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date: 25 October 2020

Abstract and Keywords

High rates (50% or more) of nonadherence to prescribed medical treatment for pediatric chronic medical and behavioral conditions and recommendations for health promotion in primary care have been noted. Nonadherence to medical treatment limits the efficacy of medical treatment, increases the likelihood of symptoms and health-related complications, and increases health-care costs. Progress in research and the development of theoretical models has identified multifactorial (individual, family, cultural, peer, community, and health-care system) influences on pediatric adherence. A number of these factors are modifiable influences on pediatric adherence that are important targets of adherence promotion interventions. Combined behavioral and educational adherence promotion interventions have demonstrated promising effects. Future research on adherence promotion should be more closely integrated with ongoing clinical care for children and adolescents with chronic illness. Comparative effectiveness, practical clinical trials, quality improvement, and application of technologies in ongoing adherence promotion are promising future directions for research on pediatric treatment adherence.

Keywords: adherence promotion, treatment adherence, pediatric, health behavior change, intervention

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