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date: 26 January 2020

(p. 527) Subject Index

(p. 527) Subject Index

Page numbers followed by f and t in italics refer to figures and tables page numbers respectively

A
“A Little Boy’s Identity Story,” 485, 486b
“A Young Girl’s Identity Story,” 490b
Abad, Pacita, 24
Academic achievement, from multicultural life orientation, 320
Academic performance, childhood socialization in, 355375
bicultural children in, 355
conceptual frameworks in, 356359
development of, 356357
integrated García Coll, for extant research, 358359, 358f
socialization process and self-systems in, 357358
contextualized development in, 356
family socialization and self-system processes in, 359367
integrated model of, 358f, 359
racial/ethnic identity in, 360362
racial/ethnic socialization and academic success in, 363367
racial/ethnic socialization as mediating process in, 362363
minority status in, 356
socio-cultural context, socialization, and identity in, 367374
diversity of racial/ethnic identity and affiliations in, 371372
diversity of settings and discrimination in, 371372
diversity of settings and racial/ethnic socialization in, 372374
fundamentals of, 367368
salience of minority status and ethnic identity in, 368371
Accessibility, 17
in youth identity formation, 337
Accountability, 405
Acculturation
Berry’s scheme for, 59
biculturalism in, 8384
conditions of, 206, 206f
in content analysis of measures, 209
in consumption, 443444
contact in, desire for, 59
content of, 58
contexts of, 58
definition of, 57, 60, 63, 206, 268
expectations for, 101
heritage, 267, 269
history of, 5859
history of study of, 2, 5960
identity perspective on, 58
implications of, 120
intergroup dynamics in, 8082
intergroup relations in, 60
mainstream, 267, 269
majority culture adoption in, desire for, 59
majority group members in, 58
migrants in, 58
models of
bicultural, 5960
bidimensional, 63
interactionist, 60
melting pot vs. salad bowl/mosaic, 5859, 476
orientations to, 206207, 206f
in content analysis of measures, 209
outcomes of, 206f208, 207
in content analysis of measures, 209, 213214
psychological, 205223
social identity in, 60
social-perceptual traits in, 268
Acculturation, identity dynamics of, 5786
for cultural minorities, 7380
bicultural identity integration in, 7880 (See also Bicultural Identity Integration (BII))
threats to cultural identity in, 7478
dimensionality in, 5860
Berry’s four-category scheme in, 59
melting pot vs. salad bowl/mosaic metaphors in, 5859, 476
unidimensional vs. bidimensional, 5960
domains in, 6063
affective, 61
behavioral, 61
cognitive, 61
differences across, 63
identification in, 6263
language in, 60, 61
practices in, 61
values in, 6162
dynamic intergroup process in, 8085
context in, 8082
emergent identities in, 8285
processes of, 6373
among cultural majorities, 67–73 (See also Majorities, cultural, identity processes in)
complex and sophisticated, 64
intergroup relations in, 64
motivated identity construction theory in, 66
self-categorization theory in, 6466
social identity theory in, 64, 6667
Acculturation phase, 267, 268269
Acculturation strategies, 60, 206207, 206f, 269, 277. See also Personality factors
assimilation, 59, 100101, 100f, 258, 265266, 277
integration, 59, 99f, 100, 187, 258, 265, 277
separation, 59, 100f, 101, 258, 265, 277
Acculturation theory, 206208, 206f
Action, taking, 405
Adaptation, 304
cultural, 120
definitions of, 208
Additive integration, 172
Adjustment, multiculturalism and, 6, 300326
acculturation and biculturalism theory and research in, 321323
biculturalism and, 323324
future directions for study of
heritability in, 324
(p. 528) Adjustment, multiculturalism and (Cont.)life-span developmental research in, 324325
qualitative methods in, 325
trustworthiness of quantitative research in, 324, 325t
globalization in intercultural contact in, 301
multicultural orientation to life in, 301302
multicultural personality in, 302305
Ponterotto’s hygiology multicultural personality model in, 304305
Ramirez’s cultural flex model in, 303
Ramirez’s mestizo multicultural personality in, 302303, 304
Van der Zee and Van Oudenhoven’s culturally adaptive success-based model in, 303304
Multicultural Personality Inventory for, 305
Multicultural Personality Questionnaire on, 304
Multicultural Personality Questionnaire on, research with, 305314, 306t310t
in children and adolescents, 312313
collective results of, 305, 311
in college and university samples, 311312
in expatriate and other adults, 312
summary and limitations of, 313314
racial identity development in, 314321 (See also Racial identity development)
Adult-directed speech, on bilingual brain of infants, 41
Advertising, 450453
language in, 450452
other message factors in, 452453
A.E.I.O.U. model, 500
Affective acculturation, 61
Agents of change, counselors as, 403404
Agreeableness, 256
Alienation, bicultural, 421422
Alternating biculturals, 280
Alzheimer’s disease, bilingualism on onset of, 44
Americanization, vs. Westernization, 182183
Analytic Information processing, vs. holistic information processing, 14
Analytical perceptual processes, 22
Angst, existential, 421422
Anticipated consequences, 488
Anxiety, intergroup, 488
Applicability, 17
Appropriateness, 500
Arizona Senate Bill 1070, 464
Assessment. See also specific types
of biculturals, organizational, 432
culturally relevant, conducting, 405
Assessment of acculturation and multiculturalism, 205223. See also specific measures and topics
acculturation theory and, 206208, 206f
challenges in, 222223
choosing instruments in, 222
development of instruments in, 222
psychological multiculturalism in, 217221 (See also Psychological multiculturalism)
public domain measures overview in, 205206, 210t214t, 220t
terminology in, 208
Assimilation, 59, 100101, 100f, 258, 265266, 322, 380
in citizenship education, as goal, 381
definition of, 277
global migration and, 380381
segmented, 7576, 8283
Assimilation policies, 476479
contact hypothesis of, 477478
in France, 477
in Germany, 477
history of, 476
melting-pot, 59, 476
meritocracy in, 479
minority, 476
similarity attraction in, 478479
in U.K.:, 476477
Assimilationist policies, 5859
opposite effects of, 74
Assimilative responses, 21
Associative knowledge structures, multicultural identities as, 229230
Assumptions, cultural, 1314, 13f
Asylum Seekers, 98f, 99
Attachment
secure, 267
styles of, in intercultural success, 260261, 261t, 270
Attitudes
identities and, interconnections among, 239240
multicultural, 107109, 219220
Attraction, similarity, 478479
Attribution
in bicultural Chinese Americans
with high Bicultural Identity Integration, 49
priming on, 18, 37, 49, 152, 230, 283
of cultural significance to intercultural encounter, 190
dispositional, 185
Eastern vs. Western styles of, 279
in East-West biculturals, 279
external
in Chinese, 18
discounting hypothesis on, 169
in East Asians, preponderance of, 279
institutionalized processes on, 368
internal, in Americans, 18
neutrally toned, in conflict communication, 500
for success, 164
Australia, multiculturalism as policy in, 106
Authority, respect for, 405
Automaticity, 229
Autonomy, 144, 256
in identity development, 144145
thwarted, identity denial in, 145146
Availability, 17
Avoiding facework, 493
Awareness
facilitating, 405
integrative, 402
lack of, implicit as, 229
outside of consciousness, in implicit multicultural identities, 229
self-awareness, 345
in counselors, 399401
B
Babbling, bilingualism on, 38
Balanced identity design, 240241
Base language, 45
Behavior
vs. identity, 281
language in bilinguals on, 48
multiculturalism, 220
shared lay theories on, 16, 16f
social, intercultural contact on understanding of, 187
Behavioral acculturation, 61
Behavioral flexibility, for facework competence, 499501
Behavioral reactance, 283
Belonging, threats to, in minorities, 74
Better tomorrow effect, 184
Bias
correspondence, 279
intergroup, intercultural contact on, 189
preparation of, 362
white/Western, in counseling, 398399
Bicultural alienation, 421422
Bicultural identity. See also Biculturalism; Identity(ies), multiple
cultural competencies in, 346347
implicit, 236
orientations based on, in multicultural identity attunement, 494
Bicultural Identity Integration (BII)
in organizations, 420
orientations and strategies in, 494496
bicultural identity-based orientations in, 494
(p. 529) co-culture identity negotiation strategies in, 494495
identity code-switching process strategies in, 495496
Bicultural Identity Integration (BII), on socio-cognition, 276294
antecedents of variations in, 288290
contextual factors in, 290
individual factors in, 288290
individual–contextual factor integrations in, 290291
cultural frame switching in, 282284
ethnic cultures in, going beyond, 288
future directions in, 291294
individual differences in, 281287
cognitive complexity in, 285286
cultural frame switching in, 282284
fundamentals of, 281282, 283f
knowledge bridging and creative performance in, 285
motivation in, 286287
social self in, 284285
integrative model of, 291, 293
literature on, 276278
measurement in, 287
two cultural minds theory in, 278280
Bicultural Identity Integration (BII) model, 5, 37, 172, 323
blendedness in, 79
cognition in, 278279
correspondence bias in, 279
cultural frame switching in, 279280, 282284
in cultural minorities, 7880
definition of, 37
developing, 84
emotions in, 278
harmony in, 79
language in bilinguals on, 49
majority group rejection in, 78
measurement of, 287
motivation, 279
precariousness of, 5960
self-concept and -construal in, 278
shifting identities in, 7980
Bicultural Identity Integration Scale–Pilot Version (BIIS-P), 287
Bicultural Identity Integration Scale–Version 1 (BIIS-1), 287
Bicultural Identity Integration Scale–Version 2 (BIIS-2), 287
Bicultural individuals, 1617
as distinct subgroup, 21
information processing in, 264
vs. multiculturals, 434
youth as, 6
Bicultural mindset, training in, 433
Bicultural profile, 346
Bicultural type, individual differences in, or organizations, 420423
cognitive capabilities in, 421422
innovation in cross cultural settings in, 420
networking in, 420421
Bicultural types, 280
Biculturalism
in acculturation, 8384
as adaptive, 59
assimilation in, 5960
as being in two minds, 278280
complex identities in, 267
definitions of, expanding, 6, 434
examples of, 2
as identity management strategy, 7778
integrated bicultural self in, developing, 84
key arguments about, 434
Padilla on, 347
personality in, 267
as precarious condition, 5960
as strategy, in organizations, 434
Bidimensional acculturation, 5960
Big Five model, 5
intercultural success and, 256, 261t
Bilingual brain, 4, 3553
in adulthood, 4452
base language in, 45
emotion switch in, 5052
language activation in, 4445
personality switch in, 4650
speech perception switch in, 4546
bilingualism in, 36
culture and language in, 37
executive control advantages in, 4244
general conclusions on, 5253
immigrant children learning English and, 3536
in infancy, 3844
issues in, 38
LENA system assessment of, 42, 43b
motherese and adult-directed speech in, 41
neuroimaging of, 41
speech perception and speech production in, 4042
speech production in, 3840, 39f
Bilingual paradox, 38
Bilingualism. See also Language
cognitive advantages in, 4244
on cognitive development, 38
cultural identity in, 36
definition of, 36
on dementia onset, 44
dimensions of, 36
in European Union vs. U.S., 38
on infant brain, 3844 (See also Infancy, bilingualism on brain in)
on language development, 38
monoculturalism vs. biculturalism with, 3637
second language learners in, 36
simultaneous, 36
Black Racial Identity Development model, 302
Black sheep effect, 70
Blended biculturals, 79, 280
Blood quantum, 148
Brain
bilingual (See Bilingual brain)
plasticity of, 2829
cultural, 29
racial/ethnic differences in, 1516, 16f
Branding, 447449
brand characteristics, 447449
brand personality in, 449
product origin in, 449
BRIAS, 314, 316t
Bridging, 495
Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT), 233234
Britishness, 67
Buffering hypothesis, 168170
Buffering strategy, 496
C
California Psychological Inventory (CPI), language of bilinguals on, 47
Cameron, David, 477478, 480
Canada, multiculturalism as policy in, 105106
Canadian Multiculturalism Act, 106
Catalan monolinguals, 44
Catalan-Spanish identity, fused, 281
Categories, intersections in, 163–164. See also Intersectionality theory
Categorization
racial, 26, 140, 147
cognition and, 26
in response to others, 146
self-categorization theory in, 6466
social, in identification, 160162
Change
counselors as agents of, 403404
investigating, 405
Childhood socialization, academic performance and. See Academic performance, childhood socialization in
China
demographic mix in, engineering, 466
hukou system in, 466
Chinese Exclusion Act, 464
Citizenship
multicultural, 380, 381
vs. national identity, 391
Citizenship education, 379–384. See also Education, multicultural
assimilation as goal of, 381
assimilation, diversity, and global migration in, 380381
cultural, national, regional, and global identifications in, 381382, 382f
goals of, 379380
stages of cultural identity in, 382384, 383f
Civic education. See Citizenship education
Co-culture identity negotiation strategies, 494495
Code switching, 38, 495
dynamic cross-cultural, 501
(p. 530) Code-switching process strategies, identity, 495496
Cognition
in bilinguals, 4244
culture on, 278279
intercultural contact on, 187
race-based, 26
racial/ethnic differences in, 1516, 16f
shaping of, 1314, 13f
shared lay theories on, 16, 16f
shared lay theories on behavior and, 16, 16f
Cognitive acculturation, 61
Cognitive and Cultural Flex Theory of Personality, 303
Cognitive capabilities, bicultural type on, 421422
Cognitive closure, need for, 15
Cognitive complexity
bicultural identity on, 285286
cultural, in bicultural individuals, 421
Cognitive opportunities, in intercultural situations, 262264, 266t
Cognitive styles, multicultural exposure on, 28
Collective identities, 120
Collectivism
on consumption, 444445
cultural differences in, 62
Collectivist coping, 406407
Colonization, legacy of, 396
Commitment, neural
in bilingual vs. monolingual infants, 41
language exposure on, 40, 41
word production and, 40
Common Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration Policy in the EU, 107
Communalism, 6162
Communication
adaptability in, 501
identity competence in, future research on, 503
individualism-collectivism on, 263
Community centers, multicultural programs in, 408
Community health centers, multicultural programs, 408409
Comparative fit, 64
Compartmentalization, 281
in multiple social-group identification, 171172
Competition, social, 66
in cultural minorities, 76
Complex identities, 266267
Compound discrimination, 167
Compression, experiential, of time and space, 184, 185
Concordance model of acculturation (CAM), 101
Conflict communication. See Multicultural identity attunement (MIA)
Conflict, cultural, in bicultural identity integration, 170171, 172, 281
Conflict face-negotiation theory, 491494
cross-cultural conflict research and, 492494
development of, 491492
face in, 491
facework in, 491
facework theoretic core assumptions in, 492
Conflict history, intergroup, 487
Conflict research, cross-cultural, 492494
Conflict resolution training (CRT), 500
Connecting, with clients, 404405
Connectivity, 1
Conscientiousness, 256
Consciousness awareness, outside of, in implicit multicultural identities, 229
Consistency, strategic pressures toward, organizational, 423424
Consumers
cultural values of, 438
on culture, 7
multicultural, 439
Consumption. cultural influences on, 439447
acculturation in, 443444
cultural differences in, 444447
individualism vs. collectivism in, 444445
other cultural differences in, 446447
power distance and societal structures in, 445446
risk perceptions in, 446
cultural identity in, 439441, 441f
multicultural perspective in, 441443, 442f
Consumption patterns, 67
Contact
desire for, 59
intercultural (See Intercultural contact)
intergroup, type and frequency of, 487
Contact hypothesis, 104f, 105, 113114, 477478
Content analysis, of measures of acculturation and multiculturalism, 208217
formal item/instrument characteristics in, 215217
age group, 215
number of items, 216
proxy measures, 216
question format, 216217
reliabilities, 215216
response format, 217
subscales, 216
target group, 215
retrieval of instruments in, 208209, 210t212t
theoretical issues in, 209214
acculturation conditions in, 209
acculturation orientations in, 209
acculturation outcomes in, 209, 213214
conceptual model in, 214215
life domains, 214
Content integration, from multicultural education, 385, 385f, 388
Context
in acculturation, 8082
on personality, 266267, 266t
in social identity, 152153
and time, on personality, 267269, 270t
Context-dependent perceptual processes, 22
Context-independent perceptual processes, 22
Contextual shifts, in implicit identity, 241242
Continuity
of minority group’s identity, 74
need for, 70
Contrastive responses, 21
Control
general sense of, 269
locus of, 257258
Cooperative learning, 389390
Coping
collectivist, 406407
intracultural, 405
resources for, 257
strategies of, 66 (See also Identity management strategies)
in intercultural success, 259260, 261t
Coping with Cultural Diversity model, 302
Core self-evaluations, 257258, 261t
Correspondence bias, 279
Cosmopolitan identities, 197198
Cosmopolitanism, 382, 384
Counseling for social justice and multicultural individuals, 6, 396410
colonization and victimization legacy in, 396
competencies in, 399404
assessment, ecological and systemic perspectives in, 402403
counselor self-awareness of white privilege in, 400401
counselor self-awareness of white racial identity in, 399400
counselor self-awareness of worldview in, 399
counselors as agents of change in, 403404
of counselors of color racial identity, 401402
in educational and community settings, 407409
in community centers, 408
in community health centers, 408409
Jernigan’s work on, 407408
(p. 531) future directions in, 410
multiculturalism in, 397399
movement in, 397
theoretical framework for, 397398
vignettes of white/Western biases in, 398399
racism and power differences in, 397
skills in, 404407
collectivist coping in, 406407
indigenous healing in, 405406
Skills Identification Stage Model of, 404405
Counseling professions, multiculturalism in, 397399
CQ, 429
Creative cognition approach, 187
Creative conceptual expansion, 187
Creativity
in bicultural identity integration, 285
essentialist theory of race on, 2728
multicultural experience on, 188189, 196, 264
from multicultural exposure, 29
social, 66
in cultural minorities, 7677
Cricket test, 480
CRIS, 315, 316t
Cross-cultural conflict research, 492494
Cross-cutting superordinate groups, 390
Cross-functional teams, 430
Cultural adaptation, 120
Cultural bridging, in organizations, 429
Cultural clash, 7071
Cultural cognitive complexity, in bicultural individuals, 421
Cultural competencies, 346347
Cultural conflict, 172
in organizations, 428
Cultural difference paradigm, 387
Cultural distance, 172173
Cultural diversification, 99100
Cultural diversity
acceptance of, history of, 59
modern, 1
policies on, 98
Cultural duality, 2
Cultural empathy, 257, 303
in college and university samples, 311
in expatriates and other adults, 312
Cultural flex model, 303
Cultural frame switching, 2627
in bicultural identity integration, 279280, 282284
in dynamic multiculturalism, 1719, 47
essentialist theory of race on, 27
Cultural groups, in multicultural societies, 9899, 98f
Cultural homogenization, 99100
Cultural icons
in cultural priming, 1721, 23, 30
as stereotypes of culture, 30
Cultural identity. See also Racial/ethnic identity
on consumption, 439441, 441f
salience of, 489
stages of, typology of, 382384, 383f
Cultural independents, 422
Cultural integration
in multicultural organizations, 419
training in, organizational, 433
Cultural Intelligence, 429
Cultural intelligence education framework, 502
Cultural intrusion, perception of, 190191, 190f
Cultural invisibility, 167
Cultural learning, 262264
Cultural majorities, identity processes among, 6773
Cultural metacognition, in bicultural individuals, 421422
Cultural minorities. See Minorities, cultural
Cultural pluralism
definition of, 98
multiculturalism as, 9798
cultural groups in, 9899, 98f
definition of, 9798
intercultural strategies in, 99102, 100f (See also Intercultural strategies, in multicultural societies)
Cultural pride, parental promotion of, 363364
Cultural priming, 17–19. See also Dynamic multiculturalism
of biracial people’s racial identity, 152
in frame switching
essentialist theory and, 27
language as prime in, 4749
group-level, 20
of Hong Kong Chinese to Western only, vs. Chinese only, vs. Western + Chinese primes, 194195
on multiracial individuals, 152
on neural activation, 20, 2223
on personality in bilinguals, 49
relational-level, 20
self-concept, behavior, memory, and attributional processes, 152
on self-perceived personality, 49
subliminal, 20
Cultural socialization, 357
Cultural threat, salience of
epistemic security in, 191192
existential security in, 192193
Cultural-deprivation paradigm, 387
Culturally adaptive success-based model in, 303304
Culturally diverse networks, organizational, 419
Culture, 119120. See also specific topics
acquisition of, 13
complex thinking about, 194195
definition of, 6, 13
multi- and cross-level approach to study of, 426
as schema, 427
Culture and cultural processes, dynamic, 1317, 13f
acquisition of, 13
assumptions in, 1314, 13f
bicultural and multicultural individuals in, 1617
cognition and neurological responses in, racial/ethnic differences in, 1516, 16f
definition of, 13
dynamic-constructivist approach in, 17, 19
individualism-collectivism in, cross-cultural comparisons of, 14
Mexican emphasis on family in, 16, 16f
need for cognitive closure in, 15
shared lay theories in, 1415, 15f
shared lay theories in, on cognition and behavior, 16, 16f
transmissions in, 14
Culture shedding, 58. See also Acculturation
Culture shock, 262, 267268
duration of, 267
in Van der Zee and Van Oudenhoven’s model, 268, 270t
Culture-sensitive knowledge, 497
Curriculum materials, research on, 389
D
Deculturation, 193194
Defense strategies, 6667
Dementia, bilingualism on onset of, 44
Demographic mix, engineering perfect, 463467
in China, 466
demographic indicators by country in, 464, 465t
in Europe, 464, 466t
in French immigrants by country of birth, 464, 466t
Galton and eugenics in, 466467
in Japan, 464, 466t
Native Americans in, 480
in South Africa, 466
in Soviet Union, 466
in U.S., 463464, 465t, 480
in U.S., by region of birth, 464, 465t
Demographic-descriptive multiculturalism, 463
Denial, identity. See Identity denial
Differential plasticity, 30
Differentiation, 187
Dimensions typology, 388
for multicultural education, 6, 384389, 385f (See also under Education, multicultural)
Disassociation, 281
Discounting hypothesis, 169
(p. 532) Discrimination, 102
in academic performance, 371372
compound, 167
in identity development, 342344
parental ethnic socialization for mediation of, 362363
Dissonance, 401
Distance, cultural, 172173
Distinctiveness
of minority group’s identity, 74
positive, 69
positive group, 66
Diversification, cultural, 99100
Diversity
costs and benefits of, 425426
global migration and, 380381
policy challenges of, 480
Diversity policy, 135. See also Multiculturalism
Domain specificity, 207
Dominance, 281
Dominating facework, 493
Domination, in multiple social-group identification, 171
Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), 29
Double minority, 101
Double phonetic boundary, 45
Double-jeopardy theory, 164, 165
Dual identity, 2, 130131, 265. See also Identity(ies), multiple
in minority identity, 130131
Dual identity denial, essentialist ideologies in, 147148
Dual identity performance, 125126
Dual labels, 130
Dual-core organizations, 424
Dynamic cross-cultural code switching, 501
Dynamic multiculturalism, 1130
culture and cultural processes in, 1317, 13f (See also Culture and cultural processes, dynamic)
emergent new research directions in, 2830
brain plasticity in, 2829
cognitive styles in, 28
creativity in, 29
gene x environment interaction in, 2930
integrative complexity in, 29
multicultural mind in, 1723 (See also Brain)
cultural frame switching and cultural priming in, 1719, 47
cultural neuroscience of, 15f, 2123
definition of, 12
dynamic-constructivist approach in, 17, 19
situated-cognition approach in, 1920
situated-cognition vs. dynamic-constructivist approach in, 2021
multicultural self in, 2328
definition of, 1213
essentialist theory of race on creativity of, 2728
fundamentals of, 2325
identification with mainstream culture in, 26
lay theory of race in, 25
lay theory of race in, measuring and priming, 2526
race-based categorization and cognition in, 26
switching between cultural frames in, 2627
terms in, 1213
Dynamic-constructivist approach, 17, 19
vs. situated cognition approach, 2021
E
Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), 371
Ecological approach, 144
Ecological assessment schema, developing, 403
Ecological perspectives, on multicultural assessment
in counseling, 402403
developing schema for, 403
Education
citizenship, 379392
assimilation as goal of, 381
assimilation, diversity, and global migration in, 380381
cultural, national, regional, and global identifications in, 381382, 382f
goals of, 379380
stages of cultural identity in, 382384, 383f
cultural intelligence, 502
in identity, 123124
Education, multicultural, 379–392. See also Citizenship education
aims of, 379, 388
benefits of, 384
cooperative learning and interracial contact research in, 389390
cross-cutting superordinate groups in, 390
cultural, national, regional, and global identifications in, 381382, 382f
curriculum materials and interventions research in, 389
dimensions of, 6, 384389, 385f
content integration in, 385, 385f, 388
empowering school culture in, 385f, 388
equity pedagogy in, 385f, 387388
intersection of, 388389
knowledge construction in, 385386, 385f, 388
prejudice reduction in, 385f, 386
stages of cultural identity in, 382384, 383f
student identifications in, complicated, 390391
Education, public, 468469
Effectiveness, 500
Efficacy threats, in minorities, 74
Emergent identities, 8285
Emotion switch, in bilingual adults, 5052
Emotional stability, 257258, 268, 303304
in children and adolescents, 312313
in college and university samples, 311
in expatriates and other adults, 312
Emotional-memory effects, in bilinguals, 5051
Emotions
culture on, 278
facework, future research on, 502503
language and, in bilinguals, 5052
in multicultural experience and creativity, 188189
Empathy, cultural, 257, 303
Empowering school culture, from multicultural education, 385f, 388
Enclaves, ethnic, 77
English language
immigrant children and, 35
as lingua franca, 5253
status of, 37, 38
Entrepreneurs of identity, 73, 77
Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness (EEA) Model, 300
Epistemic security, need for, 191192
Equivalence approach, 143
Essence placeholders, 25
Essentialism, among targets, 149
Essentialist theory of race
on creativity, 2728
on cultural frame switching, 27
in dual identity denial, 147148
Ethnic conflict, 301
Ethnic enclaves, 77
Ethnic groups, 98, 98f, 99
Ethnic identity. See Racial/ethnic identity
Ethnic identity affirmation, 62
Ethnic identity commitment, 62
Ethnic identity exploration, 62
Ethnic identity salience, 489
Ethnic socialization. See Racial/ethnic socialization
Ethnicity, 119120. See also Social psychology, of multiculturalism
definition of, 141
determinants of, 141
racialization of, 359
reactive, 7475, 76, 81
Ethnic-national associations, 240241
Ethnocultural groups, 98, 98f, 99
Eugenics, 466467
European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, 104105
European Union
bilingualism in, 38
(p. 533) demographic mix in, engineering, 464, 466t
multiculturalism in, 135
cultural majorities of, 126
as policy, 107
Event-related potentials (ERPs), in language studies of infants, 4041
Exchange of resources effect, 257, 258f
Exclusion, 100f, 101
Exclusionary responses, 190195
attenuation of
complex thinking about culture in, 194195
deculturation in, 193194
intercultural learning orientation in, 195
openness to experience in, 195197
facilitation of, 190193
perception of cultural intrusion in, 190191, 190f
salience of cultural threat in, need for epistemic security, 191192
salience of cultural threat in, need for existential security, 192193
to global culture, 186187, 186t
Executive control
bilingualism on, 4244
definition of, 42
Existence, 304
Existential angst, 421422
Existential security, need for, 192193
Expatriate couples, personality traits on success of, 257, 258f
Expectations, acculturation, 101
Experience, openness to, 195197
Explicit self-definition, 237239
Extraversion, 256
F
Face, 491, 492
Facebook, 198
Facework
definition of, 491, 493
self-oriented vs. other-oriented, 492
theoretical core assumptions in, 492
types of, 493
Facework competence, behavioral flexibility for, 499501
Facework emotions, 502503
Familiarity, 113
Familism, 6162
Family support, 406
Fatalism, 406
Feedback, 405
Filial piety, 6162
First-generation immigrants, 124
Fit
comparative, 64
normative, 64
5-HTTLPR, 2930
Five-factor model (FFM), in intercultural success, 256257
Flexibility, 257, 304
behavioral, for facework competence, 499501
in children and adolescents, 312
in college and university samples, 311312
in expatriates and other adults, 312
Forbearance, 406
Forced choice dilemmas, 145
Four identity threat types, 488489
Four perceived threat antecedent conditions, 487488
Four Seasons, George V acquisition by, 419
Frame switching, cultural. See Cultural frame switching
France
assimilation policies in, 477
demographic mix in, engineering, 464, 466t
multiculturalism as policy in, 107
Fusion approach, 143
G
Galton, Francis, 466467
Gender, in identities, 124
Gender-Professional Identity Integration (G-PII), 288
Gene–environment interaction, 2930
Generalized self-efficacy, 257
Generational differences, in identity endorsement, 124125
Genetics, 4
Germany
assimilation policies in, 477
cultural diversity management policies in, 472
multiculturalism in, 2
Global community, 301
Global cosmopolitans, 276
Global identifications, development of, 381382, 382f
Global identities, 197198
Global migration, diversity, assimilation, and, 380381
Global nomads, 276
Globalization, 12, 100
on collective identity, 7
cultural aspects of, 181182 (See also Globalization, psychological science of)
cultural views on, 182183
definition of, 181
in intercultural contact, 301
vs. nationalism, 380
on personality characteristics, 255
Globalization, psychological science of, 5, 181199
belonging to multiple cultures in, 182
compression of time and space in, experiential, 184185
dual model of, 186189
exclusionary responses in, 186187, 186t
integrative responses in, 186t, 187189
exclusionary response attenuation and integrative response promotion in, 193197
complex thinking about culture in, 194195
deculturation in, 193194
intercultural learning orientation in, 195
openness to experience in, 195197
exclusionary response facilitation in, 190193
perception of cultural intrusion in, 190191, 190f
salience of cultural threat in, epistemic security in, 191192
salience of cultural threat in, existential security in, 192193
fundamentals of, 182
future directions in, 197199
cosmopolitan and global identities in, 197198
health and social implications in, 198199
media impact and international relations in, 198
joint culture activation effect in, 184186
lay psychology in, 182186
attitudes toward globalization in, 183184
minimal multicultural exposure on perception in, 184186
understanding of globalization in, 182183
living in multiple cultures in, 182
Goal orientation, learning, in intercultural success, 258259, 269270
Goal setting, 405
Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT), 233, 235
Good old days effect, 184
Group distinctiveness, positive, 66
Group identification, 161, 341
group membership in, 160162
Group membership, 160162
Group membership power status, 487
Group process skills, bicultural type on, 422
Groups. See also Intersectionality theory; specific types
cultural, in multicultural societies, 9899, 98f
social, in identification, 160162 (See also Intersectionality theory)
H
Harmony, in bicultural identity integration, 79, 281
Healing, indigenous, 405406
Health
globalization on, 198199
psychological (See Mental health)
Health centers, community, multicultural programs in, 408409
(p. 534) Heritability, in adjustment and multiculturalism, 324
Heritage acculturation, 267, 269
Heritage culture-retention assumption, 473474
Hispanics
acculturation measures for, 211216
advertising language on, 452
classification of, 69, 140
cultural identification of, 62, 63, 65, 83, 84
definition of, 62, 65
U.S. Census, 140
ethnic identity exploration in, 63
machismo in, 124
name categorization by, as Hispanic vs. Anglo-American, 242
as pan-ethnic category, 370
receiving society categorization of, 86
school multiculturalism on achievement in, 364365
in U.S.
Arizona 2009 law on, 82
hostility toward, 68, 70, 7374
immigration debate on, 82
mass migration of, 68, 71
migrants in, 78
prevalence of, 70
who “act American,” 78
Historical invisibility, 166167
Holistic information processing, 14
Holistic perceptual processes, 22
Homogenization, 99100
Honeymoon phase, 268
Hostility
in higher identifiers, 7173
toward cultural minorities, 6768
5-HTTLPR, 2930
Hukou system, 466
Hybrid identities, 443
Hygiology multicultural personality model, 304305
I
Icons, cultural
in cultural priming, 1721, 23, 30
as stereotypes of culture, 30
Identification
cultural
in acculturation, 6263
definition of, 62
development of, 381382, 382f
with mainstream culture, 26
multiple social-group (See Intersectionality theory)
social categorization in, 160162
social-group memberships in, 160162
transnational, 391
Identity(ies). See also Social psychology, of multiculturalism; specific types
attitudes and, interconnections among, 239240
vs. behavior, 281
collective, 7, 120
complex, 266267
complexity of, 266267
cosmopolitan, 197198
cultural/ethnic (See Racial/ethnic identity)
definition of, 483, 489
as emergent processes, 8285
formation of, in bicultural youth (See Youth, bicultural, identity formation in)
global, 197198
implicit multicultural (See Implicit multicultural identities)
multicultural, 277
multiracial, 141
national, 63, 120121
personal, 489
reactive, 102, 110
gender on, 124
religious, 121123
research on, 228
role of, 341
secure, challenge in constructing, 24
social, 120, 489
transcendent, 347348
Identity autonomy perspective (IAP), 139153
autonomy perspective in, 144145
culture in, 141
definition and fundamentals of, 144145, 145f
essentialism and well-being in, 149
ethnicity in, 141
history of study of, 140
identity and well-being in, 144145
identity autonomy in, identity shifting and, 152153
identity denial in, 142, 145146 (See also Identity denial)
identity development models in, 142144
multiracial individuals in, 139140
multiracial population prevalence and, 139140
race in, 140141, 144
Identity challenge, in intercultural situations, 264266, 265b, 266t
Identity code-switching process strategies, 495496
Identity communication competence, 503
Identity conflict/interference, 170171. See also Intersectionality theory
in biculturals
recalling memory of, 80
as salient issue, 142
gender roles in, 124
multiple devalued identities in, 175
Pacita Abad’s painting on, 24
resolution of, in African-Americans, 374
Identity(ies), cultural
on consumption, 439441, 441f
salience of, 489
stages of, typology of, 382384, 383f
Identity denial, 142, 145146
coping with, 150152
as intragroup rejection, 149150
predictors of, 146148
essentialist ideologies in dual identity denial in, 147148
prototype inconsistency in, 146147
predictors of, essentialism and dual identity denial in, 147148
predictors of, prototype inconsistency in, 146147
thwarted autonomy and, 145146
Identity development
autonomy perspective, 144145
commitment, exploration, and reconsideration in, 345346
dynamic study of, 348350
group level variables in, 339
negotiation in, 349
personal agency in, 339
self- and other-regulation in, 345
static study of, 348
stereotype threat in, 339340
validity checks in, 340
Identity development models, 142144
Identity dynamics, of acculturation and multiculturalism, 5786. See also Acculturation, identity dynamics of
for cultural minorities, 7380
dimensionality in, 5860
domains in, 6063
dynamic intergroup process in, 8085
processes in, 6373
Identity endorsement, generational differences in, 124125
Identity entrepreneurs, 73, 77
Identity integration, 150. See also Intersectionality theory
Identity management strategies, 58, 66
biculturalism as, 7778
group-based, 77
individual vs. collective, 77
Identity(ies), multicultural, 227
as associative knowledge structures, 229230
construction of, 2
definition of, 277
negotiation of, dynamics of, 2 (See also Negotiation, identity; Youth, bicultural, identity formation in)
personality and, 5
recent research on, 227
scientific study of, 2
Identity(ies), multiple, 118, 120126
definition of, 120
development models for, 142144
(p. 535) dual identity performance in, 125126
ethnic and national identity in, combined, 120121
gender in, 124
generational differences in endorsement of, 124125
religious identity in, 121123
self-definition in, 120
social class and education in, 123124
Identity negotiation strategies, co-culture, 494495
Identity negotiation theory, 489491
core assumptions of, 490491
principles and definitions of, 489
satisfactory identity negotiation in, 491
Identity perspective, on acculturation, 58
Identity processes, 6373
complex and sophisticated, 64
in cultural majorities, 6773
higher identifiers as hostile in, 7173
hostility toward cultural minorities in, 6768
identity threat in, 6971
realistic and symbolic threats in, 6869
intergroup relations in, 64
motivated identity construction theory in, 66
self-categorization theory in, 6466
social identity theory in, 64, 6667
Identity shifting
in identity autonomy, 152153
on well-being, 153
Identity threat, 268
to cultural majorities, 6971
four types of, 488489
Ideological-normative multiculturalism, 463
Ideology, multicultural, 101
Ignorance, intergroup, 487
Immersion/resistance, 401402
Immigrant adaptation, lay theory of race on, 27
Immigrant paradox, 358
on academic performance, 358359
Immigrants
culturals rights of, 380
dual identities of, 119
first-generation, 124
groups of, 98, 98f, 99
second-generation, 124125
Immigration Act of 1965, 464
Immigration control policies, 467
Immigration integration policies, 467
Immigration patterns, 301
Implicit, 229
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 231232
limitations of, 232
psychometric properties of, 234235
Implicit bicultural identity, 236
Implicit multicultural identities, 227246
conceptualization of, 228230
associative knowledge structures in, 229230
automaticity in, 229
outside of consciousness awareness in, 229
history of, 227228
mapping of, 235246
contextual shifts in, 241242
cultural foundations of social cognition of, 243246
implicit bicultural identity in, 236
implicit vs. explicit self-definition in, 237239
interconnections among identities and attitudes in, 239240
measurement of, 230235
Brief Implicit Association Test in, 233234
common principle of, 230231
Go/No-go Association Task in, 233
history of, 230
Implicit Association Test in, 231232
Lexical Decision Task in, 234
psychometric properties of, 234235
scope of measures of, 230
Single Categorization Implicit Association Test in, 233
Sorting Paired Features Task in, 233
Implicit policies, 480
Implicit self-definition, 237239
Income, multiple social-group membership on, 165
Independent self-construals, 14
Independents, cultural, 422
Indian Removal Act, 480
Indigenous healing, 405406
Indigenous peoples, 98, 98f, 99
Individual mobility, 66, 75
Individualism, 101
on consumption, 444445
Individualism-collectivism
on communication, 263
cross-cultural comparisons of, 14
on cultural values, 6162
in intergroup dynamics, 62
values and, 493
Infancy, bilingualism on brain in, 3844
issues in, 38
LENA system assessment of, 42, 43b
motherese and adult-directed speech in, 41
neuroimaging of, 41
speech perception and speech production in, 4042
speech production in, 3840, 39f
Informal policies, 480
Information processing
analytic vs. holistic, 14
in bicultural individuals, 264
cultural experiences on, 22
Ingroup, ethnic, 70
British, 67
national, 84
Ingroup projection theory, 70
Initiative, 304
social, 257, 304
Innovative thinking, in cross cultural settings, bicultural type on, 420
Integrated threat theory
four identity threat types in, 488489
four perceived threat antecedent conditions in, 487488
fundament principles of, 487
history and development of, 487
Integrating facework, 493
Integration, 59, 99f, 100, 187, 258, 265, 322
additive, 172
content, in multicultural education, 385, 385f, 388
definition of, 277
by immigrants, 265
immigration integration policies in, 467
restrictive, 172
Integration hypothesis, 104f, 105, 111113
Integration paradox, 123124
Integration profile, 346
Integration/multiculturalism strategy, 102
Integrative awareness, 402
Integrative complexity, in bicultural individuals, 29
Integrative Psychological Model of Biculturalism (IPMB), 5, 291, 293
Integrative response
to global culture, 186t, 187189
promotion of
complex thinking about culture in, 194195
deculturation in, 193194
intercultural learning orientation in, 195
openness to experience in, 195197
Integrative Social Contracts Theory (ISCT), in marketing ethics, 455
Intellect/autonomy, 256
Interactionist acculturation models, 60
Interactive Acculturation Model (IAM), 100101, 100f, 322
Intercultural contact, 263
on cognition, 187
creative cognition from, 187
creative conceptual expansion from, 187
on creativity, 188189, 196, 264
on fluency and flexibility, 189
globalization in, 301
on intergroup bias, 189
perceptual consequences of, 184186
on social behavior understanding, 187
Intercultural education. See Education, multicultural
Intercultural learning, orientation to, 195
Intercultural strategies, in multicultural societies, 99102, 100f
assimilation in, 59, 100101, 100f, 258, 265266, 277
Berry’s framework for, 100, 100f
(p. 536) Intercultural strategies, in multicultural societies (Cont.)exclusion in, 100f, 101
individualism in, 101
integration in, 59, 99f, 100, 187, 258, 265, 277
integration/multiculturalism in, 102
interactive acculturation model in, 100f, 101
marginalization in, 59, 100f, 101, 207, 258, 265
multiculturalism in, 100f, 101
segregation in, 100f, 101
separation in, 59, 100f, 101, 258, 265, 277
Intercultural success
Big Five model and, 256, 261t
personality traits in, 256259, 258f
Interculturalism, 103
Interdependence, 5
Interdependent self-construal, 14
Interfaith marriage, 498b–499b
Interference, identity, 170171
Intergroup anxiety/anticipated consequences, 488
Intergroup bias, intercultural contact on, 189
Intergroup conflict history, 487
Intergroup contact, type and frequency of, 487
Intergroup dynamics
in acculturation, 8082
individualism-collectivism in, 62
Intergroup ignorance, 487
Intergroup knowledge gap, 487
Intergroup relations, 23
in acculturation, 60, 64 (See also Acculturation, identity dynamics of)
in self-categorization theory, 6466
in social identity theory, 64, 6667
social psychology literature on, 64
Intergroup threat, 268
Internalization, 402
International relations, globalization on, 198
Internet, 198
Interracial contact research, 389390
Intersection, 280281
Intersectional invisibility, 166167
Intersectionality, 162
Intersectionality theory, 5, 160176
analytical use of, 163
buffering hypothesis in, 168170
discounting hypothesis in, 169
fundamentals of, 162
future directions, considerations, and applications of, 173176
categorization of multiple identities in, 174
multiple disadvantaged identities/groups in, 174175
situational influences on salience and expression in, 175
social context and historical factors in, 175176
specific combinations of groups/identities in, 173174
history of, 162
multiple social-group identifications in, 167173 (See also Multiple social-group identifications)
conflict vs. harmony in, 170171
integrative theories and models of, 171173
in psychological well-being, 168169
social identity research and, 169170
multiple social-group memberships in, 164167
double-jeopardy theory in, 164, 165
intersectional invisibility in, 166167
mental health disparities in, 165166
multiple-jeopardy-advantage hypothesis in, 164165
poverty in, 165
violence and victimization and, 166
as political tool, 163
rejection-disidentification model in, 170
rejection-identification model in, 168, 169170
social-group memberships and identifications in, 160162
social-identity processes and, 163164
strengths of, 162
as theoretical perspective, 162163
Interventions. See also specific types
to change and affect organizational culture, 427428
curriculum, research on, 389
Intracultural coping, 405
Intragroup processes, 70
Intragroup rejection
in bicultural populations, 149150
identity denial as, 149150
Investigating change, 405
Invisibility
cultural, 167
historical, 166167
intersectional, 166167
legal, 167
political, 167
Islam, as religion vs. political movement, 342
J
Japan, demographic mix in, engineering, 464, 466t
Joint culture activation effect, 184186
exclusionary responses in, facilitating, 190191, 190f
salience of cultural threat in
epistemic security in, 191192
existential security in, 192193
Jopsin, Lionel, 477
K
Kahlo, Frida, 24
Kajuju, Amini, 2
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 58
Knowledge
associative knowledge structures and multicultural identities in, 229230
construction of, from multicultural education, 385386, 385f, 388
culture-sensitive, 497
intergroup gap in, 487
Knowledge activation, 17
Knowledge bridging, in bicultural identity integration, 285
L
La laïcité, 381
Laissez-faire multiculturalism, 464
Language. See also Bilingual brain; Bilingualism
in acculturation, 60, 61
in advertising, 450452
age of acquisition of, 37t
base, 45
culture and, 37 (See also Bilingual brain)
in adulthood, 4452
bilingualism in, 36
general conclusions on, 5253
in immigrant children, 3536
in infancy, 3844
emotion and, in bilinguals, 5052
national policies on, 467468
status of, 37, 38
Language activation, in bilingual adults, 4445
Language competence, 36, 37t
Lateral occipital complex, 22
Lay theories, shared, 1415, 15f
on cognition and behavior, 16, 16f
Lay theory of race, 25
on immigrant adaptation, 27
measuring and priming, 2526
Learning
cultural (social), 262264
intercultural, orientation to, 195
Learning goal orientation, in intercultural success, 258259, 269270
Lee, Ang, 11, 24
Legal invisibility, 167
LENA system, 42, 43b
Lexical Decision Task (LDT), 234
Life domains, in content analysis of measures, 214
Life of Pi, 11, 24
Life-span development, research on adjustment and multiculturalism in, 324325
“A Little Boy’s Identity Story,” 485, 486b
Liu, Eric, 24
Localization, 100
Locus of control, 257258
M
Maalouf, Amin, 24
MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI), 3839
(p. 537) Mainstream acculturation, 267, 269
Mainstream culture, identification with, 26
Majorities, cultural
group members of, in acculturation, 58
identity processes in, 6773
higher identifiers as hostile in, 7173
hostility toward cultural minorities in, 6768
identity threat in, 6971
realistic and symbolic threats in, 6869
multiculturalism in, 126130
endorsement of, 126128
in Europe, 126
positive implications of recognition of, 129130
as threat, 128129
Majority culture adoption, desire for, 59
Manhattan Institute survey, 103
Manipulation techniques, 263
Marginal man hypothesis, 142
Marginalization, 59, 100f, 101, 207, 258, 265, 277, 322
Marginals, 422
Marketing, cultural diversity and, 438457
cultural influences on consumption in, 439447
acculturation in, 443444
cultural differences in, 444447
cultural identity in, 439441, 441f
individualism vs. collectivism in, 444445
multicultural perspective in, 441443, 442f
other cultural differences in, 446447
power distance and societal structures in, 445446
risk perceptions in, 446
future directions in, 457
methodological issues in multicultural constructs and, 454455
multicultural consumers in, 439
multicultural perspective in, 447453
advertising in, 450453
advertising in, language in, 450452
advertising in, other message factors in, 452453
branding in, 447449
branding in, brand characteristics in, 447449
branding in, brand personality in, 449
branding in, product origin in, 449
public-policy implications of, 455457
U.S. 2010 Census and, 438
Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study, 372373
Mastery, 268, 270t
Matrix organizations, 429430
Measurement. See also specific measures
in Bicultural Identity Integration model, 287
of implicit multicultural identities, 230235 (See also Implicit multicultural identities)
Media, globalization on, 198
Medial prefrontal cortex, 22, 23
Melting-pot assimilation, 59, 476
Memory, emotion on, in bilinguals, 5051
Mental health
disparities in, 165166
from multicultural life orientation, 316, 320
multiple social-group membership on, 165166
racial identity development in, 316, 320
Merger, 281
Meritocracy, assimilation and, 479
Meritocratic societies, youth identity formation in, 337
Merkel, Angela, 477
Mestizo multicultural personality, 302303, 304
Metacognition, cultural, in bicultural individuals, 421422
Metatraits, in intercultural success, 257258
Mexican culture, family emphasis in, 16, 16f
Migrant Integration Policy Index, 103
Migrants
in acculturation, 58
as native minorities, 75
prevalence of, 380
Migration
international, rate and consequences of, 57
patterns of, 301
Migration Information Source survey, 102103
Mind, multicultural, 4, 1723
cultural frame switching and cultural priming in, 1719, 47
cultural neuroscience of, 15f, 2123
definition of, 12
situated cognition approach in, 1920
situated-cognition vs. dynamic-constructivist approach in, 2021
Mind, shaping of, 1314, 13f
Mindful identity attunement, 497499
Mindful transformation, 501502
Mindful understanding, 497499, 498b499b
Mindfulness, 499
developmental, future research on, 502
self-report assessment of, 502
Minorities, cultural
academic performance of, 360 (See also Academic performance, childhood socialization in)
rights of, 380
socialization in children in, 357
Minorities, cultural, identity processes in, 359
acculturation and intergroup dynamics for, 7380
bicultural identity integration in, 7880
threats to cultural identity in, 7478
hostility toward, 6768
multicultural recognition in
dual identity and, 130131
on feelings and actions, 132133
realistic and symbolic threats in, 7374
Minorities, national, 98, 98f, 99
Minority assimilation, 476
Minority, double, 101
Minority status, on academic performance, salience of, 368371
Mismatch negativity (MMN)
in bilingual adults, 46
in bilingual infants, 4041
Mixed-race individuals, racial identity management in, 281
Mobility, 98, 98f
individual, 66, 75
Modernization
cultural views on, 182183
in Hong Kong, 182
Monoculturals, 434
Mortality salience, 192193
Mosaic metaphor, 59
Mother tongue, 36
Motherese, on bilingual brain of infants, 41
Motivated identity construction theory, 66
Motivation
in bicultural identity integration, 286287
in cultural diversity management policies, 470471
culture on, 279
stable factors for, in intercultural success, 259, 261t
Multicultural attitudes, 107109
Multicultural citizen, 302
Multicultural citizenship, 380, 381
Multicultural competence, 277, 320321
Multicultural education. See Education, multicultural
Multicultural exposures, minimal, on perception, 184186
Multicultural hypothesis, 104f, 109111
Multicultural identities. See Identity(ies), multicultural
Multicultural identity attunement (MIA), 7, 485503
bicultural identity-based orientations and strategies in, 494496
bicultural identity-based orientations in, 494
co-culture identity negotiation strategies in, 494495
identity code-switching process strategies in, 495496
cultivation of, 501502
definition of, 485, 486
(p. 538) Multicultural identity attunement (MIA) (Cont.)development of, 486, 496501
culture-sensitive knowledge in, 497
facework competence from behavioral flexibility in, 499501
fundamentals of, 496497
mindful understanding of issues in, 497499, 498b499b
fundamental concepts of, 486
future research directions in, 501503
developmental mindfulness in, 502
facework emotions in, 502503
identity communication competence in, 503
mindful transformation in, 501502
theories of, 486494
conflict face-negotiation theory in, 491494 (See also Conflict face-negotiation theory)
identity negotiation theory in, 489491
integrated threat theory in, 487489 (See also Integrated threat theory)
Multicultural identity models, 143144
Multicultural ideology, 101, 108
Multicultural individuals, 1617
definition of, 12
demographics of, 277
Multicultural life orientation, 301302
benefits of, 316321
academic achievement in, 320
multicultural competence in, 320321
psychological health and well-being in, 316, 320
Multicultural mindset training, organizational, 433
Multicultural person, 302
Multicultural Personality Inventory (MPI), 305
Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), 304
limitations of, 313314
research on, 305314, 306t310t
in children and adolescents, 312313
collective results of, 305, 311
in college and university samples, 311312
in expatriate and other adults, 312
summary and limitations of, 313314
Multicultural personality, success-based model of, 302305
Ponterotto’s hygiology multicultural personality model in, 304305
Ramirez’s cultural flex model in, 303
Ramirez’s mestizo multicultural personality in, 302303, 304
Van der Zee and Van Oudenhoven’s culturally adaptive success-based model in, 303304
Multicultural recognition, 118119
in majority identity, positive implications of, 129130
in minority identity
dual identity and, 130131
on feelings and actions, 132133
Multicultural societies, 97114, 120
multiculturalism as pluralism in, 98102
cultural groups in, 9899, 98f
definition of, 9798
intercultural strategies in, 99102, 100f (See also Intercultural strategies, in multicultural societies)
multiculturalism as policy in, 102107 (See also Multiculturalism as policy)
psychology of multiculturalism in, 98, 107113 (See also Psychology, of multiculturalism)
Multicultural vulnerability, paradox of, 134
Multiculturalism. See also specific topics
attractiveness of, for immigrants and minorities, 119
benefits and challenges of, 2
in Berry’s strategies, 100f, 101
criticisms of, 119
cross-national data on, 4
as cultural pluralism, 9798
definitions of, 4, 104, 118119, 300
conventional, 12
dynamic, 12
at individual level, 118
policy-related, 463
psychological, 277
social psychology, 118119
demographic-descriptive, 463
development of concept of, 59
endorsement of, 126128
in Europe, 135
as fact, 9798
in Germany, 2
global, 2
history of study of, 2
identity dynamics of, 5786 (See also Acculturation, identity dynamics of)
identity perspective on, 58
ideological-normative, 463
laissez-faire, 464
planned, 463
psychological (See Psychological multiculturalism)
shortcomings of, 480
on social policy, 133134
terminology of, 7
as threat, 128129
in U.K., 2
in U.S., 12
Multiculturalism as policy, 98, 102107
in Australia, 106
Cameron on, 104
in Canada, 105106
contact hypothesis in, 104f, 105
cultural component in, 102, 103f
definition of, 98
European Commission against Racism and Intolerance on, 104105
in European Union, 107
framework for understanding of, 103105, 104f
in France, 107
history of, 102
integration hypothesis in, 104f, 105
intercultural communication component in, 102, 103f
interculturalism in, 103
Manhattan Institute survey in, 103
Migrant Integration Policy Index, 103
Migration Information Source survey in, 102103
multiculturalism hypothesis in, 104f, 105
Multiculturalism Policy Index, 102103
social/intercultural component in, 102, 103f
in U.S., 106107
Multiculturalism attitudes, 219220
Multiculturalism behaviors, 220
Multiculturalism hypothesis, 104f, 105
Multiculturalism Policy Index, 102103
Multiculturals, vs. biculturals, 434
Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity (MMRI), 343
Multifamily Asthma Group Treatment (MFAGT), 409
Multikulti concept, 2
Multilingualism, 4
Multiple identity complexity, 171
Multiple social-group identifications, 167173
conflict vs. harmony in, 170171
integrative theories and models of, 171173
bicultural identity integration in, 172
compartmentalization in, 171172
cultural conflict in, 172
cultural distance in, 172173
domination in, 171
multiple identity complexity in, 171
multiracial identity integration in, 173
restrictive integration and additive integration in, 172
Roccas and Brewer’s model of, 172
in psychological well-being, 168169
buffering hypothesis in, 168170
discounting hypothesis in, 169
rejection identification model in, 168, 169170
rejection-disidentification model in, 170
social identity research and, 169170
Multiple social-group memberships, 164167. See also Intersectionality theory
double-jeopardy theory in, 164, 165
intersectional invisibility in, 166167
mental health disparities in, 165166
(p. 539) multiple-jeopardy-advantage hypothesis in, 164165
poverty in, 165
violence and victimization and, 166
Multiple-jeopardy-advantage hypothesis, 164165
Multiracial identities, 141
Multiracial identity integration, 173
Multiracial individuals, prevalence of, 139140, 276
Multiracial theory
multiculturalism and, 140
origins of, 140
Muslim youth, identity formation in, 337338, 340, 341. See also Youth, bicultural, identity formation in
Mutiracial individuals, in U.S., 4
Mutual-face, 492
N
Nasser, Jacques, 421
National group, 70
National identification, 63
attitudes toward immigrants and, 7172
development of, 381382, 382f
differences in meaning of, 7273
entrepreneurs of identity on, 73, 77
socially shared meanings of, 72
National identity, 70, 336
vs. citizenship, 391
with ethnic identity, 120121
threats to, 6971
National minorities, 98, 98f, 99
National Origins Act of 1921, 464
National Origins Quota Acts, 464
Nationalism, vs. globalization, 380
Nation-states, 380
citizenship education in, 379384 (See also Citizenship education)
Native Americans, forced removal of, 480
Naturalization Act of 1870, 464
Need for cognitive closure, 15
Neet, 198199
Negative stereotypes, 488
Negotiation, identity
in co-culture identity negotiation strategies, 494495
in conflict face-negotiation theory, 491492
dynamics of, 2
theory of, 489491
youth development of, in family, 349
Neighborhood demographics, on childhood socialization, 357
Neither/nors, 422
Nested designs, 339
Networking, bicultural type on, 420421
Networks, culturally diverse, 419
Neural commitment
in bilingual vs. monolingual infants, 41
language exposure on, 40, 41
word production and, 40
Neuroscience, cultural, 15f, 2123
Neuroticism, 256
Normative fit, 64
Not-identify-person (NIP)-referencing, 23
O
Obama, President, 2
Omniculturalism, 480
Onset of voicing, 45
Open-mindedness, 257, 303
in children and adolescents, 312
in college and university samples, 311
in expatriates and other adults, 312
Openness
to experience, 195197, 269
to speech sound discrimination in infants, 41
ORAS, 315, 316t
Organizations, culture in
individual differences in, 418
vs. in individuals, 417418
theories on, 417
Organizations, multiculturalism in, 417434
asymmetry in top management vs. employee culture in, 418419
future of research on, 432434
biculturalism as strategy in, 434
selection and assessment in, 432
socialization and training in, 432434
individual differences and, 418
individual vs. cultural traits and affiliations in, 418
literature on culture in, organizational, 426432
cross-functional teams in, 430
cultural bridging in, 429
cultural conflict in, 428
gaps in, 430432
intervening to change and affect culture in, 427428
matrix organizations in, 429430
multiple levels of analysis of culture in, 426427
transparency of cultural processes in, 428429
skill sets of bicultural individuals in, 419426
bicultural type in, 420423
bicultural type in, on cognitive capabilities, 421422
bicultural type in, on innovation in cross cultural settings, 420
bicultural type in, on networking, 420421
bicultural type in, on perceptual acuity, 422
bicultural type in, on team or group process skills, 422
consistency and unity in, strategic pressures toward, 423424
cultural integration in, 419
culturally diverse networks in, 419
diversity as double-edged sword in, 425426
Four Seasons–George V example of, 419
as “translators” within global teams, 424425
“Other," being marked as, 359
Other-face, 492
Outcome, 208
Outgroup, ethnic, 70
British, 67
Outside of consciousness awareness, 229
P
Pan-ethnic groups, 77
Paradox of multicultural vulnerability, 134
Parahippocampal place area, 22
Passing, 495496
PCRIAS, 314, 316t
Perceived threat antecedent conditions, 487488
Perceived values, 488
Perceiver readiness, 64
Perceptual acuity, bicultural type on, 422
Performance appraisals, bicultural, 283
Permanence, 9899, 98f
Permeability, in youth identity, 337
Perpetual foreigner syndrome, 75, 8485
Perseverance, 269
Personal identities, 489
Personality dispositions, 5
Personality factors, 255271
attachment styles in, 260261, 261t, 270
Big Five model of, 256, 261t
conclusions and discussion of, 269271
context on, 266267, 266t
context on, time and, 267269, 270t
coping in, 259260, 261t
culture shock and, 262
demands and challenges in, 262266
identity challenge in, 264266, 265b, 266t
social and cognitive opportunities in, 262264, 266t
threat in, 262, 263b, 266t
globalization in, 255
in intercultural success, 256259, 258f
literature on, 255256
social-perceptual traits in, 266267
specific traits in, 256259, 258f
in expatriate couples, 257, 258f
five-factor model in, 256257
goal orientations in, 258259, 269270
metatraits in, 257258
motivational factors in, stable, 259, 261t
self-monitoring in, 258
stress and stress-buffering traits on, 266267, 268, 269
Personality switch, in bilingual adults, 4650
(p. 540) Phonetic boundary
context on, 45
double, 45
Planned multiculturalism, 463
Plasticity
brain, 2829
cultural, 29
differential, 30
Pluralism
cultural, 98
emphasis on, 59
multiculturalism as, 98102
cultural groups in, 9899, 98f
definition of, 9798
intercultural strategies in, 99102, 100f (See also Intercultural strategies, in multicultural societies)
as policy, 102107 (See also Multiculturalism as policy)
Policies, cultural diversity management, 462480
assimilation policies in, 476479 (See also Assimilation policies)
controlling expression of cultural differences in, 467469
immigration control policies in, 467
immigration integration policies in, 467
language policy in, 467468
liberal pluralist vs. republican debate on, 467
public education in, 468
demographic mix in, engineering perfect, 463467 (See also Demographic mix, engineering perfect)
demographic-descriptive multiculturalism in, 463
diversity in, challenges of, 480
global population shifts in, 479
ideological-normative multiculturalism in, 463
implicit or informal, 480
omniculturalism and, 480
planned multiculturalism in, 463
polyculturalism and, 480
psychological motivations in, 470471
rationale for, 469470
shortcomings of multiculturalism in, 480
Trudeau on, 462463
varieties of, 471476
in Canada, 472
cultural free-market assumption in, 473474
heritage culture-retention assumption in, 474
multicultural hypothesis in, 474475
multiculturalism in, 471472
in U.K. and Germany, 472
in U.S., 472473
Policy
multiculturalism as, 98, 102107 (See also Multiculturalism as policy)
social, multiculturalism on, 133134
Political invisibility, 167
Polyculturalism, 480
Population
global shifts in, on policy, 462480 (See also Policies, cultural diversity management)
maintaining levels of, 481
Positive distinctiveness, 69
Positive group distinctiveness, 66
Poverty, multiple social-group membership in, 165
Power differences, 397
Power distance, on consumption, 445446
Power status, societal/group membership in, 487
Practices, cultural, 61
Prejudice reduction, from multicultural education, 385f, 386
Priming, cultural. See Cultural priming
Prisoner’s Dilemma game, cultural priming on, 1819
Product origin, in branding, 449
Propiska system, Soviet, 466
Prototype inconsistency, 146147
Psychological health. See Mental health
Psychological multiculturalism, 3, 6, 98, 217221, 277
content analysis of measures of, retrieval of instruments in, 219, 220t
formal item/instrument characteristics in, 220221
age group, 221
life domains, 221
number of items, 221
proxy measures, 221
question format, 221
reliabilities, 221
response format, 221
subscales, 221
target group, 220221
personal adjustment and, 6
theoretical issues in
conceptual model in, 220
multiculturalism attitudes in, 219220
multiculturalism behaviors in, 220
theory of, 217219
Psychological well-being. See Well-being, psychological
Psychology, of multiculturalism, 107113
contact hypothesis in, 104f, 113114
definition of, 98
integration hypothesis in, 104f, 111113
multicultural attitudes in, 107109
multicultural hypothesis in, 104f, 109111
Q
Qigong healers, 406
Quad model, 235
Qualitative methods, in adjustment and multiculturalism research, 325
Quantitative research, trustworthiness of, 324, 325t
R
Race
components of, 144
definition of, 140141
essentialist theory of, 149
on creativity, 2728
on cultural frame switching, 27
lay theory of, 25
on immigrant adaptation, 27
measuring and priming, 2526
social construction of, 140
social-constructionist theory of, 25
Race-based categorization, 26, 140, 147
fluidity in, 149
in response to others, 146
Race-based cognition, 26
Race-identity construct, 141
Racial identity. See Racial/ethnic identity
Racial identity development, 314321
definition of, 314
models for, overview of, 314
multicultural life orientation in, benefits of, 316321
academic achievement in, 320
multicultural competence in, 320321
psychological health and well-being in, 316, 320
racial identity development models in, 314316, 316t
studies on, 317t–319t
Racial identity theory, 399
Racial/ethnic identity, 119121, 120121, 141, 336
in academic performance, 360362, 371372 (See also Academic performance, childhood socialization in)
in academic performance, salience of, 368371
in acculturation, 58, 6263
affirmation of, 62
in bilinguals, 3637
commitment to, 62
definition of, 37t, 336
development of, 339
exploration of, 62
in migrants, 6263
maintenance strategies for, 58, 66
with national identity, 119120
prevailing perspective on, 6263
as promotive, 368
protective role of, 360
research on, 336
salience of, 489
threats to, 58
in cultural majorities, 6971
in cultural minorities, 7478
tripartite model of, 360361
on well-being, 360
in youth, formation of, 335336 (See also Youth, bicultural, identity formation in)
(p. 541) Racial/ethnic socialization, 357
in academic achievement, 363367
as mediating process, 362363
in academic performance, 372374
self-systems in, 357
Racism, 396397
Radicalization
definition of, 338
of Muslim youth, 338
Reactance, behavioral, 283
Reactive attitude, 315
Reactive ethnicity, 7475, 76, 81
Reactive identity, 102, 110
gender on, 124
Realistic threats, 268
to cultural majorities, 6869
to cultural minorities, 7374
in integrated threat theory, 488
Recognition, multicultural, 118119
in majority identity, positive implications of, 129130
in minority identity, 130131
Re-ethnicization, 344
Refugees, 98f, 99
Regional identifications, development of, 381382, 382f
Rejection dis-identification model, 170
Rejection identification model, 168, 169170
Rejection-identification model, 343
Relational Acculturation Extended Model (RAM), 322323
Relational universality, 406407
Relative acculturation extended model (RAEM), 101
Relevant others, in identity formation, 342
Religious identity, 121123
Renren, 198
Replication, 304
Respect for authority, 405
Restrictive integration, 172
Rigid stereotypes, 488
Risk perceptions, on consumption, 446
Rodriguez, Richard, 59
S
Saeed, Sheikh Omar, 2425
Salad bowl metaphor, 59
Sarkozy, Nicolar, 477
School setting, on academic performance
minority status and ethnic identity in, 368372
discrimination in, 371372
racial/ethnic identity and affiliations in, 371372
salience of minority status and ethnic identity in, 368371
racial/ethnic socialization and, 372374
Scrambled-sentence task, 20
Second language learners, 36
Second Life, 198
Second-generation immigrants, 124125
Secure attachment, 267
Security, need for
epistemic, 191192
existential, 192193
Segmented assimilation, 7576, 8283
Segregation, 100f, 101
Self, multicultural, 4, 2328
cultural frame switching in, 2627
definition of, 1213
essentialist theory of race on creativity of, 2728
fundamentals of, 2325
identification with mainstream culture in, 26
lay theory of race in, 2526
race-based categorization and cognition in, 26
secure identity in, 24
Self, research on, 228
Self-acceptance, 382
Self-awareness, 345
Self-categorization theory, in acculturation, 6466
Self-concept, 278
Self-confidence, 269
Self-construals
cultural differences in, 278
independent vs. interdependent, 14
Self-definition, 120
implicit vs. explicit, 237239
Self-efficacy, generalized, 257258
Self-esteem, 257258
in multiculturalism, 132
threats to, in minorities, 74
Self-evaluations, core, 257258, 261t
Self-face, 492
Self-identification, in multiracial and multicultural individuals, 143144
Self-knowledge, influences on, 229
Self-monitoring, in intercultural success, 258
Self-sameness, 345
Self-systems
in academic success, 357358
family socialization and, 359367
racial-ethnic socialization and, 357
Separated biculturals, 280
Separation, 59, 100f, 101, 258, 265, 277, 322
Separationist acculturation strategy, 77
Serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR), 2930
Shared lay theories, 1415, 15f
on cognition and behavior, 16, 16f
Sharedness, in culture, 191
Shifting identities, bicultural, 7980
Similarities and differences with family and friends task (SDFF), 20
Similarity-attraction hypothesis, 478479
Simultaneous bilinguals, 36. See also Bilingual brain; Bilingualism
Single Categorization Implicit Association Test (SCIAT), 233
Single culture activation condition, 184185
Situated cognition approach, 1920
vs. dynamic-constructivist approach, 2021
Skills Identification Stage Model (SISM), 404405
Social activity, 405
Social class, in identity, 123
Social cohesion, 379
Social competition, 66
in cultural minorities, 76
Social creativity, 66
in cultural minorities, 7677
Social groups. See also Intersectionality theory
identification and, 160162
Social identity, 120, 489
in acculturation, 60 (See also Acculturation, identity dynamics of)
multi-layered nature of, 5
Social identity theory, 64, 6667
Social initiative, 257, 304
in children and adolescents, 312
in college and university samples, 311
in expatriates and other adults, 312
Social justice, counseling for, 6, 391410. See also Counseling for social justice and multicultural individuals
Social learning, 262264
Social media, 198
Social network
in bicultural Chinese Americans, 284285
bicultural type on, 420421
biculturalism on, 267, 284
of Biracial/White people, 151
in black-white student interactions, 340
of children, 342
geography of race and, 147
integration in, 101, 267269
migration and expatriation on, 262
multiple identifications and, 118
of partners, 257
Social opportunities, in intercultural situations, 262264, 266t
Social policy, multiculturalism on, 133–134. See also Policies, cultural diversity management
Social psychology, of multiculturalism, 118135
ethnicity, identity, and culture in, 119120
majority members in, 126130
endorsement of multiculturalism in, 126128
in Europe, 126
multiculturalism as threat in, 128129
positive implications of multicultural recognition in, 129130
(p. 542) Social psychology, of multiculturalism (Cont.)minority identity in, 130133
multicultural recognition and dual identity in, 130131
multicultural recognition on feelings and actions in, 132133
multiculturalism defined in, 118119
multiple identities in, 120126
definition of, 120
dual identity performance in, 125126
ethnic and national identity in, 120121
gender in, 124
generational differences in identity endorsement in, 124125
religious identity in, 121123
self-definition in, 120
social class and education in, 123124
on social policy, 133134
Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS), 262
Social self, 284285
Social-constructionist theory, of race, 25
Social-identity processes, intersectionality theory and, 163164
Socialization
of biculturals, for organizations, 432434
childhood, and academic performance (See Academic performance, childhood socialization in)
cultural/ethnic, 357
family, 359367
minority status in bicultural children on, 357
process of
in immigrant identity formation, 344345
self-systems in, 357358
racial/ethnic
in academic achievement, 363367
as mediating process, 362363
self-systems in, 357
self-system processes and, 359367
integrated model of, 358f, 359
racial/ethnic identity in, 360362
racial/ethnic socialization and academic success in, 363367
racial/ethnic socialization as mediating process in, 362363
Social-perceptual traits, 266267
Societal membership power status, 487
Societal structures, on consumption, 445446
Societies, multicultural, 97114, 120
multiculturalism as pluralism in, 98102
cultural groups in, 9899, 98f
definition of, 9798
intercultural strategies in, 99102, 100f (See also Intercultural strategies, in multicultural societies)
multiculturalism as policy in, 98, 102107 (See also Multiculturalism as policy)
psychology of multiculturalism in, 98, 107113 (See also Psychology, of multiculturalism)
Society problems, globalization on, 198199
Socio-cultural context, in academic performance, 367374
diversity of settings and racial/ethnic socialization in, 372374
diversity of settings, minority status, and ethnic identity in, 368372
discrimination in, 371372
minority status salience and ethnic identity in, 368371
racial/ethnic identity and affiliations in, 371372
fundamentals of, 367368
Sojourners, 267269
Sorting Paired Features Task (SPFT), 233
reliability of, 233
South Africa demographic mix, engineering, 466
Soviet Union
demographic mix in, engineering, 466
propiska system in, 466
Space, experiential compression of, 184, 185
Spain
attitudes toward multiculturalism in, 219
national identification and prejudice in, 72
relative acculturation extended model in, 101
social networks of immigrants to, 285
Spanish-Catalan bilinguals, emotional-memory effects of words in, 51
Speech perception, speech production and, in monolingual vs. bilingual children, 4042
Speech perception switch, 4546
Speech production
in monolingual vs. bilingual children, 3840, 39f
speech perception and, in monolingual vs. bilingual children, 4042
Stages of Cultural Identity Typology, 382384, 383f
Stereotype threat, in identity development, 340341
Stereotypes
of culture, cultural icons as, 30
rigid/negative, 488
Sterilization, 480
Stress, on personality, 266267
Stress-buffering traits, 266267, 268, 269
Student identifications, complicated, 390391
Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD), 390
Subliminal priming, 20
Sumerian-warrior story, 20
Support, family, 406
Switching, cultural. See Cultural frame switching
Symbolic threats, 268, 488
to cultural majorities, 6869
to cultural minorities, 7374
in intergroup threat theory, 488
T
Taking action and investigating change, 405
Tangible threats, 488
Team process skills, bicultural type on, 422
Tebitt, Norman, 480
Tension, 281
Terror Management Theory, 192
“Them” versus “us," 68
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), language of bilinguals on, 47
Theory of terror management, 192
Thinking, complex, about culture, 194195
Third-culture kids, 276
Threat
in cross-cultural transition, 262, 263b, 266t
to cultural majorities
identity, 6971
realistic and symbolic, 6869
to cultural minorities
identity, 7478
realistic and symbolic, 7374
cultural, salience of
epistemic security in, 191192
existential security in, 192193
identity, 268
in identity threat theory, 487489
in integrated threat theory, 68, 110111, 262, 271, 487489 (See also Integrated threat theory)
tangible/realistic, 268, 488
intergroup, 268
multiculturalism as, 128129
stereotype, 340341
symbolic, 6667, 268
in intergroup threat theory, 488
tangible, 488
Thwarted autonomy, identity denial in, 145146
Time
context and, on personality, 267269, 270t
experiential compression of, 184, 185
Training of biculturals, organizational, 433434
Transcendent identity, 347348
Transformation, mindful, 501502
“Translators” within global teams, bicultural individuals as, 424425
Transmissions, of culture, 14
Transnational identification, 391
Transnationalism, 265
(p. 543) Transparency of cultural processes, organizational, 428429
Trencadis, 2, 7
Tripartite model of racial/ethnic identity, 360361
Trudeau, Pierre Elliot, 462463, 471, 472, 473, 474475
Trustworthiness, of quantitative research, 324, 325t
Two cultural minds theory, 278280
U
U learning, 501
U-movement, 501
Understanding, mindful, 497499, 498b499b
Unidimensional acculturation, 5960, 208
Unifactorial solutions, 208
United Kingdom
assimilation policies in, 476477
cultural diversity management policies in, 472
United States
2010 Census of, 438
bicultural youth identity formation in, 337
bilingualism in, 38
cultural diversity management policies in, 472473
demographic mix in, engineering, 463464, 465t
multiculturalism in, 12
as policy, 106107
mutiracial individuals in, 4
population by country of origin in, 464, 465t, 466t
Unity, strategic pressures toward, in organizations, 423424
Universality, relational, 406407
U-shaped model, 267268
V
Values, cultural
in acculturation, 6162
collectivist, 62
perceived, in intergroup threat theory, 488
Ventral medial prefrontal cortex, 23
Victimization
legacy of, 396
multiple social-group membership in, 166
Violence, multiple social-group membership in, 166
Virtual worlds, 198
Voicing, onset of, 45
Voluntariness, 98, 98f
W
Weber, Max, 383
Well-being, psychological
in bicultural youth, 346
ethnic identity and, 360
identity in, 144145
identity shifting on, 153
intersectionality theory on, 168169
from multicultural life orientation, 316, 320
multiple social-group identification on, 168169
buffering hypothesis in, 168170
discounting hypothesis in, 169
rejection identification model in, 168, 169170
Westernization
vs. Americanization, 182183
in Hong Kong, 182
White privilege, 400401
White racial, 399400
White Racial Identity Development model, 302
Word production
in bilinguals, 3840, 39f
neural commitment and, 40
World community, 301. See also Globalization
Worldview, 399
WRIAS, 314, 316t
Y
“A Young Girl’s Identity Story," 490b
Youth, bicultural, 6, 335336
Youth, bicultural, identity formation in, 335351
commitment, exploration, and reconsideration in, 345346
conceptualizations and development of, 341344
conflicts in, 341
context in, 341
discrimination in, 342344
distinguishing and linking in, 341
re-ethnicization in, 342
relevant others in, 342
contexts of, 337341
deterministic multilayered, 340
as group level, 340
in meritocratic societies, 337
multifunctional and multilayered, 337339
multilayered as multilevel in, 339
multilayered understanding and signifying in, 339340
in U.S. and Netherlands, 337
daily decisions in, 349
in Muslim youth, 337338, 340, 341
negotiation of, in family, 349
processes of, 344346
quality of, 346348
relevant others in, 342
research on, in context, 348350
transcendent identity in, 347348
(p. 544)