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date: 20 August 2019

(p. 571) Index

(p. 571) Index

Page numbers followed by t and f indicate tables and figures, respectively. Numbers followed by “n” indicate notes.

Abandonware, 124, 129n2
Ableton Live, xi, 89, 248–249, 415–416
Acconci, Vito, 18
Acid (Sony), xi, 415–416
Acousmatic sound, 302, 542
Acoustic ecology: of computer games, 181–195
Acoustic scenography, 81–84, 90–91
Acoustic scores, 551
Actional modalities, 138–139
Activision, xiii
Activity
gaming as, 175
videogames as, 168–170
Adaptation, 425–435
Adaptations (Haydn), 357, 360
Adaptive audio, 86–87, 119, 152–153
Added value, 450–451
Additive synthesis, 459, 459f
The Advantage, 514
Adventures of Batman and Robin (Sega Genesis), xiii
The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury, 63
Aesthetics
chiptune, 509–510
in game experiences, 133
in location-aware sound design, 270–272
in responses to music, 421–422
Affordances, 187
AI (artificial intelligence), ix, 309, 350–351, 360–361
Air guitar, 333
Alcorn, Al, 99
Algorithmic composition, 50–51, 152, 153f
Algorithmic Music Evolution Engine (AMEE), 419
Alone in the Dark (Infogrames), xiii, 138
Altman, Rick, 137
Alvin and the Chipmunks, 350
Ambience, 481
Ambient music, 373, 374, 374t, 375t, 545
Amergence, 365, 372–377, 379–381
Amplification, 547–548
Amplitude, 459, 460f, 471–472
Amstrad CPC, 525
Analysis windows, 465
Anamanaguchi, 514, 518
Anamnesis, 142, 188
Anarchy Online (Funcom 2001), xiii, 120, 126–128
Andersson, Anders-Petter, 249
Animated user interface (AUI), 58
Animation, 156–157, 348n1
Animoog (Moog), xi, 53f
Apocalypse Now, 485–486
Apple, xi, 414
Application programming interface (API)
definition of, ix
multilevel, 426
apps (applications), 27, 276, 561
Arcnet, 90
Arduino, 89, 563
Aristotle, 34
Arkanoid (Taito), xiii
Arneson, Dave, xiii
ARQuake (Wearable Computer Lab), 263
Art(s)
definition of, 2
dematerialization of art objects, 19, 27
fourth wall of practice, 2
installation art, 17–18
interactive sound in, 2–3, 13–92
interactive video art, 15–30
of live electronics, 555
locative sound art, 266–267
media arts, 364–384
performance art, 18
performing arts, 7
site-specific, 545
technoetic, 364–384
of tracking, 391
(p. 572) Artificial cues, 241
Artificial intelligence (AI), ix, 309, 350–351, 360–361
Artificial reverberation, 274
Arturia, xi
Ascott, Roy, 364, 366, 371
Ashby, W. Ross, 365, 374
Asheron’s Call 2: Fallen Kings (Turbine), xiii, 127–128
The Assembly Line, xiv
The Astonishing Tribe, xii, 270
Astro Marine Corps (Creepsoft), xiii
Atari, xiii, xiv, 181, 525
Audience(s)
performer-instrument-listener-audience relationship, 335–336
real, 336–337
role of, 3
Audio. see also Interactive audio; Sound(s)
in built environments, 85–88
current trends, 276–277
dynamic, 69, 86–87, 119
electronic, 544–545
generative, 87–88, 567
integration of, 482–485
interactive multitouch systems, 344f
interactive spectral processing of, 457–475
interactivity of, 263–279
in location-aware sound design, 263–279
MP3-quality, 446–448
open form, 271
procedural, 52, 87–88, 444–449, 531–540
reactive, 86–87
spatial, 220
triggering, 269–270
Audio composition, 267–268. see also Composition
Audio Engineering Society (AES), 492–493
AudioFire, 447
AudioGaming, 447, 536
Audiokinetic, xii, 489
Audio production software. see also Software
development of, 405–418
procedural audio in, 446–448
usability in, 412–416
Audio rendering, 220–222
Audiotactile interactions, 240–241
Audio Units, 408
Audiovisual Environment Suite (Levin), 58–59
Audiovisual interactions, 237–240
AudioWeather, 447
Auditory cues, 241
Auditory feedback, interactive, 240
Auditory icons, 140
Auditory illusions, 222–226
Auditory immersion, 220–222
Auditory-induced body ownership, 226–227
Auditory objects, 239
Auditory perception, 214–215
Augmented aurality, 33
Augmented reality, 33
Augoyard, Jean-François, 136, 139–140
AUI (animated user interface), 58
Aura Flux, 46
Aural Architecture, 82–83
Authenticity, 327–328
Automatically composed music. see Generative audio
Autonomy, 397
Autopoiesis, 367–368
Avatar, 275
Avid, xii
Awareness of location, 268–269
Azumio, xi
Bach chorales, generative, 565
Background sounds, 481
Bandai Warehouse (Tokushima City), 375, 376f
Band-in-a-Box (PGMusic), xi, 412, 565
Barcia-Colombo, Gabriel, 15–16, 16f, 20
Bartle, Richard, xiv
Bartlett or triangle window, 465, 466f
Bayesian modeling frameworks, 355
BBC Languages, xiv
Beatings, 97, 98f
Beatles, 21
Beeper music, 517
Beer, Stafford, 365–366, 378
Behavior
interactive object behavior, 536
motoric, 443–456
musical, 364–384
music as, 366–373
physical, 453–454
sound and, 453–454
Behrman, David, 350
Being there, 213–233. see also Presence
Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again (Clarke), 186
Berio, 17
Bethesda Game Studios, xiii
Bias Peak, 411
Biofeedback, 191–193
(p. 573) Biophilia (Björk), 27, 46–47, 53, 55, 60n3
BioShock (2K Boston), xiii, 487
BioWare, xiv
Bishop, Claire, 18
Bitesize (BBC), xiii, 248–249
Björk
Biophilia, 27, 46, 53, 55
“Crystalline,” 27–28
Black, Jack, 171–172
Black Box, 190
Blackwell, Tim, 308
Blast Theory, 33, 266
Blendid, xiii
Blip Festival, 514
Blizzard Entertainment, xiv, 117–130
Bloom (Eno and Chilvers), 27, 46, 49–50, 374t, 375t
Blue Brain, 268
Boch, Matt, 286–290, 296
Body
auditory-induced ownership of, 226–227
virtual, 219–220
Boredom switch, 203
Böttcher, Niels, 451–453
Bottom-up appraisal, 200–201
Boulez, Pierre, 40
Bowie, David, 172
Boxer, Philip, 378–379
Braid (Number None Inc.), xiii, 109
Brain imaging, 422
Branching, 564
Breath controllers, 340
Bridgett, Rob, 4, 487
Bright Nights (Wells), 29
Broken Sword: Angel of Death (Sumo Digital), xiii
Broomhall, John, 481–485, 487, 494, 496
Brower, Russell, 118, 128
Brütal Legend (Double Fine Productions), xiii, 167, 171–173
Bungie Studios, xiv
Bunin, Stanislav, 173
Burland, Karen, 255
The Burning Crusade, 123–124, 127
Bush, Tracy W., 123
Bushnell, Nolan, 98–99
Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, 142
C (programming language), 89
C64 Digi (Harbron, Harsfalvi, and Judd), xi
Cage, John, 2, 17, 35–37, 329n1, 364–365, 544
Cahen, Robert, 19
Call of Duty (Activision), xiii, 446
Canterbury Christ Church University, 252
Cantique 3 (Chouinard), 15–16, 20
Can You See Me Now? (Blast Theory), 266
Capcom, xiv
Cardew, Cornelius, 329n1, 374t, 375t
Cardiff, Janet, 266
Case studies, 435–439
Cataclysm (Blizzard Entertainment), 117–119, 121, 123
C/C++, 411–412
CD players, 86–87
Celebrity vocalizations, 504
Cellphones, 312n1
Central processing unit (CPU), 274
Centre for Music and Health (Norwegian Academy of Music), 247–248, 257
Centre for Research on Sonic Space and the Urban in Environment, 140
Chadabe, Joel, 306
Channel vocoder, 473
Cheering sounds, 103f
Child of Eden (Ubisoft), xiii, 175
Chilvers, Peter, 46
Bloom (Eno and Chilvers), 27, 46, 49–50, 374t, 375t
Chion, Michel, 449–451
Chipmunk effects, 471
Chipmunk songs, 458
Chip-punk, 514
Chiptune aesthetic, 509–510
Chiptune composition, 516–525
Chiptune platforms, 525–529
Chiptunes, 507–530
advances, 511–512
definition of, 507–509
as genre, 510, 514–516
hardware, 507–508
as instrument, 510
listener’s guide to, 525–529
live, 514
Chiptune scale, 513t
Chomsky, Noam, 534
Chopin, Frédéric
Eternal Sonata (Namco-Bandai), xiii, 167, 173–175
Sonata No. 2 in Bminor, 104
Choreography, 287, 290–293
Chorusing, 520–521
Chouinard, Marie, 15–16, 20
ChucK (Wang and Cook), xi, 57–58
Cinematic experience, 140–143
Civilization IV (Firaxis Games), xiii, 144
Clapton, Eric, 328
Clarke, Andy, 186
Clausen, Alf, 372
Clift, Stephen, 252
CLOSED project, 535
Closure, organizational, 367–368
Cluster technique, 544
CNMAT, 553
Codemasters, xiv
Code of Heavy Metal, 173
Cognition
embodied, 5, 186–188, 390
facilitating, 69–71
learner, 69–71
situated, 187
Cognitive approach, 196–212
Cognitive dimensions of notations, 396
Cognitive information-processing theory, 64–65
Cognitive interactivity, 293
Cognitive load, 65
Cognitive skill, 317–318
Cognitive Walkthrough, 396
Coherence principle, 68–69
Collins, Karen, 119
Commercial games, 446–448. see also Games; specific games
Commercial pressures, 407–410
Commodore 64 (C64), 510–511, 518–519
Commodore SID chips, 507–508, 514
Commodore Vic 20, 525
Commodore Zone, 512
Communication
classification of, 69–70
instructional, 67–68, 67t, 76
Communication theory, 65–68
Compactness, 536
Competitions or compos, 513
Complex sinusoid, 460
Componential theory of creativity, 389, 389f
Composed instruments, 306
Composers, 48–50
Composers Desktop Project, xi, 52
Composition, 372
algorithmic, 50–51 (see also Generative audio)
chiptune, 516–525
computer music, 272–273
designing for, 48, 49f
external agency for, 50–51
film audio, 267–268
game audio, 267–268
live electronic preparation, 550–551
open-form, 49–50
play as, 47–48
resources for, 564–566
sound toy technologies for, 57–59
studio-based, 545
techniques for, 85–88, 564–566
Compositional forces, 48, 49f
Computer games, 46. see also Games; specific games
acoustic ecologies of, 181–195
interactive sound in, 443–456
Computerized instruction, 63
Computer music composition, 272–273
Computer music interaction, 391–392
Computer Music Tutorial (Roads), 548
Conception: techniques for, 85–88
Concert music, electroacoustic, 299–314
Conductor model, 306–307
Conrad, Tony, 19
Contextual design, 537
Continuator (Pachet), 354
Contra 3: The Alien Wars (Konami), xiii, 120
Control hardware, 561–562
Control tools, 557–558
The Conversation, 485
Conversation theory, 73
Convolution, DFT-based, 463, 465f
Convolution-based reverberation, 274
Cook, Perry, xi
Coop-mode, 176n4
Cope, David, 310, 353–354, 565
COST-SID project, x
Coupling
structaural, 369–370, 369f, 378f
structural, 368, 368f
Cover, Rob, 3
Cowell, Henry, 544
CPU (central processing unit), 274
Cracking introductions or cracktros, 513
Creation hardware, 561–562
Creation tools, 557–558
Creative challenges, 482–488, 494–496
Creative Labs, 63
Creative process, 388–389, 388t, 389f
Creativity
componential theory of, 389, 389f
definition of, 562
Creepsoft, xiii
“Creepy ambi patch,” 486–487
Cross-domain approach, 95–116
(p. 575) Cross-media, 253
Cross-modal consistency, 224–225
Cross-modal enhancement, 235
Cross-modal mapping, 235
Cross-modal transfers or illusions, 236
Cross-synthesis, 473–474
CryEngine (Crytek), xi, 190
CryEngine3 (Crytek), 150
Crysis (Crytek), xiii, 182
“Crystalline” (Björk), 27
Crytek, xi, xiii
Csound API, 457
C-trix, 512
Cubase (Steinberg), xi, 406–409, 411–412, 415–416
Cues
artificial, 241
auditory, 241
visual, 301
Current trends, 276–277
Curtis (The Strange Agency), xi, 273
Cyan, xiv
Cybernetics, 365–366, 373–377, 374t, 377–379
Cyclical Flow (Dolphin), 55
Cycling ’74, xi
Cypher (Rowe), 308
DAFx (Digital Audio Effects) conference, 348
Daisyphone, 46
Dalai Lama, 365
Dance, 287, 295
Dance Central (Harmonix), xiii, 175, 283–298, 296n2
Dance Central 2 (Harmonix), 283–284, 284f
Dance Central 3 (Harmonix), 283–284
Dance Dance Revolution, 167, 175
“Dancing in real life,” 293–294
Danish Company Katapult, 33
Data mining, 354
DAT players, 86–87
Davida, Dena, 295
Davies, Stephen, 420
Dead Space (EA), xiii, 486–487
Death March (Chopin), 104
Dematerialization, 19, 27
Demonstrations or demos, 513
Demor (Blendid), xiii, 275
Dérive Entre Mille Sons (Herber), 374, 374t, 375t
Desert Falcon (Atari), xiii
Design. see also Sound design
AMEE framework, 426–428
contextual, 537
with dynamic sound, 69–74
for functional fit, 202–204
“good enough,” 536
instructional, 69–74
for interactive musicking, 257–259, 258f
of interactive sound models, 333–349
for interactivity and adaptation, 425–435
location-aware, 273–276
for narrative fit, 201–202
separation of, 535–536
sonic interaction design (SID), 241–243
sparse goals, 536
techniques for, 85–88
for virtuosity, 392–396
Detector sinusoid, 460
Dialog
as category of sound, 481
critical, 481–482
Diegetic sounds, 183, 197–198
Digger (Windmill), xiii, 103–104
Digis (sampled sound), 508, 519
Digital Audio Effects (DAFx) conference, 348
Digital audio workstation (DAW), 8, 160, 390, 398–399
commercial pressures, 407–410
definition of, ix
development of, 406–412
real-time collaborative, 563–564
technical constraints, 410–412
Digital musical instrument (DMI), 303, 305
Digital music notations, 387–404
Digital music systems, interactive, 315–332
Digital natives, 305
Digital Performer (Motu), xi, 406–408, 411
Digital signal processing (DSP), ix, 120, 128, 447, 548
Dimensions (RealityJockey), xiii, 274, 276
Dine, Jim, 17–18
Dioxide Dissolves (Dolphin), 55
Discrete Fourier transform (DFT), 447, 460–462
applications, 462–464
frequency points, 461–462, 462f
process, 460–461, 461f
short-time Fourier transform (STFT) enhancement of, 465, 466f
spectrum, 462–463
Disney, Walt, 348n1
Disneyland, 348n1
DJs, 305
DJ tools, 417
(p. 576) DLC (DownLoadable Content), ix, 291–292
Dolphin, Andrew, 3, 55
Donald Duck effects, 471
Donkey Kong (Nintendo), xiii, 95, 103, 114
audio example, 107, 107f
breathing rate of subjects listening to, 106–107, 106f
failure melody, 104, 104f, 105–109, 107f, 112
Donkey Konga (Nintendo), xiii, 249
Doors, 72–73
Doppler effect, 275
Double Fine Productions, xiii
“Down,” 287
DownLoadable Content (DLC), ix, 291–292
Down syndrome, 259
Dream worlds, 174
Drive-in Music (Neuhaus), 41–42
“Drop it Like it’s Hot,” 287
Drumpads, 560
Dual-coding, 62
Dual-process theory, 198–199
Duke, Derek, 118, 124–125
Dungeons and Dragons (Wizards of the Coast), xiii, 117
Durity, Gordon, 443
Dynamic audio, 69–74, 152–153
Dynamic mixing, 480
Dynamic morphology, 51
Dyson, Frances, 20
Earcons, 140
Earthbound (Nintendo), xiii
EchoFoam, 355
Eco, Umberto, 41, 46–48
Ecological sound
acoustic ecologies of computer games, 181–195
cross-modal consistency of, 224–225
internal consistency of, 224–225
quality and contents, 223–224
Eddie the Head, 171–172
Editing, 390
Efficiency, 413, 536
Effort, 320
economy of, 322–323
Ego-moving metaphor, 39
Elder Scrolls: Oblivion (Bethesda Game Studios), xiii, 204
Electrical Walks (Kübich), 267
Electroacoustic concert music, 299–314
Electroacoustic transducers, 90
Electrodermal activity (EDA), 191–192
Electroencephalography (EEG), 184, 192, 357, 422
Electromyography (EMG), 184, 191–192
Electronica, 544–545
Electronic Arts (EA), xiii, xiv, 171–173, 560–561
Electronic audio, 544–545
Electronic preparation, live, 541–556
Electronic processing, 548
Electronics, 555
Electronic score, 551
Electroplankton (Indieszero), xiii, 46–49, 51, 55, 57–58, 60n3
Embodied cognition, 186–188, 390
Embodied experience, 207
Embodied Virtual Acoustic Ecology (eVAE) model, 189–190, 189f
Embodiment theory, 239–240
Emotion(s)
dual-process theory of, 198–199
and game acoustic ecology, 184–186
learned, 205
by listening and playing, 198
and misattribution, 199–200
and music, 420–423
musical, 206–208
scoring, 372
types expressed in music, 421–422
Emotional impact
of automatically composed music, 419–442
case studies, 435–439
enabling, 433–435, 435t
of game sound, 196–212
of interactive audio, 5–6, 179–279
of music, 208, 421–422
of Pong sounds, 100, 101t
Emotion Mapper (AMEE), 433–435, 435t
Emotion perception studies, 422–423
Encoding, 64–65
Enemy finding (example), 155–156, 155f
Englert, Ben, 312n1
Eno, Brian, 50, 55, 532
Bloom (Eno and Chilvers), 27, 46, 49–50, 374t, 375t
Music for Airports, 83, 374t, 375t
Envelope estimation, 471
Environment(s)
cognized, 186
integrated development environment (IDE), 395–396
interactive music, 260–261
suggestions for, 260–261
technoetic, 364
Environments (Kaprow), 18–19
Epic, xiv, 425
Episodic memory, 65
Epoch (Uppercut Games), xiii, 269
EPROM (erasable programmable read-only memory), 512
Equipment. see also Hardware; Instruments
input-processing-output setups, 89, 90f
live electronic preparation (LEP) setup, 552–553, 553f, 556
Equivocation, 66
Ergo-audition, 451
Ergotic interactions, 320–321
Erickson, Christa, 25–27, 26f, 27
Errors, 413
Error sounds (Microsoft Windows XP)
beating pattern, 97, 98f
dominating frequencies in, 95–96, 96f, 97t
Esposito, Nicolas, 124
Essl, Karlheinz, 532
Eternal Sonata (Namco-Bandai), xiii, 167, 173–175
European Science Foundation, x
Evens, Aden, 370
Event music, 121–122
Exodiegetic sounds, 182–183
Experience(s)
aesthetic, 133
definition of, 131–132
embodied, 207
haptic, 288
as instructional, 72
learning, 72
music-based, 167–177
sonic, 134–136
videoludic, 131–146
Experimental music
first-order systems in, 373, 374t
second-order systems in, 374, 375t
Experiments in Musical Intelligence (EMI) software, 310
Expertise: cycles of, 294–295
Expert systems, 415–416
Exposure, mere, 205–206
Expressionism, 421
Extended Phenotype (Dawkins), 186
eXtensible Music Format (XMF), interactive (iXMF), 490
External agency, 50–51
Exxon Valdez, 24
Eye(s): maximum spatial resolution (contrast sensitivity) of, 236
Eyeball Massage (Rist), 21
Eyetoy (Sony), 444–445
Facebook, 147–148
Factor Oracle, 354
Failure sounds
in Braid, 109
Donkey Kong melody, 104, 104f, 105–109, 107f
error sounds (Microsoft Windows XP), 95–96, 96f, 97, 97t, 98f
laughter, 113
in Pong, 98–103, 101f, 101t, 102t, 103f
Super Mario World melody, 104, 104f, 105–109
Falcon (Novint), 444–445
Fallout : New Vegas (Bethesda Game Studios), xiii
Family musicking, 257, 258f
Famitracker (jrs), xi, 508–509, 520
Far Cry 3, 446
Farnell, Andy, 446, 450
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), 418n1, 447, 462–463
FFT analysis, 567
real FFTs, 465
Fauna plug-in (Xoxos), 567
FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) models, 341, 343–346
Fear emitters, 486–487
Feedback, 157, 158f, 390–391, 482
biofeedback, 191–193
direct and immediate, 397
interactive auditory, 240
musical, 150
tactile-proprio-kinesthetic (TPK), 304
timing of, 393, 394t
visual, 238–239
Feelings. see Emotion
Les féeries, 137
Fiebrink, Rebecca, 355
Field recordings, 545
Fields of Indigo (IAWA/FI), 374–377
Fiero states, 148
Figures of interactivity, 138–139
Film audio composition, 267–268
Film-making, 158
Film studies, 136
Filtering, 142–143, 471–472
Finding the enemy (example), 155–156, 155f
(p. 578) Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) models, 341, 343–346
Firaxis Games, xiii
Firelight Technologies, xi, 489
Fire tributes, 172
First-order systems, 373, 374t
First-person shooter (FPS) games, ix, 182–185, 445–446
Five Angels of the Millennium (Viola), 21
Fixed sounds, 542
Flanging, 520–521
Flo Rida, 291
Flow, 5, 148, 396–400, 398f, 399f, 400f
Flower (thatgamecompany), xiii
Fluency, perceptual, 205–206
Fluxus, 329n1
Fmod (Firelight Technologies), xi, 58, 271, 447, 489, 507
Foley Room (Tobin), 560
Foley sounds, 206, 445–446, 481, 485
Ford, Lita, 172
Form, 35–38
Formalism, 421
Formalized Music (Xenakis), 306
Forty-part Motet (Cardiff), 266
433 ″ (Cage), 364
Fourier transform, 459–460
discrete Fourier transform (DFT), 447, 460–462, 461f, 462–464, 462f
fast Fourier tTransform (FFT), 418n1, 447, 462–463, 465, 567
short-time Fourier transform (STFT), 465, 466f
Fournel, Nicolas, 447–448
Fourth wall, 2
Fox Interactive, xiv
Frank, Eibe, xii
Freestyle dance, 287
Frequency, 459, 460f
Frequency alteration, 469–470
Frequency bins, 465
Frequency estimation, 465–466, 467f
Frequency Modulation (FM), ix
Frith, Simon, 125
Frogger (Konami), xiv, 112
Fruit Farmer (Locomatrix), xiv, 33
Full-motion video, 137–138
Fun, hard, 148
Funcom 2001, xiii
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 422
Functional sound, 200–204
Future directions, 360–361, 417, 498–506
Futurists, 543
FX4, 520
Galerie Iris Clert (Paris), 17
Galway, Martin, 512, 519
Gamasutra, 4
Game audio. see Game sound; Sound(s)
Game audio composition, 267–268. see also Composition
Game Audio Network Guild (GANG), ix
Gameboy (Nintendo), 511, 514–515
Gameboy Advance (GBA), 508
Game mixing, “good,” 481–482
Game music, 160. see also Music
Game musicology, 168
Game music systems, 153, 154f
Gameplay, multidimensional, 103–109
Gameplay gestalt, 169–175
Game realism, 450
Gamers, 144n1
Games. see also specific games
activity games, 169
aesthetic experience of, 133
classic game model, 294
commercial, 446–448
computer games, 46, 181–195, 443–456
coop-mode, 176n4
core features of, 167
designing for music, 147–166
first-person shooter (FPS), ix
Global Positioning System (GPS), 33
handheld, 483
interactive mixing in, 479–497
massively multiplayer online games (MMOs), ix, 117, 119–122, 124–127
massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), ix, 117
object games, 169
production process, 158–159
role-playing game (RPG), x
rule-based systems, 294
videogames, 3–5, 93–177
videoludic, 138
Game sound. see also Sound(s)
acoustic ecology, 181–195
bottom-up appraisal of, 200–201
dual role of, 197–198
emotional function of, 196–212
functional fit of, 200–201
music, 160
(p. 579) musical worlds, 168
narrative fit of, 200–201
procedural audio, 446–448
top-down appraisal of, 205
Game soundtracks, 159
Game studies, 136
Game worlds, 167–168
Gaming, 175
Gamut technique, 35
GANG (Game Audio Network Guild), ix
Garage Band (Apple), xi, 248–249
gAtari, 512
Gattis, Meredith, 34
Gaudreault, André, 136–137
Generative audio, 87–88, 150, 151f, 567
case studies, 435–439
emotional adaptation of, 419–442
Generative music, 565
first-order systems in, 373, 374t
second-order systems in, 374, 375t
Genre, 138
GERMS model (Generative rules, Emotional expression, Random fluctuations, Motion principles, and Stylistic unexpectedness), 108
Gesamtkunstwerk, 161
Gestalt theory, 169–170
Gestural control, 558–561
Gesture, 320
coupling with sound, 338–339
in interactive sound model design, 333–349
as multimodal phenomenon, 334–335
musical gestures, 559
in performer-instrument-listener-audience relationship, 335–336
and sound, 339–340
traditional mechanical gesture transformation technologies, 337–339
in virtual instruments, 339–340
Global positioning system (GPS), 263, 270
Global positioning system (GPS) games, 33
GoatTracker (Öörni), xi, 511
GoatTracker—Stereo, 508, 509f
Godøy, Rolf-Inge, 253
Goldberg, RoseLee, 18
GOMS/KLM, 396
“Good enough” design, 536
Google Android, xi, xii, 270
Google Goggles, 270
Gorillaz, 350
GPS (global positioning system), 263, 270
GPS (global positioning system) games, 33
GPSGames.org, xiv
GPU (graphics processing unit), 274, 277
Grains, 272–273
Grant, M. J., 40–41
Granular (re)synthesis, 567
Graphical user interface (GUI), ix, 58
Graphics processing unit (GPU), 274, 277
Gravis Ultrasound, 525
The Great Solar System Rescue, 63
Greyworld, 28–29
Grisey, Gerard, 544
Guggisberg, Anders, 21
GUI (graphical user interface), 58
Guitar Hero (Harmonix), xiv, 167, 171, 175, 208, 247, 249–250, 285, 287
Gygax, Gary, xiii
Half-Life 2 (Electronic Arts), xiv, 182
Halford, Rob, 172
Hall, Mark, xii
Halo: Combat Evolved (Bungie Studios), xiv, 125
Hamming window, 465, 466f
Handheld games, 483
Hanenbow, 49, 57
Hanning window, 465, 466f
Hansa Gallery (New York), 18–19
Happenings, 18, 23
“Happiness is a Warm Gun” (Beatles), 21
Haptic experience, 288
Harbron, Robin, xi
HardSID4U, 511
Hard sound effects, 481
Hardware, 507–508
chiptune, 511–512
control, 561–562
creation, 561–562
input-processing-output setups, 89, 90f
live electronic preparation (LEP) setup, 552–553, 553f, 556
open source, 563
Harmonix Music Systems, xiii, xiv, 283, 290–291
Harmonization, 432–433
Harrup, Peter, xiv
Harsfalvi, Levente, xi
Harvey, Jonathan, 544
Hayden, Sam, 357, 360
Hayes, Jason, 123, 125
Hayward Gallery (London), 21
Head-related audio rendering methods, 221–222
Head-related transfer function (HRTF), ix, 221–222, 275–276
(p. 580) Health improvement, 247–262
Heart-rate monitors, 495
Heavy Metal, 173
Heidegger, Martin, 318, 379–381
Helicopter gunship (example), 154–155, 154f
Hennion, Antoine, 254
Herber, Norbert, 374t, 375t
Heuristics, 392–396
Hidden Markov models, 355, 424
Historical contextualization, 135
Hocking, Clint, 154
Hoffmann, E. T. A., 174–175
Hollywood sound, 480
Holmes, Geoffrey, xii
Homeostat, 365
Hopsize, 465
Horror survival games, 184
The House (Dine), 17–18
“How’d-they-do-it?” factor, 301
Huag School and Resource Centre (Oslo), 247–248
Hubbard, Rob, 511–512, 519
Human-computer interaction (HCI), ix, 356–357, 387, 393–395
Human-machine interaction, 321–322
Hypermedia, 38
I am Ai, We are Ai (IAWA/FI), 374–377
I Am Sitting in a Room (Lucier), 266
IAWA/FI, 374–377, 376f
Ibbotson, Jerry, 480, 483, 487–489, 493, 496–497
IBM 1500 Tutorial System, 63
I Ching, 35
id Software, xiv
Illusion(s)
auditory, 222–226
cross-modal, 236
of place, 218–219, 222–225, 228
of plausibility, 219, 225–226, 228
Imitation effects, 142
Immersion, 5, 20–21, 169, 185–186
auditory, 220–222
forms of, 216–217
presence as, 216–217
system, 218
Immersive virtual reality, 213–233
I’m Not the Girl who Misses Much (Rist), 21
Implementation, 428
Impulse response, 463
In C (Riley), 374t, 375t
Inception, 271, 561
Indieszero, xiii
Infogrames, xiii
Informatics (University of Oslo), 247–248
Information-processing theory
cognitive, 64–65
instructional implications, 67–68
Information retrieval, 354
Input-processing-output setups, 89, 90f
Installation art, 17–18
Instant Heart Rate (Azumio), xi, 270
Institute for Informatics, 257
Institute of Design (Oslo School of Architecture and Design), 257
Instruction, computerized, 63
Instructional communication
problems in, 67–68, 67t
transmission view of, 76
Instructional design
with dynamic sound, 69–74
with redundancy, 74–76, 75t
with sound, 74–76, 75t
Instructional designers, 63
Instructional technologies, 62–80
Instrumental interactions, 320–321
Instrumental model, 303–304
Instruments, 53–54, 347, 558. see also Equipment; Tools
brass, 370
chiptunes, 510
composed, 306
digital musical instrument (DMI), 303, 305
interactive, 6–8, 281–384
legitimate, 554
performer-instrument-listener-audience relationship, 335–336
virtual, 339–340
virtual studio instruments (VSTi), x, 408
Integrated design approaches, 147–166
Integrated development environment (IDE), 395–396
Integration, 482–485, 494–496
Intelligence
artificial intelligence (AI), ix, 309, 350–351, 360–361
artificial musical intelligence, 360
Intelligent assistance, 415–416
Intelligent Systems, xiv
Interaction(s), 390
audiotactile, 240–241
(p. 581) audiovisual, 237–240
creative, 387–404
with digital music notations, 387–404
embodied, 240
ergotic, 320–321
human-computer (HCI), ix, 356–357, 387, 393–395
human-machine, 321–322
instrumental, 320–321
kinesthetic, 287
live electronic preparation (LEP), 548–549, 551
modes of, 287
with music, 287
skilled, 318
spectator’s perception of, 311–312
Interaction approach, 51
Interactive audio, 545–546, 567
in built environments, 85–88
composition techniques, 85–88
conception, 85–88
definition of, 69, 119
design techniques, 85–88
emotional impact of, 5–6, 179–279
future directions, 498–506
in immersive virtual reality, 213–233
locative approaches to, 31–44
nonmusical techniques, 567
physically based models, 340–346
psychology of, 5–6, 179–279
translocational approaches to, 31–44
Interactive Audio Special Interest Group (IASIG), ix, 160, 490
Interactive auditory feedback, 240
Interactive eXtensible Music Format (iXMF), 490
Interactive Institute, 256
Interactive instruments, 6–8, 281–384
Interactive mixing, 479–497
Interactive music, 119–120, 148
conductor model, 306–307
health potential of, 254–255
improving virtual worlds with, 127–128
instrumental model, 303–304
in MMOs like WoW, 121–122, 125–127
models of, 303
reflexive model, 307–308
suggestions for environments, 260–261
virtual-musician model, 308–310
in virtual worlds, 117–130
Interactive musicking, 247
design for, 257–259, 258f
health improvement with, 255–256
Interactive Nova, 63
An Interactive Poetic Garden (Small and White), 24–25
Interactive sound
in computer games, 443–456
gesture in, 333–349
in practice, 2–3, 13–92
Interactive sound models
example, 451–453
physically based, 340–346
procedurally generated, 451–453
reality in, 336–337
Interactive sound systems
digital music systems, 315–332
multitouch audio systems, 344f
toy systems, 51–52
Interactive spectral processing, 457–475
Interactive timbral practice, 541–556
Interactive video art, 15–30
Interactive XMF (iXMF) working group, 160
Interactivity, 21–27, 50–51, 152–153, 289, 562–563
cognitive, 293
definition of, 2, 561
designing for, 425–435
in electroacoustic concert music, 299–314
figures of, 138–139
integrated design approaches for, 147–166
meta-interactivity, 293
as modularity, 150–152
vs musical structures, 148–152
in performing arts, 7
Intermedialization, 138
Intermedial meshing, 138
Internal consistency, 224–225
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), 114n1
Intersection (Ritter), 266
Intersensory biases, 235
Interviews, 479–497
IntiCreates, xiv
Intimacy, 304, 319
Introduction to Economics, 63
Invertigo (Erickson), 25
IO Interactive, xiv
Ion Storm, xiv
iPhone, 27, 269, 273
iPod Touch, 27
IRCAM, 354, 553
Iris (Levine), 22–23, 27
Iron Maiden, 171–172
IT2NES, 520
It2nsf (mukunda), xi
ITPRA (Imaginative–Tension–Prediction–Reactive–Appraisal) theory, 107
iTunes (Apple), xi, 125
Iwai, Toshio, 46, 48
Iwaniec, Michel, xi
iXMF (interactive eXtensible Music Format), 490
Jazz approach, 566
Jazz Impro-Visor, 565
The Jazz Singer (Warner Brothers), 479
Jensenius, Alexander, 253
Jikoo, xi
Jitter (Cycling), xi, 15, 58, 411
Jitterbox (Barcia-Colombo), 15–16, 16f, 20
Jonas, Joan, 19
“Joule” heart-rate monitor, 495
jsr, xi
Judd, Stephen, xi
Judson Gallery (New York), 17
Jumps, 156–157, 157f
Juul, Jesper, 294
Kai, Toshio, 114
Kaiser window, 465, 466f
Kane and Lynch: Dead Men (IO Interactive), xiv
Kaneoka, Yukio, 114
Kanno, Mieko, 357
Kaprow, Allan, 18–19
Kastbauer, Damian, 143
Katapult, 33
Kaufman, Jake “virt,” 518–520, 523
Keller, Robert M., 565
Kelly, Michael, 489–491, 497
Kenny, Vincent, 378–379
Kepler’s Orrery, 272
Kiefer, Chris, 355
Kilmister, Lemmy, 172
Kimpo Airport, Seoul, 29
Kinaesthetic traditions, 295
Kinect, 175, 220, 283, 304, 444–445, 560
Kinect Play Fit, 495
Kinediegetic sounds, 182
Kinematography attraction, 137
Kirby’s Dream Land 2 (Nintendo), xiv
Kitchen Videotape Theatre, 22
Klein, Yves, 17
Knowledge, tacit, 316–317
Knowledge construction, 73–74
Konami, xiii, xiv
Konami Style, 510, 518
Kondo, Koji, 114, 120
Kotlinski, Johan, xi
Kraftwerk, 510
Kramer, Jonathan, 31
Krannert Art Museum (University of Illinois), 375
Kübich, Christina, 266–267
L.A. Noire (Rockstar), xiv, 203
Lady Gaga, 290
Lagim, Bjørn Arve, 120
Lapicque, Olivier, xii
Laptop music, 305, 326–327
Lateralization, 221–222
Latour, Bruno, 254
Laugh and Peace, 171
Laughter, 113
Laurel, Brenda, 379
Layering, 564
Learnability, 393, 413
Learner cognition, 69–71
Learner knowledge construction, 73–74
Learner motivation, 71–72
Learning
enhancement of, 62–80
LL system, 357–360
multimedia, 68
musical, 353–355
reinforcement, 355
Learning experiences, 72
Leeson, Lynn Hershman, 23–24
Legacy software, 414
The Legend of Zelda (Nintendo), xiv, 118, 150, 167
Legitimate instruments, 554
Leitmotifs, 123
Lennon, John, 21
LEP (live electronic preparation), 541–556
LEP performers, 554
Level Of Audio Detail (LOAD), 446, 536
Levin, Golan, 58–59
Levine, Les, 22–23, 27
Lewis, George, 308, 350
libpd (Pd library), 58, 276
Libraries, pattern, 429–430
Ligeti, 544
“Like a G6,” 287
Linear music, 372
Linløkken, Tor, 120
Lip-syncing, 328
Lisibilité, 136, 144n3
Listener fatigue, 123
(p. 583) Listening
breathing rate during, 106–107, 106f
by choreographers, 290–293
emotion by, 198
heard sounds, 183
joy of self-hearing, 203
LL system, 357–360
moving-listener metaphors, 40
performer-instrument-listener-audience relationship, 335–336
to videogames, 132–134
videoludic, 133–134
Little Sound DJ (LSDJ) (Kotlinski), xi, 514
Live (Ableton), xi
Live chiptune, 514
Live electronic preparation (LEP), 541–556
capturing, 547–548
composition strategy, 550–551, 552f
electronic processing, 548
interaction, 548–549
notation, 555
performance, 552–553
performers, 553–555
projection, 549–550
setup for, 552–553, 553f, 556
source, 546–547
technique, 550f
Live electronics, 543, 554–555
Liveness, 299–314, 328, 390–391, 402n1
Live performance, 300–301
The Living Textbook, 63
LL system, 357–360, 357f, 359f
LOAD (Level Of Audio Detail), 446
Localization, 221–222
Location-aware audio, open form, 271
Location-aware design, 263–279
Location-aware media, 263–265
Location awareness, 268–269
Locative approaches, 31–44
Locative media, 32, 263–265
Locative sound art, 266–267
Locomatrix, xiv, 33
Logic (Apple), xi, 406–407, 411, 414
Lombard effect, 188
London Studio, xiv
Long-term memory, 64
LORNA (Leeson), 23–24
“Low” (Flo Rida), 291, 296
L-System methods, 534
Lucas, Chris, 377
LucasArts, xiv
Lucier, Alvin, 266
Lucier, Mary, 24
Ludiciné (Université de Montréal), 136
Ludic music, 147–166
Luminaria, 51
Lungenflugel (“Lobe of the Lung”) (Rist), 21–22
Lusory attitude, 294
Lynx (Atari), 525
Machine learning, 321–322, 350–363
Machine virtuosity, 325–326
Macintosh, 63
Mac LC, 63
Magee, Wendy, 255
Magic circle, 168–169
Magnetic resonance imaging, functional (fMRI), 422
MagNular (Dolphin), 55
MakeController, 89
Malmö University, 256
Manhattan Bridge, New York, 29
Mark of the Unicorn (Motu), 408
Markov models, 353–354
hidden, 355, 424
Martz, Steven, 488–489, 492, 497
MAS (Motu audio system), 408
Massively multiplayer online games (MMOs), ix, 117, 119–122, 124–127
Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), ix, 117
Mastertronic Group Ltd., xiv
Mastery, soft, 395
Mathews, Max, 339, 417
Maturana, Humberto, 366, 371–372, 381–382
Mawson, Ben, 33
Max4Live, 89, 417
Max/MSP (Cycling ’74), xi, 8, 15, 57–58, 89, 248–249, 304, 388, 409–410, 414–415, 417, 452, 545–546, 563
MnM library, 355
Max Signal Processing (MSP), 411
Maxwell, Jamie, 480, 497
McGurk effect, 237
McLuhan, Marshall, 3
Mead, George Herbert, 309
Meaning
musical, 95–116
situational, 199
supported by psychoacoustics, 95–98
Media arts, 364–384. see also Art(s)
MediaPlayer (Google Android), xi, 270
Mediation, 254
(p. 584) Mélies, George, 137
Memorability, 413
Memory, 64–65
Menu sounds, 193n1
Mercer Arts Center (New York), 22
Meta-interactivity, 293
Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake (Konami), xiv
Metaphorical sounds, 71
Metaphors, 39–42
Metz, Christian, 136
Michael JacksonThe Experience (Ubisoft), xiv, 175
Mickey Mousing, 126
Micro scores, 150–152
Microsoft, xi, xii, xiv, 175, 220, 283, 304, 423–424, 444–445, 495
Microsoft Windows XP error sounds, 95–97, 96f, 97t
Middleware, 160, 271, 447, 489, 536
MIDI (musical instrument digital interface), ix, 152, 255, 271
MIDI foot pedals, 553
MIDI instruments, 390
MIDI Manufacturers Association, 490
Midway, 371
Miku, Hatsune, 350
Milli Vanilli, 328
Mimicry, affective, 207
Minella, Lani, 289
Minesweeper, 204
MiniMoog (Arturia), xi
Minute War, 33
Mirror neurons, 207
Misattribution, 199–200
Mister Beep, 517
Mi Vida Loca, Spanish for beginners (BBC Languages), xiv, 248–249
Mixed music, 542
Mixing
dynamic, 480
“good” game mix, 481–482
interactive, 479–497
MNEMONIC DEVICES: See/Saw (Erickson), 25
Mnemonics, spatial, 34
Mobile Csound Platform (MCP), 457
Mobile platforms, 268–269
Mobile Urban Drama project, 33
Modality appropriateness, 239
Modality precision, 239
Modality principle, 68
Mode: choice of, 433
Models
FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) models, 341, 343–346
hidden Markov models, 355, 424
of interactive music, 303
of interactive sound, 333–349, 451–453
Markov models, 353–354
realistic procedural models, 449–451
string models, 343–344
Modularity, 150–152
Monaco Dance Forum, 15–16
Monty on the Run (Harrup), xiv
Moog, xi, 53f
Moore, Richard, 304
Moorman, Charlotte, 23
Morphing, 473–474
Morse, Margaret, 22
Motif, 487
MotifGenerator (AMEE), 431–432
Motion-situations, 39
Motivation, 71–72
Motörhead, 172
Motoric behavior, 443–456
Motu (Mark of the Unicorn), xi, 408
Movement, 366–373
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 431, 431f
MP3-quality audio, 446–448
MSP (Max Signal Processing), 411
MTV Unplugged, 328
MUD (Trubshaw and Bartle), xiv, 117
mukunda, xi
Mullan, Eoin, 446, 450
Multidimensional gameplay, 103–109
Multimedia learning, 68
Multimodal environments, 234–246
Multisensory musicality, 283–298
Mumma, Gordon, 350
Murail, Tristan, 544
Museum of Modern Art (Stockholm), 252
Music
acousmatic, 542
adaptive, 152–153
algorithmic forms, 152, 153f
automatically composed, 419–442
beeper, 517
as behavior, 366–373
(p. 585) categories of, 35, 37
as category of sound, 481
cellular forms, 150, 151f
as core feature, 167
designing games for, 147–166
dynamic, 152–153
electroacoustic concert music, 299–314
emotional impact of, 420–423, 433–435, 435t
enabled by machine learning, 353
event music, 121–122
experimental, 373–374, 374t–375t
as field of relations, 40
first-order systems in, 373, 374t
flow systems, 396–400, 398f–400f
form in, 35–38
game music, 153, 154f, 160
gestural control of, 559–561
health improvement effects of, 247–262
interactive, 117–130, 148, 254–255, 303
interactive digital systems, 315–332
interactive spectral processing of, 457–475
jazz approach to, 566
kinesthetic interaction with, 287
laptop music, 326–327
machine learning and, 351–353
in media arts, 364–384
metaphors for, 39–42
mixed, 542
as movement, 366–373
1-bit, 516–517
ornamental forms, 150, 151f
parallel forms, 150, 151f
performance-based production of, 389–390
“plugged,” 556
pop music, 150–152
second-order systems in, 374, 375t
serial, 40
skill in, 317–318
source, 546–547
spectral, 544
structure in, 35–38, 148–152
tape, 542
techniques for variation, 120–121
in technoetic arts, 364–384
time-based qualities, 249
tracker, 516, 522–525, 524f
transitional forms, 150, 151f
videogame music (VGM), 508
virtual, 360–361
World of Warcraft, 118–119, 122–125
worlds of, 167–177
zone, 121
Musical emotions, 206–208
Musical feedback, 150
MusicalFieldsForever, 249, 252, 256
Musical gestures, 559
Musical ideas, 336
Musical instrument digital interface (MIDI), ix, 271, 390, 553
Musical instruments. see Instruments
Musicality, multisensory, 283–298
Musical learning, 353–355
Musical meaning, 95–116
Musical mediation, 254
Musical scores, 150
Musical sketches, 389
Musical taste, 422
Musical timbres, 544–545
Music-based experiences, 167–177
Music-based gameplay gestalt, 170–175
Music composition, 272–273. see also Composition
Music environments, interactive, 260–261
Music for Airports (Eno), 83, 374t, 375t
Musicians
harmonizing between, 432–433
live electronics musicians, 554
virtual musicians, 308–310, 350–363
Musicianship, 325
Music-induced reality, 175
Music information retrieval (MIR), ix, 354
Music interaction, 391–392
Musicking, 59, 247, 253–255
family, 257, 258f
interactive, 247, 255–259, 258f, 259
Music macro language (MML) (Jikoo), xi, 511, 518
Music notations, digital, 387–404
Music of Changes (Cage), 35–37
Musicology, game, 168
Music software. see also Software
development of, 405–418
procedural audio in, 446–448
usability in, 412–416
Music therapy, 250, 260
Musique concrète, 50–51, 544–545
Musique d’ameublement, 83
MySong (Microsoft Research), xi
MySong (Simon, Morris, and Basu), 423
Myst (Cyan), xiv
Nakahara, Masataka, 492
Namco-Bandai Games, xiii, xiv, 173–175
Nana On-Sha, xiv
(p. 586) Nanoloop (Wittchow), xi, 508
Narrative sound, 200–202
Narrowing, 188
Natsume, xiv
Naughty Dog, xiv, 140–143
Nauman, Bruce, 19
NBA Live 95 (EA), xiv
Need for Speed (EA), xiv, 446
Nerdtracker (Iwaniec), 518
Nerdtracker II (Iwaniec), xi
Net_Dérive, 271
Network mapping, 355
Neuhaus, Max, 41–42
Nevitt, Barrington, 3
New instruments, 304–305
New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) conference, ix, 242, 318–319, 348
Ng, Andrew, 352–353
NHL ‘12 (EA), xiv
NIME (New Interfaces for Musical Expression) conference, ix, 348, 554
Nintendo, xiii, xiv, 283, 304, 444–445, 495, 508–509, 511
Nintendo 64, 443
Nintendo DS, 60n3
Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), 135, 507–508, 517–518
Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) chiptunes, 519–520
Nokia, 269
Nonarbitrary auditory icons, 140
Nondiegetic sounds, 183
Nonlinear audio, 86–87
Nonliteral sound, 485–487
Nonmusical interactive audio techniques, 567
Non-player characters (NPCs), x, 156, 156f
Norwegian Academy of Music, 247–248, 257
Nostalgia, 124, 508–509
Notations
digital, 387–404
live electronic preparation (LEP), 555
Notifications, 154–156
Novint, 444–445
Nuformer, 29
Number None Inc., xiii
Object behavior, interactive, 536
Object games, 169
Objects
auditory, 239
videogames as, 168–170
visual, 239
Objét sonores, 544–545
Oblique House (Valdez) (Lucier), 24
Ocean without a Shore (Viola), 21
O’Doherty, Brian, 17
O’Donnell, Marty, 120, 125, 487
Offline rendering, 475n1
Ohm Studio, 563–564
Oldenburg, Claes, 17–18
Oliver, Julian, 49
Olofsson, Fredrik, 249, 259
OMax, 350, 354
On a Theme of Hermes (Satsymph), 33
1-bit music, 516–517
“1-bit Symphony” (Perich), 517
Öörni, Lasse, xi
Open form, 2, 47–48, 271
OpenFrameworks (programming language), 89
Open ModPlug Tracker (OpenMPT) (Lapicque), xii, 509, 519–520
Open Sound Control (OSC), 58, 90, 304, 452
Open source hardware, 563
Operation Flashpoint (Codemasters), xiv, 485
Operative: No One Lives Forever (Fox Interactive), xiv
The Operative: No One Lives Forever, 150
Optimal experience, 5
OptiMusic, 254
Orchestration
spatial, 86
vertical reorchestration, 149–150
ORFI, 254
Organizational closure, 367–368
Ornamental forms, 150, 151f
Orpheus, 174–175
OSC (Open Sound Control), 58, 90, 304, 452
Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO), 247–248, 257
Oursler, Tony, 21–22
Outsourcing, 483
Overlap, 66
Oxbourne, Ozzy, 172
Pachet, François, 354
Pac-Man (Namco), xiv, 95, 109–113, 110f, 114
Paik, Nam June, 19, 23, 27
Pajitnov, Alexey, xiv
Paletto, 254
Panel De Pon (Intelligent Systems), xiv
Papa Sangre (Somethin Else), xiv, 275
(p. 587) Paragraph 7 of The Great Learning (Cardew), 374t, 375t
Parallel forms, 150, 151f
Participants, 379
Party (term), 176n4
Patapon (Pyramid), xiv, 175
Pattern libraries (AMEE), 427f, 429–430, 440
PAX East, 286
Peck, Nick, 481, 484–485, 487–489, 497
Perception
auditory, 214–215
in built environments, 82–83
of interaction, 311–312
in location-aware design, 273–276
of sound, 82–83
of sound and space, 273–276
spectator, 311–312
of unheard sounds, 191–193
Perceptual fluency, 205–206
Performance, 347
authentic, 327–328
and interactive instruments, 6–8, 281–384
live, 300–301
live electronic preparation (LEP), 552–553
Performance art, 18–19
Performance-based music production, 389–390
Performative (term), 161n2, 176n2
Performative space, 170
Performer-instrument-listener-audience relationship, 335–336
Performers, 319–323
live electronic preparation (LEP), 553–555
live electronics musicians, 554
real, 336–337
Performing arts, 7
Perich, Tristan, 517
Perlman, Itzhak, 333
Perturbations, 367–368, 371–373
Pfahringer, Bernhard, xii
PGMusic, xi
Phase, 459, 460f
Phase vocoder (PV), 464–469, 467f
Phenomenological concerns, 535
Phonological aspects, 102, 102t
Phonomnesis, 188
Phya (Menzies), 48
Physically based models, 340–346
Pip and pop effect, 238–239
Piracy, 512–513
Pitch(es), 431–432
Pitch shifting, 469–470
Place illusion, 218–219, 222–225, 228
Planning, 317–318
Plasticity, 536
Platformers, 149
Plausibility illusion, 219, 225–226, 228
Plausible impossible, 340, 346–347
Play
as composition, 47–48
emotion by, 198
sound toys, 45–61
Playback, 89–90, 492
Players, 144n1, 379
Playfulness, 320
PlayStation (Sony), 171, 443
PlayStation 3 (Sony), 135
PlayStation Move, 444–445
Please turn on your cellphones (Englert), 312n1
Le Plein (Arman), 17
Plogue Bidule (Plogue), xii, 417
Plogue Chipsounds, 510
Plucked effects, 523
“Plug and play” solutions, 89
“Plugged” music, 556
Plug-ins, 447, 490
Poiēsis, 381
Polish school, 544
Pong (Atari), xiv, 95, 98–103, 100f, 101f, 101t, 102t, 103f, 181
Pop music, 150–152
Pop Tones, 435–436, 436f
Portal 2 (Valve Corporation), xiv, 149–150
Positron emission tomography (PET), 422
Pousseur, Henri, 47
Preferences, 421–422
Preparation, live electronic, 541–556
Presence, 169, 264
auditory factors, 222–225
concept of, 214–215
definition of, 213–214, 264
as immersion, 216–217
in immersive virtual reality, 213–233
in live performance, 301
as medium as social actor, 217
as realism, 216
as social actor in a medium, 217
as social richness, 216
as transportation, 216
Presentation, 302
Presentational codes, 70
Prévost, Eddie, 357
Primary transactions, 16–17
(p. 588) Procedural audio, 52, 87–88, 444–445
in commercial games and production tools, 446–448
concepts, 533–537
form of, 534–535
key concepts, 535–537
key theories, 450
as palette of content, 532–533
phenomenological concerns, 535
philosophies, 533–535
principles and practice, 535–537
process of, 535
rationale for, 448–449
signature process, 536
structure of, 534–535
theory and practice, 531–540
where to apply, 445–446
Procedural media, 532
Procedural models, realistic, 449–451
Processing, 89–90
input-processing-output setups, 89, 90f
real-time, 475n1
Processing (programming language), 89
Production process, 158–159
Production schedules, 487–488, 494–496
Production tools, 446–448. see also specific tools
Productivity, 316
Programming examples, 462–464
Projection, 549–550
Project Zero (Tecmo), xiv, 204
Prolixus (Schneider), 27–28, 28f
ProTools (Avid), xii, 8, 406–409, 411, 489
Psychoacoustics, 95–98, 273, 535
Psychology, 5–6, 179–279
Public art, 88, 88f. see also specific works
Puckette, Miller, 405, 410
Pulse, 149–150
Pulse response, 495
“Pulsing around Tbilsi,” 88, 88f
Punk, chip, 514
Pure Data (Pd), xii, 57–58, 89, 248–249, 274, 276–277, 409–410, 414, 446, 563
Pyramid, xiv
Q-factor, 452–453
Quake (id Software), xiv
Quake III (id Software), 176n1
Quake III Arena (id Software), xiv, 182
Qualia, 229n1
Quality, 223–224
Quick time events, 157
QWERTY keyboard, 305, 401
Radial basis network mapping, 355
Rafaeli, Sheizaf, 561
Railings (Greyworld), 28–29
Rapid application development, 394
Rasmussen, Steen Eiler, 82–83
Raw Recruit (Mastertronic Group Ltd.), xiv
Reactable (Reactable systems), xii, 248–249, 563
Reactive audio, 86–87
Reactivity, 562–563
Reaktor, 563
Realism
game, 450
presence as, 216
Realistic procedural models, 449–451
Reality
“dancing in real life,” 293–294
in interactive sound models, 336–337
music-induced, 175
RealityJockey, xiii
Real performers, 336–337
Real-time processing, 307–308, 475n1
Real-valued signals, 475n2
Reciprocal perturbations, 368
Recognizr (The Astonishing Tribe), xii, 270
Recording, 551
Rectangular windows, 465
Redundancy, 66, 74–76, 75t
Referentialism, 421
Reflexive model, 307–308
Reflexive music making, 354
Reformat the Planet, 514
Reich, Steve, 36–37
Reinforcement learning, 355
Reinstatement, 205
Remenance, 188
Rendering, 142
offline, 475n1
Reorchestration, vertical, 149–150
Repetition effects, 142
Representational codes, 70
Research
emotion perception studies, 422–423
evidence for sound to enhance learning, 68–69
film studies, 136
game studies, 136
Research Council of Norway, 257
Resident Evil 4 (Capcom), xiv, 119–120, 126
Resistance, 370
(p. 589) Resonating spaces, 184
ResOscope (Dolphin), 55
Resources, 564–566
Response-as-if-real (RAIR), 220, 228
Responsiveness, 234–235
Retro City Rampage (Vblank Entertainment), xiv, 509, 519–520, 522, 522f
Reusability, 425–426
Reutemann, Peter, xii
Reverberation, 274
Reward, intrinsic, 397
Reybrouk, Mark, 169
RHYME project, 247–248, 252–253, 256–257
Rhythm action games, 161n2
Ricketts, Rowland, 374
Ricoh 2a03 sound chips (Nintendo), 507–508
“Riders on the Storm” (Doors), 72–73
Riggs, Derek, 171–173
Riggs, Eddie, 171–172
Riley, Terry, 17, 374t, 375t
Ring tones, 438–439
Rist, Pipilotti, 21–22
Ritter, Don, 266
RjDj, 46, 57–58, 271, 276
Roads, Curtis, 548
Rock Band (Harmonix), xiv, 167, 285, 287
Rockstar, xiv
Roland Sound Canvas, 525
Role-playing games (RPGs), x, 176n4
massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), ix, 117
Rolvsjord, Randi, 260
Rosenbach, Ulrike, 19
Rowe, Robert, 308, 355
RPG games. see Role-playing games
RTAS (real time audio suite), 408
Rule-based systems, 294
RUMR system (Electronic Arts), 560–561
Rune, Glen, xii
Russolo, Luigi, 543
Ruud, Even, 252–253, 260
Sagittaria sagitufolia, 372
Sakuraba, Motoi, 173
Salisbury Cathedral Choir, 266
Saltz, David, 38
Sample-based systems, 152
Sampled sound (digis), 519
Sándor, Teli, 511
Satisfaction, 413
Satsymph, 33
Saving Private Ryan, 485
Scambi, 47
Scelsi, Giacinto, 544
Scenography, 81
acoustic, 82–84, 90–91
Schaeffer, Pierre, 302, 542
Schafer, R. Murray, 82–83, 545
Schechner, Richard, 16–17
Scheduling, 487–488, 494–496
schismatics II (Hayden), 357
Schloss, Joseph, 295
Schneemann, Carolee, 19
Schneider, Andrew, 27–28, 28f
School of Arts and Communication (Malmö University), 256
Scores, 372
acoustic, 551
electronic, 551
micro, 150–152
musical, 150
Sculpture, video, 15
Seaman, Bill, 379
Search (Erickson), 26–27
Second-order systems, 373–374, 375t
Secret of Monkey Island (LucasArts), xiv
Sega Genesis, xiii
Self-hearing, 203. see also Ergo-audition
Self-supervising machines, 356
Semantic memory, 65
Semantics, 423
Sensorimotor contingencies, 218
Sensorimotor skill, 317–318
Sensory integration, 239
Sensory memory, 64
Serial music, 40
Setups
input-processing-output setups, 89, 90f
live electronic preparation (LEP) setup, 552–553, 553f, 556
Shaeffer, Pierre, 543–545
Shatterhand (Natsume), xiv
Shazam, 354
Short-term memory, 64–65
Short-time Fourier transform (STFT), 465, 466f
Sibelius (Avid), xii, 411, 414–415
SID chips (Commodore), 507–508
SID DUZZ’IT (Gallefoss, Rune, and Tjelta), xii, 508
Sid Meier’s Civilization VI, 144
Sidney DeHaan Research Centre for Arts and Health, 252
Signal processors, 558, 567
(p. 590) Signature process, 536
Silent Hill (Konami), 204
Silent Hill III (Konami), xiv, 201
Silicon Ice, xiv
The Simpsons, 372
Simulated strings, 341–342, 342f
Sine Wave (Young), 41–42
SingStar (London Studio), xiv, 249
Site-specific media, 32–35
Situated cognition, 187
Situational meaning, 199
Sketches, musical, 389
Skill
as actionable knowledge, 316–317
cognitive, 317–318
critical, 325
definition of, 315–317
in interactive digital music systems, 315–332
in music, 317–318
sensorimotor, 317–318
social construction of, 326–327
with technology, 318
Skill acquisition, 318
Skill-based behavior, 318
Skill development, 316, 318, 388
Skyhook, 270
Slayer, 172
Small, Christopher, 39–40, 253
Small, David, 24–25
Smalley, Dennis, 52
Smartphones, 276–277, 312n1
Snake (Nokia), 269
SNES, 508
Snibbe, Scott, 27
Soft mastery, 395
Software, 563–564
categorization of, 406
chiptune, 511–512
criteria for user-friendly interfaces, 413
development of, 405–418
legacy, 414
music, 405–418
music production software, 446–448
usability in, 412–416
Solo (Chadabe), 306
Somethin Else, xiv
Someya, Kazutaka, 492
Sonata in A major, K331 (Mozart), 431, 431f
Sonata No. 2 in Bminor (Chopin), 104
Songsmith (Microsoft), xii, 412, 423–424
Sonic Advance 3 (Sonic Team), xiv
Sonic City, 267
Sonic effects, 136, 139–140
Sonic experience, 134–136
Sonic interaction design (SID), x, 241–243
Sonic interactions, 234–246
SonicNotify, xii, 270
Sonic Team, xiv
Sonic Wire Sculptor, 46
Sonification, 50–51
Sonoristic techniques, 544
Sony, xi, 135, 444–445
Sony Computer Entertainment, 140
Sony Computer Entertainment Europe (SCEE), 447–448
Sørlie, Morten, 120
Sound(s). see also Audio
acoustic properties of, 205–206
background, 481
of being there, 213–233
in built environments, 82–83
categories of, 481
Commodore 64 (C64), 518–519
components of, 458–459, 460f
definition of, 193
diegetic, 183, 197–198
dynamic, 69–71
ecological, 181–195, 223–225
effects on physical behavior, 453–454
to enhance learning from instructional technologies, 62–80
error sounds, 95–96, 96f, 97, 97t, 98f
exodiegetic, 182–183
of failure, 98–103, 101f, 101t, 102t, 103f, 113
fixed, 542
Foley, 206, 445–446, 481, 485
functional, 200–204
game, 196–212
gestural control of, 559–561
gesture and, 339–340
heard, 183
Hollywood, 480
instructional design with, 74–76, 75t
integration of, 482–485, 494–496
interactive, 13–92, 443–456
kinediegetic, 182–183
menu sounds, 193n1
metaphorical, 71
MIDI, 271
as motif, 487
and motoric behavior, 443–456
musical, 559–561
narrative, 200–202
nondiegetic, 183
organic coupling with gesture, 338–339
perceiving, 82–83
perception of, 273–276
quality and contents, 223–224
roles of, 141–142
sampled (digis), 519
source, 546–547
spectrum of, 458
storytelling power of, 494–495
of success, 98–103, 100f, 101t, 102t, 103f
supradiegetic, 183
telediegetic, 182–183
traditional thinking about, 64–66
transdiegetic, 182–183
unheard, 191–193
use of, 64–66, 68–69
and videoludic experience, 131–146
in virtual instruments, 339–340
Sound and Music Computing Research, 242
Sound art, locative, 266–267
Soundbeam, 254–255
SoundBlaster sound card, 63
Sound clouds, 544
Sound design
aesthetic concerns in, 270–272
for built environments, 83
examples of, 485
location-aware, 263–279
outsourced, 483
Sound Designer, 407
Sound field-related delivery methods, 220–221
Sound-file triggering, 307–308
Sound Forge, 411
Sound Garden, 374
Sounding Object project, 535
Sound models
interactive, 333–349
interactive procedurally generated example, 451–453
Sound objects, 140
SoundPool (Google Android), xii, 270
Soundrop, 46
Soundscapes, 50–51, 82–83, 140, 545
SoundSeed, 447
Sound Studies, 82–83
Sound Tools, 407
Sound toys, 45–61
classification of, 53–54, 53f, 54–55
definition of, 50, 53–54, 59n1
interactive systems, 51–52
structural model for, 55–57, 56f
time scales in, 51–52
soundtoys.net, 59n1
Soundtrackers, 400
Soundtracks, 159, 482
fixed, 542
SoundWalk, 268
Soundwave data, 190
SoundyThingie, 46
Source sounds or music, 546–547
Space(s)
perception of, 273–276
resonating, 184
Space Invaders (Midway), 371
Space Manbow (Konami), xiv
SPARK (SCEE Procedural Audio Real-time Kernel), 447–448, 450
Sparse design goals, 536
Spatial audio, 220
Spatial mnemonics, 34
Spatial orchestration, 86
Spatial properties, 222–223
Spatial reconfiguration, 15–30
Speakers, 90
Spectators, 311–312, 322–325
Spectral analysis, 458–464
Spectral delays, 471–473, 472f
Spectral manipulation, 469–474
Spectral music, 544
Spectral processing, interactive, 457–475
Spectromorphological thinking, 52–53
Spectromorphology, 52
Speech, Pac-Man, 109–113, 110f
Spem in alium (Tallis), 266
SpiralSet (Dolphin), 55
Splinter Cell (Ubisoft), xiv
Splinter Cell: Chaos Theory (Ubisoft), 149–150
Spontaneous variability, 300–301
Spore (EA), xiv, 446
SSX (EA), xiv, 447, 560–561
Stage theory, 388, 389f
Standardization, 492–494, 496
Standardization tools, 488–494
Stanford University, 352–353
Starcraft II (Blizzard), xiv, 204
Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare), xiv, 143
Steinberg, xi, xii, 408
Stems, 564
Stensath, Karette, 260
Stockhausen, Karlheinz, 17, 554
The Store (Oldenburg), 18
Storytelling, 494–495
Stowell, Dan, 535–536
(p. 592) The Strange Agency, xi
Strategy games, 144
Streaming, 468–469
Stream of Consciousness (Small and White), 24–25
The Street (Oldenburg), 17
String equations, 341–343
String models, 343–344
Strings
ideal, 343
simulated, 341, 342f
Structaural coupling, 369–370, 369f, 378f
Structural coupling, 368, 368f
Structural determination, 370
Subjectivity, 535
Success sounds: in Pong, 98–103, 100f, 101t, 102t, 103f
Suderburg, Erika, 17
Sumo Digital, xiii
SuperCollider, xii, 57–58, 259, 388, 545–546
Super-expressive voice theory, 207
Super Mario 64 (Nintendo), xiv, 120
Super Mario Bros. (Nintendo), xiv, 119
Super Mario World (Nintendo), xiv, 95, 103–104, 104f, 105–109, 114
Supradiegetic sounds, 183
Symbian operating system, 269
Synaecide (Chris Vik), 560
Synchresis, 202
Synchronization points, 134
Synchronization problems, 542–543
Synchrony, 202
Syntax, 70
Synthesizers, 340, 370
System bugs, 508–509
System for Dramatic Feedback (Oursler), 21–22
System immersion, 218
Systems of musical flow, 396–400, 398f
example archetypes, 398, 399f
interaction issues highlighted by, 398, 399f
real-world examples, 398–400, 400f
Tactile-proprio-kinesthetic (TPK) feedback, 304
Taito, xiii
Take Me by the Hand (Mawson), 33
Tallis, 266
Tangibility, 320
Tape music, 542
Tartini effect, 188
Taste, musical, 422
Taxonomy of real-time Interfaces for Electronic Music performance (TIEM), 561
Tbilisi, Georgia, 88, 88f
Technē, 381
Technical challenges, 482–488, 494–496
Technical constraints, 410–412
Technical implementation, 88–90
Technical mediation, 254
Techniques, 8–9, 385–475, 564–566
Technoetic arts, 364–384
Technology, 8, 318, 379–380
sound toy, 57–59
traditional mechanical gesture transformation technologies, 337–339
Tecmo, xiv
Telediegesis, 183
Telediegetic sounds, 182–183
Tenacious D, 172
Testament, 172
Tetris (Pajitnov), xiv, 204
Texturing, 174
thatgamecompany, xiii
Theremin, 334, 338–339, 347
Theremin, Leon, 338
Thermostat, 365
Thief: Deadly Shadows (Ion Storm), xiv, 274
Third-order systems, 373–379, 378f
Thom, Belinda, 355
Thom, Randy, 4
Thompson, Chanel, 292
Thresholds, 154–156
THX logo, 493
TIEM (Taxonomy of real-time Interfaces for Electronic Music performance), 561
Timbre(s)
acoustic, 546
as dominant factor, 545
interactive practice with, 541–556
musical, 544–545
non-musical, 544–545
Time: metaphors for, 39–42
Time frames, 465
Time-moving metaphor, 39
Time scales, 51–52
Time’s landscape metaphor, 39
“Times of Lore,” 512
Time-stretching, 415
Timing, 156–157, 393, 394t
Tjelta, Geir, xii
Tobin, Amon, 560
Tom Clancy’s EndWar (Ubisoft), xiv, 149–150
Tools, 8–9, 160, 385–475. see also specific tools
control tools, 557–558
creation tools, 557–558
overview, 557–558
plasticity of, 536
procedural audio in, 446–448
standardization, 488–494
Top-down appraisal, 205
Torgue, Henry, 136, 139–140
Townshend, Pete, 333, 335
Toys, 45–61
Trackers, 507, 511, 515–516
Tracker songs, 522–525, 524f
Tracker tricks, 520–525, 521f
Tracking, 391
Transdiegetic sounds, 182–183
Transducers, electroacoustic, 90
Transfers or illusions
cross-modal, 236
head-related transfer function (HRTF), ix, 222, 275–276
Transitional forms, 150, 151f
Transitions, 562
Translocational approaches, 31–44
Translocational media, 32–35
Transmission view, 76
Transportation, 169, 216
Trends
current, 276–277
emergent, 416–417
Triangle window, 465, 466f
Triggering audio content, 269–270
Trubshaw, Roy, xiv
Tufvesson, Pex “Mahoney,” 519
Turbine, xiii
Turing, Alan, 309, 534
TV Cello (Paik), 23, 27
2K Boston, xiii
Two-Dimensional Emotion Space (2DES), 424
Ubisoft, xiii, xiv
Uelmen, Matt, 123–124
Umwelt, 186
Uncanny valley hypothesis, 109
Uncharted 2: Among Thieves (Naughty Dog), xiv, 140–143
Uncharted 3: Drake’s Deception (Naughty Dog), xiv, 143, 150, 203
Uncle Roy all around You (Blast Theory), 266
Unconscious process, 205
Unfinishedness, 2
Unheard sounds, 191–193
Unity3D (Unity Technologies), xii, 452, 507
Université de Montréal, 136
University of Illinois, 375
University of Oslo, 247–248, 257
Unplugged (Clapton), 328
Unreal Tournament 2004 (Epic), xiv, 425
Uppercut Games, xiii
Urban Terror (Silicon Ice), xiv, 184
Urbicolous Disport (Ash and Dolphin), 55
Usability, 388, 391–392, 412–416
User-friendly interfaces, 413
Users, 379
Utterback, Camille, 25
VALIE EXPORT, 19
Value, added, 450–451
Valve Corporation, xiv
Van Elferen, Isabella, 168
Varela, Francisco, 366, 371–372
Varèse, Edgard, 543–544
Variability, spontaneous, 300–301
Variable open form, 120
Variation, 120–121
Vasulka, Steina, 19, 22
Vasulka, Woody, 22
Vblank Entertainment, xiv
VCA (voltage controlled amplifier), 338
Ventriloquism or ventriloquist effect, 201, 222–223, 235
VERDIKT program, 257
Vertical reorchestration, 149–150
VGM (videogame music), 508
Vibrato bugs, 508–509
Vib-Ribbon (Nana On-Sha), xiv, 167, 170–171, 175
Vicissitudes (Utterback), 25
Vicon MX, 220
Le Vide (Klein), 17
Video, full-motion, 137–138
Video art, interactive, 15–30
Video Forest (Wells), 29
Videogame music (VGM), 508
Videogames, 3–5, 93–177. see also specific games
as activities, 168–170
intermedialization of, 138
listening to, 132–134
as objects, 168–170
sonic experience of, 134–136
strategies for creating music-based experiences in, 167–177
Videoludic listening, 133–134
Video sculpture, 15
Vik, Chris (synaecide), 560
Viking Ghost Hunt, 271
(p. 594) Viola, Bill, 19, 21
The Violet Crown (Blue Brain), 268
Virtual acoustic ecologies, 181–195
Virtual Acoustic Ecology (VAE) model, 181–182, 184
embodied (eVAE), 189–190, 189f
Virtual body, 219–220
Virtual instruments, 339–340
Virtual music, 360–361. see also Music
Virtual musicians, 308–310, 350–363
Virtual reality, 214
immersive, 213–233
Virtual studio instruments (VSTi), x, 408
Virtual studio technology (VST), x, 408, 417
Virtual worlds, 3–5, 93–177
Virtuosity, 300, 318–319, 325–326, 388, 546
in computer music interaction, 391–392
design heuristics for, 392–396
machine, 325–326
Visibility, 395
Visual cues, 301
Visual feedback, 238–239
Visual objects, 239
Vitality sensors, 495
Vocalizations, celebrity, 504
Vocodors, 345
Voice recognition, 558
Voice theory, super-expressive, 207
Voltage controlled amplifier (VCA), 338
Von Hann or Hanning window, 465, 466f
Vorhandenheit (presence-at-hand), 318, 320
Voronoi segmentation, 355
Vowels, 102, 102t
Voyager (Lewis), 308, 350
Vuser, 379
Walkman, 31–32
Walk with Me (Strijbos and Van Rijswijk), 33
Wang, Ge, xi
Warner Brothers, 479
Wave, 247, 257–259, 258f, 260
Wavelab (Steinberg), xii, 411
“Weak general” products, 321
Wearable Computer Lab, 263
Weka (Hall, Frank, Holmes, Pfahringer, Reutemann, and Witten), xii
Weka library, 355
Wekinator, 355–356
Wellbeing, 253
Wells, Lee, 29
What Shall We Do With The Drunken Sailor?, 104
Wheel of Fortune, 324
Whirl (Erickson), 25–26, 26f, 27
White, Tom, 24–25
White Lion, 172
Whitmore, Guy, 159
Wi-Fi positioning, 270
Wii (Nintendo), 283, 444–445
Wiimote (Nintendo), 304, 452, 560
Williams, John, 421
Wilson, Margaret, 186–187
WIMP (windows, icons, menus, and pointer)-based editing, 390
Windmill, xiii
Windows, 154–156, 465, 466f
Windows, icons, menus, and pointer (WIMP)-based editing, 390
Wishart, Trevor, 52, 55–57, 59
Wittchow, Oliver, xi
Witten, Ian H., xii
Wizards of the Coast, xiii
Working memory, 65
World of Warcraft (WoW) (Blizzard Entertainment), xiv, 117–130
“World soundscape project,” 82–83
Wrath of the Lich King, 123, 125
Wwise (Audiokinetic), xii, 58, 447, 489
Xbox (Microsoft), 283
Xbox 360 (Microsoft), 283
Xenakis, Iannis, 40, 306, 544
Xenon 2Megablast (The Assembly Line), xiv
XMF (eXtensible Music Format), interactive (iXMF), 490
Xoxos, 567
Young, La Monte, 41–42
Young, Michael, 308
YouTube, 118
Zicarrelli, David, 410
Zimmer, Hans, 276
Zimmerman, Eric, 293
Zone music, 121
Zuhandenheit (readiness-to-hand), 318
ZX Spectrum, 517