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date: 23 October 2019

(p. xxv) List of Contributors

(p. xxv) List of Contributors

H. Samy Alim is Professor of Education and, by courtesy, Anthropology and Linguistics at Stanford University where he directs the Center for Race, Ethnicity, and Language. His research explores styleshifting, the use of language in local and global Hip Hop communities, the politics of language and identity, and the complex relationships between language, race, power, and education. His most recent books include Articulate While Black: Barack Obama, Language, and Race in the U.S. (Oxford, 2012, with Geneva Smitherman) and Global Linguistic Flows: Hip Hop Culture(s), Youth Identities, and the Politics of Language (Routledge, 2009, with Awad Ibrahim and Alastair Pennycook).

Kate T. Anderson is Assistant Professor in the Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College at Arizona State University. Her interdisciplinary research draws from sociolinguistics, anthropology of education, and literacies studies. Her main research interests center on ideologies of language, literacies, and learning as they relate to opportunity and equity in learning environments, broadly defined. Kate uses discourse analysis, ethnography, and other qualitative methods to study the ways that language, interaction, and taken for granted assumptions about how we speak, learn, and categorize others shape our everyday realities as well as our sociohistorical moment.

Guy Bailey is Founding President of the University of Texas-Rio Grande Valley and has served as President and Provost at several other universities. He maintains an active research agenda focused on the synchronic approach to language change, on approaches to time in dialectology and sociolinguistics, on the effects of methods on results, and on the speech of African Americans and Southerners.

Bettina Baker is Associate Professor of Reading at Flagler College in Saint Augustine, Florida. With William Labov, she has developed and tested programs for raising literacy levels in low-income schools in Philadelphia, Atlanta and throughout California. As Senior Director of Assessment and Curriculum at Chester Community Charter School, her efforts with low-income children include the development of curricula which achieved adequate yearly progress consistently. In Florida, she has partnered with low-income schools to enhance the knowledge and practices of pre-service teachers while serving struggling readers.

John Baugh is Margaret Bush Wilson Professor in Arts and Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis and Professor Emeritus of Education and Linguistics at Stanford University. He uses linguistic research to promote advances in equal opportunity in the (p. xxvi) fields of education, employment, medicine, and the law. His studies of linguistic profiling are included in the national science exhibit created by the American Anthropological Association titled, “Race: Are We So Different?” He has published several books related to the African American linguistic experience and has served as a consultant for the PBS documentaries: “The Story of English” and “Do You Speak American?”

Robert Bayley is Professor of Linguistics at the University of California, Davis. He has conducted research on variation in English, Spanish, Chinese, ASL, and Italian Sign Language as well as ethnographic studies of US Latino communities. His recent book-length publications include Sociolinguistic Variation: Theories, Methods, and Applications (edited with Ceil Lucas, 2007), The Hidden Treasure of Black ASL: Its History and Structure (with Carolyn McCaskill, Ceil Lucas, and Joseph Hill, 2011), The Oxford Handbook of Sociolinguistics (edited with Richard Cameron and Ceil Lucas, 2013), and the five-volume collection, Language Variation and Change (edited with Richard Cameron, 2015).

Renée A. Blake is Associate Professor in the Departments of Linguistics and Social & Cultural Analysis at New York University. Her research examines language contact, race, ethnicity, and class with a focus on African American English, Caribbean Creole English, and New York City English. Her work has been published in journals including Language in Society, Language and Education, Journal of English Linguistics, Language, Variation and Change, and English Today. She has served as a consultant to many programs and organizations including Disney and the Ford Foundation. She developed two web-based linguistic sites: “Word. The Online Journal on African American English” ( and “Voices of New York” (

Jennifer Bloomquist is Associate Professor of Linguistics and the coordinator of the Africana Studies Program at Gettysburg College. Her work has been published in First Language, Journal of Pragmatics, Multilingua, and American Speech. Her most recent article, “The Dirty Third: Contributions of Southern Hip Hop to the Study of African American English” (with Isaac Hancock) appears in The Southern Journal of Linguistics, Spring 2013. Her research focuses on African American Englishes in the regional context and she is currently at work on a project on the representation of African American English and its role in the construction of ethnicity in children’s animated films.

Erica Britt is Assistant Professor of Sociolinguistics at the University of Michigan-Flint. Her research focuses on the use of African American Language in public domains and her areas of interest include style shifting, language ideology, and identity performance.

Tamara Butler is Assistant Professor at Michigan State University in the Department of English. She teaches English Education and African American and African Studies courses. Her research focuses on youth activism, social justice, and learning through critical community engagements. (p. xxvii)

Tempii B. Champion is Associate Professor of Communication Sciences and Disorders at Long Island University Brooklyn Campus. Her current interests include assessment of African American children’s vocabulary, mother‒child interactions, and narrative language development. She has published a book on African American children’s narration, Understanding Storytelling among African American Children: A Journey from Africa to America (2003).

Patricia Cukor-Avila is Associate Professor at the University of North Texas. Her primary research focuses on linguistic variation and change, specifically in African American Vernacular English (AAVE). Her longitudinal panel study (1988‒present) of AAVE in a rural Texas community has provided much of the data for publications concerning approaches to sociolinguistic fieldwork, transmission and diffusion, as well as documenting innovations in African American English. Patricia also researches linguistic stereotyping and accent discrimination. She is currently conducting cross-disciplinary research, incorporating the analytical methods of variation studies into traditional perceptual dialectology research through the use of a GIS and R, to map dialect perceptions and attitudes about perceived dialect regions.

Charles E. DeBose is Professor Emeritus in the Department of English at California State University, East Bay. His scholarly interests include sociolinguistics, pidgin-creole studies, language varieties of the African Diaspora, language planning, and African American religion. His recent publications include The Sociology of African American Language: A Language Planning Perspective (2005); “The Ebonics Phenomenon, Language Planning and the Hegemony of Standard English,” in Talkin Black: Language, Education and Social Change (Alim and Baugh, eds., 2006), and “Church Lady Talk: African American Women’s Language and the Church,” in African American Women’s Language: Discourse, Education and Identity (Lanehart, ed., 2009).

Evangelos Evangelou is Lecturer in Statistics at the University of Bath. His research is in methodology for estimation and prediction for spatial and spatial-temporal models, spatial sampling design, and Bayesian computational methods.

Sabriya Fisher is a PhD candidate at the University of Pennsylvania, advised by Gillian Sankoff and William Labov. Her master’s thesis (Université de Lyon, 2011) focused on copula variation in Guyanais French Creole. Her research interests include variation in Creoles and African American English, syntactic change, language contact, and fieldwork.

Jamila Gillenwaters is Program Coordinator for the Academic English Mastery Program—a national model for serving Standard English Learners. She has over a decade of experience in education as a teacher, administrator, and adjunct professor at the University of Southern California. Her research focuses on equitable learning opportunities for culturally and linguistically diverse students in urban communities, specializing in culturally and linguistically responsive pedagogy. (p. xxviii)

Shelome Gooden is Associate Professor of Linguistics at the University of Pittsburgh, and currently serves as Department Chair. Her research focuses primarily on the prosodic classification and intonational phonology of Caribbean Creole languages. She has published more generally on Afro-American varieties on phonological and phonetic properties of reduplication, stress, and intonation in Jamaican Creole, prosody in Trinidadian Creole, language and identity and intonation in African American English, and tense-aspect variation in Belizean Creole. Her most recent publication, “Aspects of the Intonational Phonology of Jamaican Creole,” appears in Prosodic Typology II: The Phonology of Intonation and Phrasing, edited by Sun-Ah Jun (Oxford University Press, 2014).

Lisa J. Green is Professor of Linguistics and Director of the Center for the Study of African American Language at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Green’s research is on the syntax of African American English (AAE). In moving away from the traditional approach of studying isolated features of AAE that differ maximally from constructions in the standard and mainstream varieties of English, she considers systems in the AAE grammar, such as the systems of tense/aspect marking and negation. Her work on child AAE addresses questions about optionality and variation in language development. Green is the author of African American English: A Linguistic Introduction (Cambridge University Press) and Language and the African American Child (Cambridge University Press).

Randall Hendrick is Professor of Linguistics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research focuses on syntactic theory. That work currently targets the syntax-semantics interface and computational theories of the interaction between memory and language.

Joseph Hill is Assistant Professor in the Specialized Education Services department at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. His research interests are sociohistorical and sociolinguistic aspects of African-American variety of American Sign Language and attitudes and ideologies about signing varieties in the American Deaf community. His contributions include The Hidden Treasure of Black ASL: Its History and Structure (2011), which he co-authored with Carolyn McCaskill, Ceil Lucas, and Robert Bayley, and Language Attitudes in the American Deaf Community (2012).

Sharroky Hollie is Executive Director of the Center for Culturally Responsive Teaching and Learning, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to building culturally responsive communities across the country. He is an assistant professor in teacher education for the California State University and co-founder of the Culture and Language Academy of Success laboratory school. His research primarily focuses on culturally and linguistically responsive instructional practices for K‒12 teachers and effective professional development.

Ramonda Horton, PhD, CCC-SLP is Associate Professor in the School of Communication Sciences and Disorders at Florida State University. Her research is (p. xxix) concerned with the development and assessment of language in children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Research publications have focused on the relationships between language performance, culture, African American English, and socioeconomic status.

David E. Kirkland is Associate Professor of English and Urban Education at New York University and bestselling author, activist, cultural critic, educator, and researcher. His transdisciplinary scholarship examines the intersections of language, race, and gender in the lives of urban youth. Kirkland has spent the last decade analyzing material and linguistic artifacts of groups of urban American youth and has expertise in critical literary, linguistic, and ethnographic research methods. He has received many awards for his groundbreaking work, including a 2011 NAEd Spencer Postdoctoral Fellowship and a 2009 Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship Award, among many others. He is well published, and has authored, co-authored, edited, or co-edited five books, including the TC Press bestseller, A Search Past Silence: The Literacy of Black Males, and the newly released, Students Right to Their Own Language, a critical sourcebook published by Bedford/St. Martin’s Press. He can be reached by email at:

Mary E. Kohn is Assistant Professor at Kansas State University. Her interests include language and ethnicity, regional variation, and language variation across adolescence. Her work has recently appeared in Language Variation and Change and the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. Her monograph on language variation across adolescence in AAL is forthcoming through Publications of the American Dialect Society.

William A. Kretzschmar, Jr. is Harry and Jane Willson Professor in Humanities at the University of Georgia. He also has appointments at the University of Glasgow and the University of Oulu. He is Editor of the American Linguistic Atlas Project, the oldest and largest national research project to survey how people speak differently across the country, which has led to his preparation of American pronunciations for the online Oxford English Dictionary. He also maintains a community-language field site in Roswell, GA. He has been influential in development of digital methods for analysis and presentation of language variation, including application of complexity science.

William Labov is Professor of Linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania. He has carried out research on African American English in New York City and Philadelphia, With Bettina Baker, he has developed and tested programs for raising literacy levels in low-income schools in Philadelphia, Atlanta, and Southern California. He is a senior author of Portals to Reading, an Intervention Program for Grades 3–8 (Houghton-Mifflin-Harcourt).

Ceil Lucas is Professor of Linguistics, Emerita at Gallaudet University, where she has taught since 1982. She was raised in Guatemala City and Rome, Italy. She is a sociolinguist with broad interests in the structure and use of sign languages. She has co-authored and edited many articles and books, including The Linguistics of American Sign Language, 5th ed. (with Clayton Valli, Kristin Mulrooney, and Miako Villanueva, (p. xxx) 2010) and The Hidden Treasure of Black ASL: Its History and Structure (co-authored with Carolyn McCaskill, Robert Bayley, and Joseph Hill).

Ayesha M. Malik is a dual-major undergraduate in Political Science and Anthropology at the University of Texas at San Antonio. She attributes her love of linguistics to her family, William Ziller, and Dr. Sonja Lanehart and she would like to thank them in supporting her throughout the process of working on OHAAL. Her research interests center on the intersectionality of language, culture, identity, and religion, particularly in examining the relationship between Hip Hop Nation Language and Islam, as well as the Hindi-Urdu language controversy in the respective histories, religions, and politics of India and Pakistan. She is also interested in researching linguistic identity in her community of Alief, Texas.

Allyssa McCabe, is Professor of Psychology at University of Massachusetts Lowell. She studies how narrative develops with age, how parents and teachers can facilitate narrative development, and cultural differences in narration. She is coauthor of a theoretical approach to early literacy called the Comprehensive Language Approach, which looks at ways that various strands of oral and written language affect each other in acquiring full literacy. She has published a book, Chameleon Readers: Teaching Children to Appreciate All Kinds of Good Stories (1996).

Carolyn McCaskill is Professor in the ASL and Deaf Studies Department at Gallaudet University and has taught in that department since 1996. She attended the Alabama School for the Negro Deaf in Talladega and was in the first integrated class in 1968 at the Alabama School for the Deaf. She received her M.A. degree in Counseling with the Deaf, B.A. in Psychology and PhD in Administration and Supervision from Gallaudet University. Carolyn has conducted numerous seminars and workshops related to Black Deaf people.

Monique T. Mills, is Assistant Professor in the Department of Speech and Hearing Science at The Ohio State University. Dr. Mills is an affiliate faculty of the Institute for Population Research. Her research explores the social, cognitive, and linguistic resources that school-age African American English-speaking children draw upon to narrate. She teaches courses in language acquisition, multicultural aspects of communication and its disorders, and language disorders of later childhood.

Simanique Moody is Assistant Professor at Leiden University. She teaches in the Leiden University Centre for Linguistics and the Bachelor of International Studies program. Simanique is a sociolinguist and a creolist whose current research examines regional variation in African American English and Gullah/Geechee and the historical relationship between these two varieties. Her other scholarly interests include language contact, language variation, language change, language and ethnicity, and language and culture.

Marcyliena Morgan is Professor in the Department of African and African American Studies at Harvard University and the Executive Director of the Hiphop Archive. She received her PhD from the Graduate School of Education at the University of (p. xxxi) Pennsylvania. Her research interests include: urban speech communities; the African Diaspora; language, culture, and identity; discourse strategies; verbal performance; Hip Hop language and culture; and language and education. Marcyliena Morgan has conducted field research on the African Diaspora, identity and language in the United States, England, and the Caribbean. She has received major grants from the Ford Foundation and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). She is the author of many publications that focus on youth, gender, language, culture, identity, sociolinguistics, discourse, and interaction, including Language, Discourse and Power in African American Culture (Cambridge University Press, 2002), The Real Hiphop—Battling for Knowledge, Power, and Respect in the Underground (Duke University Press, 2008), and Speech Communities: Key Topics in Linguistic Anthropology (Cambridge University Press, 2014).

Salikoko S. Mufwene is Frank J. McLoraine Distinguished Service Professor of Linguistics and the College at the University of Chicago, where he also serves as Professor on the Committee on Evolutionary Biology and on the Committee on the Conceptual and Historical Studies of Science. His current research is on language evolution, including the indigenization of English and other colonial European languages worldwide. He is the author of The Ecology of Language Evolution (Cambridge University Press, 2001), Créoles, écologie sociale, évolution linguistique (l’Harmattan, 2005), and Language Evolution: Contact, Competition and Change (Continuum Press, 2008); and the (co-)editor of Africanisms in Afro-American Language Varieties (UGA Press, 1993) and African American English: Structure, History and Use (Routledge, 1998). He edits the book series Cambridge Approaches to Language Contact.

Brandi L. Newkirk-Turner, PhD, CCC-SLP is Assistant Professor in the Department of Communicative Disorders at Jackson State University. Her current research examines language acquisition in the context of dialect variation and multicultural issues that are relevant to the speech-language assessment of nonmainstream dialect speakers, with a particular emphasis on AAE-speaking children.

Luiza Newlin-Łukowicz is a PhD candidate in the Linguistics Department at New York University. She holds an M.A. in English Linguistics from Eastern Michigan University and an M.A. in English Philology from Adam Mickiewicz University. Her research employs socio-phonetic methodologies to investigate how social and cognitive factors determine the outcomes of language contact and the diffusion of regional variation. She has studied how minority groups, such as African Americans, Caribbean Americans, and Polish Americans, utilize linguistic variation to project complex ethno-racial identities. Building on this work, her current research integrates acoustic methods, formal approaches to linguistics, and social theory to investigate how White ethnics use language to construct their identities in multicultural contexts.

Janna B. Oetting is Professor in the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders and the Interdisciplinary Program in Linguistics at Louisiana State University. Her research and teaching interests are in child language acquisition and child language disorders within the context of different dialects of English. She also (p. xxxii) conducts research and teaches on topics related to the effects of poverty on children’s acquisition of language, language testing, and language services for children from low-income families.

James Braxton Peterson is Director of Africana Studies and Associate Professor of English at Lehigh University. His first book, The Hip Hop Underground and African American Culture, was published by Palgrave Macmillan Press (2014). He is also the founder of Hip Hop Scholars, LLC, an association of Hip Hop generational scholars dedicated to researching and developing the cultural and educational potential of Hip Hop, urban, and youth cultures. Peterson is a regular blogger for the Huffington Post, a contributor to, and he has written opinion pieces for,, and The Daily Beast. He is currently an MSNBC contributor and has appeared on MSNBC, Al-Jazeera, CNN, HLN, Fox News, CBS, ABC News, ESPN, and other networks as an expert on race, politics, and popular culture.

Jacquelyn Rahman is Associate Professor of Linguistics at Miami University. Her research focuses primarily on topics related to linguistic expressions of social consciousness. She has written about the origin and perpetuation of epithets and slurs, as they emerge from ideologies. Publications in that area include a formal analysis of the history and use of the N-word in the African American community. Further publications address linguistic practices and attitudes of the African American middle class and African American pop culture as social commentary. More broadly, Rahman has written about historic stereotyped representations of various racial and ethnic groups in the media.

Howard Rambsy II is Associate Professor of English at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, where he teaches courses on American and African American literature. He has written articles and curated mixed media exhibits focusing on literary history, poetry, and the intersections of race and technology.

John R. Rickford is J. E. Wallace Sterling Professor of Linguistics and the Humanities at Stanford University, and President (2015) of the Linguistic Society of America. His main interest is the study of language variation and change in relation to linguistic and social constraints (like ethnicity, social class) and style, and using linguistics to address educational, legal, and other challenges confronting vernacular speakers. His data come primarily from US Englishes, especially African American Vernacular English, and English-based creoles, including his native Guyanese Creole. The author of many articles, he is (co-) author or (co-) editor of several books, including Dimensions of a Creole Continuum; African American Vernacular English; Spoken Soul: The Story of Black English (winner of an American Book Award); Style and Sociolinguistic Variation; Language in the USA: Themes for the 21st Century; Language, Culture and Caribbean Identity; and African American, Creole, and Other Vernacular Englishes in Education. For more information, visit

Tyson L. Rose is Director of the Upward Bound Program and graduate student at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Tyson is a lecturer and facilitator who has taught numerous courses and workshops which focus on: social justice, critical pedagogy, (p. xxxiii) critical theory, and Hip Hop‒based educational practices. Tyson’s research and practice interests include critical, social justice Hip Hop pedagogy, and social justice‒based educational leadership and organizational development. In addition Tyson is one of the original members and organizers of 3rd EyE Unlimited, a Hip Hop‒based youth advocacy, activist, and community organization and is a member of the Julius Ford/Harriet Tubman Healthy Living Community, an organization dedicated to fostering social justice and healthy, vibrant communities through critical thinking, leadership development, self-expression, cultural exchange, and environmental sustainability.

Edgar W. Schneider is Chair and Professor of English Linguistics at the University of Regensburg, Germany. In his dissertation (published as American Earlier Black English, University of Alabama Press, 1989) he analyzed the WPA ex-slave narratives, and he has continued to investigate diachronically relevant sources of African American and other dialects, next to his more recent research specialization in “World Englishes.” He has published and lectured on all continents on topics in the dialectology, sociolinguistics, and history of English and its varieties. He edited the scholarly journal English World-Wide for many years and has written and edited about twenty books, including Handbook of Varieties of English (Mouton, 2004, 2008), Postcolonial English (Cambridge University Press, 2007), and English around the World (Cambridge University Press, 2011).

Cara Shousterman is a PhD candidate in the Department of Linguistics at New York University. She began her linguistic studies with a B.A. from McGill University in Montreal, Quebec. Her work on African American English and West Indian American English has appeared in English Today and the Journal of English Linguistics. Her research interests are centered on variation and change in American English, and the ways in which language interacts with ethnicity. Her dissertation “Speaking English in Spanish Harlem: Language Change in Puerto Rican English” is a sociolinguistic study of New York‒born Puerto Ricans affiliated with a neighborhood community center in East Harlem, New York, which explores how community change is reflected in language. She is a regular contributor to ‘Word. The Online Journal on African American English’ (

John Victor Singler is Professor of Linguistics at New York University. He holds an M.A. and PhD in linguistics from UCLA and an M.A. in African Area Studies from the University of London (SOAS). His ties to Liberia date to 1969, when he began his teaching career in Greenville, Sinoe County. Grants from the NSF, NEH, and Fulbright have supported his study of English in Liberia. His linguistic interests span language contact, variationist sociolinguistics, phonology, pidgins and creoles, the history of African American English, African languages, endangered languages, and language in New York City. He is the author of An Introduction to Liberian English. With Silvia Kouwenberg, he co-edited The Handbook of Pidgin and Creole Studies.

Walter Sistrunk is a visiting professor of English at the College of Staten Island City University of New York and research associate at the Center for the Study of (p. xxxiv) African American Language and the Language Acquisition Lab at the University of Massachusetts. He has a PhD in African American and African Studies from Michigan State University. His research interests are syntax, syntactic variation, and language acquisition. Currently, Walter is investigating the acquisition of relative clauses in African American English, and the correlation between the absence of relative pronouns in relative clauses and its correlation with the occurrence of other structures in African American English such as vacuous movement, resumptive pronouns, and the absence of X-trace effects. In the area of language and culture, Walter is interested in women’s use of language in Hip Hop and Dancehall, the linguistic origins of rap, and language contact.

Richard L. Smith is Mark L. Reed III Distinguished Professor of Statistics and Professor of Biostatistics in the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and Director of the Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute. His research is in environmental statistics and associated areas of methodological research such as spatial statistics, time series analysis, and extreme value theory, with applications including climate change and the health effects of air pollution. His honors include Fellow of the American Statistical Association and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, Elected Member of the International Statistical Institute, and the Guy Medal in Silver of the Royal Statistical Society.

Geneva Smitherman is University Distinguished Professor Emerita of English and Executive Committee member of African American and African Studies at Michigan State University (MSU). A pioneering scholar-activist in Sociolinguistics and Black Studies, Smitherman was a member of the first faculty in “Afro-American Studies” at Harvard University, and she helped create Black Studies programs at Wayne State University and MSU. She was the chief expert witness and advocate for the children in King v. Ann Arbor (the “Black English” Federal court case). Since 1972, she has worked on the Conference on College Composition and Communication’s “Students’ Right to Their Own Language” and related language policy issues. She is internationally known and has received several awards for her research, which includes language policy and planning in South Africa, challenging myths about African American Language, and advocating for the language rights of marginalized communities around the globe. She has authored and edited/co-edited fifteen books and monographs and more than 125 articles, essays, and published opinion pieces. Dr. Smitherman’s latest book, Articulate While Black: Barack Obama, Language and Race in the U.S., is co-authored with Dr. H. Samy Alim.

Arthur K. Spears is Presidential Professor at The City University of New York (CUNY). He is a member of the Linguistics and Anthropology Programs at the CUNY Graduate Center and chair of the Anthropology Department at The City College. His research spans linguistic anthropology, sociolinguistics, pidgins/creoles and language contact, grammatical analysis, race and ethnicity, education, and ideology. The languages he specializes in are African American English and Haitian Creole, along with (p. xxxv) other French-related creole languages. Prof. Spears is the founder and first editor of Transforming Anthropology, a journal of the American Anthropological Association and is a former president of the Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics. His latest book is Languages and Dialects in the U.S.: Focus on Diversity and Linguistics (co-editor, 2014).

Ida J. Stockman, PhD, CCC-SLP, is a speech-language pathologist and Professor Emerita at Michigan State University (MSU). Her scholarly work helped to change the framework from a deficit to difference approach to investigating the language of young African American children in research, teaching, and professional credentialing practices. This work is included among more than 200 scholarly contributions inclusive of refereed and invited journal publications, book chapters, and conference/workshop presentations. An MSU Distinguished Faculty awardee in 1996, Stockman is also a Fellow of the American Speech, Language and Hearing Association and a recipient of its Honors in 2006.

J. Michael Terry is Associate Professor of Linguistics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research focuses on semantic theory. That work currently targets the semantics of tense and aspect in dialects of American English with particular emphasis on African American English.

Erik R. Thomas is a Professor at North Carolina State University. His research interests lie in sociophonetics, the overlap of language variation and phonetics. He has published widely on minority dialects, including the language of African Americans, and is currently working on a project on Mexican American English. He is also interested in ways that sociophonetic research can be expanded to encompass cognitive and neurolinguistic approaches.

K. C. Nat Turner is Associate Professor of Teacher Education and Curriculum Studies at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Currently he is head of the concentration of Language, Literacy and Culture and coordinates programs in Bilingual, ESL, Multicultural and Reading & Writing. Dr. Turner’s socially engaged scholarship and courses span the areas of language and literacy practices of culturally and linguistically diverse urban adolescents (particularly African Americans) in school and non-school settings; racial justice/reparations in education; Hip Hop culture and studies of emergent technologies in community/school/university collaborations. In addition, Dr. Turner has served as faculty advisor for Student Bridges a student-initiated outreach program connecting UMass students with community-based organizations, schools and tutoring-mentoring, college awareness and policy initiatives.

Gerard Van Herk is Canada Research Chair in Regional Language and Oral Text at Memorial University of Newfoundland. His research generally involves quantitative analysis of morphological and syntactic variables (question formation, past temporal reference, the simple present, negation) in varieties of English (African American, Barbadian, Québec, and especially Newfoundland). He is interested in questions of identity, local-ness, salience, and gender performance. He has published or presented (p. xxxvi) about 100 papers on sociolinguistic topics. He is also interested in the teaching of Linguistics, including how to integrate primary research into the undergraduate classroom. He is the author of What is Sociolinguistics? (2012) and the co-editor of Data Collection in Sociolinguistics (2013).

Janneke Van Hofwegen is a PhD candidate in linguistics at Stanford University. A sociolinguist primarily, she focuses her research on ethnic and world varieties of English. At Stanford, she is a contributing member of the Voices of California research team, where she documents and analyzes sociophonetic variation in the as-yet understudied California inland (non-urban) dialect region, with particular attention paid to minority ethnic and LGBT communities. In addition to her work at Stanford, she is an associate on the North Carolina Language and Life Project (NCLLP), where she studies morphosyntactic variation in African American English from a one-of-a-kind longitudinal sample of African American children, as well as sociophonetic variation in both African American and Chicano Englishes.

James A. Walker is Associate Professor of Linguistics at York University (Toronto). An expert in variationist sociolinguistics, his research interests include phonology, morphology, syntax, language contact, pidgins and creoles, and ethnicity.

Julie A. Washington is Professor in the Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education’s Communication Sciences and Disorders program. Dr. Washington is an affiliate faculty of the Research on the Challenges of Acquiring Language and Literacy initiative and the Urban Child Study Center at Georgia State University.

Tracey L. Weldon is Associate Professor in the English Department and the Linguistics Program at the University of South Carolina. She is a quantitative sociolinguist, specializing in language variation, with a particular focus on Gullah and other African American Language varieties. Weldon is currently writing a book on Middle-Class African American English.

Jessica White-Sustaíta received her PhD in Linguistics from The University of Texas at Austin in 2012 and is currently an instructor of English as a Second Language at the Texas Intensive English Program in Austin. Her research focuses on both formal and social properties of individual and cross-linguistic variation and change among closely related systems in North America and the Caribbean, with a concentration on African American English, New Orleans varieties, and English-based creoles.

Briana Whiteside is a graduate PhD student at the University of Alabama Tuscaloosa. Her research interests include Black feminism, science fiction, and representations of Black women in popular culture. She has produced research and writing on Octavia Butler, The Black Panther Party, and natural hair. She earned her B.A. in English at Tougaloo College in Mississippi and her M.A. in English at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.

Rose Wilkerson is Lecturer at the University of California at Berkeley. She holds a PhD in Linguistics with a specialization in African American English. Her areas of research (p. xxxvii) are the speech of single black mothers in the Mississippi Delta and the representation of US ethnic dialects in video games. Dr. Wilkerson has had nearly a decade of teaching courses on US minority languages and has taught at different academic institutions, such as University of California at Berkeley, Indiana University at Bloomington, Williams College, and Washington University in St. Louis.

Donald Winford is Professor of Linguistics at The Ohio State University. He did his undergraduate degree in English at King’s College, University of London and his PhD in Linguistics at the University of York, England. His teaching and research interests are in creole linguistics, variationist sociolinguistics, contact linguistics, and African-American English. He is the author of Predication in Caribbean English Creoles (1993) and An Introduction to Contact Linguistics (2003). He has been editor of the Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages since August 2001.

Walt Wolfram is William C. Friday Distinguished University Professor at North Carolina State University, where he also directs the North Carolina Language and Life Project. He has pioneered research on social and ethnic dialects of American English since the 1960s, including early research on the descriptive status of African American Language in the urban North and later work on its regional distribution in the rural South. His current research focus is on the development of AAE during the early lifespan, based on a unique longitudinal database that spans twenty years.

Toya A. Wyatt, is Professor in the Department of Human Communication Studies, Communicative Disorders program at California State University, Fullerton. Dr. Wyatt’s primary areas of teaching and research focus on the language development and clinical speech and language assessment of children from African American English dialect and bilingual backgrounds. She is the author of several publications dealing with speech-language assessment of children and adults from culturally and linguistically diverse populations. She has also served as an associate editor and an editorial and test bias review consultant for Communication Sciences and Disorders professional journals and test development companies.

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