
Initial memos, 652
(p. 744) Innovation
in community-based research, 508–509
diffusion of, 570
Innovation-decision process, 571
Innovator, 571
Inquiry
appreciative, 566
artistic, 404
in focus group research, 322–324
narrative (See Narrative inquiry)
poetic, 408–409
qualitative, 228
qualitative research as self-defining field of, 19
Inscription practice, 225
Insider knowledge, in autoethnography, 262
Inspiration, 611, 619, 637t
Instantiate, 600
Institutional Review Boards, 67, 238
autoethnography and, 266–267
Christians on, 333–334
on focus group research, 332–333
on participatory action research, 528
on photographic research, 388–389
Instrumental case study, 459, 461
Integrative bargaining, 563
Integrative complexity, 560
Integrative memos, 652
Integrity, 604
epistemological, 110
narrative, 216
Intellectual autobiography, 145
Intellectual generalization, 466
Intellectual professionalism, 715
Interact, 638t
Interactionism (symbolic), 25–28, 86–88, 117
application of, 87–88
foundational assumptions of, 86–87
history of, 86
on research methods, 87
Interactions, 86–87
Interactive interviews, 267–268
Interdependence, 69
Interdisciplinary area studies, 2
Internal history, 20–30
ethnography in, 30
hermeneutics in, 20–22
North American traditions in, 23–30
phenomenology in, 22–23
International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 553
International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education review form, 692, 692t
Internet
emerging technologies in, 446–447
on ethnographic voyeurism, 238
on research, 35–36
shifting patterns of usage of, 447
Internet interviews, 290–291
Internet-mediated research, 9, 423–449
emerging internet technologies in, 446–447
enduring qualitative methods in, 448
future directions in, 445–448
good practice principles in, 444, 445, 445b
history of, 423–424
internet usage in, shifting patterns of, 447–448
interviews and focus groups in, 424–435 (See also Interview, online)
online document analysis in, 442–444
online observation in, 435–442 (See also Observation, online)
privacy in, 65
Internet of things, 446
Internet user population, 432
Interperson dialogue, dialectical pluralism as, 561–566
collaborative creativity in, 564–565
constructive conflict in, 562–564
fundamentals of, 561–562
with intraperson dialogue, 571–572
transformational change in, 565–566
Interpretation, 22, 639
Barrett's principles of, 640–641
in interviewing, 283
role of, 640, 646
The Interpretation of Cultures, 242
Interpretation strategies, 11, 639–656
vs. analysis, 641
vs. analysis, example of, 641–642, 642f
art-oriented approach in, 643
Barrett's principles in, 640–641
constant comparison approach in, 642
data analysis approaches in, 644, 644f
data types collected in, 643–644
definition of, 640–642
interpretivists vs. positivists on, 639
methodology and data in, 642–644, 644f
multiple methodologies and paradigms in, 650
qualitative researchers use of, 645–650
qualitative researchers use of, analytic processes, 647
qualitative researchers use of, atomistic vs. holistic, 646
qualitative researchers use of, CAQDAS, 649
qualitative researchers use of, Erickson, 649
qualitative researchers use of, literature, 649
qualitative researchers use of, Mills, 649–650
qualitative researchers use of, Saldaña, 647
qualitative researchers use of, science–art continuum, 646
qualitative researchers use of, Trent & Zork on K–12 students, 647–648, 655
science-oriented approach in, 643
self/researcher in, 644–645
TRAVEL in, 650–656 (See also TRAVEL)
value of, 641–642
Interpretative asides, 464
Interpretive approaches, applied, 99–112
contradictions in applied context of, 103–104
future directions in, 111–112
genre characteristics in, 104
historical grounding of, 101–102
interpretive description in, 106–111 (See also Interpretive description)
nature of, 102–106
vs. nonapplied interpretive work, 102
in nursing, 100, 106
philosophy and discipline of, 102–103
terminology issues in, 104–106
Interpretive authority, 110
Interpretive description, 106–111
credibility in, 110
data analysis and interpretation in, 108–109
disciplinary lens on, 106–107
implications of, 110–111
origins and fundamentals of, 106
question in, articulating, 107
sampling and data collection in, 108
theoretical scaffolding in, 107–108
Interpretive interactionism, 105
Interpretive phenomenological analysis, 105
Interpretive phenomenology, 105
Interpretive social science, eight precepts of, 201
Interpretive turn, 101–102
Interpretivism, in ethnography, 229
Interrelate, to, 588
Interrogating data set, software for, 626–627, 627f
Intersectional generalizability, 527
Intersectionality, 155
Intersubjective science, ethnography as, 235–236
Interview. See also specific types
assertive, 291–293, 293f
content analysis of, case study, 369–372, 372f
content analysis of, sample, 363–366, 365f
debriefing, 571
definition of, 277
depth, 282
E-Interview in, 35–36
face-to-face, 290
focused, 315 (See also Focus group research)
group, 289
in-depth, in feminist research, 150
individual, 289–290
interactive, 267–268
internet, 290–291
(p. 745) in museum studies, 348–350
one-on-one, 316
photo-elicitation, 384, 385
receptive, 291
reflexive, 713
reflexive, dyadic, 268
semistructured, 284b, 285, 286–289 (See also Semistructured interviews)
structured, 286
telephone, 290
unstructured, 286
Interviewing (qualitative), 8–9, 277–298, 283–285, 284b. See also specific methods and types
analysis of, 279
analytic approaches to, 293–297, 294t
analytic approaches to, research instruments, 298–299, 298t
analytic approaches to, social practice, 298t, 299–301
analytic approaches to, what vs. how, 298, 298t
assumptions in, 304
in case study research, 462
coda in, 283, 284b
concrete description in, 283, 284b
constructionist, 282
in conversational world, 278–279
as creative habit, 302–303
cultural categories in, 304
definition and significance of, 278, 285–286
in disaster research, 542–544
example of, 283–285, 284b
excess information from, 279
feminist collaborative, 283
Freud on, 280
future directions in, 297
group, 289
history of, 32–33, 279–283
history of, ancient roots, 280
history of, authoritarianism studies, 281
history of, consumerism, 282
history of, contemporary conceptions, 282–283
history of, human nature, 279–280
history of, nondirective interviewing, 281
history of, psychoanalysis, 280–281
history of, sexuality studies, 281–282
individual, 289–290
internet, 290–291
interpretation in, 283, 284b
as key method, 277
Mayo on, 280–281
meanings in, 288
media for, 290–291
memory in, 294
negotiation of meaning in, 283, 284b
neo-positivist, 282
nondirective, 281
in oral history (See Oral history interviewing)
postmodern and transformative, 282–283
practice of, 288–289
preparing for, 279
question in, 283, 284b
romantic, 282
stress of, 304
structure in, 285–289
structure in, general concepts, 285–286
structure in, structured, 286
structure in, unstructured, 286
structure of, semistructured, 284b, 285, 286–289 (See also Semistructured interviews)
styles of, 291–293, 293b
themes in, 285
value of, 34
Interview, online, 424–435
anonymity, disclosure, and social desirability in, 429–430, 434
asynchronous vs. synchronous, 427–428, 429
data integrity and quality in, 427–428
depth and reflexivity in, 426–427
design issues and strategies in, 426–431
fundamentals of, 426–427
good practice principles in, 435, 436b
rapport in, levels of, 428–429
sampling, recruitment, and ethics in, 432–435
tools, techniques, and procedures in, 424–426
Interview society, 237, 279
Intraperson dialogue
in dialectical pluralism, 560–561
with interperson dialogue, 571–572
Intrinsic case study, 459
Inuzuka, A., 443
Investigating Subjectivity, 255
Investigation
closer, 692
Dewey strategy of, 24
In vivo coding, 590–592
Iowa School, 26
Irony, in feminist research, 158–159
Irvine, L., 658, 662–663, 668, 669, 671, 672–673
Iser, W., 409–410
Isotopia, 565
J
Jacknis, I., 346–347
Jackson, J.L., 237–238
Jackson, M., 206
Jacobsen, M.H., 17–40
Jaggar, A., 138, 139, 142
Jago, B.J., 261
James, D., 466
James, W., 24, 134
Janesick, V.J., 300–313, 645
Janhonen-Abruquah, H., 389, 390f
Janz, B., 708
Jefferson, T., 280
Jenkins, R., 705
Jipson, J., 382
Jirrbal people, 181. See also Cyclones, Australian Aboriginals on
Johnson, J.M., 650–651, 654, 678
Johnson, M., 512
Johnson, R.B., 429, 557–575
Jones, K., 405, 412, 466, 728
Josselson, R., 212, 213, 256–257
Jot, to, 583
Journal impact factor, 711–712
Journaling, art, 413
Journalism, investigative, 73
Journal of Multicultural Perspective review form, 685–686, 685t
Journal publishing industry, scholarly, 711
Journal, researcher reflective, 306–307
Jovanovic, G., 33
Jowett, A., 429
Judgmental quality criteria, 686
Julnes, G., 488
Jumper-Thurman, P., 186–187
Jung, C., 404
Justice
compensatory, 559
distributive, 559
ethics/social, 407 (See also Social justice)
global, 559
outcome-oriented, 559
procedural (process), 559–560
restorative, 559
retributive, 559
social, 559
K
Kamberelis, G., 315–339
Kant, I., 167–168
Karam, J.T., 235
Karp, I., 344
Kassa, D.G., 507
Katzew, I., 348–349, 354
Kaunonen, M., 438
Kay, L., 413–414, 414f
Keim, B., 711
Keller, E.F., 138
Kelvin, Lord, 119–120
Kendall, P., 316–317
Kendra, J.M., 544
Kenny, A.J., 433
Key assertions, 600
Key evaluative criteria, 682–683
Key linkages, 600
Key Word In Context, 619
Killian, L., 54, 534, 540, 542, 545, 547
Kimball, M.M., 141, 157
King, J.A., 491–492
Kings or People: Power and the Mandate to Rule, 52
Kinsey, 282
Kinsey, A.C., 281–282
(p. 746) Kinsey, M., 711
Kirk, J., 383
Kitzinger, C., 147, 151, 152
Kitzinger, J., 152–153
Kleinman, A., 214–215
Knowing, ways of, 65
Knowledge
co-creation of, 3
as commodity, 703
consuming, 704–706
embodied, Malinowski on, 241
indigenous, 185
insider, in autoethnography, 262
phronesis in, 180
polticizing, 706–709
power and, 180
producing, 703–704
situated, 190
western vs. indigenous, 185
Knowledge building, 3
Knowledge creation, in museums, 341–342. See also Museum studies
Knowledge Evolution, 561
Knowles, J.G., 406
Koeske, R.D., 144
Kompridis, N., 90
Kordil EDMS, 609, 635t
Kothari, U., 523
Kozinets, R. V., 36
Kracauer, S., 361
Kress, G., 381
Krieswirth, M., 197
Kristiansen, S., 17–40
Kroeber, A., 347
Krumer-Nevo, M., 508
Kuhn, M., 26
Kuhn, T., 122–123, 124, 198, 500
Kuper, A., 231
Kushner, S., 468
Kuzel, A.J., 713
Kuzmak, N., 508
L
LaBanca, F., 651
LaFrance, J., 478
Lafrenière, D., 408
Laggard, 571
Lahman, M.K.E., 416
La Jevic, S., 413
Landry, D., 508
Language, in content analysis, 362–363
Lapum, J., 414
Larner, G., 158, 709
Larsson, G., 548
Laska, S., 538
Late majority, 571
Lateness, moral, 216
Later adopters, 570
Lather, P., 146, 147, 323–324, 681, 687, 690
Latino Studies, 707
Latour, B., 32, 285–296, 376
Lawson, A., 351
Layered accounts, 267
Lazarsfeld, P., 120
Leahy, J., 515
Learning about Lea, 256
Learning environments, virtual, 425
Learning experiences
revealing, 686
self-evident, 686
Learning from Museums, 349
Learning, service, 729
Lee, R., 280, 317
Lee, R.M., 610
Lefebvre, H., 565
LeGuin, U.K., 203, 204, 209
Letherby, G., 137, 143, 146, 150
Levin, M., 514
Lévi-Strauss, C., 5, 29–30, 242
Leviton, L.C., 487, 491
Lewin, K., 519–521
Lewins, A., 606–634
Liberation anthropology, 69
License, moral, 72
Lichtman, M., 335, 336, 655, 678–679, 690
Lieblich, A., 210, 211, 256
Life hermeneutics, 21
Lifeworld, 360, 362, 370
Lincoln, Y.S., 5, 31, 103, 477, 539–540, 603, 651, 678, 679, 680t, 687, 703, 709–710, 724
Lindeman, S., 399
Lineages, participatory action research, 518–529
Lewin, 519–521
overview of, 518–519
questions for consideration in, 529
Vivencias (Latin America), 521–523 (See also Vivencias)
Linenthal, E.T., 350
Linkages, key, 600
Lipset, S.M., 51
Listening guide, 288
LISTSERV software, 425, 436
Literary qualitative research, 408–410
fiction in, 409–410
poetic inquiry in, 408–409
Literature
in grounded theory method, 132
in TRAVEL, 654–656
Liu, E., 654
Lived experience, 176
Liveminds, 614
Loates, A., 508
Locke, 19
Lofland, J., 548
Lofland, L.H., 548
Logan, J., 159
Logic models, 480
Logic of explanation, 44–45
Logic of necessary and sufficient conditions, 44, 49, 50, 53
Lois, J., 544, 545
Longue durée, 46, 51
Lonkila, M., 616
Lorde, A., 259
Loring Brace, C., 234
"Louisa May," 713–714
Low-Fat Love, 410
Lowie, R., 235
Low-level inferences, 600
Luciana, T.C., 406
Luckmann, T., 86
Luria, A.R., 370
Lykes, 515
Lykes, M.B., 499, 523
Lynd, R., 239–240
Lyotard, J., 198
Lyu, S.Y., 508–509
M
Mabry, L., 487
MacDonald, B., 477
Machiavelli, N., 71
Machilek, A., 444
Machlup, F., 30–31
MacIntyre, A., 202
MacKinnon, C.A., 141
Macoby, E.E., 277
Macoby, N., 277
Macroeconomic hegemony, 702
Macrosociological orientation, 49–50
Madge, H., 427, 429, 430, 431
Madriz, E., 316, 320–321
Magno, C., 383
Maguire, P., 146, 153–154, 506, 513, 523
Mahoney, J., 54
Mailing lists, 425, 436, 447
Majority
early, 571
late, 571
Malcom, J., 73
Malinowski, B., 19, 30, 226–244. See also Ethnography
Cambridge School on, 230–231
on conditions for ethnographic work, 238
Diary of, 232, 241, 244
as ethnographer of ethnographic practice, 240–241
foundations of man and methodology of, 227–228
historical legacies of, 243–244
literary (re)turn of, 241–243
myth of, 226–227
on participation vs. recording, 237
on subject, method, and scope, 241
Malinowski, in Trobriands, 238–240
alternative "fields" in, 239–240
disappearing "fields" in, 240
Malinowski, in western Pacific, 231–238
colonial impetuses for, 234–235
getting off the veranda in, 232–234
(p. 747) inspiration for and funding of, 231–232
intersubjective science and, 235–236
technological rapport of, 236–238
Mallona, A., 499, 515
Mandell, J., 505, 511
Mann, C., 423
Mann, M., 52, 56–57
Mapping, 330–331
analysis, 367
concept, 464, 652
mind-mapping tools for, 611, 611f, 637t
in museum studies, 343
Mapping analysis, 367
Mapping software, 611–612, 611f
in CAQDAS, 637t
Maracek, J., 143
Marcus, G., 170, 240, 329
Marcus, M., 443
Marett, R., 231
Marginalizing history, 30–32
Margolis, E., 395–396
Marienthal study, 120
Marion, B.H., 561
Market research
focus groups in, 319, 323
qualitative, 34
Marking, software for, 618–619, 619f
Mark, M.M., 488, 491, 492
Marks, D., 148
Marlow, R., 508–509
Martín-Baró, I., 524
Martin, E., 329–330
Martins, C.S., 384
Marullo, S., 502, 504
Marxism, Western, 47
Marx, K., 45–46, 47, 166, 499–500, 522
Mascia-Lees, F., 242
Mason, J., 608
Master narratives, 151
Matarasso, F., 462
Materialism
dialectical, 166–168
historical, 167
Mathison, S., 489
Matthews, A., 414
Mattingly, C., 105
MAXQDA, 613, 636t
annotations in, 619
connections in, making, 619, 619f
interrogating data set in, 626
memo system in, 621, 621f
Maxwell, J., 709
Mayfield, K., 643, 653, 654
Mayne, J., 480
Mayo, E., 280–281, 285, 291
McCall, L., 155
McCay, C., 511
McCrory, P., 708
McDonaldization, 38
McHugh, M.C., 137–160
McKnowledge, 705
McLaren, P., 236
McNiff, S., 412–413
McTaggart, R., 477
McUniversity, 704
Mdee, A., 506
Mead, G.H., 26, 86
Meaning
in interviewing, 288
in interviewing, negotiation of, 283, 284b
in interviewing, semistructured, 287
in photography, 383
shared, 86
Meaning condensation, 295
Meaningful coherence, 691t, 692
Member checks, 552
Memo
to, 589
initial, 652
integrative, 652
Memoing, 129
Memory
collective (social), 47
in interviewing, 294
Memo system, 620–621, 621f
Mercer, S., 181
Merit, aesthetic, 689
Merleau-Ponty, M., 23
Merton, R., 315, 316–317, 322–323
Meta-cognitive experience, 407
Metaphor
diffusion, 571
frame, 27–28
game, 27
Goffman's, 27–28
ritual, 27
Metaphorical photographs, 391–394, 391f–396f
Method. See also specific methods
definition of, 224–225
vs. methodology, 181
vs. methodology, in ethnography, 224–225
Method Meets Art: Arts-Based Research Practice, 406, 408
Method of agreement, 50
Method of difference, 50
Methodolatry, 38
Methodological fundamentalism, 709–710
Methodological transparency, 241
Methodology, 4, 5t. See also specific methodologies
definition of, 140, 225
vs. method, 181
vs. method, in ethnography, 224–225
in research reports, 668
responsive, 726
Methods, qualitative research. See also specific types
history of, 101–102
neglect and repression of, 32–33
Methods, research, 3–4, 5t. See also specific types
definition of, 140
selection of, 4
Methods section
data collection and analysis in, 669–670
generalizability in, 670
methodologies in, accounts of, 668
sample description in, 668–669
trustworthiness and authenticity in, 670
Métis, 185–186
Métis Red River Cart. See Red River Cart
Micropolitics
definition and role of, 173
feminist and queer, in critical research, 173–175
limited locations in, 173–174
Microsociology, 23–30. See also North American traditions
Middletown, 239–240
Mienczakowski, J., 418
Mikander, P., 392–394, 395f
Miles, M.B., 601
Mileti, D., 534
Milgram, S., 258–259
Miller, A., 179–190
Mill, J.S., 50, 51
Mills, C.W., 500
Mills, M.B., 640, 649–650
MindManager, 619, 637t
Mind-mapping tools, 611, 611f, 637t
MindNode, 611, 619, 637t
Minimizing harm, 62–63
Mink, L., 197
Minkler, M., 510
“Mirror Theatre,” 411
Mirzoeff, N., 380–381
Mishler, E., 211–212, 282
Misinterpretation, nonverbal, 304
Mitchell, C., 384
Mitchell, K., 728
Mitigation, disaster, 538
Mixed media studies, 413–414, 414f
Mixedmethods research, 574–575. See also Dialectical pluralism
evaluation in, 679
fundamentals of, 558
QUAL-dominant mixed research in, 574
QUAL + QUAN mixed research in, 575
QUAN-dominant mixed research in, 574–575
software for, 613
Mobile devices, 446
Modernization, 49
Modernization, Polanyi on, 48
Modernization theories, 48–49
Modern sonnet, 409
The Modern World System I, 51
(p. 748) Modifiability, 122
Modus operandi method, 480
Moloney, M.F., 429
Mont Blanc disaster, 533
Moodle, 425
Moore, B., 50
Moral claim, 654
Moral concerns, 228
Moral defensibility, 110
Moral imperative, 727
Moral inversion, 561
Moralism, 69–73
definition of, 69
ethical reflexivity and being "too ethical" in, 72–73
forms of, 70
"high standards" as indefensible requirement in, 71–72
license claimed by qualitative researchers in, 72
qualitative research in, as essentially ethical, 69
qualitative research in, centrality of, 70
qualitative research in, redefining goal of, 70
research process in, realizing practical values in, 70–71
Moral lateness, 216
Moral license, 72
Morawski, J., 158
Moreira, C., 712
Morgan, D., 152–153, 361
Morisky, D., 508–509
Morley, D., 318
Morris, M., 29, 335
Morrison, M., 501, 508
Morse, J.M., 574, 709, 713
Moser, S., 342
Mother tongue, 209
Much, N., 292–293, 293b
Mulhall, S., 278
Musaeus, P., 295–297, 296b
Museum studies, 341–355
analysis and write-up in, 353–355
audience in, intended, 342
of children's museums, 342–343
exhibit analysis in, 343–348
interviews in, 348–350
of Native Americans exhibits, 344–347
of Native Americans exhibits, by Clifford, 344–345
of Native Americans exhibits, by Hill, 345–346
of Native Americans exhibits, by Jacknis, 346–347
“Other Cultures in Museum Perspective” of Karp in, 344
participant observation and ethnographic fieldwork in, 350–353
rationale for, 341–342
research design in, 342–343
of Vogel, 347–348
Music, as research, 405
Myerburg, J.D., 429
Mykhalovskiy, E., 263
N
Nabors, L., 319
Naive realism, 229
Naples, N., 509, 510
Narrate, to, 601–602
Narrating the Closet: An Autoethnography of Same-Sex Attraction, 264
Narrative
in case study research, 463, 464–465
co-constructed, 268
as communicative activity, 202
evocative, 206, 209
in feminist research, 150–151
life and self as, 195–196
master, 151
oral history as, 306
personal, 206–209, 267
philosophers on, 196–197
sociological historical, 55
Narrative analysis, 204–205, 366–369, 367t, 368f. See also Content analysis
character in, 367, 368
chronology in, 366–367
concept clusters in, 368, 368f
documents in, 367, 367t, 368
of English health services policy, 367t, 368–369
plot in, 367
text-mining in, 367
Narrative Analysis, 204–205
Narrative competence, 215
Narrative exceptionalists, 205–206
Narrative foreclosure, 216
Narrative identity thesis, 202
Narrative inquiry, 7–8
evocative, 206–209
rationale for, 198
rise of, 197–198
Narrative inquiry, practicing, 195–216
assumptions in, 202
vs. correspondence theory of knowledge, 198–200, 201
definitions in, 201–202
demographics and new academic culture in, 200–201
distinguishing features in, five, 207
engagement in, 213
for everyday life, 213–216
externalizing practices in, 214
formalizing in, 212–213
foundations of, 195–196
genres of inquiry in, 204–206
goals in, 202–203
interpretive social science precepts in, 201
models of analysis in, 210–212
narratives-under-analysis research practices in, 209–210, 212–213
personal narratives in, 206–209
philosophers on, 196–197
positioning in, 212
relational dimension in, 213
as self-telling, 195–196
stories in, and life experience, 196
stories in, as self, 195–196
stories in, stretching definition of, 203–204
Narrative integrity, 216
Narrative Psychology, 197
Narratives-under-analysis, 209–210
Narratives-under-analysis research practices, 209–210, 212–213
Herman's, 210–211, 212
Josselson's, 212
Lieblich, Tuval-Masiach, and Zibler's, 211
Mishler's, 211–212
Riessman's, 211, 212
Narrative therapy, 214
Narrative Truth and Historical Truth, 197
Narratology, 201
Nash, D., 230
National Health Service Research Governance Framework, 67
National Research Council, 693
Native Americans, museum studies of exhibits on, 344–347
Native autoethnography, 268
Natural, approximation of, in focus groups, 326–327
Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center at the University of Colorado - Boulder, 537
Naturalism
in disaster research, 539–540
principles of, 539–540
Naturalistic generalization, 466
Naturalistic Inquiry, 103, 678
Necessary and sufficient conditions, 44, 49, 50, 53
Negative case analysis, in disaster research, 417
Negotiated orders, 121
Negotiation of meaning, in interviewing, 283, 284b
Negotiation of realities, in dialectical pluralism, 566
Nelson, H.L., 215
Neo-conservative initiatives, 693
Neoliberalism
in the academy, 169
definition of, 701–702
history of, 702
on schooling, 702–703
Slaughter on, 702, 703
Neoliberal university, politics of research of, 701–709
consuming knowledge in, 704–706
history of, 702
institutional practices in, 703
polticizing knowledge in, 706–709
producing knowledge in, 703–704
Neo-positivist, 54
Neo-positivist interviewing, 282
Netnography, 36
Netshandama, V., 503, 510
Neuendorf, K.A., 360
Newbury, J., 413
The New History in an Old Museum: Creating the Past at Colonial Williamsburg, 350–352
Newman, J.I., 699–720
Newman, M., 389
Newsgroups, 425, 447
Newton, 19
Nisker, J., 417–418
Nonverbal misinterpretation, 304
Norris, J., 411
North American traditions, 23–30
Chicago School of Sociology in (See Chicago School of Sociology)
development of, 23
ethnomethodology in, 28–30
pragmatism in, 23–25
symbolic interactionism in, 25–28
Northcraft, R.L., 563
Notes and Queries in Anthropology, 233
Notes storage software, 620–621, 621f
Nothing Bad Happens to Good Girls: Fear of Crime in Women’s Lives, 321
Noy, C., 215–216
Nuance, 328–329
NUD*IST, 615
Nuremberg Code of 1947, 66
The Nurse and the Dying Patient, 117
Nursing
methodological precision in, 100
reasoning in, 106
NVivo, 613, 636t
annotations in, 619
bibliographic software import in, 610
classification sheet in, 623f, 624
in disaster research, 550–551
interrogating data set in, 626
quantitative analyses and representations in, 627–628, 628f
Nyden, P., 501, 502, 503
Nygreen, K., 504–505, 511
O
Oakley, A., 150
Objective reality, in dialectical pluralism, 572
Objectives, 595
Objectivity, 3
absolute, 561
definition of, 140
in feminist research, 148–149
O'Bryne, K., 154
Observation
in case study research, 462–463
in disaster research, 544–545
focused and persistent, 551
in museum studies, 350–353
Observation, online, 435–442
of asynchronous discussions, 437–438
design issues and strategies in, 437–440
linguistic interaction in, beyond, 439–440
sampling, recruitment, and ethics in, 440–442
scope and applications of, 435
of synchronous discussions, 438–439
tools, technologies, and procedures in, 436–437
O’Connor, H., 427, 429, 430, 431
O'Connor, J., 706
Okri, B., 464, 465, 469
One-on-one interviews, 316
Online focus groups, 335–336
Online interviews, 424–435. See also Interview, online
Online observation, 435–442. See also Observation, online
Online qualitative research. See Internet-mediated research; specific topics
Online qualitative software solutions, 613–614
Ontological hermeneutics, 21
Ontological pluralism, 558
Ontological realism, 557
Ontological relativism, 557
Ontology, 3, 5t, 82. See also specific methods
fundamental, 21
indigenous, 185
Onwuegbuzie, A.J., 557–575
Open coding, 128t–131t,129–130, 133t, 652
Open space, 565
Open space technologies, 565
Opinion leadership, 571
Oppositional consciousness, 156
Oral history
choreography of, 301
as technique, 301–302
Oral history interviewing, 300–313
active interviewing in, 303
arts-based approaches to, 308, 311–313
assumptions in, 304
choreography of, 301
closing in, 303
as creative habit, 302–303
cultural categories in, 304
digital technology in, 306–309
Emergent Document Analysis and, 304
future directions in, 303–310
guiding points, 305–306
other data in, 304
postmodern, 304–305
questions in, 303
researcher reflective journal in, 306–307
for social justice project, 311
as technique, 301–302
transdisciplinary approach to, 313
writing up of, as narrative, 306
Orchestrator, 562
O'Reilly, K., 171
Organize, to, 583
Organizing community, 502
O’Rourke, A., 438
Ortega y Gasset, J., 522
Orthodox consensus, 31
“Other Cultures in Museum Perspective,” 344
Otto-Salaj, L., 509
Outline, to, 592–593
Outlining software, 592
Outputting software, 629–630
Ozerdem, A., 506, 507
P
Paavilainen, E., 438
Pain, autoethnography for, 263
Paired comparison, 58
Paley, N., 382
Pantoum, 409
Paradigm, 3, 5t
Kuhn on, 122
Paradigm wars, 81, 479
Parahoo, K., 319
Parker, I., 285
Park, R., 663
Park, R.E., 25
Parpart, J.L., 527
Parra-Cardona, J., 504, 505, 512
Parr, J., 150
Parson, T., 48–49, 122
Partiality, 172
Participants, valuing research, 3
Participation Research Network, 523
Participatory action research, 10. See also specific types
arts-based, 416–417
on Australian Aboriginals, 181–182
case study of, youth empowerment at alternative high school, 506–507
as collaborative partnership, 182
community-based research and, 503–504
critical theory in, 91–92
definition of, 518–519
in feminist research, 153–155, 322
Freire in, 320
histories of, multiple, 519 (See also Lineages, participatory action research)
in indigenous methodologies, 181, 182–183, 183f
(p. 750) Participatory action research (Cont.)rise of, 82
strength of, key, 181–182
in Urban Youth and School Pushout: Gateways, Get-Aways, and the GED, 330
Participatory photography, 385–388, 385f–388f
preparation for, 390–391
Particularization, 466–467, 600
Patel, P.C., 563–564
Pattern, to, 584
Patton, M., 405, 475, 479–480, 677–678
Paulus, T., 652
Peck, E., 712
Pedagogy, in community-based research, 502
Pedagogy of the Oppressed, 320, 500, 717
Peek, L., 534
Peel, E., 429
Peer debriefing, 540, 552
Pelias, R., 263, 270
Pelliccio, A., 443
Peña, D., 707
Pennebaker, J., 214
Penn, P., 214
Performance, 159
Performance studies (performative research)
ethnodrama and ethnotheater in, 411–412
ethnographic, 405
evaluation criteria for, 687–688, 688t
film in, 412
focus groups in, 324–331 (See also Focus group research)
paradigm of, 410
playbuilding in, 411
transdisciplinary, 410–411
Permeability, 686
Perry, R., 706
Personal criteria, 690
Personal experience, in autoethnography, 260–261
Personal, in dialectical pluralism, 566
Personal narratives, 206–209
in autoethnography, 267
Peterson, T.H., 514
Phenomenological approaches, 153
in feminist research, 153
in interviewing, 294–295
Phenomenological empiricism, 28
Phenomenology, 22–23, 88–90, 153
applications of, 89–90
applied, 102, 105
foundational assumptions of, 88
history of, 88
interpretive, 105
on research methods, 88–89
The Philadelphia Negro, 239
Phillips, B., 533–553
Philosophical approaches, 81–96. See also specific types
axiology in, 83
critical theory in, 90–92
diversity of, 82
epistemology in, 82–83
feminist theories in, 92–93
future of, 94–96
history of, 81–82
ontology in, 82
post-positivism in, 83–85
queer theory in, 93–94
social constructionism in, 85–90
Philosophical research, 2–3, 2t, 5t
Phoenix, A., 392
Photo albums, 384
Photo-documentation, in disaster research, 548
Photo-elicitation interviews, 384, 385
in disaster research, 548
Photography, 380–399, 413
ambiguity in, 383
analysis in, content, 395–396
analysis in, discourse, 396
analysis in, ethnographic, 396–397
analysis in, principles of, 394–395
anonymization in, 389, 390f
archival photos in, 384
books on, 381
in children's research, 382
in disaster research, 547–548
in education, 382
ethical issues in, 388–390, 390f, 399
habitus and metaphorical photographs in, 391–394, 391f–396f
history of, 381, 382–383
as illustrations or documentary, 383–384
images vs. photographs in, 382
interpretation in, 397–398
manipulation in, 390
multiple meanings in, 383
in oral history, 309
participant photographs in, 385–388, 385f–388f
participatory ethnography preparation in, 390–391
presentation of research in, 398–399
in psychology, 381–382
researcher photographs in, 384–385
still photos in, examples of, 380
technological advancements in, 35
video in, examples of, 380
visual culture and, 380–381
visual vs. textual research culture in, 381
Photo production, 385
Phototherapeutic intervention, in disaster research, 548
PhotoVoice, 309, 383–384, 404, 413
PhpList, 425
Phrase Finder tool, 619, 620f
Phronesis, 180
Piaget, J., 280
Pies, C.A., 413
Pike, L., 548
Pinkley, R.L., 563
Pink, S., 384, 396–397, 398
Pinto, R.M., 502, 510
Plano-Clark, V.L., 613
Platonic dialogue, 292
Playbuilding, 411
Plested, B.A., 186–187
Pluralism, 53
Poetic inquiry, 408–409
Poeticize, to, 602–603
Poetry
found, 409
spoken word, 409
Pohl, C., et al., 726
Polanyi, K., 48, 561, 703
Polanyi, M., 510, 511, 513
Policy analysis, 366
Political activism, 330–331
The Political Systems of Empires, 49
Politics, 12
of ethnography, postmodern, 242–243
feminist, 173–175
of focus group research, 320–322
of focus group research, performative, 330–331
identity, of autoethnography, 259–260
of postmodernism, 242–243
transversal perspectives in, 156
Politics, of evidence, 688–693, 709–710
evaluation, criteria, and power in, 690–693, 691t, 692t
moving forward in contemporary contexts in, 689–690
in positivist paradigm, 688
purposes of research in, 689
responses to critics in, 689
Politics of research, 699–720
confronting, 709–715
confronting, censorship and gatekeeping in, 712–713
confronting, data and science in, 713
confronting, evidence in, 709–710
confronting, experimentalism in, 710
confronting, funding in, 710–711
confronting, Giroux on, 709
confronting, methodological fundamentalism in, 709–710
confronting, publishing in, 711–712
confronting, real-world implications of, 714
confronting, Richardson's "Louisa May" in, 713–714
confronting, tenure in, 714–715
forces in, 701, 701f
market orientation in, 700
in neoliberal university, 701–709
in neoliberal university, consuming knowledge in, 704–706
in neoliberal university, history of, 702
in neoliberal university, institutional practices in, 703
(p. 751) in neoliberal university, meaning of, 701–702
in neoliberal university, polticizing knowledge in, 706–709
in neoliberal university, producing knowledge in, 703–704
problems in, 699–700
recommendations for, 716–717
Polkinghorne, 204–205
Pondy, L.R., 562–563
A Poor Man’s House, 467
Popper, K., 84
Porpora, D., 502
Positionality, 172
Positioned rationality, 150
Positioning, 212
Positivism, 31, 83–84
classical, 31
of Comte, 101
dialectical materialism on, 167–168
in ethnography, 229
Glaser and Strauss challenge of, 122
post-, 83–85
Positivist evaluation, 679
Positivist rationality, on university research, 704
Postclassical narratology, 211
Postcolonial criticism, 59
Post-criteriology evaluation, 680–681
Post-empiricism, 681
Postmodern ethnographers, 242
Postmodern interviewing, 282–283
Postmodernism, 143
on feminist research, 143–144
on interviewing, 282
politics of, 242–243
writing in, 243
Postmodern politics, 242–243
Post-performance, 688, 688t
Post-positivism, 54, 83–85, 681. See also Grounded theory method
Post-structuralism, 30
Post-validity evaluation, 681
Potter, J., 291–292
Powell, M., 443
Power. See also Empowerment
in aborginalism, 180
aesthetic, 415–416
in feminist research, 146
knowledge and, 180
in politics of evidence, 690–693, 691t, 692t
sharing of, in community-based research, 506
Power, B.M., 640
Powers, L.S., 383–384
Practical reasoning, 24
Pragmatic obligation, 110
Pragmatism
grounded theory model and, 24, 121
history of, 23–25
Praxis, 2, 2t, 3–4, 5t, 522
Pre-judices, 22
Preparedness, in disaster research, 537–538
Pre-performance, 688, 688t
The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, 27
Press, A.L., 152
Priestley, J., 123
Prince, S., 533
Prioritize, to, 583–584
Prior, L., 359–378
Prior research, 664–666
"Prison Notebooks," 101
Privacy, 64–66
Probative logic, 480
Problem solving, responsive, 726
Procedural justice, 559–560
Process coding, 585–587
Process generalization, 466
Process justice, 559–560
Process philosophy
definition of, 558
dialectical pluralism as, 558
Production, relations of, 45
Professional barriers, to community-based research, 513
Professional boundaries, in community-based research, 511–512
Program evaluation. See Evaluation, program
Progressive focusing, 464
Proletarian testers., 118, 119, 122
Prolonged engagement, 660–661
Proof, in critical participatory action research, 527–528
Propensity accounts, 55
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, 46
Proto-conversation, 278
Provoked by Art: Theorizing Arts-Informed Research, 406
Pryce, J.M., 81–96
Pryse, M., 156–157
Pseudo-evaluation, 474t, 476–477
Psychoanalysis, interviewing in, 280–281
Public domain, in online research, 440–441, 448
Public scholarship, 727–729
Public Science Project, 525
Publishing research, politics of, 711–712
Q
QDA Miner, 611–612, 613, 636t
Phrase Finder tool in, 619, 620f
quantitative analyses and representations in, 627–628, 628f
QUAL-dominant mixed research, 574
Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists, 123
Qualitative analysis programs, 37
Qualitative concerns, 228
Qualitative data analysis strategies, 582–604. See also Coding and analysis strategies; specific strategies
Qualitative data, quantitative data integration with, 624–625, 625f
Qualitative description, 105
Qualitative disaster research. See Disaster research, qualitative
Qualitative Evaluation Methods, 479
Qualitative Health Research, 713
Qualitative inquiry, 228. See also Qualitative research
Qualitative market research, 34
Qualitative research. See also specific topics
appreciation for, 258
centrality of, 70
critique in, 724
definition of, 1–2
elements of, 2–5, 2t, 5t (See also Research)
as ethical, 69
generic, 105
goal of, redefining, 70
"high standards" as indefensible requirement in, 71–72
history of, 18–19 (See also Histories)
license claimed by researchers in, 72
moralism in, 69–73 (See also Moralism)
motivation for, 659
research process in, practical values in, 70–71
results and value of, 120–121
scope of, 2
as self-defining, 19
sociohistory of, 2
starting point in, 640
status of, 119–120
unifying elements in, 639–640
uses of, 2
Qualitative Research Interviewing, 285
Qualitative research methods. See also specific types
history of, 101–102
neglect and repression of, 32–33
Qualitative rigor, 690–692, 691t
QUAL + QUAN mixed research, 575
Qualrus, categorization in, 621–622, 622f
QUAN-dominant mixed research, 574–575
Quantitative data, qualitative data integration with, 624–625, 625f
Quantitative research, 19
Quantz, R.A., 171
Quarantelli, E.L., 534, 536, 537, 542, 543, 545, 547, 548–549, 552
Queer, 93
Queer micropolitics, 173–175
Queer theory, 93–94
in disaster research, 541
Questions
in case study research, 461
in interpretive description, articulating, 107
(p. 752) Questions (Cont.)in interviewing, 283, 284b
in interviewing, oral history, 303
research, reporting of, 667–668
Quint Benoliel, J., 116–117, 121
Quint, J., 116–117
R
Racing-gendering, 155
Radcliffe-Brown, A.R., 224
Radway, J., 323
Rahman, M.A., 522, 523
Rap, 409
Rapport
in ethnography, technological, 236–238
in online interviews, 428–429
Rationality, positioned, 150
Rawls, J., 559
Reading Excellence Act, 712
Reading the Romance, 323
Realism
constructive, 55
naive, 229
ontological, 557
Reality
experience of, 168
expression of, 689
objective, in dialectical pluralism, 572
Reasoning
abductive, 588
deductive, 588
practical, 24
retroductive, 588
Reason, P., 502–503
Reason, to, 588
Reavey, P., 381
Receptive interviewing, 291
Recording technologies. See also specific types
ethnographic, 236–238
Recounting, 214
Recovery, in disaster research, 538
Recruitment, 661
in research reports, 669
Recruitment, online
on document analysis, 443–444
for interviews, 432–435
for observation, 440–442
Recursiveness, 726
The Red Book, 404
Red River Cart, 185–189
community readiness model for, 186–187, 186f, 187f
history and uses of, 188, 188f
Métis and, 185–186
symbolic meaning of, 188–189
Reduction, 23
Re-emergent scientism, 709
Reeves, P., 548
Referential adequacy, 417
in disaster research, 552
Reflective journal, researcher, 306–307
Reflexive auto/ethnography, 268
Reflexive dyadic interviews, 268
Reflexive interview, 713
Reflexivity, 5, 5t, 22, 689
in community-based research, 509
ethical, 72–73
in feminist resear