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date: 04 July 2020

(p. 433) Index

(p. 433) Index

A
Abraham, R., 270
absorption, levels of, 95
abusive supervisor, 150, 302
academic-contingent self-esteem, 132
accidents, 277
accomplishment, diminished sense of, 269
action theory, 52
active violence, 298. See also workplace violence
activity engagement, 43
activity selection, 9697
activity valuation, 97, 98
adult attachment research, 109
affective commitment, 34, 3637, 39
affiliative behaviors, 54
agency theory, 200, 203204
aggression, 297300. See also workplace violence
Agnew, T.G., 42
Aitken, N.M., 319, 325
Akelof, G., 200
Akerlof, G.A., 205
Alderfer, C.P., 15
Alderfer’s theory, 167168, 170
Allen, D.G., 304
Allen, J.W., 128
Allen, N.J., 34, 35
Alm, J., 80
altruism, 75
Ambrose, M.L., 5, 28
Amiot, C., 101
Amiot, C.E., 238239
amotivated, 16
amotivation, 43, 110, 144, 194, 208, 233, 237238, 265, 324, 336. See also motivation
Andriessen, J.H.T.H., 277279
Anna Karenina (Tolstoy), 383
antecedent-focused strategies, 261
Anthony, D.B., 131
anticipation phase, 52
appearance-contingent self-esteem, 128, 132
Aquino, K., 304
Argyris, C., 26
Arthur, M.B., 188
Arthur, W.A., Jr., 143
Ashford, S.J., 52
Ashforth, B.E., 261, 262
Association of Women for Action and Research, 296
attachment anxiety, 114115
attachment avoidance, 115116
attachment security, 116117, 122
attachment styles, 114115
attachment theory
definition of, 109
relatedness support in workplace, 118119
research on concept of, 112113
stress regulation and, 113
attachment working models, 113114
attentional advice, 222
attraction-selection-attrition model, 149
attraction-selection-attrition-success theories, 393, 394395
attribution theory, 188
attrition, teacher, 351
Austin, S., 235, 237, 238
authenticity, 267268
authentic leadership, 189190
autonomous causality orientation, 183
autonomous goals, 402403
autonomous internalization, 97
autonomously motivated proactivity, 5859, 66
autonomously regulated proactivity, 6162, 6566
autonomous motivation. See also motivation
attachment anxiety and, 115
attachment avoidance and, 115116
attachment security and, 116117
compensation and, 208
complementary fit and, 153
controlled motivation and, 110111
controlled motivation vs., 221223, 408
definition of, 1617, 109, 220, 233234, 300, 317
facilitation of, 27
feedback and, 253
goal pursuit and, 402, 405406, 409
information sharing and, 253
job design and, 165166
job satisfaction and, 1718
job stressors and, 238239
knowledge sharing and, 422423
PE fit and, 152155
for proenvironmental behavior, 329330
self-reported, 408409
supplementary fit and, 153155
teachers and, 352353
toward environment, 324
training and, 221223
at workplace, 63, 282283, 416
autonomous self-regulation, 61, 176, 182, 186, 189, 247250, 299, 367370, 415
autonomous work group, 173174
autonomy
actual, 98
control vs., 4
controversy of, 2324
definition of, 366, 401402, 404
dependence vs., 23
goal pursuit and, 404
independence vs., 4, 183
interference, 121
job, 171
job characteristics model and, 169
need for, 1819, 144, 182183
in organizations, 64
perceived, 98
proactivity and, 5960
self-determination theory and, 2324
student, 353
support for, 6364
supportive of, 19
thriving and, 251
well-being and, 2324, 41
in the workplace, 121122
autonomy orientation, 20, 111, 182, 224, 301, 304
(p. 434) autonomy support
definition of, 301
goal pursuit and, 410411
peer, 303
receiving and giving, 353
structure and, 357
for students, 353
teacher-provided, 353354, 418419
autonomy-supportive environments, 150, 184
avoidant attachment, 114
Avolio, B.J., 189
B
Baard, P.P., 21, 44, 59, 182, 194195
Baillien, E., 308
Baird, E., 22, 408
Bakker, A.B., 58, 153, 174, 239
balanced processing of information, 189
Bamforth, K., 173
Bandura, A., 63
Barling, J., 63
Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, 9899
Barsoux, J.-L., 5859
Bartol, K.M., 22
basic psychological needs. See also need satisfaction; psychological need satisfaction
definition of, 111112
healthcare practitioners and, 367
satisfaction of, 366
workplace violence and, 304305
and work-related outcomes, 1618
Bateman, T.S., 52
Baum, J.R., 86, 95
Baumeister, R., 16
Baxter, D., 319
behavioral economics, 7375
behavioral engagement, 4243
behavioral leadership theory, 191192
behavioral systems, 112
behavior modification theory, 280
behaviors
controlling, 418
discretionary, 3839
drinking, 133
health-promoting, 266
intentional, 265
interfering, 122
internalization of, 321
motivated, 144
self-esteem effects on, 138
stages of change, 326327
Bell, M.P., 151
Bell, S.T., 143
belongingness, 16. See also relatedness
Bénabou, R., 77, 210, 212213
Bernstein, J.H., 18
Bhasi, M., 279
Biddle, B.J., 394
Bies, R.J., 202
Bindl, U.K., 5253, 57, 61
binge drinking, 133
Black, A.E., 222
Blais, M.R., 236, 239
Blanchard, C., 17, 101
Bognanno, M., 206
Bolino, M.C., 56
Bolle, F., 77
Bon Jovi, John, 85
Bono, J.E., 235, 402
bonuses, 210, 212
Bourdieu, P., 395
Bowlby, J., 112114
Bradfield, M., 304
Bradley, J.C., 279
Brière, N.M., 150, 236, 239
British Crime Survey, 296
Broaden-and-Build theory, 91
Brotheridge, C.M., 268
Brown, K.G., 220
Brown, K.W., 18
Brubaker, T.L., 278
Bruggeman, A., 60
Bu, N., 396
bullying, 297, 302, 303, 304305. See also workplace violence
Burke, M., 279
Burkhardt, M.E., 156
burnout, 135, 232, 233, 235, 238239, 268269, 337
Busch, H., 17
businesses. See corporations
business students
moral reasoning for, 387
students’ values and goals, 390391
Buss, A.H., 298
C
Caiman Consulting, 255
Callahan, J.S., 223
Campbell, D.J., 54, 173
Campion, M.A., 168169
can do motivation, 60, 61
Carbonneau, N., 90
Cardon, M.S., 86
Carver, C.S., 22, 408
Casper, W., 220
Cassidy, J., 114
causality
autonomous, 183
between commitment and motivational states, 39
direction of, 45
locus of, 2
causality orientations, 20, 21, 44, 304
Chakravarthy, S., 23
Chan, D., 56
Chan, K., 194
Chandler, M.M., 181
Charest, J., 92
charismatic leadership theory, 188189
Chen, Z., 191
Chirkov, V.I., 4, 23
choice, 2526, 27
Christian, M.S., 279
circumplex model, 388
citizenship behavior, 40
clan culture, 100
Clark, C.B., 133134
Clark, M.S., 132
Clegg, C.W., 173
coaching, 308
cognitive crafting, 255
cognitive developmental theory, 112
cognitive dissonance, 325
cognitive evaluation theory (CET), 12, 5, 28, 76, 207
cognitive neoassociation theory of aggression, 299300
cognitive processes, 90
Cohen, C.Y., 209
Cohen, S.G., 173
Collins, C.G., 55
Colquitt, J.A., 187, 219, 239240
commitment
behavioral implications of, 3637
binding nature of, 37
components of, 34
consequences of, 36
definition of, 3536
development of, 36, 4546
differences across cultures, 46
discretionary, 36
to display rules, 264265
and employee well-being, 41
mindsets of, 35
motivation and, 3742
organizational, 34
person-centered approach to, 415416
targets and, 3435
commitment profile, 37, 4041
commitment theory, general model of, 3437
communication of information
cognitive dissonance and, 325
conflicting messages, 325
environmental issues, 324327
message framing, 325327
message tailoring, 325327
noncontrolling, 355
Community Game, 80
compensation. See also rewards
bonuses, 210, 212
crowding-in effect, 76, 7981
crowding-out effect, 7679, 210
economic theories about, 203206
efficiency wage theory and, 200, 204205
equity theory and, 202
expectancy theory, 201202
fair wage model of, 200, 205
free-rider effect, 211
goal-setting theory and, 203
history of, 199200
as an incentive, 199, 406
merit pay, 207
motivational effects of, 212, 415
(p. 435) need satisfaction and, 301
negative effects of, 203
organizational justice theory and, 202203
organizational psychology theories, 200203
pay-for-performance, 7273, 7679, 166, 207
performance and, 206207, 210211
piece-rate pay, 166
self-determination theory and, 208, 419420
skill-based pay, 211212
tournament theory, 200, 205206
wage dispersion, 206
workplace violence and, 303304
compensation plans, 211
competence
definition of, 182, 366
environmental turbulence and, 253254
leadership and, 183
need for, 2, 19
perceived, 221
rewards and, 211
vitality and, 252
well-being and, 41
in the workplace, 120121
competence motivation, 120
competition, 25, 420
complementary fit, 146147, 153
Conger, J.A., 188
Connell, J.P., 3, 64, 369
consensual racism, 390
consideration, 191192, 195
constructs of interest, 130
contamination effect, 27
contingent domains, 128
contingent engagement, 4344
contingent self-esteem
academic, 132
appearance and body concerns, 132
behavioral effects of, 138
in Chinese populations, 130
contingent domains, 128
definition of, 127128
domain-specific, 129130
drinking behavior, 133
internal vs. external, 131
job performance and, 137138
measures of, 129131
narcissism and, 133134
negative relationship events, 133
noncontingent domains, 128
in organizations, 134137
as overall construct, 130
perfectionism and, 133
relationships and, 132133
research findings for, 131134
self-determination theory and, 128129
self- vs. other-, 131
self-worth, 129
social motivation and, 134
well-being and, 133, 138
on workplace performance, 134137
continuance commitment, 34, 3639
controlled, 16
controlled internalization, 97
controlled motivation
autonomous motivation vs., 408409
definition of, 110111, 208, 220222, 233234, 300, 317
self-control vs., 56
toward environment, 324
well-being and, 22, 237238
controlled orientation, 20
controlled regulation, 5657
controlled safety motivation, 281282
controlling incentives, 323324
control orientation, 111, 235236, 301, 304
control systems theory, 112
control vs. autonomy, 4
Conyon, M.J., 206
Cooper, C.L., 302
Corbett, J.M., 173
corporations. See also organizations
environmental practices of, 316
environmental sustainability and, 315316, 323324
proenvironmental behavior, 315316
volunteer work and, 425
corruption effect, 73
Cossette, M., 267, 271
cost-procedures-processes-outcomes-analysis (CPPOA) technique, 338341
CPPOA technique, 338341
Crawford, E.R., 232
creativity, 423424
criminal violence, 297. See also workplace violence
Crocker, J., 128133
crowding-in effect, 76, 7981
crowding-out effect, 7679, 210
Croyle, M.H., 264265
cues, 248249
Cullen, J.C., 40
D
Dammeyer, M.M., 388
Danner, F.W., 120
Dansereau, F., 190
Das, R., 23
Dawson, S., 377
Day, D.V., 190
death instinct, 298. See also workplace violence
DeCharms, R., 12, 207, 211, 357
Deci, E.L.
on autonomous motivation at workplace, 2324, 27, 64, 170, 171, 186, 317, 366
on autonomy-supportive leaders, 222
on compensation, 200, 207, 209, 211
on competence, 60, 120
on contingent self-esteem, 128
on ego-involvement, 2
on engagement, 44
on goal theories, 401402
on interference, 121
on internalization, 64, 184
on job stress, 239
on locus of causality, 76
on manager training, 338
on motivation, 145, 235236
on need support, 1617, 369
self-determination theory, 1, 208
on self-regulation, 368
on work behavior, 110111, 172
on workplace safety, 291
decision-making discretion, 252253
decision-making frames, 80
decision phase of behavior change, 326327
deep acting, 262263, 269270
dehumanization, 303
deliberate practice, 95
demands-abilities (DA) fit, 146, 151, 155156, 157
demotivation. See amotivation
depersonalization, 269
Descartes, 86
desires. See need strength
detection phase of behavior change, 326327
deviant behavior, 297, 416
De Winne, S., 221
De Witte, H., 22, 234235, 239, 308
Diefendorff, J.M., 58, 147148, 152, 181, 224225, 264265
diminished sense of accomplishment, 269
direct evidence, 306
direct fit, 147
direct violence, 298. See also workplace violence
discomfort, 325
discretion, 252253
discretionary behaviors, 3839
discretionary commitment, 36
discriminant validity, 134135
disengagement, 42, 4344
display rules, 264265, 267, 271
distributive justice, 80, 192, 202
DMP (dualistic model of passion), 8688
domain-specific contingent self-esteem, 129130
domestic violence, 297. See also workplace violence
Dormann, C., 240
Doverspike, D., 143
Drasgow, F., 194
drinking behaviors, 133
drive theory, 1
dualistic model of passion (DMP), 8688
dual valuing process model, 391395
Duriez, B., 391
Dussault, M., 235
(p. 436) Dutton, J.E., 175, 246, 251
Dysvik, A., 171, 220, 238
E
economic growth, 314315
economics. See behavioral economics
economic utility analysis
applied to SDT, 338340
overview of, 337338
Edwards, J.R., 147
effectance motivation, 12, 120
effective goal regulation, 61
efficiency wage theory, 200, 204205
Eghrari, H., 128, 184
ego-depletion, 416
ego-development, 20
ego-involvement, 23
Ehrenberg, R.G., 206
Einarsen, S., 302, 304
e-learning training programs, 224. See also training and development (TAD)
Electric Monitoring and Surveillance Survey, 420421
electronic monitoring, 420421
Elliot, A.J., 144, 154
Elsbach, K., 176
Ely, K., 220
Emmons, R.A., 117
emotional abuse, 297. See also workplace violence
emotional dissonance, 260, 261, 262, 270
emotional exhaustion, 268269
emotional intelligence, 9899
emotional labor
deep acting, 262, 263, 269
definition of, 260, 261
display rules and, 264265
employee well-being and, 268269
integrative model of, 261262
job performance and, 269270
motivation to perform, 263271
naturally felt emotions, 262263
negative, 271
personality traits related to, 271272
regulating at workplace, 260263, 416417
regulation process, 261262
role internalization and, 263264
self-determination theory and, 265267
self-determined motivation and, 265269
strategies, 262263, 267268
surface acting, 262, 263, 269
emotional skills, importance of, 259260
emotion regulation model, 261262, 269
employee engagement, 4245
employee well-being. See well-being
energy, 250252
engagement
behavioral, 4243
categories of, 4344
climate for, 44
definition of, 4243
development of, 4445
evidence-based model of, 4245
model for, 4345
proactivity and, 61
thriving and, 248
trait, 43
environmental activism, 320
environmental effects on basic psychological needs, 1821
environmental degradation, 325
environmental governance, 323324
environmental health risks, 320321
environmental sustainability
in a business’ mission, 328
communication strategy, 324327
conflicting messages, 325
corporations and, 315316
definition of, 315
degrading products, 315
economic growth and, 314315
government’s approach to, 323324
natural, 322323, 331
proenvironmental behavior, 315316
sustainable development and, 315
environmental turbulence, 253254
environmental volatility, 253254
Enzle, M.E., 291
epistemic authority, 392
equity theory, 202
Erez, A., 402
Eriksson, T., 206
eros, 298
ethical leadership, 189
ethics, 386387
Ethier, N., 128
ethology, 112
European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks, 296
“The Evolving Self” model, 381382
ex ante rewards, 210, 212213
expectancy theory, 201202
explanatory rationales, 355
exploration drive, 1
exploration systems, 112
ex post rewards, 212213
external motivation, 53, 282
external regulation, 38, 110, 145, 208, 317
external rewards, 55. See also rewards
extrinsic aspirations, 2122, 405408
extrinsic goals, 144, 389390, 407
extrinsic incentives, 77
extrinsic motivation
compensation and, 207, 208
definition of, 3, 16, 265, 336
external regulation and, 145
leadership and, 193
management and, 26
passion and, 88
proenvironmental behavior, 326
prosocial behavior and, 75
for teachers, 350
extrinsic regulation, 51
extrinsic rewards. See rewards
F
fairness, 80, 419
fair-wage hypothesis, 205
fair wage model, 200, 205
Fang, Y., 170
Fay, D., 52
feedback, 169, 253
“feeling rules,” 260261
Feeney, B.C., 118122
Fehr, E., 80
Feld, L., 7980
Feldman, D.C., 261
felt competence, 120
felt security, 112
Fernet, C., 235, 237, 238
Ferris, D.L., 135
“fight or flight,” 113
financial aspirations, 406
financial autonomy, 380381
financial behaviors, 382
financial beliefs and values, 377378
financial functionality, 379383
financial innocence, 376377
financial knowledge, 379
financial maturity, 380381
financial mindfulness, 382
financial motivation, 375, 382383
financial need belief constructions, 377379
financial self-efficacy, 378, 379380
financial suffering, 376
financial values, 377
Fine, S., 42
flexible role orientation, 54
flight or fight, 300
flow, 90, 153
Ford, J.K., 225
Forest, J., 80, 92, 99
Fortier, M.S., 150
Foster, S.L., 340
Fox, S., 308
Frederickson, B.L., 93
free-choice period, 2
free-rider effect, 211
Frese, M., 52, 240
Freud, S., 298, 375
Frey, B., 72, 76, 77, 7980, 210
Frey, D., 80
Fromm, E., 405
frustration-aggression hypothesis, 299
Fuhrmann, A., 404
full engagement, 4344
Fuller, J.B., 64
Future Work Self, 55, 64
G
Gagné, M.
on autonomous motivation at workplace, 63, 170, 184, 185, 366
on commitment, 39
on compensation, 209
on fairness, 80
(p. 437) on internalization, 64
on motivation, 145, 306
on need satisfaction, 18, 20
on psychological empowerment, 171
on training transfer, 224
Gamst, G., 285
Gardner, W.L., 189
Garnett, F., 247
Gellatly, I.R., 40
general causality orientation, 44, 109, 111, 301
General Causality Orientations Scale, 236
George, J.M., 219
Gerhart, B., 73
Gerstner, C.R., 190
Gibson, C., 247, 254
gift/counter-gift, exchange of, 205
Glasø, L., 302
Gneezy, U., 78
goal attainment, 248249
goal autonomy, 402, 404
goal differentiation, 117
goal-directed behavioral systems, 112
goal-framing theory, 7677
goal integration, 117
goal pursuit
autonomous goals, 402403
extrinsic aspirations, 405408
extrinsic goals, 407
financial aspirations, 406
implementation intentions, 401, 403404
intrinsic aspirations, 405408
intrinsic goals, 407
motivational role of other people, 409411
motives behind, 408409, 418
nature of, 401
self-determination theory perspective on, 402, 411
SMART goals, 400401
social support, 409
in work settings, 402
goal-setting theory, 203
goal-system organization, 117118
goal training program, 403
Goldman, B.G., 130
Gollwitzer, P.M., 326
Gomez-Mejia, L.R., 204
González, M.G., 369
Gorin, A.A., 410
Gosserand, R.H., 264
Gould, D., 211
Gouveia, L., 407
Graen, G., 190
Grandey, A.A., 261262
Grant, A.M., 52, 5556, 60, 62, 172173, 225, 246
Grant, J.M., 52
Greenberg, J., 202
Green-Demers, I., 318319
Greguras, G.J., 58, 147148, 152, 224225
Griffin, M.A., 278, 279, 291292
Griffin, R.W., 302
Groessl, E.J., 337
Gross, J.J., 260261
group cohesion, 119
group compensation, 211. See also compensation
Grover, S.L., 304
“growth need strength,” 170
Guarino, A.J., 285
Guay, F., 150, 237
Guimond, S., 390, 393
Gunz, A., 407
Gupta, N., 77
H
Hackett, R.D., 191
Hackman, J.R., 15, 151, 169, 171, 185
Haga, W.J., 190
Hahn, V.C., 56
Halbesleben, J.R.B., 303
Hallsten, L., 135
harassment, 297
harmonious passion, 8788, 90, 9396, 97
Harmon-Jones, E., 325
Harrison, D., 151
Hart, P.M., 278
Hauge, L.J., 304
Hawthorne effect, 166167
Hazan, C., 114
hazard management, 277
health and wellness, 363364, 421
health gradient. See also job stress
definition of, 363
determinants of, 364365
morbidity and mortality rates, 364
occupational status, 364
psychosocial determinants, 369371, 416
social support at work, 365
using self-determination theory, 369371
Whitehall studies, 364365
health-promoting behavior, 266
Hebb, D.O., 1
hedonistic preference, 75
Hegel, 85, 86, 94
Heider, F., 211
Henrich, J., 75
Herscovitch, L., 35, 3637, 3839
Herzberg, F., 26, 167168, 200, 207
Hess, U., 239
Hetland, J., 302
“hidden cost of rewards,” 73
Ho, V.T., 95
Hochschild, A.R., 260261, 268
Hodson, R., 296
Hoel, H., 302
Hofer, J., 17
Hofstede, G., 389390
Holmas, H., 77
Holmes, J.G., 131
Holtby, A., 323324
Homo Economicus model, 7374
Hope, N.H., 407
horizontality-verticality distinction, 389390
hostile aggression, 298
Houlfort, N., 89, 92, 99100
House, R.J., 188
Houser-Marko, L., 405
Hu, J., 130
Hull, C.L., 1
Human Relations Movement, 166
Humphrey, R.H., 261, 262
Humphrey, S.E., 27, 172
Hunsley, J., 320
hygiene vs. motivators framework, 167168
I
identification, 3
identified activity, 154
identified motivation, 265266, 282283, 424
identified regulation, 38, 51, 54, 110, 145, 170, 193194, 317, 336
Ilies, R., 190
ill-being, 92, 406
image motivation, 80
impersonal orientation, 20, 111, 236, 301
implementation intentions, 401, 403404
implementation phase of behavior change, 326327
importance of performance to self-esteem (IPSE), 134137
impression management tactic, 55
incentive pay, 7273, 76, 199, 211. See also compensation
incentive theory, 212213, 421422
indebted obligation, 40
independence vs. autonomy, 4
indirect evidence, 306
indirect fit, 147
indirect violence, 298. See also workplace violence
individualized consideration, 195
industrialization, 314
informational influence, 392
informational language, 355
information asymmetry, 204
information sharing, 253, 422423
initiating structure, 191192
injuries and accidents, 277
innovation, 423424
in-role behaviors, 54
instrumental aggression, 298
integrated motivation, 54, 283
integrated regulation, 38, 110, 145, 317
integrative model of commitment and motivation, 3942
integrative model of emotional labor, 261262
interactional justice, 192, 202
interference, 121122
interfering behavior, 122
intergoal conflict, 117
internal equity, 202
(p. 438) internalization
autonomous, 97
autonomous motivation and, 152153, 174
of behavior, 321
definition of, 3, 117, 265, 318, 366
health gradient and, 369
proactive goals through, 59, 6465
process of, 144, 146
internalization processes, 110
International Labor Organization, 296
interpersonal relationships, 9394
interpersonal self, 388
interventions
autonomy support, 357359
mental health, 340
with teachers, 357359
workplace violence, 308310
intrinsic aspirations, 2122, 405408
intrinsic goals, 388390, 407
intrinsic motivation
compensation and, 207
competition and, 25
crowding-in effect, 76, 7981
crowding-out effect, 7679
deadlines and, 421422
definition of, 16, 170
fit and, 157158
job design and, 166
leadership and, 193
locus of causality and, 12, 3
management and, 26
passion and, 88
positive feedback and, 25
proactivity and, 53
proenvironmental behavior, 326
prosocial behavior and, 75
rewards and, 2426
SDT and, 110
for teachers, 350
wages and, 81
introjected motivation, 55, 282
introjected regulation, 38, 54, 110, 208, 336
introjection, 3, 265, 317
intrusive behavior, 121122
IPSE (importance of performance to self-esteem), 134137
J
Jackson, C.L., 223
Jackson, P.R., 173
Jago, A.G., 27
JD-C (job demands-control) model, 234
JD-R (job demands-resources) model, 174, 234, 236238
Jegen, R., 77
Jenkins, D.G., 77
Jensen, M.C., 204
Jimmieson, N.L., 238239
job autonomy, 171
job characteristics model, 151, 169173
job choice behavior, 424
job crafting, 175, 255
job demands, 232, 240241
job demands-control (JD-C) model, 234
job demands-resources (JD-R) model, 174, 234, 236238
job-demands resources theory, 63
job design
autonomous motivation and, 165166, 301
changing work environment, 175176
conceptualization of, 172
definition of, 165
early approaches to, 166168
job characteristics model, 169173
multimethod model, 168169
relationship side of, 172173
sociotechnical systems approach to, 173174
telecommuting, 176
workplace violence and, 303
Job Diagnostic Survey, 185
job enrichment, 169
job performance, 4041, 137138, 269270
job-related knowledge, 155156
Jobs, S., 85
job satisfaction, 1718, 60, 6263, 145, 149, 151152, 201202, 419
job specialization, 166
job stress
affective, 233
burnout and, 232, 235, 238239 (see also burnout)
chronic health conditions and, 363364 (see also health gradient)
cognitive, 233
costs of, 231232
emotional dissonance and, 262
physical, 233
reactions to, 232233
resources, lack of, 232
self-determination model of, 236240
job stressors, 232, 239240, 416
Johns, G., 170
Jonas, E., 80
Judge, T.A., 154, 192, 223, 235, 402, 404
K
Kahn, W.A., 4243
Kanungo, R.N., 135, 188
Kaplan, R.M., 337
Kaplan, U., 4, 23
Karasek, R.A., 174
Kasser, T., 17, 2122, 66, 392, 401402, 403, 405, 407
Keashly, L., 308
Kegan, R., 381382
Kelloway, E.K., 63, 280, 284
Kemp, N.J., 173
Kernis, M.H., 130
KEYS scale, 423
Kiback, R.R., 114
Kim, Y., 4, 23, 267
Kinder, G., 374
Kinder’s model of money maturity (KMMM), 374, 379383
Kinder’s seven-stage model of money maturity, 377
Kitayama, S., 23
knowledge sharing, 422423
Koestner, R., 2, 25, 63, 154, 184, 326, 392, 403, 407, 410
Kraiger, K., 225
Krieger, L.S., 393394, 396, 406
Kristof-Brown, A.M., 147, 151, 154
Kruglanski, A.W., 392
Kuhl, J., 404
Kulik, C.T., 5, 28
Kuvaas, B., 220, 238
L
Lachance, L., 236
Laissez-faire leadership, 186, 302
Lam, C.F., 86
Larsson, S., 278
Latham, G., 203
Lavergne, K.J., 323324, 325
Lavigne, G.L., 90, 92
Law, K.S., 191
Lawler, E.E., 26, 171, 201, 207208
lawyers and law students
ethical standards for, 386
moral reasoning for, 387
social dominance orientation and, 393
students’ values and goals, 390391
Lazear, E.P., 73, 205206
leader-member exchange (LMX), 119120, 149150, 190191
leadership. See also management/manager
amotivation and, 194
authentic, 189190
autonomous motivation and, 115116, 184
behavioral leadership theory, 191192, 417
behaviors, 182186, 193
charismatic leadership theory, 188189
definition of, 181
effective, 119
employee influence, 187
empowering, 235
ethical, 189
Laissez-faire, 186, 302
leader-member exchange (LMX), 119120, 149150, 190191
motivation to lead, 192194, 417
need for power, 14
need satisfaction and, 182186
participative, 27
passive, 302
for proenvironmental initiatives, 330
role of, 181
safety training and, 280
styles, 99100, 187, 235
transactional, 99100, 186
transformational, 28, 4546, 99100, 145, 186188, 235
tyrannical, 302
workplace violence and, 302303
(p. 439) lean production practices, 168169
Learmonth, M., 394
learning
definition of, 246247
patience and, 355356
self-paced, 355356
vitality and, 250
learning pressure, 225, 353
Leary, M.R., 16
Ledford, G.E., 173
Lee, R.T., 268
Léger Marketing, 386
leisure, 91
Lekes, N., 392, 407408
Lemay, E.P., Jr., 132
Lens, W., 22, 234235
Leone, D.
on contingent self-esteem, 128
on internalization, 184
Lépine, M.-C., 267
Levesque, C., 368
Lévesque, M., 239
life goals, 2122
Likert, R., 167
Lindenberg, S., 76
Liu, D., 9495
Liu, Y., 130
Lloyd, P.J., 340
LMX (leader-member exchange), 119120, 149150, 190191
Locke, E.A., 22, 38, 95, 203, 402
locus of causality, 2, 2526, 76. See also causality
Lonky, E., 120
Lopez, S.H., 296
Lorenz, K., 298
Losier, G.F., 154
Luhtanen, R.K., 128, 129, 130, 131, 133
M
Macey, W.H., 42
Machiavellianism, 387
Madoff, B., 376377
Maier, G.W., 80
Maierhofer, N.I., 291292
Maltin, E.R., 41
management-by-exception, 186
management/manager. See also leadership; organizations
abusive supervisor, 150, 302
authentic leadership, 189190
autonomy, 184, 185186
charismatic leadership theory, 188189
environmental practices of, 316
job stressors and, 239240
motivation and, 26, 194195, 418
pay-for-performance and, 7273
person-supervisor (PS) fit, 147, 149150
for proenvironmental initiatives, 330331
self-determination theory and, 5
styles, 167, 184
supervisor behavior, 64, 150, 328330
supervisor/supervisee relationship, 317
Theory Y approach to, 15
transformational leadership theory, 186188
workplace safety, 291292
Manzoni, J.-F., 5859
Marescaux, E., 221
Marinova, S.V., 55
market culture, 100
Markus, H.R., 23
Marmot, M., 364
Marsh, H.W., 89
Martin, J.E., 279
Martin, R., 173
Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory, 1416, 167168, 381
Mason, C., 278
Masson, R.C., 42
Masterson, S.S., 149
Mauss, M., 205
McClelland, D.C., 14, 168
McGregor, D., 15, 26, 167
McKeen, C.A., 396
McLaughlin, K., 206
McNeel, S.P., 387
Meckling, W.H., 204
mediating processes, 170171
Ménard, S., 318319
mental health
CPPOA technique for, 339
definition of, 336337
in legal profession, 386388
organization expenditures related to, 339340
volunteering and, 426
well-being and, 387388
workplace consequences of, 335
mentoring, 308
merit pay, 207
Mesmer-Magnus, J., 222
message framing, 325327
message tailoring, 325327
Meyer, J.P., 34, 3539, 41, 4345
Meyers, L.S., 285
Mikulincer, M., 114, 117118
Miller, J.G., 23
Millette, V., 63
Mims, V., 25
mindfulness, 255
Mitra, A., 77
Mittroff, I.I., 393
Moag, J.S., 202
mobbing, 297. See also workplace violence
monetary rewards, 25, 203. See also rewards
money and material possessions
dysfunctional relationship to, 375
financial beliefs and values, 378
financial incentives and motivation, 375376
functional relationship to, 376381, 415
Kinder’s seven-stage model of money maturity, 377
precompetence model, 376377
moral imperative, 40
moral perspective, 189
moral reasoning, 387, 390
morbidity and mortality rates, 364
Morgeson, F.P., 169, 172
Morris, J.A., 261
Morrison, E.W., 155
motivated behavior, 144
motivation. See also amotivation
autonomous forms of (see autonomous motivation)
behavioral consequences of, 3839
can do, 60, 61
categories of, 233234
classic theory of, 167
commitment and, 3742
with compensation (see compensation)
controlled, 22, 56
definition of, 37
effectance, 1
ego-based, 23
emotional labor strategies and, 267268, 270272
employee, 1920
equity theory and, 202
expectancy theory and, 201202
extrinsic, 3, 265266
financial, 375
forms of, 53, 145
goal-setting theory and, 203
hygiene vs. motivators framework, 167168
identified, 265266
image, 80
inner resources, 354
intrinsic, 12
job characteristics model, 169173
job satisfaction and, 201202
justice perceptions and, 209
to lead, 192194
management and (see leadership; management/manager)
as mediating mechanism, 172
nature of, 38
need satisfaction and, 1920
organizational justice theory and, 202203
in organizations, 5
proenvironmental behavior and, 318319
profiles of, 4142
psychological needs of (see psychological needs)
reason to, 61, 62
to regulate emotions, 265267
self-determined, 265269
social networks and, 158
task performance, 3839
teacher (see teacher/teaching)
through incentives, 200207
time on, effects of, 421422
types of, 233234
to volunteer, 425426
workplace violence and, 305306
motivational orientation, 235
Motivational Potential Score, 63
Mullen, J., 280, 284
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, 100
Muraven, M., 56
N
Nadler, D.A., 201
narcissism, 133134
natural environment, 322323, 331
naturally felt emotions, 262263
Neal, A., 278, 279
need satisfaction. See also psychological needs
by authentic leaders, 190
in banking, 21
of behavioral leaders, 192
of charismatic leaders, 189
compensation and, 301
concept of, 148
effective performance and, 17
employees’ motivation and, 1920, 154155
engagement and, 4546
intrinsic, 144, 182
job characteristics model and, 170
job demands and, 240241
by leader-member exchange (LMX), 191
as mediating mechanism, 234235
in a not-for-profit organization, 20
passion and, 92
for physical and psychological health, 367368
proactive motivation and, 62
psychological health and, 144
regression analysis and, 17
social networks effects on, 156157
team members and, 422
training and development relationship with, 221
transformational leadership and, 188
volunteer work and, 425
well-being and, 154155
when not working, 18
workload and, 63
in the workplace, 22, 92
needs-supplies (NS) fit, 146, 151
need strength, 14
need substitutes, 15
negative relationship events, 133
Neighbors, C., 133
network diversity argument, 155
Neuman, J.H., 308
Newnam, S., 278
Ng, J.Y.Y., 367
Niemiec, C.P., 1617, 22
Nisbet, E.K., 322
Nix, G., 291
Noe, R.A., 219
noncontingent domains, 128
noncontingent punishment, 302
nonpassionate workers, 101
nonwork activities, 91, 94
normative commitment, 34, 3640
normative influence, 392
North Carolina Bar Association, 387388
NS (needs-supplies) fit, 146, 151
Nunez, N., 388
O
objective fit, 147
obsessive passion, 8687, 88, 90, 9396, 97
occupational safety, 289290, 415
occupational violence, 297. See also workplace violence
Ohio Leadership Studies, 191
Oldham, G.R., 151, 169, 171, 185
Önder, Ç, 46
One World model of financial functionality, 381, 382
opportunism, 204
organismic integration theory, 23, 366
organismic valuing process (OVP), 391392, 395
organizational commitment, 145
organizational culture, 99100
organizational engagement, 43
organizational fairness perceptions, 80
organizational identity, 176
organizational justice, 192, 202203, 209, 419420
organizational leadership. See leadership
organizational psychology theories, 200203
organization-based self-esteem, 134
organizations. See also corporations; leadership; management/manager
agency theory, 200, 203204
autonomous motivation and, 152153
autonomy in, 64
commitment in, 34
contingencies in, 138139
contingent self-esteem in, 134137
culture in, 255
emotional skills in, importance of, 259260
information sharing and, 253, 422423
interventions, 340
learning pressure, 225
mental health expenditures for, 339340
motivation in (see motivation)
need satisfaction in, 20
proactivity and, 59
proenvironmental behavior in employees, 327330
surveillance mechanisms, 211, 420421
sustained proactivity in, 6265
teams and, 422
three-component model (TCM), 34
training and development (see training and development (TAD))
vitality in, 251
orientations, causality, 20
Orion Associates, 255
Osterloh, M., 210
the Other, 131
Otto, P., 77
outcome simulations, 57
overjustification effect, 73
OVP (organismic valuing process), 391392, 395
P
Palmer, D.L., 390, 393
Paquet, Y., 92
paradigm of motivation through incentives, 200207
Park, L.E., 128129, 132133
Park, N., 99
Parker, S.K., 5255, 61, 6364, 169, 172173, 175
Parker, S.L., 238239
participation, 7980
passion
activity selection, 9697
cognitive processes and, 90
concept of, 86
definition of, 86
determinants of, 96101
development of, 9698
dualistic model of, 8688
emotional intelligence, 9899
extrinsic motivation and, 88
flow and, 90
harmonious, 8788, 90
interpersonal relationships and, 9394
intrinsic motivation and, 88
nonpassionate workers, 101
obsessive, 8687, 88, 90
performance and, 9496
personal factors, 9899
psychology of, 8688
research on concept of, 8889
social factors, 99101
transference of, 101
well-being and, 9093
in the workplace, 89, 96
Passion Scale, 8889
passive leadership, 302
passive violence, 298. See also workplace violence
Patall, E.A., 27
patience, 355356
Patrick, B.C., 128, 184
pay-for-performance, 7273, 7679, 166, 207
PEB (proenvironmental behavior)
autonomous motivation for, 329330
definition of, 315316
employees’ motivation for, 329331
future directions for, 330331
health risks perception, 320321
management initiatives, 330
motivation, 318319
participating in, 318319
self-determination theory and, 316321
self-determined motivation, 321322
in the workplace, 319
Peck, S.I., 206
peer support, 303
(p. 441) Pelletier, L.G., 150, 318319, 320, 323327, 393
Peper, B., 239
perceived competence, 221
perfectionism, 133
performance contingent pay, 166, 202, 203, 209
performance contingent rewards, 25, 56, 78, 210, 415
performance contingent self-esteem, 137138
performance goal orientation, 55
performance monitoring, 420421
performance-related payment, 7273
permissiveness, 357
personal causation, 357
personal growth, 246, 247248
personal initiative, 52, 5556
person-environment (PE) fit
autonomous-controlled motivation and, 152155
concept of needs, 148
definition of, 146
measuring, 147
psychological need satisfaction and, 148152
research on concept of, 143144
self-concordance model and, 154155
social networks and, 155157
types of, 146148
person-group (PG) fit, 147, 151, 156157
person-job (PJ) fit, 147, 151153
person-organization (PO) fit, 146149
person-supervisor (PS) fit, 147, 149150
Pertulla, K., 86
Peterson, C., 99
Peterson, S.J., 189
PG (person-group) fit, 147, 151, 156157
Philippe, F., 91, 92, 9394, 407
physical environment, 322323
Piccolo, R.F., 187, 239240
Pickard, J.D., 133134
piece-rate pay, 73, 166
PJ (person-job) fit, 147, 151153
PO (person-organization) fit, 146
Ponzi scheme, 376377
Porath, C., 247, 254
Porter, L.W., 201, 207208
positive activated states, 61
positive psychology theory, 416
Pouliakas, K., 78
Pousette, A., 278
Powers, T., 410
Pratto, F., 394
Price, K.H., 151
price-effect, 7273
primary socialization, 395
principal-agent relationship, 204
proactive behavior, 58
proactive goal regulation, 5253, 57, 60
proactive personality, 52
proactive work behavior, 52
proactivity
autonomously motivated, 5859, 61, 66
autonomously regulated, 6162, 6566
definition of, 50
motivation toward, 5355
for the organization, 59
outcomes of, 5051
reflection and, 57
regulation for, 5562
rewarding behavior, 65
self-determination theory and, 5355
sustained, 5961
work behavior, 175
in the workplace, 5153, 417
Problems at Work Scale, 184186
Probst, T.M., 278
procedural fairness, 80
procedural justice, 192, 202, 209, 225, 420
process simulations, 57
proenvironmental behavior (PEB)
autonomous motivation for, 329330
definition of, 315316
employees’ motivation for, 329331
future directions for, 330331
health risks perception, 320321
management initiatives, 330
motivation, 318319
participating in, 318319
self-determination theory and, 316321
self-determined motivation, 321322
in the workplace, 319
prosocial behavior, 75
prosocial motivation, 222
prosocial preference, 75
Przybylski, A.K., 322
PS (person-supervisor) fit, 147, 149150
psychological control, 301
psychological energy, 416417
psychological engagement theory, 219
psychological health, 367368. See also mental health
psychological needs. See also need satisfaction
Alderfer’s theory, 15
concept of, 414415
environmental effects on, 1821
higher-order, 15
lower-order, 15
in a manufacturing setting, 17
Maslow’s theory, 1416
mediating role of, 389
need strength, 14
people’s life goals and, 2122
satisfaction of, 234235
satisfaction vs. thwarting of, 16
social environment and, 1821
types of, 4
as universal necessities, 2224
in the workplace, 1718
psychological need satisfaction. See also need satisfaction
autonomously motivated proactivity and, 5859
concept of, 415
linking PJ fit to, 151152
mediating role of, 152
proactivity for the organization and, 59
sustained proactivity and, 5961
teachers and, 351352
psychological problems. See mental health
psychological well-being. See well-being
psychosocial determinants of health, 364365, 369371
public goods game, 80
Q
Quinn, R., 251
R
Ratelle, C.F., 42
rationale, definition of, 354355
Raub, S., 54
reason to motivation, 61, 62
reciprocity, 75, 222
Reedy, P., 394
Reeson, A.F., 80
Reeve, J., 223, 224, 356
reflection, 57
regression analysis, 17
regulatory focus theory, 38
Reid, G., 120
reinforcement, 255
relatedness
definition of, 4, 182, 366, 401
leadership and, 183
proactivity and, 60
thriving and, 252
universal need for, 1516, 19, 2223, 144
well-being and, 41
in the workplace, 118120
relational crafting, 255
relational transparency, 189
relationships
building, 249250
contingent self-esteem and, 132133
interpersonal, 9394
negative events, 133
passion and, 9394
quality of, 9394
Renn, R.W., 170
Rentsch, J.R., 156
response-focused strategies, 261
rewards. See also compensation
contamination effect, 27
contingent, 186187
effects of, 208209
enjoyment and, 2
ex ante, 210, 212213
expectations vs., 351
external, 42
extrinsic, 42
hidden cost of, 73
intrinsic motivation and, 2426
monetary, 25, 203
negative effect of, 7778
punishment and, 185
self-determination theory and, 2627
tangible, 2426, 208
workplace violence and, 303304
(p. 442) Rich, B.L., 223
Richer, S.F., 17
Richins, M.L., 377
Riddle, A.S., 236
“River of Hope” project, 255
Robert, C., 54
Roca, J.C., 18, 224
Rockenbach, B., 80
Rogers, C., 246, 391392, 405
Rohan, M.J., 386387
role internalization, 263264
role occupancy, 193
Roscigno, V.J., 296
Rosen, S., 205206
Rousseau, F.L., 9192
Royal, M.A., 42
Rubin, R.S., 262, 263264
Rustichini, A., 78
Ryan, R.M.
on autonomy, 4, 23, 64, 171, 317
on compensation, 200
on competence, 60, 120
on contingent self-esteem, 128
on engagement, 44
on goal theories, 401402, 405
on intrinsic motivation, 2, 3
on life goals, 2122
on motivation, 235236
on natural environments, 322
on need satisfaction, 1618
on need support, 369
reward study, 25
self-determination theory, 1, 208
on work behavior, 110111, 172
Ryff, C.D., 246247
Rynes, S.L., 73
S
Sadler, G., 206
safe haven, 112113
safety, workplace
autonomous motivation for, 282283
behavior-based, 280
behaviors, 286
climate for, 291292
compliance behaviors, 279280
controlled motivation, 281282
external motivation, 282
hazard management, 277
identified motivation, 282283
improvements in, 276277
integrated motivation, 283
intrinsic motivation, 282283
introjected motivation, 282
leadership training, 280
model for workplace, 279
motivation for, 277280, 281283, 290291, 415
occupational, 289290
Saks, A.M., 42
Salin, D., 303
Schabram, K., 306
Schaufeli, W.B., 4243, 174
Schiltz, P.J., 388
Schneider, B., 42, 149, 394
Schwartz, Shalom, 388
Scott, B.A., 223
Sears, L.E., 279
secondary attachment strategies, 114
secure attachment, 112113
secure base, 109, 112113
secure home base, 113118, 123
secure work base, 118122, 123
Séguin, C., 320
the Self, 5758, 100, 131, 392
self-actualization, 248
self-awareness, 189
self-concept theory, 188
self-concordance model, 57, 145, 154155
self-control, 56, 251252
self-determination theory (SDT)
career and job choice behavior, 424
compensation and, 208, 419420
concept of, 110112
contingent self-esteem and, 128129
contributions made by, 2627
definition of, 14, 16, 182
dominant paradigm and, 207213
economic utility analysis and, 338340
emotional labor and, 265267
employee safety motivation and, 281283 (see also Self-Determined Safety Motivation scale (SDSM))
engagement and, 4445
environmental health risks and, 320
environmental variables, 301
to financial beliefs and values, 377378
history of, 15
information technology usage, 422
innovation, 423424
intentional behavior and, 265
internalization and, 146
job stress, 233, 236240
leadership and, 184, 193
management applications of, 5
manager autonomy support, 183186
on managing employees, 417419
Maslow’s theory and, 1516
motivated action and, 144145
need satisfaction and, 144
optimal human functioning and, 269
overview of, 280281, 300301, 336337, 366367, 401402
performance monitoring, 420421
proactivity and, 5355
proenvironmental behavior and, 316321
psychological energy and, 416417
psychological need satisfaction and, 5859, 414415
psychosocial determinants of health, 371
rewards and, 2627
somatization, 368369
team work and, 422
thriving and, 250252
training and development, 219220
volunteer work and, 424426
in the work domain, 5, 415416
workplace violence and, 301306, 308310
self-determined motivation. See also motivation
emotional labor as mechanism to, 268269
emotional labor strategies and, 267268
employee turnover and, 270271
for proenvironmental behavior, 321322
to regulate emotions, 265267
Self-Determined Safety Motivation scale (SDSM)
development of, 283284
fit statistics for, 285286
measures of, 284285
participative, 284
results of, 285289
safety behaviors, predicting, 286, 288
scale reliabilities, 288
statistical analysis approach to, 285
testing of, 284285
self-efficacy, 60, 223, 232, 237, 379380, 424
self-efficacy theory, 23
self-esteem, 15, 20, 58, 87, 134137, 232, 238. See also contingent self-esteem
self-less behavior, 75
self-motivated management style, 167
self-paced learning, 355356
self-regulation, autonomous, 61, 176, 182, 186, 189, 247250, 299, 367370, 415
self-regulation theory, 5253, 250
self-regulatory failure, 401
self-regulatory goal process, 5657, 248249
self-reliance, 129
self-selection effect, 394
self-transcendence, 388
self-worth, 129, 135, 238
Seligman, M.E.P., 99
Sels, L., 221
Senécal, C.B., 63, 237, 393
sexual harrassment, 296
Shamir, B., 188
Shanine, K., 303
Share, T., 403
Sharp, E.C., 318319, 323327
Shaver. P.R., 114, 117118
Shaw, J.C., 223
Shaw, J.D., 77
Sheehan, M., 291292
Sheldon, K.M., 66, 144145, 154, 393394, 396, 401403, 405407
Sidanius, J., 394
similarity-attraction hypothesis, 151
simmelian ties, 156157
Simons, J., 391
simulations, 57
Sinclair, R.R., 40, 279
Sitzmann, T., 220
skill-based pay, 211212
skill variety, 169
(p. 443) Skogstad, A., 304
Sliwka, D., 81
SMART goals, 400401
Smith, A., 375
Smith, K., 403
Smulders, P., 239
social acceptance, 87
social dominance orientation, 390, 393
social environment, basic psychological needs and, 1821
social identities, 129
socialization, 3, 240, 395
socialization theories, 393
social learning theory, 190, 223, 299
socially embedded, 247
social motivation, 134
social networks
and DA fit, 155156
effects on need satisfaction, 156157
and PE fit formation, 155, 157
and PG fit, 156
sociocognitive valuing process (SVP), 392393, 395
Soenens, B., 234, 391
Solow, R., 204205
somatization, 368369
Somers, M.J., 41
Sommers, S.R., 131
Sonenshein, S., 246
Southwest Airlines, 255
Spector, P.E., 209
Spreitzer, G.M., 173, 246247, 254
Srivastava, A., 22
Stallworth, L., 308
Stamper, C.L., 149
standard economic theory, 7374
Steen, t.A., 99
Steg, L., 76
Stogdill, R.M., 191
Stone, D., 377, 379
Strahan, E.J., 128
Streicher, B., 80
stress. See job stress
stress regulation, 113
strong reciprocity, 75
structural equation modeling, 20
student autonomy, 353
Su, Y.-L., 224, 356
subordinates, feelings and perspectives of, 27
supervisors. See management/manager
supplementary fit, 146147, 153155
surface acting, 262, 263, 269270
surveillance mechanisms, 211, 420421
sustainable development, 315
sustained enacting, 57
sustained proactivity
jobs that facilitate, 6263
in organizations, 6265
psychological need satisfaction and, 5961
Sutcliffe, K., 246
Sutton, R.I., 266
Suvurov, A., 212
SVP (sociocognitive valuing process), 392393, 395
T
tangible rewards, 2426, 208. See also rewards
task clusters, 168169
task crafting, 255
task identity, 169, 171
task performance, 254
task significance, 169, 172173
tax morale, 80
Taylorism, 166
teacher/teaching
attrition and, 351
autonomy support, 352359, 418419
autonomy-supportive, 357
controlling style, 352353
expectations vs. rewards, 351
intervention programs, 357359
intrinsic vs. extrinsic goals, 350
motivating style toward students, 352353
patience and, 355356
psychological need satisfaction, 351352
student autonomy and, 353
support vs. pressure, 352
teaching efficacy, 350351
training, 356
teams, motivation within, 422
Teed, M., 284
telecommuting, 176
Ten Brummelhuis, L.L., 239
Ter Hoeven, C.L., 239
thanatos, 298
Thayer, P.W., 168169
Theory X management style, 167
Theory Y management style, 15, 167
Thomas, J.P., 52
Thomas, K.W., 63
three-component model (TCM)
engagement and, 4445
formulation of, 3334
of organizational commitment, 34
thriving
benefits of, 254
definition of, 246247
engagement and, 248
as gauge to progress toward goals, 248249
information sharing and, 253
job crafting and, 255
learning dimension of, 246247, 248
markers of, 246247
in nonwork activities, 254
performance and, 249
related growth constructs vs., 247248
relatedness and, 252
relationships and, 249250
self-actualization and, 248
trust and respect, 253
vitality and, 246247
well-being and, 250
at workplace, 250252, 416
Thrush, R.L., 118, 119, 120, 121122
Tirole, J., 77, 210, 212213
Tisdell, J.G., 80
Tolstoy, L., 383
Torgler, B., 7980
Torner, M., 278
tournament theory, 200, 205206, 420
training and development (TAD)
autonomous vs. controlled motivation and, 221223
autonomy support in, 226
autonomy-supportive leaders and trainers, 222223
and basic need satisfaction, 221
content and delivery forms, 224225, 226
definition of, 218
employee perception of, 220221
learning pressure, 225
manager, 338340
outcomes of, 224225
psychological engagement theory, 219
self-determination theory and, 219220, 415416
skill-based, 356
teacher, 356
trainee’s reactions to, 220221
from training to learning, 219
training transfer, 224
work performance and, 219
training transfer, 224
trait engagement, 43
transactional leadership, 99100, 186
Transaction Cost Analysis and Agency Theory, 393
transformational leadership, 99100, 186190, 192194, 225, 235
transparency, relational, 189
Tremblay, E., 209
Trépanier, S.G., 235, 238
Triandis, H.C., 389390
Trist, E., 173
Trump, D., 85
trust, 418419
Tschannen-Moran, M., 351
Tucker, J.S., 40
turnover, 1718, 34, 40, 151, 232, 270271
two-dimensional structures, 388
two-factor theory, 207
Two World model of financial functionality, 381
tyrannical leadership, 302
U
United Nations Population Fund, 314315
universalism, 390
unmotivated management style, 167
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 296
U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 296
(p. 444) V
Vaananen, A., 368369
valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory, 201
Vallerand, R.J., 17, 86, 8891, 94, 98101, 120, 150, 236237, 393
value, definition of, 386387
value congruence, 146, 153154
Vandenberg, R.J., 170
Van den Broeck, A., 22, 174, 234235, 239
Van de Ven, J., 212
Van Fleet, D.D., 302
Van Ruysseveldt, J., 239
Vansteenkiste, M., 22, 234235, 252, 326, 389, 391
Velthouse, B.A., 63
victimization, 296
Villadio, A.J., 143
Vinodkumar, M.N., 279
Viswesvaran, C., 52, 222
vitality, 61, 246247, 250252, 416
volitional dependence, 23
volunteer work, 424426
Vroom, V.H., 27, 201
W
wage dispersion, 206
wage individualization, 206
wages, 7273, 81
Wall, T.D., 173
Wallace, J.C., 279
Wall-Street-Game, 80
Walumbwa, F.O., 189
Wang, D., 130, 191
Wang, H., 191
Wasti, S.A., 40, 41, 46
Waugh, C.E., 93
The Wealth of Nations (Smith), 375
Weibel, A., 210
Weinberg, R., 211
Weinstein, N., 322
well-being
autonomy and, 2324
commitment and, 41
dimensions of, 247248
emotional labor and, 268269
intrinsic goals and, 406
mental health and, 387388
motivation and, 145, 237
passion and, 9093, 9596
predictors of, 22
self-esteem and, 133, 138
student autonomy and, 353
sustained thriving and, 250
Wernsing, T.S., 189
Wheeler, A.R., 303
White, R.W., 12, 19, 120
Whitehall studies, 364365
Whitman, D.S., 52
Wild, T.C., 291
Williams, G.C., 368
Wilson, A.E., 128
Wisman, R.M., 204
Wood, J.V., 131
work adjustment theory, 149
Work Climate Survey, 184, 185
work compensation. See compensation
work domain, 5. See also workplace
work engagement, 61
working models, 113114
work involvement scale, 135
work motivation. See motivation
work performance, 21
workplace
autonomous motivation at, 63
autonomous work groups, 173174
autonomy support in, 121122
behavior, 110
burnout, 135, 232, 233, 235, 238239, 268269, 337
changing environment in, 175176
compensation (see compensation)
competence support in, 120121
contingent self-esteem in, 134
creativity, 423
depersonalized work design, 176
emotional labor at, 260263, 416417
goal pursuit in, 402
group cohesion, 119
incentive pay, 7273
injuries and accidents, 277
innovation, 423424
job design (see job design)
job-related knowledge, 155156
job satisfaction, 1718, 60, 6263, 145, 149
job stressors, 232
management (see management/manager)
mental health consequences at, 335
motivation at (see motivation)
natural environment and, 322323, 331
nonterritorial, 176
organizational culture, 99100
organizational identity, 176
participation at, 7980
passion in, 89, 96
proactivity in, 5153, 417
proenvironmental behavior in, 319
psychological needs in, 1718
relatedness support in, 118120
rewards, 27
safety (see safety, workplace)
self-determination theory in, 415416
somatization, 368369
stress, 363364, 365 (see also health gradient)
supervisors (see management/manager)
teams, motivation within, 422
telecommuting, 176
thriving at, 250253
turnover, 1718, 34, 40, 151, 232, 270271
violence in (see workplace violence)
Work Climate Survey, 184186
workplace adjustment, 14, 1718, 21, 27
workplace-contingent self-esteem, 134
workplace environment, 303304
workplace incivility, 297
workplace violence
aggression and, 297300
basic psychological needs and, 304305
bullying, 297, 302, 303, 304305
causality orientation and, 304
cost of, 295296
definition of, 296298
dehumanization, 303
deviant behavior and, 297
effect of, 305
environment and, 303305
forms of, 297
from a humanistic perspective, 300
interventions to prevent, 308310
leadership and, 302303
models of, 297298
motivation and, 305306
motivation type and, 305
prevalence of, 296
prevention of, 308310
self-determination theory and, 301306, 416
sexual harassment and, 296
study of, 307308
taxonomy of, 298
theories regarding, 298299
typology of, 298
work readiness, 17
World Health Organization, 337338
world population, 314315
Wright, C., 40
Wright, S., 368
Wrzeniewski, A., 175
X
Xie, L., 170
Y
Yang, Y., 130
Yellen, J., 205
Yellon, J., 200
Z
Zapf, D., 240
Zeigler-Hill, V., 133134
Zeldman, A., 368
Zelenski, J.M., 322
Zimmerman, R.D., 220