- The Oxford Handbook of African American Language
- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- About the Editor
- List of Contributors
- Language Use in African American Communities: An Introduction
- The English Origins Hypothesis
- The Creole Origins Hypothesis
- The Emergence of African American English: Monogenetic or Polygenetic? With or Without “Decreolization”? Under How Much Substrate Influence?
- The Origins of African American Vernacular English: Beginnings
- African American English over Yonder: The Language of the Liberian Settler Community
- Documenting the History of African American Vernacular English: A Survey and Assessment of Sources and Results
- Regionality in the Development of African American English
- The Place of Gullah in the African American Linguistic Continuum
- Rural Texas African American Vernacular English
- African American English in the Mississippi Delta: A Case Study of Copula Absence and r-Lessness in the Speech of African American Women in Coahoma County
- African American Voices in Atlanta
- African American Language in Pittsburgh and the Lower Susquehanna Valley
- African American Phonology in a Philadelphia Community
- African American Language in New York City
- African American Vernacular English in California: Over Four Decades of Vibrant Variationist Research
- The Black ASL (American Sign Language) Project: An Overview
- The Sociolinguistic Construction of African American Language
- Syntax and Semantics in African American English
- The Systematic Marking of Tense, Modality, and Aspect in African American Language
- On the Syntax-Prosody Interface in African American English
- Segmental Phonology of African American English
- Prosodic Features of African American English
- Language Acquisition in the African American Child: Prior to Age Four
- The Development of African American English through Childhood and Adolescence
- Development of Variation in Child African American English
- Narrative Structures of African American Children: Commonalities and Differences
- Some Similarities and Differences Between African American English and Southern White English in Children
- Assessing the Language Skills of African American English Child Speakers: Current Approaches and Perspectives
- African American Language and Education: History and Controversy in the Twentieth Century
- Managing Two Varieties: Code-Switching in the Educational Context
- Balancing Pedagogy with Theory: The Infusion of African American Language Research into Everyday Pre-K‒12 Teaching Practices
- History of Research on Multiliteracies and Hip Hop Pedagogy: A Critical Review
- African American Vernacular English and Reading
- Dialect Switching and Mathematical Reasoning Tests: Implications for Early Educational Achievement
- Beyond Bidialectalism: Language Planning and Policies for African American Students
- African American Church Language
- The (Re)turn to Remus Orthography: The Voices of African American Language in American Literature
- African American Language and Black Poetry
- African American Divas of Comedy: Staking a Claim in Public Space
- The Construction of Ethnicity via voicing: African American English in Children’s Animated Film
- SWB (Speaking while Black): Linguistic Profiling and Discrimination Based on Speech as a Surrogate for Race against Speakers of African American Vernacular English
- Racializing Language: Unpacking Linguistic Approaches to Attitudes about Race and Speech
- African American Standard English
- African American English in the Middle Class
- African American Women’s Language: Mother Tongues Untied
- Black Masculine Language
- Hip Hop Nation Language: Localization and Globalization
- African American Language and Identity: Contradictions and Conundrums
- Author Index
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
The primary goal of this chapter is to contribute to the growing literature on the role that language may (or may not) play in the academic performance of African American students who are speakers of African American English (AAE) by advancing understanding of the mechanisms by which language affects academic achievement. We identify specific structural features of AAE, whose divergences from Standard Classroom English (SCE), we contend, pose problems by creating a significant additional cognitive load for young AAE speakers who are taught and tested in SCE. Specifically, we use a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo model to explore the hypothesis that the morphosyntactic organization of AAE has significant, variable effects on second grade African American students’ performance on the Woodcock-Johnson-R Test of Applied Problems. Our model predicts that the average student in this group would answer 9 percent more questions correctly if the issue of linguistic interference were removed.
Keywords: African American English (AAE), Standard Classroom English (SCE), academic achievement, academic performance, Woodcock-Johnson-R Test of Applied Problems, Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo model
J. Michael Terry is Associate Professor of Linguistics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research focuses on semantic theory. That work currently targets the semantics of tense and aspect in dialects of American English with particular emphasis on African American English.
Randall Hendrick is Professor of Linguistics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research focuses on syntactic theory. That work currently targets the syntax-semantics interface and computational theories of the interaction between memory and language.
Evangelos Evangelou is Lecturer in Statistics at the University of Bath. His research is in methodology for estimation and prediction for spatial and spatial-temporal models, spatial sampling design, and Bayesian computational methods.
Richard L. Smith is Mark L. Reed III Distinguished Professor of Statistics and Professor of Biostatistics in the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and Director of the Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute. His research is in environmental statistics and associated areas of methodological research such as spatial statistics, time series analysis and extreme value theory, with applications including climate change and the health effects of air pollution. His honors include Fellow of the American Statistical Association and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, Elected Member of the International Statistical Institute, and the Guy Medal in Silver of the Royal Statistical Society.
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