Abstract and Keywords
Multicultural identity attunement is conceptualized in this essay as the development of cultural knowledge and interpersonal responsiveness concerning cultural membership identity issues in self and others, the cultivation of mindfulness, and the behavioral practice of appropriate, effective, and adaptive communication styles. The chapter is developed in five sections. The first section will review three theories related to identity-based conflict issues: the integrated threat theory, the identity negotiation theory, and the culture-based conflict face-negotiation theory. The second section will address an additional set of studies on bicultural identity orientations and the code-switching process strategies that individuals would likely use in diverse intercultural and intergroup conflict encounters. The third section will explicate the multicultural identity attunement perspective and offer some application directions stemming from the various identity-based frameworks. The fourth section will emphasize the intentional steps needed to cultivate a mindful identity transformation process and also offer several directions for future research concerning identity-based conflict issues. The last section concludes with some insights drawing from the multicultural identity attunement (MIA) lens.
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